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Sample records for equity sensitivity instrument

  1. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  2. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  3. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Lucia de Almeida; Patricia de Souza Costa; Eliseu Martins

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: pre...

  4. Personality correlates of equity sensitivity for samples of Canadian, Bulgarian, and Mexican business people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintu-Wimsatt, Alma; Madjourova-Davri, Anna; Lozada, Héctor R

    2008-02-01

    Equity sensitivity concerns perceptions of what is or is not equitable. Previous studies have shown that equity sensitivity is associated with one's relationship orientation. Relationships are also influenced by personality variables. As both personality and equity sensitivity influence relationships, equity sensitivity and personality may be correlated also; so, this study examined that possibility. The relations of equity sensitivity with 3 personality variables were explored across three culturally different samples. This allowed validation across cultures of the proposed equity-personality relationship which has traditionally been assessed in a U.S. setting. In general, personality-equity sensitivity relationship was not supported across the samples.

  5. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Hayden J R; Bourdage, Joshua S; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called "Benevolents." Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as "Entitleds." Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity.

  6. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden J. R. Woodley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual’s preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called Benevolents. Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as Entitleds. Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170, two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO, the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory, and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3. Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model’s dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity.

  7. Examining Equity Sensitivity: An Investigation Using the Big Five and HEXACO Models of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Hayden J. R.; Bourdage, Joshua S.; Ogunfowora, Babatunde; Nguyen, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The construct of equity sensitivity describes an individual's preference about his/her desired input to outcome ratio. Individuals high on equity sensitivity tend to be more input oriented, and are often called “Benevolents.” Individuals low on equity sensitivity are more outcome oriented, and are described as “Entitleds.” Given that equity sensitivity has often been described as a trait, the purpose of the present study was to examine major personality correlates of equity sensitivity, so as to inform both the nature of equity sensitivity, and the potential processes through which certain broad personality traits may relate to outcomes. We examined the personality correlates of equity sensitivity across three studies (total N = 1170), two personality models (i.e., the Big Five and HEXACO), the two most common measures of equity sensitivity (i.e., the Equity Preference Questionnaire and Equity Sensitivity Inventory), and using both self and peer reports of personality (in Study 3). Although results varied somewhat across samples, the personality variables of Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility, followed by Agreeableness, were the most robust predictors of equity sensitivity. Individuals higher on these traits were more likely to be Benevolents, whereas those lower on these traits were more likely to be Entitleds. Although some associations between Extraversion, Openness, and Neuroticism and equity sensitivity were observed, these were generally not robust. Overall, it appears that there are several prominent personality variables underlying equity sensitivity, and that the addition of the HEXACO model's dimension of Honesty-Humility substantially contributes to our understanding of equity sensitivity. PMID:26779102

  8. Validating an instrument for measuring brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dara Singh Karpal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop and propose a valid and reliable instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia. An instrument to measure brand equity was constructed with adaptations from two key sources, namely Yew Leh and Lee (2011 and Yoo and Donthu (2001. As such the study only focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations. The usable sample population included 909 respondents from 12 states of West Malaysia which were selected using a quota sampling plan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and reliability analysis were carried out to test and validate the proposed brand equity instrument containing four components (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty with a total of 13 items. Results from the CFA and reliability analysis indicated that all the items representing the four components were valid and can be used to measure the brand equity of organizations that are practicing CSR. The study tried to set an empirical basis for brand equity and CSR related research which could be used by future researchers in different industries and geographical locations. The study also implies the need for organizations to assess the success of their CSR efforts through the use of the proposed instrument in order to gauge whether all their CSR efforts translate to improved brand equity.

  9. An Experiment Examining the Relationship of Affect, Equity, and Equity Sensitivity, With Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanick, Julie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an experimental design intended to be an analog to the workplace to simultaneously examine the affect orientation and equity theory explanations of OCBs, which were evaluated as prosocial behaviors. Participants were 188 undergraduates. Participantsâ dispositional variables were measured at time 1, and at time 2, participants experienced an equity manipulation and were given the opportunity to perform prosocial behaviors. Results indicated a distinction between the decis...

  10. Spectral envelope sensitivity of musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, David; Sen, D

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the spectral envelope is a perceptually salient attribute in musical instrument timbre perception. While a number of studies have explored discrimination thresholds for changes to the spectral envelope, the question of how sensitivity varies as a function of center frequency and bandwidth for musical instruments has yet to be addressed. In this paper a two-alternative forced-choice experiment was conducted to observe perceptual sensitivity to modifications made on trumpet, clarinet and viola sounds. The experiment involved attenuating 14 frequency bands for each instrument in order to determine discrimination thresholds as a function of center frequency and bandwidth. The results indicate that perceptual sensitivity is governed by the first few harmonics and sensitivity does not improve when extending the bandwidth any higher. However, sensitivity was found to decrease if changes were made only to the higher frequencies and continued to decrease as the distorted bandwidth was widened. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to two other spectral envelope discrimination studies in the literature as well as what is predicted from a psychoacoustic model.

  11. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND FINANCIAL APPROACHES CONCERNING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the concept of equity is an issue of interest to specialists in accounting, taxation and finance. The purpose of this article is to present three of the sensitive issues generated by the concept of equity. One aspect considered is the demarcation of financial liabilities from the equity instruments. The distinction between equity and debt instruments is necessary because it has consequences on financial reporting. A second part of the study focuses on the fiscal side, trying to find the answer to the question: Are there deferred taxes recognized in equity? Deferred tax liabilities will be presented at the end of the year in equity and not debt, because they are related to gains recorded directly in equity. The third part of the article discusses the financial importance of equity, focusing on subscription and attribution rights as financial instruments used when raising capital. By creating subscription rights it is desired to obtain immediate funds needed to finance the entity.

  12. Including health equity considerations in development of instruments for rheumatology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Jennifer; Rader, Tamara; Guillemin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Equity Special Interest Group (SIG) was established in 2008 to create a preliminary core set of outcome measures for clinical trials that can assess equity gaps in healthcare and the effectiveness of interventions to close or narrow gaps between...

  13. Positioning of equity in financial intermediation cooperatives compared to IFRS on financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez Batista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has not transeccional experimental and design, it focuses on analyzing the equity position of financial intermediation cooperatives (I.F. against the contributions of its partners. Begins with theoretical approaches of international and local accounting standards, the ratio of total invested assets versus liabilities, Heritage and Contributions. The case study analyzed the balance sheet figures, the real differences under the uncertainty of the full standard. The results show 14.8% equity and deterioration of overall indebtedness in the same order. Case Study In the real situation, versus the full standard, and considering the irreducible minimum of Capital Contributions, as decreases in 10.2% Equity and Financial Liabilities increased 10.2%. In conclusion, it is considered solvent use some strategy that the situation of international accounting standards with national converge for the benefit of cooperatives.

  14. Purging sensitive science instruments with nitrogen in the STS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, J. M.; Noel, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Potential contamination of extremely sensitive science instruments during prelaunch, launch, and earth orbit operations are a major concern to the Galileo and International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Programs. The Galileo Program is developing a system to purify Shuttle supplied nitrogen gas for in-flight purging of seven imaging and non-imaging science instruments. Monolayers of contamination deposited on critical surfaces can degrade some instrument sensitivities as much as fifty percent. The purging system provides a reliable supply of filtered and fried nitrogen gas during these critical phases of the mission when the contamination potential is highest. The Galileo and ISPM Programs are including the system as Airborne Support Equipment (ASE).

  15. Who Gets to Play? Investigating Equity in Musical Instrument Instruction in Scottish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Lio; Barron, David S.; Wilson, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely held view that learning to play a musical instrument is a valuable experience for all children in terms of their personal growth and development. Although there is no statutory obligation for instrumental music provision in Scottish primary schools, there are well-established Instrumental Music Services in Local Education…

  16. Sensitivity analysis and power for instrumental variable studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuran; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Nancy R; Small, Dylan S

    2018-03-31

    In observational studies to estimate treatment effects, unmeasured confounding is often a concern. The instrumental variable (IV) method can control for unmeasured confounding when there is a valid IV. To be a valid IV, a variable needs to be independent of unmeasured confounders and only affect the outcome through affecting the treatment. When applying the IV method, there is often concern that a putative IV is invalid to some degree. We present an approach to sensitivity analysis for the IV method which examines the sensitivity of inferences to violations of IV validity. Specifically, we consider sensitivity when the magnitude of association between the putative IV and the unmeasured confounders and the direct effect of the IV on the outcome are limited in magnitude by a sensitivity parameter. Our approach is based on extending the Anderson-Rubin test and is valid regardless of the strength of the instrument. A power formula for this sensitivity analysis is presented. We illustrate its usage via examples about Mendelian randomization studies and its implications via a comparison of using rare versus common genetic variants as instruments. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  17. The sensitivity to humidity of radon monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmied, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Building Research Council (BFR) a continuous radon monitoring instrument (RGA-400 EDA Instr. Inc.) with electrostatic field collection has been calibrated. The original calibration factor gave no reliable radon readings and was therefore corrected for relative humidity by EDA. From four calibrations in the radon chamber at the Swedish Radiation Protection Board (SSI) it was clear that the instrument was sensitive to absolute humidity, which gave better agreement than relative humidity or temperature. Sensitivity to humidity for this principle of measure ment has been presented in various papers without presenting any combined influence with temperature, which can lead to the wrong conclusions, especially when the temperature levels differ. Some laboratories use humidity absorbants to overcome this humidity dependence. In this paper the calibration results for the FGA-400 radon readings only, are presented. (Author)

  18. Setting the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Meg E.; Balk, Deborah; Delamonica, Enrique; Storeygard, Adam; Sacks, Emma; Minujin, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to set the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). METHODS: We use data from international household-level surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)) to demonstrate that establishing an equity baseline is necessary and feasible, even in low-income and data-poor countries. We assess data from six countries using 11 health indicators and six social stratifiers. Simple bivariate stratification is complemented by simultaneous stratification to expose the compound effect of multiple forms of vulnerability. FINDINGS: The data reveal that inequities are complex and interactive: inferences cannot be drawn about the nature or extent of inequities in health outcomes from a single stratifier or indicator. CONCLUSION: The MDGs and other development initiatives must become more comprehensive and explicit in their analysis and tracking of inequities. The design of policies to narrow health gaps must take into account country-specific inequities. PMID:16878225

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The Polarization-Sensitive ACTPol Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, R. J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aiola, S.; Angile, F. E.; Amiri, M.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D. T.; Cho, H.-M.; Choi, S. K.; Corlies, P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) makes high angular resolution measurements of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at millimeter wavelengths. We describe ACTPol, an upgraded receiver for ACT, which uses feedhorn-coupled, polarization-sensitive detector arrays, a 3deg field of view, 100 mK cryogenics with continuous cooling, and meta material antireflection coatings. ACTPol comprises three arrays with separate cryogenic optics: two arrays at a central frequency of 148 GHz and one array operating simultaneously at both 97 GHz and 148 GHz. The combined instrument sensitivity, angular resolution, and sky coverage are optimized for measuring angular power spectra, clusters via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and kinetic SZ signals, and CMB lensing due to large-scale structure. The receiver was commissioned with its first 148 GHz array in 2013, observed with both 148 GHz arrays in 2014, and has recently completed its first full season of operations with the full suite of three arrays. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance of the receiver and related systems.

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The Polarization-sensitive ACTPol Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, R. J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aiola, S.; Angilè, F. E.; Amiri, M.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D. T.; Cho, H.-M.; Choi, S. K.; Corlies, P.; Coughlin, K. P.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Dünner, R.; Fowler, J. W.; Fox, A. E.; Gallardo, P. A.; Gao, J.; Grace, E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Klein, J.; Koopman, B.; Li, Dale; Louis, T.; Lungu, M.; Maurin, L.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C. D.; Naess, S.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Tucker, C.; Uehara, M.; van Lanen, J.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) makes high angular resolution measurements of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at millimeter wavelengths. We describe ACTPol, an upgraded receiver for ACT, which uses feedhorn-coupled, polarization-sensitive detector arrays, a 3° field of view, 100 mK cryogenics with continuous cooling, and meta material antireflection coatings. ACTPol comprises three arrays with separate cryogenic optics: two arrays at a central frequency of 148 GHz and one array operating simultaneously at both 97 GHz and 148 GHz. The combined instrument sensitivity, angular resolution, and sky coverage are optimized for measuring angular power spectra, clusters via the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) and kinetic SZ signals, and CMB lensing due to large-scale structure. The receiver was commissioned with its first 148 GHz array in 2013, observed with both 148 GHz arrays in 2014, and has recently completed its first full season of operations with the full suite of three arrays. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance of the receiver and related systems.

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  3. Radioactive check sources for alpha and beta sensitive radiological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; Kane, J.E. II.

    1994-06-01

    Since 1991, the Westinghouse Hanford Company has examined the construction and use of alpha and beta radioactive check sources for calibrating instruments and for performing response checks of instruments used for operational and environmental radiation detection. The purpose of using a radioactive check source is to characterize the response of a radiation monitoring instrument in the presence of radioactivity. To accurately calibrate the instrument and check its response, the check source used must emulate as closely as possible the actual physical and isotopic conditions being monitored. The isotope employed and the physical methods used to fabricate the check source (among other factors) determine instrument response. Although information from applicable national and international standards, journal articles, books, and government documents was considered, empirical data collected is most valuable when considering the type of source to use for a particular application. This paper presents source construction methods, use considerations, and standard recommendations. The results of a Hanford Site evaluation of several types of alpha and beta sources are also given

  4. A high-sensitivity neutron counter and waste-drum counting with the high-sensitivity neutron instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1993-04-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a highly sensitive neutron counter was developed that can detect and accurately measure the neutrons from small quantities of plutonium or from other low-level neutron sources. This neutron counter was originally designed to survey waste containers leaving the Plutonium Facility. However, it has proven to be useful in other research applications requiring a high-sensitivity neutron instrument

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  6. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  7. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  8. Essays on executive equity-based compensation and equity ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elsilä, A. (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A major proposition of the agency theory is that the conflict of interests between an agent and a principal is reduced when the agent’s wealth and compensation are tied to the performance of the firm. Apart from the direct predicted relation to corporate performance, compensating managers with equity instruments has implications for corporate risk-taking and payout policy choices. Additionally, equity-based compensation practices are to a large extent shaped by institutional facto...

  9. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas; Grünwald, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Combining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability distribution reflecting the investigators' beliefs about climate sensitivity. Here a recently developed approach employing two different statistical methods—objective Bayesian and frequentist likelihood-ratio—is used to combine instrumental period and paleoclimate evidence based on data presented and assessments made in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Probabilistic estimates from each source of evidence are represented by posterior probability density functions (PDFs) of physically-appropriate form that can be uniquely factored into a likelihood function and a noninformative prior distribution. The three-parameter form is shown accurately to fit a wide range of estimated climate sensitivity PDFs. The likelihood functions relating to the probabilistic estimates from the two sources are multiplicatively combined and a prior is derived that is noninformative for inference from the combined evidence. A posterior PDF that incorporates the evidence from both sources is produced using a single-step approach, which avoids the order-dependency that would arise if Bayesian updating were used. Results are compared with an alternative approach using the frequentist signed root likelihood ratio method. Results from these two methods are effectively identical, and provide a 5-95% range for climate sensitivity of 1.1-4.05 K (median 1.87 K).

  10. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  14. Instrumentation for Position Sensitive Detector-Powder diffractometer at CENM-Maamora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messous, M.-Y.; Belhorma, B.; Labrim, H.; El-Bakkari, B.; Jabri, H.

    2013-06-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors are widely used to configure neutron diffractometer and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and data acquisition system was developed to fulfil such instruments built around the research reactor. In this paper, the front-end electronics dedicated to the neutron powder diffractometer which will be installed in the axial beam port of the Triga Mark II research reactor (Center of Nuclear Studies of Maamora) is described. It consists of High voltage power supply, a Position-decoder and a Multichannel analyzer and data acquisition software. The 3 He-PSD detector response exposed to the neutron flow emitted by 252 Cf source held in paraffin spheres with distinct thicknesses for moderation effect, is shown. Monte-Carlo N Particles code (MCNP) simulations were also performed to study both the detector performance and the paraffin efficiency. (authors)

  15. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of NP size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 nm and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. PMID:26894759

  16. Development of an automated scanning monochromator for sensitivity calibration of the MUSTANG instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Thane D.

    1992-06-01

    An Automated Scanning Monochromator was developed using: an Acton Research Corporation (ARC) Monochromator, Ealing Photomultiplier Tube and a Macintosh PC in conjunction with LabVIEW software. The LabVIEW Virtual Instrument written to operate the ARC Monochromator is a mouse driven user friendly program developed for automated spectral data measurements. Resolution and sensitivity of the Automated Scanning Monochromator System were determined experimentally. The Automated monochromator was then used for spectral measurements of a Platinum Lamp. Additionally, the reflectivity curve for a BaSO4 coated screen has been measured. Reflectivity measurements indicate a large discrepancy with expected results. Further analysis of the reflectivity experiment is required for conclusive results.

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  18. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  19. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  20. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    , interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows......-coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  1. Brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To explore how occurring critical incidents affect customer-brand relations, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,122 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different scenarios. The respective reactions to these negative incidents are evaluated using the concept of customer-based brand equity. More precisely, a structure equation model is specified and differences in latent factor means ...

  2. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  4. How the degree of instrumental practice in music increases perceptual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Bellini, Eleonora

    2018-04-20

    Literature has shown that playing a musical instrument is associated with the formation of multimodal audio visuomotor representations that are strongly instrument-specific. Here, we investigated the effect of increased motor practice on perceptual sensitivity in 32 professional musicians of comparable expertise but with different amounts of instrumental practice with piano (10,000 vs. 3,000 estimated hours). Stimuli consisted of images of pianists' hands and piano arpeggio sounds. In half of the cases, the piano fingering and piano sounds were congruent, while they were incongruent in the other cases. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while musicians performed a congruent vs. incongruent discrimination task. A fronto-central error-related negativity (ERN), mainly generated within the anterior cingulate cortex, was observed in response to incongruent videos only in pianists. Non-pianist musicians were able to carry out the task (with a worse performance) but exhibited a smaller response-related N400 to incongruent stimuli. Source reconstruction applied to ERP responses to incongruent stimuli indicated a less automatic mechanism for detecting sensory-motor deviance and a greater emphasis on visual rather than on acoustic features in non-pianists. Overall the data suggest a profound difference between the two populations of musicians and advise against considering "expert" populations to include those that undertook only a few weeks/months of training in a new discipline. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Shielding and filtering techniques to protect sensitive instrumentation from electromagnetic interference caused by arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by arc welding is a concern for sensitive CANDU instrumentation and control equipment, especially start-up instrumentation (SUI) and ion chamber instruments used to measure neutron flux at low power. Measurements of the effectiveness of simple shielding and filtering techniques that may be applied to limit arc welding electromagnetic emissions below the interference threshold are described. Shielding configurations investigated include an arrangement in which the welding power supply, torch (electrode holder), interconnecting cables and welder operator were housed in a single enclosure and a more practical configuration of separate shields for the power supply, cables and operator with torch. The two configuration were found to provide 30 dB and 26 dB attenuation, respectively, for arc welder electric-field emissions and were successful in preventing EMI in SUI set up just outside the shielding enclosures. Practical improvements that may be incorporated in the shielding arrangement to facilitate quick setup in the field in a variety of application environments, while maintaining adequate EMI protection, are discussed. (author)

  6. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  7. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  8. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......, interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows...

  9. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  10. An ultra-sensitive instrument for collision activated dissociation mass spectrometry with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louter, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the last decade Collision Activated Dissociation Mass Spectrometry (CAD-MS) has developed into an important and sometimes unique technique for the structure elucidation of ions. An extensive description of the double stage MS is given, which has been especially devloped for CAD-MS. A high mass resolution and a very high sensitivity are obtained by application of special techniques like post-acceleration of fragment ions, quadrupole (Q-pole) lenses and an electro-optical, simultaneous ion detection system. The operation of the rather complex ion-optics is demonstrated by application of a computer simulation of the tandem MS. Special attention is given to the action of the four Q-pole lenses and the second sector magnet upon curvature and position of the mass focal plane. Two mass calibration methods are described for the fragment spectra. The so-called polynomial-method applies a fifth-order polynomial approximation of the functional relation between position on the detector and corresponding relative momentum of fragment ions. The second method uses the matrix model of the instrument. The detector consists of two channelplates (CEMA), a fibre optics slab, coated with a phosphor layer, a camera objective and a 1024-channels photodiode-array. A bio-chemical and an organic-chemical application of the instrument are given. As bio-chemical application the peak m/z 59 in the pyrolysis mass spectrum of complete mycobacteria is identified. As an example of organic-chemical application the fragmentation process of 2,3-butadienoic acid has been investigated. (Auth.)

  11. An instrumented mixer setup for making tackifier dispersions used to make pressure-sensitive adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daoyun; Zhang, Wu; Gupta, Rakesh K; Melby, Earl G

    2008-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are made by combining a tackifier dispersion and a polymer latex. During the process of making the tackifier dispersion, the system initially forms a water-in-oil emulsion, and then inverts to an oil-in-water one as more water is continuously added with constant agitation. To better understand the process, an instrumented mixer setup was constructed to simulate the manufacturing process, and agitation was provided by an inner impeller and an outer impeller. Several variables were monitored in situ. They are the electrical resistance of the emulsion, torque exerted on the inner impeller, agitation speeds of both impellers, power consumption of both impellers and the flow rate of feeding water. Our measurements showed that torque reached a maximum at phase inversion, and this was verified by direct measurements of viscosity during the process. Simultaneously electrical resistance measurements monitored the chemical changes as well as phase inversion. Experiments showed that under a certain low water feeding flow rate, there appeared to be an intermediate agitation speed at which the phase inversion occurred the earliest. This, from the industrial standpoint, is really favorable due to both time and energy efficiency. Furthermore, this intermediate agitation speed also corresponded to a better quality product. All this information may be used for optimizing this process in the future

  12. Aiming for the theoretical limit of sensitivity of Bonse-Hart USANS instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, John M; Agamalian, Michael

    2010-01-01

    .9. Therefore, the Cd shielding of the triple-bounce crystal becomes ineffective and the parasitic single-bounce back-face reflection and TDS, blocked for 0.5 < λ < 3.0 A, reappear for λ< 0.5 A. It is practically impossible to separate this parasitic scattering from the triple-bounce reflection at steady state neutron beam lines except by the use of highly curved neutron guides. However, the TOF-USANS instrument, which is currently under construction at SNS, allows separation of the orders of Bragg reflections and the residual TDS in time-of-flight and thus the discovered parasitic effect cannot compromise its sensitivity. Thus, we expect to approach the theoretical limit of sensitivity for the SNS TOF-USANS instrument.

  13. Marine oil pollution and beached bird surveys: the development of a sensitive monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camphuysen, C.J.; Heubeck, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most obvious adverse effects of (chronic) pollution of the world's oceans and seas with mineral oil is the mortality of seabirds. Systematic surveys of beachcast corpses of birds ('beached bird surveys') have been used in many parts of the world to document the effect of oil pollution, but particularly so in Western Europe and in parts of North America. In this paper, the history, current schemes, methods and possible (future) use of beached bird surveys are described and discussed, because the value of beached bird surveys has been hotly disputed. Oil pollution is known since the late 19 th century, while the first beached bird surveys were conducted in the 1920s. Due to the amount of man-power needed for these surveys, most beached bird survey programs thrived only through the work of a large number of volunteers. However, most programs have resulted in substantial amounts of high quality data, often covering many consecutive years. One of the main shortcomings of many beached bird survey programs was the emphasis on stranded bird numbers rather than on relative measures, such as oil rates (percentage of corpses oiled of all corpses found). Sources of pollution, particularly so in chronically polluted regions such as the North Sea, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and the waters around Newfoundland, are insufficiently known, but could be studied through a sampling program connected to beached bird surveys. Suggestions for standardization of methods are presented, which could lead to a global and highly sensitive monitoring instrument of marine oil pollution. (Author)

  14. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  15. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Valeri I; Bartona, James S; Richardson, Patricia R; Jones, Anita C

    2006-01-01

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect ∼10 attomole/cm 2 with a scan speed of ∼3-10 cm 2 /s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed

  16. Analyzing the Impact of Brand Equity and Advertisement on Customers’ Loyalty in Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi; Sayyed Mohsen Allameh; Amir Poursaaedi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of advertisement and brand equity on customers’ loyalty in Isfahan city. literature review on advertising, brand equity, customer loyalty research model was presented. A standard questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. To measure SNOWA Corporation brand equity, Keller's brand equity model was used with six dimensions of brand's salience, performance, image, judgments, feelings and resonance. Face validity was used to verify t...

  17. Marketing assets: relating brand equity and customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Yagüe, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alte...

  18. Equity and Quality Dimensions in Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; Charalambous, E.

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to make a contribution to the theory, research and practice on quality and equity in education by providing a comprehensive overview of these two dimensions of educational effectiveness and proposing a methodological instrument that may be used to measure the contribution that each

  19. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  20. New highly sensitive method of simultaneous instrumental neutron activation determination of 12 microelements in vine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoniya, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    The main principles and methods of simultaneous multi-element instrumental neutron activation determination of microelements in vine seeds are presented. The methods permit to carry out quantitative evaluation for every single corn of the seeds. It is shown that the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis with the utilization of a semiconductor spectrometer of high resolution and mini electronic computer permit to carry out serial determinations of 12 microelements in the individual corns of vine seeds of different sorts. This method will permit to determine the missing or excess content of this or that biologically important microelement in soils, plants, fruit and genetic material - seeds, and so to determine the optimum conditions of growing plants by applying microelement fertilizers as extra nutrient means

  1. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Valeri I [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Bartona, James S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Richardson, Patricia R [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Jones, Anita C [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect {approx}10 attomole/cm{sup 2} with a scan speed of {approx}3-10 cm{sup 2}/s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed.

  2. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Anna T; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmström, Inger K; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-09-21

    The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person's human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with one intervention group and one control group. A base-line measurement was performed before an educational intervention and a follow-up measurement was made afterwards in both groups, using a study specific questionnaire in which fictive persons of different age, gender and ethnicity were assessed concerning, e.g., power over one's own life, quality of life and experience of discrimination. The educational intervention consisted of a web-based lecture, literature and a seminar, covering aspects of inequality in healthcare related to gender, age and ethnicity, and gender and intersectionality theories as explaining models for these conditions. The results showed few significant differences before and after the intervention in the intervention group. Also in the control group few significant differences were found in the second measurement, although no intervention was performed in that group. The reason might be that the instrument used was not sensitive enough to pick up an expected raised awareness of equity in healthcare, or that solely the act of filling out the questionnaire can create a sort of intervention effect. Fictive persons born in Sweden and of young age were assessed to have a higher Good life-index than the fictive persons born outside Europe and of higher age in all assessments. The results are an imperative that equity in healthcare still needs to be educated and discussed in different healthcare

  3. The International Instruments on Gender Pay Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cher Weixia

    2008-01-01

    Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  6. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  7. Health Equity Talk: Understandings of Health Equity among Health Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Pauly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing health inequities is a stated goal of health systems worldwide. There is widespread commitment to health equity among public health leaders and calls for reorientation of health systems towards health equity. As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH program of research, public health decision makers and researchers in British Columbia collaborated to study the application of a health equity lens in a time of health system renewal. We drew on intersectionality, complexity and critical social justice theories to understand how participants construct health equity and apply a health equity lens as part of public health renewal. Methods: 15 focus groups and 16 individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 55 health system leaders. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to explore how health equity was constructed in relation to understandings and actions. Results: Four main themes were identified in terms of how health care leaders construct health equity and actions to reduce health inequities: (1 population health, (2 determinants of health, and (3 accessibility and (4 challenges of health equity talk. The first three aspects of health equity talk reflect different understandings of health equity rooted in vulnerability (individual versus structural, determinants of health (material versus social determinants, and appropriate health system responses (targeted versus universal responses. Participants identified that talking about health equity in the health care system, either inside or outside of public health, is a ‘challenging conversation’ because health equity is understood in diverse ways and there is little guidance available to apply a health equity lens. Conclusions: These findings reflect the importance of creating a shared understanding of health equity within public health systems, and providing guidance and clarity as to the meaning and application of a health

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of the minimal chair height standing ability test: a simple and affordable fall-risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia C; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Gaul, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fall-risk screening instruments have been underutilized in clinical settings because of their lengthy administration time, need of cumbersome equipment, and lack of validation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity (sensitivity and specificity) of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT). The secondary objective was to develop guidelines to provide physical therapists with best-practice recommendations that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study design was used in which falling history, major medical conditions, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), and level of independence (Independent Activities of Daily Living) were obtained for 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 83.6 ± 7.3 years), residents of British Columbia, Canada. Participants MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5 cm, starting at 47 cm and lowering after each successful attempt. Sensitivity and specificity of the MCHSAT at each chair height were calculated and plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. A model to identify participants with history of falls was developed using a forward logistic regression (Wald). Mean MCHSAT performance (cm) was significantly better for participants without history of falls (30.3 cm, 95% CI: 28.1-32.5 cm) than for those with history of falls (37.7 cm, 95% CI: 35.5-40.0 cm) and was the single risk factor associated with fall status (β= 1.087, P history of falls was 34 cm (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). At this threshold, sensitivity and specificity values were 75% and 62%, respectively. Using 34 cm as the optimal performance, the MCHSAT correctly identified 75% of participants with history of falls and 62% of participants without history of falls. This provides evidence that the MCHSAT is a valid screening tool for use with an older Canadian population. As a simple and inexpensive testing instrument

  9. Finnish NGOs promoting health equity in the context of welfare economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Wilenius, Päivi; Ahokas, Jussi; Kiukas, Vertti; Aalto-Kallio, Mervi

    2018-04-05

    Health inequality is a national challenge in Finland. The WHO global strategy of Health for All implies that all people should have an equal opportunity to develop and maintain their health through fair and just access to health resources. This article examines the role of Finnish Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) in strengthening the health equity. The article presents the strategy and specific criteria constructed by the NGOs to promote health equity in society. The health equity criteria and welfare economy strategy are combined to a framework which NGOs can utilize in their work to promote health equity. The welfare economy strategy describes the important issues that NGOs have to address when working towards a specific societal goal, in this case equity. The health equity criteria in turn are an instrument for the practical implementation of the preconditions of equity.

  10. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  11. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  12. Equity Criteria as Instrument to Ensure Sustainability of Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency: A Correlation Hidden by Sources of Confounding as Key for Sorting Out the Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is that Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency have an aspect of sustainability in relation to inequality. The analysis finds efficient situations reached increasing inequality as diminishing in the long term effective demand in a larger measure than counterbalancing increases thanks to total factor productivity growth. Equity and efficiency in welfare economics, rather than being quite contrasting objectives, are as such related and mutually necessary. As such countries are called...

  13. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  14. Gender Equity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…

  15. Equity Literacy for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  16. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  17. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  18. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  19. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  20. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  1. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  2. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  3. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    , the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...

  4. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.

  5. Equity Sensitivity in Illinois Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the importance of teacher quality on effective student learning. School districts recognize this fact and focus extensively on hiring quality teachers and improving teaching skills through professional development programs. Amazingly, despite common sense and a vast amount of research that reflects that employee performance is a…

  6. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  7. The market for equity release products: Lessons from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home Equity Release Products (ERPs) are innovative fi nancial instruments that enable elderly, retired people to use their unencumbered houses as a source of income/funding while they continue to reside in them, thereby seeking to address the constraints of the life cycle hypothesis. The loan and outstanding amounts ...

  8. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  9. Assessing equity of public transport: the case of Palma (Mallorca, Illes Balears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurici Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sustainable transport planning must take into account the level of territorial and social equity of service. The equity analysis requires a deep understanding of the service and the territorial and social characteristics where it is implanted. We propose a simplified method to analyze the equity of the public bus system that has been used in the city of Palma de Mallorca. The bus service level was calculated from the spatial analysis of the offer and was contrasted with the population and with a multidimensional index of social need for public transportation leading to horizontal and vertical equity respectively. Next the overall equity of the service was tested with the support of the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of bus routes depending on the role they play in the equity of the service was performed.

  10. Unilever Group : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Susana Sofia Castelo

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation has the purpose to value the Unilever Group, but more specifically Unilever N.V. being publicly traded in the Amsterdam Exchange Index. Unilever is seen as a global player and one of most successful and competitive fast-moving consumer goods companies. In order to valuate Unilever’s equity, a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach is first carried out, since it is believed to be the most reliable methodology. The value estimated was €36.39, advising one to buy its s...

  11. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  12. Product Placement and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2003-01-01

    Product placement is the planned insertion of a brand within a movie, a fiction, etc. It can be used with other communication tools (i.e. advertising, sales promotions, etc.) in order to disseminate brand awareness and characterize brand image, developing brand equity. In global markets, product placement is particularly useful for improving brand equity of brands with a well established brand awareness.

  13. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  14. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  15. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  16. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  17. Health equity monitoring for healthcare quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, R; Asaria, M; Ali, S; Shaw, R; Doran, T; Goldblatt, P

    2018-02-01

    Population-wide health equity monitoring remains isolated from mainstream healthcare quality assurance. As a result, healthcare organizations remain ill-informed about the health equity impacts of their decisions - despite becoming increasingly well-informed about quality of care for the average patient. We present a new and improved analytical approach to integrating health equity into mainstream healthcare quality assurance, illustrate how this approach has been applied in the English National Health Service, and discuss how it could be applied in other countries. We illustrate the approach using a key quality indicator that is widely used to assess how well healthcare is co-ordinated between primary, community and acute settings: emergency inpatient hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions ("potentially avoidable emergency admissions", for short). Whole-population data for 2015 on potentially avoidable emergency admissions in England were linked with neighborhood deprivation indices. Inequality within the populations served by 209 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs: care purchasing organizations with mean population 272,000) was compared against two benchmarks - national inequality and inequality within ten similar populations - using neighborhood-level models to simulate the gap in indirectly standardized admissions between most and least deprived neighborhoods. The modelled inequality gap for England was 927 potentially avoidable emergency admissions per 100,000 people, implying 263,894 excess hospitalizations associated with inequality. Against this national benchmark, 17% of CCGs had significantly worse-than-benchmark equity, and 23% significantly better. The corresponding figures were 11% and 12% respectively against the similar populations benchmark. Deprivation-related inequality in potentially avoidable emergency admissions varies substantially between English CCGs serving similar populations, beyond expected statistical

  18. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  19. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  20. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller numb...... involving Danish firms. Our study documents how the determinants of governance mode choice vary in importance depending upon the "quality" of the governance infrastructure of the host country....

  1. How have Global Health Initiatives impacted on health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) on health equity, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. It is a summary of a literature review commissioned by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. GHIs have emerged during the past decade as a mechanism in development assistance for health. The review focuses on three GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the World Bank's Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. All three have leveraged significant amounts of funding for their focal diseases - together these three GHIs provide an estimated two-thirds of external resources going to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines their impact on gender equity. An analysis of these Initiatives finds that they have a significant impact on health equity, including gender equity, through their processes of programme formulation and implementation, and through the activities they fund and implement, including through their impact on health systems and human resources. However, GHIs have so far paid insufficient attention to health inequities. While increasingly acknowledging equity, including gender equity, as a concern, Initiatives have so far failed to adequately translate this into programmes that address drivers of health inequity, including gender inequities. The review highlights the comparative advantage of individual GHIs, which point to an increased need for, and continued difficulties in, harmonisation of activities at country level. On the basis of this comparative analysis, key recommendations are made. They include a call for equity-sensitive targets, the collection of gender-disaggregated data, the use of policy-making processes for empowerment, programmes that explicitly address causes of health inequity and impact assessments of interventions' effect on social inequities.

  2. Social equity, mobility, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report discusses how transportation policies can aggravate or alleviate social equity problems. Current transit systems : (Detroit, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, and St. Louis) were studied with respect to their strategies and relative success in ...

  3. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  4. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  5. Low-sensitivity, low-bounce, high-linearity current-controlled oscillator suitable for single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yuh-Shyan; Kung, Che-Min; Lin, Ho-Cheng; Chen, Jiann-Jong

    2009-02-01

    A low-sensitivity, low-bounce, high-linearity current-controlled oscillator (CCO) suitable for a single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation system is designed and proposed in this paper. The designed CCO can be operated at low voltage (2 V). The power bounce and ground bounce generated by this CCO is less than 7 mVpp when the power-line parasitic inductance is increased to 100 nH to demonstrate the effect of power bounce and ground bounce. The power supply noise caused by the proposed CCO is less than 0.35% in reference to the 2 V supply voltage. The average conversion ratio KCCO is equal to 123.5 GHz/A. The linearity of conversion ratio is high and its tolerance is within +/-1.2%. The sensitivity of the proposed CCO is nearly independent of the power supply voltage, which is less than a conventional current-starved oscillator. The performance of the proposed CCO has been compared with the current-starved oscillator. It is shown that the proposed CCO is suitable for single-supply mixed-mode instrumentation systems.

  6. APPLICATION OF THE SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE DOSE RATE FOR CREATING CALIBRATION HIGHLY SENSITIVE INSTRUMENTS BASED ON SCINTILLATION DETECTION UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Lukashevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on scintillation detector are highly sensitive to photon radiation and are widely used to measure the environment dose rate. Modernization of the measuring path to minimize the error in measuring the response of the detector to gamma radiation has already reached its technological ceiling and does not give the proper effect. More promising for this purpose are new methods of processing the obtained spectrometric information. The purpose of this work is the development of highly sensitive instruments based on scintillation detection units using a spectrometric method for calculating dose rate.In this paper we consider the spectrometric method of dosimetry of gamma radiation based on the transformation of the measured instrumental spectrum. Using predetermined or measured functions of the detector response to the action of gamma radiation of a given energy and flux density, a certain function of the energy G(E is determined. Using this function as the core of the integral transformation from the field to dose characteristic, it is possible to obtain the dose value directly from the current instrumentation spectrum. Applying the function G(E to the energy distribution of the fluence of photon radiation in the environment, the total dose rate can be determined without information on the distribution of radioisotopes in the environment.To determine G(E by Monte-Carlo method instrumental response function of the scintillator detector to monoenergetic photon radiation sources as well as other characteristics are calculated. Then the whole full-scale energy range is divided into energy ranges for which the function G(E is calculated using a linear interpolation.Spectrometric method for dose calculation using the function G(E, which allows the use of scintillation detection units for a wide range of dosimetry applications is considered in the article. As well as describes the method of calculating this function by using Monte-Carlo methods

  7. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  8. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  9. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  10. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  11. Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... identifying strategies for and indicators of equitable community participation; refining a ... Human resources for health in Zambia : equity and health system strengthening; some local perspectives (IDRC lunch hour discussion, Ottawa, 22 Mar. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  12. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  13. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  14. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  15. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  16. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  17. Are industries resonding differently to the employment equity challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Smith

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study was to determine whether the Employment Equity Questionnaire detects significant differences between employment equity practices of companies from different industries in order to assess the discriminant validity of the scale. Samples of convenience from nine different companies representing different industries, constituted a larger sample of 4729. First and second level factor analyses on 41 common items across all nine companies yielded a single scale with an acceptable Alpha coefficient of 0,959. Analysis of variance, followed by post hoc contrast tests, indicated significant differences between some organisations. The discriminant validity of the scale could be established and recommendations for further improvement of the scale were made. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of die “Employment Equity Questionnaire" betekenisvolle verskille kan uitwys tussen die werkgelykheidspraktyke van maatskappye vanuit verskeie industrieë ten einde die diskriminante geldigheid van die instrument te bepaal. Gerieflikheidsteekproewe van nege verskillende maatskappye, verteenwoordigend van verskillende industrieë, het ’n totale steekproef van 4729 daargestel. Eerste en tweede vlak faktorontledings is op 41 gemeenskaplike items oor al nege maatksappye gedoen en dit het ’n aanvaarbare Alfa koëffisiënt van 0,959 opgelewer. ’n Variansie-ontleding, gevolg deur post hoc kontrastoetse, het op betekenisvolle verskille tussen die onderskeie organisasies gedui. Die diskriminante geldigheid van die instrument kon vasgestel word en aanbevelings ter verbetering daarvan is aan die hand gedoen.

  18. Promoting Mental Health Equity: The Role of Integrated Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, David; Rachel, Sharon A

    2017-12-01

    People suffering from mental illness experience poor physical health outcomes, including an average life expectancy of 25 years less than the rest of the population. Stigma is a frequent barrier to accessing behavioral health services. Health equity refers to the opportunity for all people to experience optimal health; the social determinants of health can enable or impede health equity. Recommendations from the U.S. government and the World Health Organization support mental health promotion while recognizing barriers that preclude health equity. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended screening all adults for depression. The Satcher Health Leadership Institute at the Morehouse School of Medicine (SHLI/MSM) is committed to developing leaders who will help to reduce health disparities as the nation moves toward health equity. The SHLI/MSM Integrated Care Leadership Program (ICLP) provides clinical and administrative healthcare professionals with knowledge and training to develop culturally-sensitive integrated care practices. Integrating behavioral health and primary care improves quality of life and lowers health system costs.

  19. Venture capital and private equity investment preferences in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dziekoński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of capital to finance companies in the SME sector is one of the basic conditions for the functioning and development of enterprises, especially in the early phase of their development. Increasingly popular is the use of capital market instruments, Private Equity, Venture Capital, Business Angels or Mezzanine. Funding of this kind can finance risky investments in return for a higher expected rate of return on capital. Access to financial resources and the conditions under which entrepreneurs can use them can determine the introduction of new technology, new products and services, expand distribution channels, implement changes that may lead to the growth in competitiveness and above all, innovation, thus the growth of the company. The paper presents results of statistical analysis of the venture capital and private equity funds investment strategies in selected countries. As a result investment profiles are created.

  20. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  1. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  2. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  3. Strategic pricing of equity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger; Frank Milne

    2002-01-01

    Consider a general equilibrium model where agents may behave strategically. Specifically, suppose some firm issues new shares. If the primary market price is controlled by the issuing institution and investors' expectations on future equity prices are constant in their share purchases, the share price on the primary market cannot exceed the secondary market share price. In certain cases this may imply strict underpricing of newly issued shares. If investors perceive an influence on future sha...

  4. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  5. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels.

  6. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  7. Examining equity: a multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Melanie; Mahanty, Sango; Schreckenberg, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Concern over social equity dominates current debates about payments for ecosystem services and reduced deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Yet, despite the apprehension that these initiatives may undermine equity, the term is generally left undefined. This paper presents a systematic framework for the analysis of equity that can be used to examine how local equity is affected as the global value of ecosystem services changes. Our framework identifies three dimensions that form the c...

  8. Tensions Teaching Science for Equity: Lessons Learned from the Case of Ms. Dawson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa; Sheth, Manali

    2017-01-01

    When teachers engage in forms of science teaching that disrupt the status quo of typical school science practices, they often experience dilemmas as problems of practice that are difficult--or even impossible--to solve. This instrumental case study examines one teacher's efforts to teach science for equity across two contexts: a public middle…

  9. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  10. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  11. Reviewing the Concept of Brand Equity and Evaluating Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Farjam; Xu Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of brand equity and discuss its different perspectives, we try to review existing literature of brand equity and evaluate various Customer-based brand equity models to provide a collection from well-known databases for further research in this area.Classification-JEL: M00

  12. PRIVATE EQUITY INVESTMENTS IN HUNGARY AND THEFINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeno Konecsny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian private equity market reacted quite sensitively to the 2008-2009financial crisis. Although not in an equaldegree and in the same year, but all ofthe market’s fundraising, investmentand exit segment suffered a decline.However, the distrustful economic environment also affected negatively thetraditional financial sources, making it more complicated to obtain bank loans. Asa result of this moderate credit supply, private equity and venture capitalinvestments became relatively more valuable. This was further strengthened bythe appearance and launch of the so-called hybrid funds in 2010.Although the paper focuses on the investment segment of the Hungarian privateequity market, as an introduction we also describe briefly Hungary’s macroenvironment in the recent years. The rest of the paper analyse private equityinvestments from different aspects.

  13. Equity, sustainability and governance in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Hancock, Trevor

    2016-03-01

    In this commentary the urban setting is explored from the perspective of ecological sustainability and social equity. Urban-related issues are highlighted related to social inequality, deficits in urban infrastructures, behavior-related illnesses and risks, global ecological changes, and urban sprawl. Approaches to addressing these issues are described from the perspective of urban governance, urban planning and design, social determinants of health, health promotion, and personal and community empowerment. Examples of successful strategies are provided from Latin America, including using participatory instruments (assessments, evaluation, participatory budgeting, etc.), establishing intersectoral committees, increasing participation of civil society organizations, and developing virtual forums and networks to channel participatory and collaborative processes. A way forward is proposed, using the urban setting to show the imperative of creating intersectoral policies and programs that produce environments that are both healthy and sustainable. It will be important to include new forms of social participation and use social media to facilitate citizen decision-making and active participation of all sectors of society, especially excluded groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Cross-Section of Credit Risk Premia and Equity Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friewald, Nils; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    We explore the link between a firm's stock returns and credit risk using a simple insight from structural models following Merton (1974): risk premia on equity and credit instruments are related because all claims on assets must earn the same compensation per unit of risk. Consistent with theory......, we find that firms' stock returns increase with credit risk premia estimated from CDS spreads. Credit risk premia contain information not captured by physical or risk-neutral default probabilities alone. This sheds new light on the “distress puzzle”—the lack of a positive relation between equity...

  15. Consumer Based-Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Research Objectives The objectives of this study are to: - Assess external validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model in different culture (Turkey) and new service context (fashion retailing). - Compare validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model with the brand equity model introduced by Yoo and Donthu (2001). - Expand the Nam et al.’s (2011) model by introducing “brand awareness”. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  16. PNG Education System: Equity Trends and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    This paper identifies and discusses inequities in the educational system of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It begins by explaining the use of the Gini coefficient as an equity index, and then discusses inequities and equity trends in four concern areas: geographic distribution of formal education between provinces; educational achievement; distribution…

  17. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    constructed from intraday effective spreads for a large panel of U.S. equities, and they are robust to different empirical implementations. Our findings are consistent with evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold large and risky net long positions, and positive illiquidity premia...

  18. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Part 1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Dentinho, T.; Patuelli, R.; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tension between efficiency and equity has been the focus of major debate since equity aspects started to be considered as part of project evaluation procedures (Thomopoulos et al. 2009). In this book, we contribute to the debate by focusing on the links and trade-offs between accessibility,

  19. Equity Mispricing and Leverage Adjustment Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warr, R.S.; Elliott, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Oztekin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We find that equity mispricing impacts the speed at which firms adjust to their target leverage (TL) and does so in predictable ways depending on whether the firm is over- or underlevered. For example, firms that are above their TL and should therefore issue equity (or retire debt) adjust more

  20. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  1. Explaining the performance of Chinese equity funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Shi, Qiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of Chinese equity fund performance measured by market benchmark adjusted returns and risk adjusted return (Jensen’s Alpha). The sample covers 193 equity funds from January 2006 to December 2011, including both bear (2008 and 2011) and bull (2006, 2007, 2009, and

  2. Leisure Today: Equity Issues in Leisure Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel L., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven articles on equity issues in leisure services focus on conservation for the future, resource allocation inequities in wildland recreation, leisure services for people of color and people with disabilities, serving all children in community recreation, women and leisure services, and equity in public sector resource allocations. (JD)

  3. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  4. Cost of Equity Estimation in Fuel and Energy Sector Companies Based on CAPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Diana; Pawłowski, Stanisław; Kustra, Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    The article presents cost of equity estimation of capital groups from the fuel and energy sector, listed at the Warsaw Stock Exchange, based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The objective of the article was to perform a valuation of equity with the application of CAPM, based on actual financial data and stock exchange data and to carry out a sensitivity analysis of such cost, depending on the financing structure of the entity. The objective of the article formulated in this manner has determined its' structure. It focuses on presentation of substantive analyses related to the core of equity and methods of estimating its' costs, with special attention given to the CAPM. In the practical section, estimation of cost was performed according to the CAPM methodology, based on the example of leading fuel and energy companies, such as Tauron GE and PGE. Simultaneously, sensitivity analysis of such cost was performed depending on the structure of financing the company's operation.

  5. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  6. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  7. Confronting the Equity "Learning Problem" through Practitioner Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Cheryl D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how participation in an inquiry-based workshop on assessing course syllabi for equity-mindedness and cultural inclusivity fostered community college math faculty learning about racial/ethnic equity and equity-mindedness. Findings show that the workshop prompted reflection on what equity means and how participants' teaching…

  8. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the crosssectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P 500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure, respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that covaries more with the market...

  9. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  10. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the cross-sectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that co-varies more with the market...

  11. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  12. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of median absolute valuation errors (MAVE) and in terms of excess returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields a significantly lower MAVE than the best performing...... standard valuation model. Both types of models can identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields time-series of realized hedge returns with more and higher positive returns and fewer and less negative returns compared with the time-series of realized...... through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  13. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...... model performs substantially better than the best performing standard valuation model when comparing absolute valuation errors. Both types of models are able to identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns but also in this setting, the CCAPM-based valuation model outperforms...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...

  14. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  15. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  16. Venture Capital and Other Private Equity: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Metrick; Ayako Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    We review the theory and evidence on venture capital (VC) and other private equity: why professional private equity exists, what private equity managers do with their portfolio companies, what returns they earn, who earns more and why, what determines the design of contracts signed between (i) private equity managers and their portfolio companies and (ii) private equity managers and their investors (limited partners), and how/whether these contractual designs affect outcomes. Findings highlig...

  17. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  18. The Differences Cost of Equity Capital between Before and After Adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze and compare between cost of equity capital between before and after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument (PSAK for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The period on this study was 2008-2009 for before adoption and 2013-2014 for after adoption. Data on this study was secondary data such as annual financial reporting and share price. Cost of equity capital was measured using Ohlson Model. Sample in this study was banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2008, 2009, 2013, and 2014. Selecting sample was by purposive sampling with specific criteria. Results of this study proved that cost of equity capital was lower for after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange than before adoption. It meant that adoption IFRS could reduce cost of equity capital. This result had an impact on reducing non performing loan, increasing loan to deposit ratio, and increasing net interest margin.

  19. Equity and Value in 'Precision Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Muir; Lagerberg, Tyra; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally. Healthcare payers, clinicians, and patients must all be involved in optimising the potential of precision medicine, without reducing equity. Throughout, the discussion will refer to the NHS RightCare Programme, which is a national initiative aiming to improve value and equity in the context of NHS England.

  20. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  1. RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...

  2. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education.

  3. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  4. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... rise to the achievement gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in... recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational...

  5. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in which Federal policies... restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further...

  6. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  7. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious beliefs of an inmate, nor coerce or harass an inmate to change religious affiliation. Attendance at all...

  8. Developing a conceptual framework of urban health observatories toward integrating research and evidence into urban policy for health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, W T; Friche, A A L; Dias, M A S; Meireles, A L; Ignacio, C F; Prasad, A; Kano, M

    2014-02-01

    Detailed information on health linked to geographic, sociodemographic, and environmental data are required by city governments to monitor health and the determinants of health. These data are critical for guiding local interventions, resource allocation, and planning decisions, yet they are too often non-existent or scattered. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of Urban Health Observatories (UHOs) as an institutional mechanism which can help synthesize evidence and incorporate it into urban policy-making for health and health equity. A survey of a select group of existent UHOs was conducted using an instrument based on an a priori conceptual framework of key structural and functional characteristics of UHOs. A purposive sample of seven UHOs was surveyed, including four governmental, two non-governmental, and one university-based observatory, each from a different country. Descriptive and framework analysis methods were used to analyze the data and to refine the conceptual framework in light of the empirical data. The UHOs were often a product of unique historical circumstances. They were relatively autonomous and capable of developing their own locally sensitive agenda. They often had strong networks for accessing data and were able to synthesize them at the urban level as well as disaggregate them into smaller units. Some UHOs were identified as not only assessing but also responding to local needs. The findings from this study were integrated into a conceptual framework which illustrates how UHOs can play a vital role in monitoring trends in health determinants, outcomes, and equity; optimizing an intersectoral urban information system; incorporating research on health into urban policies and systems; and providing technical guidance on research and evidence-based policy making. In order to be most effective, UHOs should be an integral part of the urban governance system, where multiple sectors of government, the civil society, and businesses can

  9. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  10. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  11. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  12. Brand equity in the Pakistani hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Hussain, Nazia; Asim, Ali Ijaz; Cheema, Luqman J.

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity is considered as the most important aspect of branding, which is a set of brands' assets and liabilities, its symbol or name that subtracts from or adds the value provided by a product or service to a firm and customers. The current research endeavor was to identify the interrelationship of customer-based brand equity dimensions (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and service quality) in Pakistani hotel industry. Data was collected from 821 consumers who experienced the...

  13. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  14. Setting priorities for knowledge translation of Cochrane reviews for health equity: Evidence for Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Vincent, Jennifer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Churchill, Rachel; deSavigny, Don; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Pantoja, Tomas

    2017-12-02

    A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. E4E translates evidence from systematic reviews into 'friendly front end' summaries for policy makers. The following topic areas with high burdens of disease globally, were selected for the pilot: diabetes/obesity, HIV/AIDS, malaria, nutrition, and mental health/depression. For each topic area, a "stakeholder panel" was assembled that included policymakers and researchers. A systematic search of Cochrane reviews was conducted for each area to identify equity-relevant interventions with a meaningful impact. Panel chairs developed a rating sheet which was used by all panels to rank the importance of these interventions by: 1) Ease of Implementation; 2) Health System Requirements; 3)Universality/Generalizability/Share of Burden; and 4) Impact on Inequities/Effect on equity. The ratings of panel members were averaged for each intervention and criterion, and interventions were ordered according to the average overall ratings. Stakeholder panels identified the top 10 interventions from their respective topic areas. The evidence on these interventions is being summarized with an equity focus and the results posted online, at http://methods.cochrane.org/equity/e4e-series . This method provides an explicit approach to setting priorities by systematic review groups and funders for providing decision makers with evidence for the most important equity

  15. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  16. The Role of Courts in Shaping Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    United States' courts have played a limited, yet key, role in shaping health equity in three areas of law: racial discrimination, disability discrimination, and constitutional rights. Executive and administrative action has been much more instrumental than judicial decisions in advancing racial equality in health care. Courts have been reluctant to intervene on racial justice because overt discrimination has largely disappeared, and the Supreme Court has interpreted civil rights laws in a fashion that restricts judicial authority to address more subtle or diffused forms of disparate impact. In contrast, courts have been more active in limiting disability discrimination by expanding the conditions that are considered disabling and by articulating and applying the operative concepts "reasonable accommodation" and "other qualified" in the context of both treatment and insurance coverage decisions. Finally, regarding constitutional rights, courts have had limited opportunity to intervene because, outside of specially protected arenas such as reproduction, constitutional law gives government wide discretion to define health and safety goals and methods. Thus, courts have had only a limited role in shaping health equity in the United States. It remains to be seen whether this will change under the Affordable Care Act or whatever health reform measure might replace it. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  17. A normative foundation for equity-sensitive health evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2017-01-01

    are the so-called multiplicative Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and multiplicative Healthy Years Equivalents (HYEs), as well as generalizations of the two. Our axiomatic approach assumes social preferences over distributions of individual health states experienced in a given period of time. It conveys...

  18. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  19. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  20. Brand equity v kategorii jogurtů na českém trhu.

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with the subject of brand value / equity. In the application part equity of selected brands of yoghurts is measured using Equity Builder and Brand Power methodologies and recommendations for their brand equity growth are given.

  1. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  2. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  3. Teaching About Racial Equity in Introductory Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Decker, Sierra R.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2017-09-01

    Even after you have decided to tackle a problem like racial equity, it may seem daunting to broach the subject in a physics classroom. After all, the idea of a (typically White) instructor in power tackling a sensitive topic such as social justice can be scary in any (mostly White) classroom. Not only that, but physics is typically viewed as a "culture with no culture." The physicist's quest for objectivity, along with a general focus on a fixed set of laws and formulae, support the treatment of this subject as untouched by people. Sometimes it is easier to ignore the problem and just focus on the Conservation of Energy Principle. However, ignoring the striking underrepresentation of ethnic/racial minorities and women in both the physics classroom and the field at large is a great disservice to all our students. We take the position that the persistence of representation disparities in physics is evidence that culture plays a role in who and what is involved in physics. Instructors have an opportunity to explicitly address the absence of equitable circumstances in classrooms and highlight the obstacles that contribute to the disparity (e.g., varied access to learning opportunities and support structures, dominant cultural norms, stereotype threat, implicit bias, hidden curricula, etc.). We acknowledge that incorporating these discussions in a physics classroom is fraught with difficulty, but we also believe that trying to lead these discussions is better than ignoring the problem. Furthermore, a set of resources for teachers interested in leading these discussions has been developing in the physics teacher community. Rifkin offers resources for leading a two-week unit on equity designed for secondary science classrooms. Here we describe another possible pathway for integrating a shorter equity unit into the traditional content of a (predominantly White) university physics classroom, addressing racial inequity and sharing common student responses that may arise.

  4. Diminishing musyarakah investment model based on equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Maheran Mohd; Zain, Shaharir Mohamad; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Most of the mudharabah and musyarakah contract funds are involved in debt financing. This does not support the theory that profit sharing contract is better than that of debt financing due to the sharing of risks and ownership of equity. Indeed, it is believed that Islamic banking is a financial model based on equity or musyarakah which emphasis on the sharing of risks, profit and loss in the investment between the investor and entrepreneur. The focus of this paper is to introduce the mathematical model that internalizes diminishing musyarakah, the sharing of profit and equity between entrepreneur and investor. The entrepreneur pays monthly-differed payment to buy out the equity that belongs to the investor (bank) where at the end of the specified period, the entrepreneur owns the business and the investor (bank) exits the joint venture. The model is able to calculate the amount of equity at any time for both parties and hence would be a guide in helping to estimate the value of investment should the entrepreneur or investor exit before the end of the specified period. The model is closer to the Islamic principles for justice and fairness.

  5. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  6. On the evolutionary origins of equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Debove

    Full Text Available Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource. Agent-based simulations, an analytical model, and extended simulations using neural networks provide converging evidence that equity is the best evolutionary strategy in such an environment: individuals maximize their fitness by dividing benefits in proportion to their own and their partners' relative contribution. The need to be chosen as a cooperative partner thus creates a selection pressure strong enough to explain the evolution of preferences for equity. We discuss the limitations of our model, the discrepancies between its predictions and empirical data, and how interindividual and intercultural variability fit within this framework.

  7. Health care and equity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-05

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Die primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  9. Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF HD 209458b: THREE ECLIPSES, TWO AND A HALF TRANSITS, AND A PHASE CURVE CORRUPTED BY INSTRUMENTAL SENSITIVITY VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M. [Department of Physics, and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report the results of an analysis of all Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of HD 209458b, one of the touchstone objects in the study of irradiated giant planet atmospheres. Altogether, we analyze two and a half transits, three eclipses, and a 58 hr near-continuous observation designed to detect the planet's thermal phase curve. The results of our analysis are: (1) a mean transit depth of 1.484% {+-} 0.033%, consistent with previous measurements and showing no evidence of variability in transit depth at the 3% level. (2) A mean eclipse depth of 0.338% {+-} 0.026%, somewhat higher than that previously reported for this system; this new value brings observations into better agreement with models. From this eclipse depth we estimate an average dayside brightness temperature of 1320 {+-} 80 K; the dayside flux shows no evidence of variability at the 12% level. (3) Eclipses in the system occur 32 {+-} 129 s earlier than would be expected from a circular orbit, which constrains the orbital quantity ecos {omega} to be 0.00004 {+-} 0.00033. This result is fully consistent with a circular orbit and sets an upper limit of 140 m s{sup -1} (3{sigma}) on any eccentricity-induced velocity offset during transit. The phase curve observations (including one of the transits) exhibit an anomalous trend similar to the detector ramp seen in previous Spitzer/IRAC observations; by modeling this ramp we recover the system parameters for this transit. The long-duration photometry which follows the ramp and transit exhibits a gradual {approx}0.2% decrease in flux over {approx}30 hr. This effect is similar to that seen in pre-launch calibration data taken with the 24 {mu}m array and is better fit by an instrumental model than a model invoking planetary emission. The large uncertainties associated with this poorly understood, likely instrumental effect prevent us from usefully constraining the planet's thermal phase curve. Our observations highlight the need for a thorough

  10. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN. The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz, followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD (1σ of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications.

  11. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  12. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  13. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  14. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  15. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  16. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation.

  17. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  18. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  19. Infusing Diversity and Equity Into Clinical Teaching: Training the Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Handa, Manavi

    2016-11-01

    Clinical instructors in health care disciplines are charged with engaging students in experiential learning wherein respect and cultural sensitivity is applied. This article reports on the results of 3 diversity workshops conducted for clinical preceptors and field instructors from various disciplines. The workshops were developed in response to students' growing concerns that their academic learning experiences were negatively affected by dissatisfying management of differences between students, faculty, and preceptors with respect to ethno-racial group membership, socioeconomic level, and degree of privilege and power. The workshops included a didactic session that presented basic principles of social and health equity followed by small-group reflection about various ethical and moral dilemmas that were presented in clinical education scenarios. Examples of discrimination on a variety of levels were addressed in these workshops, including race, ethnicity, immigration status, sexual orientation, religion, body size and appearance, ability, age, socioeconomic class, religious faith, and gender. The group exercises and discussion from these sessions provided valuable insight and approaches to difficult but common areas of discomfiture encountered in the clinical teaching setting. This article presents the findings from participants of these diversity workshops in order to encourage the application of equity principles into clinical teaching in midwifery and other health care education contexts. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. Cultural value orientation and gender equity: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, gender issues have grabbed substantial attention from social scientists, activists and academic fraternity. Right from family to workplace to society at large, attempts have been initiated to advocate equal rights for women in different spheres of life. Despite social activists and policy makers striving hard towards gender sensitization, gender discrimination still persists in various domains of life. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify the factors that potentially determine people’s attitude towards gender equity. With this very objective, the current study examines existing literature on gender discrimination and its association with Hofstede’s (1980 cultural values. Following the “Gender-Organization-System Approach”, the present study postulates that gender equality or inequality results from a complex interaction of individual, organizational and societal factors and that it cannot be explained in isolation from the broader socio-cultural milieu. Extensive review of literature indicates that cultural values are significant predictors of people’s attitude towards gender equity and that the extent to which people conform to existing gender roles determine how much people support the idea of gender equality. The study has significant practical implications since, by means of detecting such “causal factors”, more positive attitudinal changes can be brought about and gender egalitarian attitudes can be cultivated.

  1. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    time in recent history. ... Results: Equity has been a long quest in public health and global health equity could be seen as part of ... Sub-Saharan Africa will remain an enduring preoccupation ..... In recent years, “Equity as a shared vision for health and ..... skilled workers is evolving as a policy position in the US and Europe.

  2. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes the amount of any...

  3. La valutazione degli investimenti finanziati tramite equity crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evoluzione e dimensione del crowdfunding, La valutazione e strutturazione dell’investimento tramite equity crowdfunding, Valutazioni implicite nelle raccolte fondi in equity crowdfunding, Peculiarità specifiche dell’equity crowdfunding, Un confronto con la bolla valutativa delle aziende internet degli anni 2000

  4. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  5. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  6. Do Firms Replenish Executives’ Incentives After Equity Sales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladika, T.

    2013-01-01

    After selling firm equity, executives' incentives to maximize shareholder value may decrease. How do boards respond? Theory shows boards can restore executives' incentives by shifting subsequent pay from cash toward equity. Unobservable firm-level changes that cause executives to sell equity and

  7. Value at risk, bank equity and credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications of the value at risk concept for the bank's optimum amount of equity capital under credit risk. The market value of loans is risky and lognormally distributed. We show that the required equity capital depends upon managerial and market factors. Furthermore, the bank's equity and asset/liability management has to be addressed simultaneously by bank managers.

  8. Inquiry as an Entry Point to Equity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gail; El Turkey, Houssein; Cilli-Turner, Emily; Savic, Milos; Karakok, Gulden; Plaxco, David

    2017-01-01

    Although many policy documents include equity as part of mathematics education standards and principles, researchers continue to explore means by which equity might be supported in classrooms and at the institutional level. Teaching practices that include opportunities for students to engage in active learning have been proposed to address equity.…

  9. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…

  10. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other equity investments. 5.36 Section 5.36... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.36 Other equity investments. (a) Authority... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...

  11. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  12. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    , including standard measures of illiquidity of the underlying stock, determinants of spreads, and a measure of net demand pressure. The positive illiquidity premium we find is consistent with existing evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold net long positions.......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per...

  13. Equity in health and health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, S M

    1999-01-01

    In planning healthcare reforms increasing attention has been focused on the issue of equity. Inequities in the provision of healthcare exist even in relatively egalitarian societies. Poverty is still one of the major contributors to ill health and there are many powerful influences in society that continue to thwart the goal of a maximally equitable system for the provision of healthcare. The principles of equity in a healthcare system have been well articulated in recent years. It is incumbent on healthcare professionals who understand the issues to join the efforts towards a more humane and equitable healthcare system in their societies.

  14. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  15. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  16. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  17. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  18. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  19. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules......The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...

  20. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  1. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...

  2. Gender Equity, Sport Sponsorship, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiamouyiannis, Athena

    2009-01-01

    As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…

  3. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  4. Opinion Health equity from the African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    will not be able to realize meaningful poverty alleviation despite the creditable record of relatively high economic ... Poverty reduction is the MDG goal most crucial to health equity. Anyangwe et.al characterize poverty as both .... disaster, the Horn of Africa recently experienced drought-caused famine and a similar threat is ...

  5. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  6. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, P.J.; Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  7. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  8. Social Conflict and Sex Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantz, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…

  9. Strategic default and equity risk across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2010-01-01

    We test whether the firm’s systematic equity risk reflects the shareholders’ incentives to default strategically on the firm’s debt. We use a real options model to relate the shareholders’ strategic default behavior to frictions in the debt renegotiation procedure. We test the model’s predictions

  10. Learning, Official Languages and Employment Equity Advisor ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Plans and coordinates human resources services in the areas of Learning, Official Languages (OL) and Employment Equity (EE) while ensuring that management's needs are met. Provides operational services and advises managers and employees in determining their needs, analyzing problems, ...

  11. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…

  12. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  13. Private equity investments and disclosure policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Deloof, M.; Manigart, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, we dynamically analyze unlisted firms’ voluntary disclosure decisions around private equity (PE) participation. First, we disentangle the role of disclosure in attracting PE investments. In addition, we examine the extent to which a firm’s disclosure policy is affected by the

  14. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  15. Employment Equity | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At IDRC, diversity is one of the keys to our success. We are committed to achieving employment equity for designated groups in our workforce. Our goal is to create and maintain an innovative and responsive work environment where employees are valued and respected. Designated groups – Definitions.

  16. The Joint Dynamics of Equity Market Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Langlois, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The 4 equity market factors from Fama and French (1993) and Carhart (1997) are pervasive in academia and practice. However, not much is known about their joint distribution and dynamics. We find striking evidence of asymmetric tail dependence across the factors. While the linear factor correlatio...

  17. 19 CFR 351.507 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a government-provided equity infusion, a benefit exists to the extent that the investment decision... company as a whole. In making the equityworthiness determination, the Secretary may examine the following..., adjusted, if appropriate, to conform to generally accepted accounting principles; (C) Rates of return on...

  18. Governance for Equity in Health Systems Deadline

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... of training and mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. IDRC's Governance for Equity in Health Systems ...

  19. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  20. Globalisation, Equity and Social Development | Mkandawire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Globalisation, Equity and ...

  1. Teaching for Equity: A Transformationist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tiffany R.; Trail, Amelia El-Hindi

    2010-01-01

    Today's teachers must be equipped to reach all children and embrace a pedagogy of equity. Toward that end, teacher preparation programs need to foster a transformationist pedagogy which allows students to develop into culturally responsive teachers. This paper describes three components of a teacher preparation program that embraces teaching for…

  2. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan security, a borrower applying for an initial loan shall increase its net worth as a percentage of assets to...

  3. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  4. Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...

  5. Protocol for the development of a CONSORT-equity guideline to improve reporting of health equity in randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Jull, J; Petkovic, J; Armstrong, R; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Edwards, Sjl; Lydiatt, A; Gough, D; Grimshaw, J; Kristjansson, E; Mbuagbaw, L; McGowan, J; Moher, D; Pantoja, T; Petticrew, M; Pottie, K; Rader, T; Shea, B; Taljaard, M; Waters, E; Weijer, C; Wells, G A; White, H; Whitehead, M; Tugwell, P

    2015-10-21

    Health equity concerns the absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide evidence about the impact of an intervention on health equity for specific disadvantaged populations or in general populations; this is important for equity-focused decision-making. Previous work has identified a lack of adequate reporting guidelines for assessing health equity in RCTs. The objective of this study is to develop guidelines to improve the reporting of health equity considerations in RCTs, as an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). A six-phase study using integrated knowledge translation governed by a study executive and advisory board will assemble empirical evidence to inform the CONSORT-equity extension. To create the guideline, the following steps are proposed: (1) develop a conceptual framework for identifying "equity-relevant trials," (2) assess empirical evidence regarding reporting of equity-relevant trials, (3) consult with global methods and content experts on how to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (4) collect broad feedback and prioritize items needed to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (5) establish consensus on the CONSORT-equity extension: the guideline for equity-relevant trials, and (6) broadly disseminate and implement the CONSORT-equity extension. This work will be relevant to a broad range of RCTs addressing questions of effectiveness for strategies to improve practice and policy in the areas of social determinants of health, clinical care, health systems, public health, and international development, where health and/or access to health care is a primary outcome. The outcomes include a reporting guideline (CONSORT-equity extension) for equity-relevant RCTs and a knowledge translation strategy to broadly encourage its uptake and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies.

  6. Equity trade-offs in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-04-01

    Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. What does equity in health mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  8. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  9. Does oil move equity prices? A global view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandha, Mohan; Faff, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many studies indicate that oil price shocks have an adverse effect on real output and, hence, an adverse effect on corporate profits where oil is used as a key input. The present study examines whether and to what extent the adverse effect of oil price shocks impacts stock market returns. To this end we, analyse 35 DataStream global industry indices for the period from April 1983 to September 2005. Our findings indicate that oil price rises have a negative impact on equity returns for all sectors except mining, and oil and gas industries. Generally, these results are consistent with economic theory and evidence provided by previous empirical studies. Little evidence of any asymmetry is detected in the oil price sensitivities. In light of our findings, we recommend that international portfolio investors consider hedging oil price risk. (author)

  10. Health care and equity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  11. Validation of the sensitivity of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS Head computed tomographic (CT decision instrument for selective imaging of blunt head injury patients: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Mower

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians, afraid of missing intracranial injuries, liberally obtain computed tomographic (CT head imaging in blunt trauma patients. Prior work suggests that clinical criteria (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] Head CT decision instrument [DI] can reliably identify patients with important injuries, while excluding injury, and the need for imaging in many patients. Validating this DI requires confirmation of the hypothesis that the lower 95% confidence limit for its sensitivity in detecting serious injury exceeds 99.0%. A secondary goal of the study was to complete an independent validation and comparison of the Canadian and NEXUS Head CT rules among the subgroup of patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria.We conducted a prospective observational study of the NEXUS Head CT DI in 4 hospital emergency departments between April 2006 and December 2015. Implementation of the rule requires that patients satisfy 8 criteria to achieve "low-risk" classification. Patients are excluded from "low-risk" classification and assigned "high-risk" status if they fail to meet 1 or more criteria. We examined the instrument's performance in assigning "high-risk" status to patients requiring neurosurgical intervention among a cohort of 11,770 blunt head injury patients. The NEXUS Head CT DI assigned high-risk status to 420 of 420 patients requiring neurosurgical intervention (sensitivity, 100.0% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 99.1%-100.0%]. The instrument assigned low-risk status to 2,823 of 11,350 patients who did not require neurosurgical intervention (specificity, 24.9% [95% CI: 24.1%-25.7%]. None of the 2,823 low-risk patients required neurosurgical intervention (negative predictive value [NPV], 100.0% [95% CI: 99.9%-100.0%]. The DI assigned high-risk status to 759 of 767 patients with significant intracranial injuries (sensitivity, 99.0% [95% CI: 98.0%-99.6%]. The instrument assigned low-risk status to 2,815 of 11

  12. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  13. Assessing the Learning Environment for Medical Students: An Evaluation of a Novel Survey Instrument in Four Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Nickell, Leslie; Reboli, Annette C; Coplit, Lisa D; Stuber, Margaret L; Vasiliou, Vasilia; Civian, Janet T; Brennan, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    A practical, reliable, and valid instrument is needed to measure the impact of the learning environment on medical students' well-being and educational experience and to meet medical school accreditation requirements. From 2012 to 2015, medical students were surveyed at the end of their first, second, and third year of studies at four medical schools. The survey assessed students' perceptions of the following nine dimensions of the school culture: vitality, self-efficacy, institutional support, relationships/inclusion, values alignment, ethical/moral distress, work-life integration, gender equity, and ethnic minority equity. The internal reliability of each of the nine dimensions was measured. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing relationships predicted by our conceptual model and prior research. Assessment was made of whether the measurements were sensitive to differences over time and across institutions. Six hundred and eighty-six students completed the survey (49 % women; 9 % underrepresented minorities), with a response rate of 89 % (range over the student cohorts 72-100 %). Internal consistency of each dimension was high (Cronbach's α 0.71-0.86). The instrument was able to detect significant differences in the learning environment across institutions and over time. Construct validity was supported by demonstrating several relationships predicted by our conceptual model. The C-Change Medical Student Survey is a practical, reliable, and valid instrument for assessing the learning environment of medical students. Because it is sensitive to changes over time and differences across institution, results could potentially be used to facilitate and monitor improvements in the learning environment of medical students.

  14. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  15. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  16. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  17. Implementation of equity in resource allocation for regional earthquake risk mitigation using two-stage stochastic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R; Peyghaleh, Elnaz

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new methodology to implement the concept of equity in regional earthquake risk mitigation programs using an optimization framework. It presents a framework that could be used by decisionmakers (government and authorities) to structure budget allocation strategy toward different seismic risk mitigation measures, i.e., structural retrofitting for different building structural types in different locations and planning horizons. A two-stage stochastic model is developed here to seek optimal mitigation measures based on minimizing mitigation expenditures, reconstruction expenditures, and especially large losses in highly seismically active countries. To consider fairness in the distribution of financial resources among different groups of people, the equity concept is incorporated using constraints in model formulation. These constraints limit inequity to the user-defined level to achieve the equity-efficiency tradeoff in the decision-making process. To present practical application of the proposed model, it is applied to a pilot area in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Building stocks, structural vulnerability functions, and regional seismic hazard characteristics are incorporated to compile a probabilistic seismic risk model for the pilot area. Results illustrate the variation of mitigation expenditures by location and structural type for buildings. These expenditures are sensitive to the amount of available budget and equity consideration for the constant risk aversion. Most significantly, equity is more easily achieved if the budget is unlimited. Conversely, increasing equity where the budget is limited decreases the efficiency. The risk-return tradeoff, equity-reconstruction expenditures tradeoff, and variation of per-capita expected earthquake loss in different income classes are also presented. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  19. Examining gender equity in health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high- (Canada) income country in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna E; Dorado, Linda M; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Rondon, Marta; Saavedra, Javier; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    Gender inequities in health prevail in most countries despite ongoing attempts to eliminate them. Assessment of gender-sensitive health policies can be used to identify country specific progress as well as gaps and issues that need to be addressed to meet health equity goals. This study selected and measured the existence of gender-sensitive health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high (Canada)-income country in the Americas. Investigators selected 10 of 20 gender-sensitive health policy indicators and found eight to be feasible to measure in all three countries, although the wording and scope varied. The results from this study inform policy makers and program planners who aim to develop, improve, implement, and monitor national gender-sensitive health policies. Future studies should assess the implementation of policy indicators within countries and assess their performance in increasing gender equity.

  20. Stakeholders in Equity-Based Crowdfunding: Respective Risks Over the Equity Crowdfunding Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Son Turan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to present a thorough research on the risk categories and specific risk factors that each immediate stakeholder faces over the equity crowdfunding lifecycle.Methodology. This study employs an exploratory approach, supported by current data to understand the global equity crowdfunding setting and the stakes for major players.Findings. Findings show that, although equity crowdfunding, can be a unique opportunity especially for underdeveloped countries and SMEs who have difficulty obtaining funding elsewhere, is also a potential peril for those who ignore or underestimate the overall and stand-alone risks that come along with each stage of the process. The findings have implications for all ventures seeking alternative financing venues, investors and equity crowdsourcing platforms. Furthermore, they pinpoint potential areas of further investigation for researchers and policy makers.Originality/Value. This study differentiates itself from the limited number of papers on equity crowdfunding, as a newly developing field of academic research, in that it underscores financial, regulatory, operational, reputational and strategic risks from several perspectives and offers recommendations on how these risks can be addressed.

  1. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  2. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  3. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...

  4. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  5. How equity markets view heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisch, M. L. [Nesbitt Burns Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development.

  6. How equity markets view heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

  7. Equity in Adaptation to Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, F.

    2009-01-01

    Most observers agree that equity has become a key condition for the success of a global agreement on climate, and that any deal that would seem inequitable would be doomed to fail. The UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) makes a distinction between developed countries, developing countries, and least advanced countries; as well as between vulnerable countries and particularly vulnerable countries. The first distinction has to do with equity in mitigation efforts, whereas the latter is concerned with equity in the allocation of adaptation funding (Mace 2006). Adaptation itself is poorly defined: the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) does not go further than defining it as the adjustment of human or natural systems confronted to a new or changing environment (IPCC 2007). It took a very long time for adaptation to be acknowledged as a key aspect of the fight against global warming. Funding mechanisms were long overdue when they were finally implemented, and remain heavily discussed. A sufficient amount of funding for adaptation appears today as the sine qua non condition for the participation of developing countries to a global deal on climate. This amount has been estimated at US$ 100 billion at least on a yearly basis, including support for mitigation efforts. However, though equity concerns have been placed at the core of the negotiation on mitigation efforts, they have been little addressed in the discussions on adaptation. As a result of this, the criteria that will be used to allocate the adaptation funding remain unclear and vague, which could be detrimental for the negotiation process as a whole. This paper aims to offer a new perspective on this issue, departing from the traditional perspective inspired by retributive justice. (author)

  8. History and the Equity Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    William Goetzmann; Roger Ibbotson

    2005-01-01

    We summarize some of our own past findings and place them in the context of the historical development of the idea of the equity risk premium and its empirical measurement by financial economists. In particular, we focus on how the theory of compensation for investment risk developed in the 20th century in tandem with the empirical analysis of historical investment performance. Finally, we update our study of the historical performance of the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1792 to th...

  9. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  10. PATTERNS FOR DETERMINING THE COST OF EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE HOLT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost of equities represents the rate of return required by the shareholders of the company, to provide a return on their investment in its heritage. Significant in this respect, there are the size of future profit and general meeting of shareholders decisions on distribution ratio of net profit for the year for dividends. The return required by shareholders is an opportunity cost based on return expected by investors for investment with the same risk.

  11. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  12. Equity in Health Care Expenditure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olaniyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Equity isone of the basic principles of health systems and features explicitly in theNigerian health financing policy. Despite acclaimed commitment to theimplementation of this policy through various pro-poor health programmes andinterventions, the level of inequity in health status and access to basichealth care interventions remain high. This paper examines the equity of healthcare expenditure by individuals in Nigeria. The paper evaluated equity in out-of-pocketspending( OOP for the country and separately for the six geopolitical zones ofthe country.The methodological framework rests onKakwani Progressivity Indices (KPIs, ReynoldSmolensky indices andconcentration indices (CIs using data from the 2004 Nigerian National LivingStandard Survey( NLSS collected by the National Bureau of Statistics. .The results reveal that health financing isregressive with the incidence disproportionately rest on poor households withabout 70% of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket paymentsby households. Poor households are prone to bear most of the expenses in theevent of any health shock. The catastrophic consequences thus push some intopoverty, and aggravate the poverty of others.The paper therefore suggests that thecountry’s health financingsystems must be designed not only to allow people to access services when theyare needed, but must also protect household, from financial catastrophe, byreducing OOP spending through risk pooling and prepayment schemes within thehealth system.Keywords:                            Equity, Health careexpenditure, Kakwani progressivity index, Nigeria.

  13. FOMC communication and emerging equity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hayo, Bernd; Kutan, Ali M.; Neuenkirch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Using a GARCH model, we study the effects of Federal Funds target rate changes and FOMC communication on emerging equity market returns and volatility over the period 1998–2006. First, both types of news have a significant impact on market returns. Second, target rate changes are more important than informal communication. Third, the occurrence of monetary policy reports lowers price volatility. Finally, American emerging markets react more to U.S. news than non-American markets.

  14. Health Equity in a Trump Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Deborah

    2017-10-01

    Donald Trump's rhetoric and leadership are destroying the "culture of community" necessary for progress on health equity. His one-line promises to provide "quality health care at a fraction of the cost" smack of neoliberal nostrums that shifted ever more costs onto patients, thereby preventing many people from getting care. The dangers of Trump go far beyond health policy, however; Trump's presidency threatens the political and cultural institutions that make any good policy possible. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  15. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  16. Financial Development, Growth and Equity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Castelar Pinheiro; Regis Bonelli

    2015-01-01

    Financial markets help to foster growth and productivity through their role in mobilizing savings to finance investment and production, selecting and monitoring investment projects, diversifying risks, and allowing investment and production to be carried out in the most productive scale and time frame. This paper examines the links between financial development, growth and equity. The focus is on the Brazilian case, but we also aim at contributing to a broader discussion on the role of financ...

  17. Collaboration and Gender Equity among Academic Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Misra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities were established as hierarchical bureaucracies that reward individual attainment in evaluating success. Yet collaboration is crucial both to 21st century science and, we argue, to advancing equity for women academic scientists. We draw from research on gender equity and on collaboration in higher education, and report on data collected on one campus. Sixteen focus group meetings were held with 85 faculty members from STEM departments, separated by faculty rank and gender (i.e., assistant professor men, full professor women. Participants were asked structured questions about the role of collaboration in research, career development, and departmental decision-making. Inductive analyses of focus group data led to the development of a theoretical model in which resources, recognition, and relationships create conditions under which collaboration is likely to produce more gender equitable outcomes for STEM faculty. Ensuring women faculty have equal access to resources is central to safeguarding their success; relationships, including mutual mentoring, inclusion and collegiality, facilitate women’s careers in academia; and recognition of collaborative work bolsters women’s professional advancement. We further propose that gender equity will be stronger in STEM where resources, relationships, and recognition intersect—having multiplicative rather than additive effects.

  18. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD and profitability (return on assets on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to 2015. The results show that advertising and promotion and profitability have statistically significant impact on brand equity whereas RD doesn’t make significant impact on brand equity. Based on the findings, it is observed that advertising is having the strongest impact on brand equity.

  20. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  1. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  2. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  3. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  4. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  5. Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kayaman, Rüçhan; Araslı, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to explore interrelations of the four brand equity components; brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and brand image in hotel industry and improve the conceptualization of customer-based hotel brand equity. The paper is based on the recommendations of previous studies, the scale constructed to measure consumer-based brand equity included brand awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality and brand image. The present study used a sample of 345 actual customers from 11...

  6. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  7. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS; Ishtiaq AHMAD

    2016-01-01

    The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD) and profitability (return on assets) on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to...

  8. Determinants of Brand Equity: Offering a Model to Chocolate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emari Hossien

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the underlying dimensions of brand equity in the chocolate industry. For this purpose, researchers developed a model to identify which factors are influential in building brand equity. The second purpose was to assess brand loyalty and brand images mediating effect between brand attitude, brand personality, brand association with brand equity. The study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions...

  9. International Reserves and the Composition of Equity Capital Inflows

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwang Qian; Andreas Steiner

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of central banks' international reserve hoardings on the composition of equity capital inflows, namely the ratio of portfolio equity investment (PEI) to foreign direct investment (FDI). Foreign investors' decisions regarding the location and the type of equity capital investment might be influenced by a country's level of international reserves. In a simple theoretical model, we show that higher reserves, thanks to their ability to lower exchange rate risk, reduce the risk...

  10. The equity of school facilities funding: Examples from Kentucky.

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Glenn; Lawrence O. Picus; Allan Odden; Anabel Aportela

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality. In general one could tentatively conclude that Kentucky’s capital-funding system was reasonably equitable unti...

  11. Do Private Labels Build Retailer Brand Equity? An Empirical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on retailer’s equity and brand equity, with an application to food retailer’s private labels. The study is supported on existing brand equity studies, namely Aaker, Keller, Yoo & Donthu and Pappu & Quester. The proposed conceptual model was tested through a survey to a sample of consumers, who do most of their food shopping in one of the two main Portuguese retailers. We obtained and validated a measurement and a structural model with appropriate model ...

  12. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    OpenAIRE

    KASHIF, MUHAMMAD; SAMSI, SITI ZAKIAH MELATU; SARIFUDDIN, SYAMSULANG

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire deve...

  13. Teknologi Informasi Dalam Membentuk Atribut Brand Equity Suatu Produk

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Kristiana Asih

    2004-01-01

    Product is known from its merk and Customer will choice and buy product which havegood and famous merk. For it, Company have to built good merk which can describe fromBrand Equity. Brand Equity has five atributes: Brand Assosiation, Brand Awareness,Perceived Quality, Brand Loyalty, and other atributes.This paper has a goal to make a model how Information Technology in built everyatributes of Brand Equity.

  14. The effect of customer-base reputation on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriyar Azizi; Behnaz Roustaian; Manizghe Gharache; Bahman Hajipour

    2016-01-01

    Among the most important sectors of Iranian economy is banking, an industry which has become more competitive over the recent decade. An objective of banks marketing is to increase brand equity. Since reputation is an important factor in improvement of brand equity, the present research evaluated the impact of bank customer-based reputation on total brand equity. A survey was conducted in Tehran metropolitan area, with the sample size of 246 people. Findings showed the positive impact of bank...

  15. Cost of Equity Estimation in Fuel and Energy Sector Companies Based on CAPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Diana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost of equity estimation of capital groups from the fuel and energy sector, listed at the Warsaw Stock Exchange, based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. The objective of the article was to perform a valuation of equity with the application of CAPM, based on actual financial data and stock exchange data and to carry out a sensitivity analysis of such cost, depending on the financing structure of the entity. The objective of the article formulated in this manner has determined its’ structure. It focuses on presentation of substantive analyses related to the core of equity and methods of estimating its’ costs, with special attention given to the CAPM. In the practical section, estimation of cost was performed according to the CAPM methodology, based on the example of leading fuel and energy companies, such as Tauron GE and PGE. Simultaneously, sensitivity analysis of such cost was performed depending on the structure of financing the company’s operation.

  16. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  17. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  18. Systematic risk and liquidity : an empirical study comparing Norwegian equity certificates before and after the regulation in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlevik, Håkon; Einvik, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Norwegian savings banks industry was subject to a regulation change, which resulted in a modification of the instrument issued by these banks. Thus, in this empirical study we compare the systematic risk and liquidity of equity certificates issued by Norwegian savings banks before and after the regulation change. We go about estimating systematic risk and liquidity using regression analysis. In order to estimate systematic risk we use the empirical model of the CAPM often referre...

  19. Understanding Gender-Based Wage Discrimination: Legal Interpretation and Trends of Pay Equity in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of laws and litigation concerning pay equity issues, also referred to as wage equity and comparable worth. Suggests that universities and colleges identify possible problems and take voluntary corrective measures before pay-equity problems arise. (MLF)

  20. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  1. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  2. The Cross-Section of Credit Risk Premia and Equity Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friewald, Niels; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    We explore the link between a firm's stock returns and its credit risk using a simple insight from structural models following Merton (1974): risk premia on equity and credit instruments are related because all claims on assets must earn the same compensation per unit of risk. Consistent...... with theory, we find that firms' stock returns increase with credit risk premia estimated from CDS spreads. Credit risk premia contain information not captured by physical or by risk-neutral default probabilities alone. This sheds new light on the "distress puzzle", i.e. the lack of a positive relation...

  3. Dual Language Immersion Program Equity and Access: Is There Equity for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patricia Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed methods study of K-12 school administrators with dual language immersion school leadership expertise. The paramount research focus was to identify equity and access issues in dual language immersion programs serving grades K-12, as identified by school administrators who have led such programs. A total pool of 498 were invited to…

  4. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  5. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  6. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  7. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  8. Discounting human lives: Uranium and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term, global environmental health risks complicate efforts to evaluate the efficiency and equity of economic activities from a public welfare perspective. This study sets out a practical framework based on the theory of neoclassical welfare economics for evaluating whether an economic activity yields such inefficient or inequitable net effects to justify government intervention from a variety of decision-making perspectives. It applies this empirical approach to the case of public policies that encouraged uranium production (the mining, milling, and refining of uranium ore) near Elliot Lake and Blind River in Northern Ontario. The analysis tests the two-fold hypothesis that if future negative externalities of production are considered along with past net effects, the these policies result in (1) an inefficient allocation of economic resources according to the potential Pareto criterion, and (2) an inequitable distribution of impacts according to Rawls' maximin criterion. The analytical framework to test these hypotheses has three parts: Risk-cost-benefit analysis, distributions analysis, and efficiency and equity analysis. Quantitative impacts are derived from empirical estimates of cost and benefit streams during 1956 to 1990, and modelled future cancer death costs. Net effects are aggregated to nine observations across three dimensions: Geographic, intergenerational, and social. Qualitative observations are provided about the boom-and-bust uranium economy, environmental burdens, and other unquantifiable impacts. The results illustrate how underlying normative assumptions overwhelm other aspects of efficiency and equity analyses of long-term, global environmental changes. These assumptions appear in discounting equations that ultimately derive from a priori allocations of rights to natural assets and corollary duties to protect such rights. More than two-thirds of the discounting scenarios yield inefficient outcomes and over ninety percent are inequitable

  9. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  10. Skill and Luck in Private Equity Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korteweg, Arthur; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Private equity (PE) performance is persistent, with PE firms consistently producing high (or low) net-of-fees returns. We use a new variance decomposition model to isolate three components of persistence. We find high long-term persistence: the spread in expected net-of-fee future returns between...... top and bottom quartile PE firms is 7–8 percentage points annually. This spread is estimated controlling for spurious persistence, which arises mechanically from the overlap of contemporaneous funds. Performance is noisy, however, making it difficult for investors to identify the PE funds with top...... quartile expected future performance and leaving little investable persistence....

  11. Equity in multiproduct supply chain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina SAEE BOSTANABAD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multiproduct supply chain network is investigated with equity consideration,namely, obtaining the optimal flow pattern, in such a way that no user in the network can increasehis(her benefit with change in product’s sending path. However, each kind of products, has anindividual cost function and, at the same time, contributes to its own and other product’s cost functionin an individual way. An algorithm is developed to find optimal flow pattern for such multiproductsupply chain network.

  12. Equity issues in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The 15 papers in this book deal with the equity issues of locus, legacy and labor/laity as they occur in the nuclear industry's handling of radioactive wastes. The intent is to identify and clarify inequities in alternative approaches to radioactive waste management in a way that will inform current public policy deliberations and planning. The papers are arranged in five parts which put the problem in perspective, then define the locus, the legacy, and the labor problem, and conclude with a set of proposals for a more equitable management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 chapters selected for INS, EDB, and EPA

  13. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two

  14. Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.

  15. The Economics of Independent Living: Efficiency, Equity and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, E.; Kennelly, B.

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of efficiency and equity in the context of independent living programs for people with disabilities. Conflicts in costs and trade-offs in various scenarios of the efficiency/equity equation are examined in terms of theories of utilitarianism, contractarianism, justice and mutual advantage, and justice as…

  16. Equity Prices, Productivity Growth, and the 'New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Davis, E. Philip

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This paper establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions...

  17. Federal Funding to Promote Sex Equity in Education: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan S.; Goodman, Melanie A.

    This publication discusses federal funds which are available for research and development in sex equity in education. A major objective is to identify specific Federal funding opportunities for projects focusing on sex equity. Another objective is to help individuals understand the overall Federal pattern of support for activities to promote sex…

  18. The Equity Myth: Racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; James, Carl E.; Kobayashi, Audrey; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    The university is often regarded as a bastion of liberal democracy where equity and diversity are promoted and racism does not exist. In reality, the university still excludes many people and is a site of racialization that is subtle, complex, and sophisticated. While some studies do point to the persistence of systemic barriers to equity and…

  19. Beyond contracts : Governing structures in non-equity alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuer, Jeffrey; Devarakonda, S.V.

    Non-equity alliances are often portrayed in the literature as purely contractual collaborative agreements. This paper questions the notion that contractual safeguards and incentives alone provide the formal governance mechanisms that undergird non-equity alliances. We argue and show that partners

  20. Which Updates During an Equity Crowdfunding Campaign Increase Crowd Participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); L. Hornuf (Lars); A. Moritz (Alexandra)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStart-ups often post updates during equity crowdfunding campaigns. Yet, little is known about the effects of such updates on funding success. We investigate this question using hand-collected data from 71 funding campaigns on two German equity crowdfunding portals. Using a combination of

  1. On the Road to Success in Equity Crowdfunding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Ralcheva (Aleksandrina); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the role of signaling and certification to the context of equity crowdfunding by looking into the determinants of funding success on the world's largest equity crowdfunding platform Crowdcube. We identify and empirically test four potential (third party) signals of

  2. Equity crowdfunding in China : Current practice and important legal issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    By studying two leading Chinese equity crowdfunding portals, namely, Renrentou and Zhongou8, this paper provides the very first empirical evidence on the practice and regulation of equity crowdfunding in China. In the case of Renrentou, I examine a hand-collected sample consisting of the investment

  3. Market timing and the debt-equity choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliot, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Warr, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    We test the market timing theory of capital structure using an earnings-based valuation model that allows us to separate equity mispricing from growth options and time-varying adverse selection; thus avoiding the multiple interpretations of book-to-market ratio. We find that equity market mispricing

  4. A Recommitment Strategy for Long Term Private Equity Fund Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); B. Frieser (Brian); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a reinvestment strategy for private equity which aims to keep its portfolio weight equal to a desired strategic allocation, while taking into account the illiquid nature of private equity. Historical simulations (1980-2005) show that our dynamic strategy is capable of

  5. Foregrounding Issues of Equity and Diversity in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesche, Richard; Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the leadership practices within one secondary school in Queensland, Australia that uses equity as a central philosophy. Drawing on specific elements of productive leadership as defined by Hayes et al., the article draws attention to how the school's common equity agenda, its supportive social relations, and its dispersed…

  6. Do Professors Have Customer-Based Brand Equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Jillapalli, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This research endeavors to understand whether certain professors have customer-based brand equity (CBBE) in the minds of students. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to conceptualize, develop, and empirically test a model of customer-based professor brand equity. Survey data gathered from 465 undergraduate business students were used to…

  7. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  8. Equity and Access in the Workplace: A Feminist HRD Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenziano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The issues of equity and access are becoming increasingly important as the workforce becomes diversified. As the number of minority groups in the ranks of organizations grows, there is a need to examine the issues related to equity and access from a perspective that strives for equality, e.g. feminist theory. This paper examines feminism's…

  9. Taxes and gender equity: Codes, behaviours, and (un)intended ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... English · Français ... Might tax policies be used to promote gender equity and transform existing gendered roles in society? ... These implicit biases operate through the structure of work-related deductions and allowances ... Country case studies are included in “Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative ...

  10. Analysis of stage-investing strategy in equity financing market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Minghui

    2007-01-01

    Stage-investing strategy is a primary measure to mitigate asymmetric information during equity investment. This paper attempts to investigate the problem faced by equity investors wishing to make optimal investment decision under stage-investing strategy.A serial investment-decision making model will be designed to help investors to take the best choice.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Equity Mutual Funds in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rini Demi Pangestuti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds considered as an investment alternative for investors. One type of mutual fund that attracts many investors was the equity mutual funds. Equity mutual fund is a type of mutual funds that most part of the investment consists of stocks in the capital market so the risk rate was higher than the other types of mutual funds. For its different characteristic, the measurement for equity funds performance did not be same with other types of mutual funds. As a stock portfolio, equity mutual funds can be measured by portfolio measurement methods such as Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index, Adjusted Jensen Index, and Sortino Ratio. This study was conducted by using all of those performance measurements as most research in Indonesia was conducted by using limited performance measurements (focusing on Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, and Jensen Index. This study aims to evaluated the performance of 42 equity mutual funds available in Indonesia by employing Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index (ASI, Adjusted Jensen Index (AJI, and Sortino Ratio because most previous researches in Indonesian setting disregards ASI and AJI. In general, it was concluded that the SAM Indonesian Equity was the best performing equity fund during the study period. It was further found that most equity mutual fund studied have been well diversified.

  12. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; and (iii) The current realizable market value, determined as of the close of the market on the last... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a...

  13. Which updates during an equity crowdfunding campaign increase crowd participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, J. (Jörn); Hornuf, L. (Lars); Moritz, A. (Alexandra)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStart-ups often post updates during equity crowdfunding campaigns. However, little is known about the effects of such updates on crowd participation. We investigate this question by using hand-collected data from 71 funding campaigns and 39,399 investment decisions on two German equity

  14. Co-investments of sovereign wealth funds in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; de Roode, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct investments are the preferred vehicle for large institutional investors to have control over their portfolio investments. We study the deal structure of direct investments by sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in private equity transactions. We find that SWFs shift from investing in private equity

  15. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  16. Convertibles and hedge funds as distributors of equity exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, S.; Grundy, B.; Lewis, C.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2012-01-01

    By buying convertibles and shorting the underlying stock, hedge funds distribute equity exposure to well-diversified shareholders. We find that firms with characteristics that make seasoned equity offerings expensive are more likely to issue convertibles to hedge funds. We conclude that hedge funds

  17. Empirical Essays on Debt, Equity, and Convertible Securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of four empirical studies on firms’ financing decisions. In the first two studies, we investigate the debt-equity choice for a large number of U.S. firms. We find that firms prefer debt financing over equity financing in case a debt issue allows the firm to

  18. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  19. Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening Developing Country Networks. Equity in health is a pressing global concern. Disparities in health status and access to health care within and across countries are both a cause and a consequence of social inequality. Access to health services continues to ...

  20. Managing Consumer-Based Brand Equity in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vukasovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the key elements of brand equity for international students by exploring existing brand equity theory in its applicability to international higher education (HE. The main objective of this research is to enhance academic understanding of brand equity in the HE sector and explore the implications for management practice. Quantitative data collected via a self-completion survey are used to test a model of brand equity in the context of HE. The empirical setting is Slovenia, which has a mixture of public and private provision and an increasingly competitive environment. The results provide support for the proposed conceptual model, with image-related and awareness-related determinants. The findings of this research provided evidence that the customer-based brand equity model can be applied to the HE context as an element of competitive advantage and used to guide marketing activities for Universities internationally.

  1. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  2. Brand Equity of a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Kyung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.

  3. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  4. Equity Analytics: A Methodological Approach for Quantifying Participation Patterns in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Shah, Niral

    2018-01-01

    Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively…

  5. The role of debt and equity finance over the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Covas, F.; den Haan, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    If equity issuance is introduced into the costly state verification framework and the friction firms face in raising equity is acyclical, then the model cannot simultaneously generate procyclical equity issuance and a countercyclical default rate. This requires a countercyclical equity issuance

  6. The effects of customer equity drivers on loyalty across services industries and firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.; Wiesel, Thorsten

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs)-value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity-positively affect loyalty intentions, but this effect varies across industries and firms. We empirically examine potential industry and firm characteristics that explain why the CEDs-loyalty link varies across

  7. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  8. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  9. Equity gap? - Which equity gap? On the financing structure of Germany's Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Bannier, Christina E.; Grote, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing structure of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany and questions whether an equity gap - or, more generally, a financing gap -exists. Reviewing the literature and available data sources, we find that financing constraints seem to affect, if at all, only a very small subgroup among highly growth-oriented firms. We do not detect any structural problems in average SME's capital structure. Rather, German Mittelstand firms appear to be non-growth or...

  10. An evaluation of airline beta values and their application in calculating the cost of equity capital.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sheelah; Morrell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the cost of equity capital in a sample of airlines, in comparison to industry-calculated values. The approach usually taken is to apply the Capital Asset Pricing Model to airline stock prices and market indices. The research shows that the calculated b values are sensitive to the precise methodology and calculations used. Further, the low regression model fits indicate the Capital Asset Pricing Model may not be the most suitable model for b value calcul...

  11. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    -date accounting are fully conceptually valid. They represent measurements of one partner group's share of total equity with effect for another group's share of total equity and income: the shareholders' part. Partially, this equity and income sharing model is already the basis for existing accounting standards......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  12. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index, Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya, MSM 30 (MSI Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30 Sweden, SMI (Switzerland, SSE Composite Index (China and STI index (Singapore by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Correlation, Augmented dickey fuller (ADF, Phillips Perron test, Johanson and Jelseluis test of co-integration, Granger causality test, Variance Decomposition Test and Impulse Response are used to find the relationship among frontier and developed markets. The results of this study reveal that frontier markets have no long run relationship with equity markets of developed world. Furthermore, this study is helpful for investors to enhance the returns by diversifying the unsystematic risk at given level of profit because results of this study confirm that markets are no cointegrated.

  13. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  14. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  15. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szőcs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

  16. The effects of multimedia advertising on building brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of multimedia advertisement on building brand equity. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for multimedia advertisement, which consists of 17 questions and the other one for measuring brand equity. The survey is applied among 384 randomly selected customers who do their daily businesses with banks located in province of Kordestan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation as well as linear regression techniques, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between these two variables. In our survey, word of mouth advertisement seems to have the highest impact on brand equity followed by having seminars.

  17. Equity prices, productivity growth and 'The New Economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Davis, E. Philip

    2006-01-01

    The sharp increase in equity prices over the 1990s was widely attributed to permanently higher productivity growth derived from the New Economy. This article establishes a rational expectations model of technology innovations and equity prices, which shows that under plausible assumptions......, productivity advances can only have temporary effects on the fundamentals of equity prices. Using historical data on productivity of R&D capital, patent capital and fixed capital for 11 OECD countries, empirical evidence gives strong support for the model by suggesting that technological innovations indeed...

  18. Market and Style Timing: German Equity and Bond Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley, S.; Nitzsche, D.; Cuthbertson, K.

    2016-01-01

    We apply parametric and non-parametric estimates to test market and style timing ability of individual German equity and bond mutual funds using a sample of over 500 equity and 350 bond funds, over the period 1990-2009. For equity funds, both approaches indicate no successful market timers in the 1990-1999 or 2000-2009 periods, but in 2000-2009 the non-parametric approach gives fewer unsuccessful market timers than the parametric approach. There is evidence of successful style timing using th...

  19. Consumer-Based Brand Equity: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szőcs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of brand equity has gained in popularity since the 1980s, and since then, the field has undergone significant development. The concept of consumer-based brand equity has become a central marketing concept due to the increasing scientific and business interest in brands, since the approach according to which brands constitute one of the most valuable intangible assets of the companies is becoming increasingly widespread. The paper offers an updated literature review of this important research topic, providing a classification of brand equity models focusing on consumer based models. The most important models are critically reviewed from the perspective of model structure, methodology used and validity.

  20. Ecology, equity and economics: reframing dryland policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced

    2011-11-15

    Drylands are among the world's most variable and unpredictable environments. But people here have long learnt how to live with and harness this variability to support sustainable and productive economies, societies and ecosystems. Policymakers have for too long ignored this wealth of experience and expertise with dire consequences. Attempts to replace traditional land use practices with modern techniques have simply exacerbated poverty, degradation and conflict. In the face of climate change and increasing uncertainty in the drylands, the need to reframe policy and practice has never been greater. The future must be built on sound scientific information, local knowledge, informed participation and the wisdom of customary institutions that emphasise social equity, ecological integrity and economic development.

  1. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  2. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  3. Pure global externalities. International efficiency and equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, P.B.

    1995-01-01

    The argument for a carbon tax to reduce CO 2 emissions to the global arena is extended and the distribution as well as efficiency issues posed by a global agreement on carbon taxation are examined. The author distinguishes four alternative international arrangements in addition to the 'no cooperation' case. The arrangements allow for various equity rules to reflect what are considered to be equitable changes from the baseline position. Although the results of Musgrave's exercise lay no strong claims to validity as empirical findings, the relative patterns that emerge, nonetheless, contribute to an understanding of the issues that must be faced in arriving at acceptable international forms of cooperation. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Strategies and tactics in structuring equity offerings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emes, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile changes in the oil and gas sector investment climate within the last few months were reviewed in an effort to illustrate that despite the sharp downturn in the attractiveness of gas and oil sector investments, certain financing transactions are still being completed, and 'deals' are still available, provided that they are made attractive to investors. Investors may be more selective, may be looking more carefully at the issuing company's track record and management, but they are still there for the right deal. Flow-through offerings, share-for-share, or share-for-property acquisitions, joint ventures, sale of assets as alternative to equity, the junior capital pool as an alternative to initial public offering, the reverse take over, use of the royalty tax market, project financing, convertible debentures, and the use of warrants were explored as options available to issuers to attract investors even during difficult times

  5. Design, Development and Implementation of Decision Support Systems for Private Equity Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Vroomen, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design, develop and implement an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) for making rational private equity investment decisions. (Private equity investments are capital investments in enterprises that are not traded on public equity markets; they include Equity Buy-Out, Venture Capital, and the new Equity Crowd Funding (ECF) asset classes). The design and development of the IDSS requires the integration of investment science (valuation theory, portfoli...

  6. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  7. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  8. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries ... This highly original book is essential reading for everyone concerned with equality in taxation.

  9. Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...

  10. Disadvantageous Situation of Retail Investors in Equity Crowdfunding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanglong Wan

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on the onerous situation of retail investors in the proliferating equity crowdfunding. It points out and explains in detail four aspects of situation: insufficient information, misleading information, weak bargaining power and low liqui

  11. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  12. Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Linkages between Gender Equity and Climate Change Issues in ... thereby exacerbating inequalities in health status and access to adequate food, clean ... Again, in traditional societies, women are even more vulnerable to the ...

  13. Efficiency and Equity Performance of a Coordinated Ramp Metering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2016-10-01

    software AIMSUN. Simulation results revealed that the equity of the motorway system can be improved significantly by using the proposed strategy without compromising much on the efficiency of the system.

  14. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning ... instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. ... Results revealed no statistically significant difference in the achievement of ...

  15. Discount rates, equity weights and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Equity weighting has been proposed as a way of allowing welfare equivalents to be included in the social cost of carbon since a dollar to a poor person is worth more than a dollar to a rich one. Here we use the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model to show that the social cost of carbon is higher without equity weights (an elasticity of marginal utility with respect to income of 0) than with them. This might seem counter-intuitive, but it comes about because of the logical link between equity weights and discount rates; as the elasticity goes from 0 to - 0.5 to - 1.0, the social rate of time preference rises, and the drop in present values that results far outweighs the small increase in impacts that equity weights bring. (author)

  16. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.

  17. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for Development. Book cover ... Gender Working Group of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Publisher(s): ... Knowledge. Innovation.

  18. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze the complex trade liberalization-gender equity nexus, focusing ... Interface of research on gender and trade with the negotiations of trade agreements ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  19. Ubuntu: An African Equity | Bennett | Potchefstroom Electronic Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... responsibility, trust and harmony. KEYWORDS: Ubuntu, equity, reconciliation, human dignity, humanity, social harmony, restorative justice, cultural heritage.

  20. The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government department: a case study of ... particularly in terms of the upward mobility of women in the workplace, remains open. ... leadership should be considered in addressing gender issues.

  1. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and Change in South ... She has a master's degree in economics from the Delhi School of Economics ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives ...

  2. Sectoral job training as an intervention to improve health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K

    2010-04-01

    A growing literature on the social determinants of health strongly suggests the value of examining social policy interventions for their potential links to health equity. I investigate how sectoral job training, an intervention favored by the Obama administration, might be conceptualized as an intervention to improve health equity. Sectoral job training programs ideally train workers, who are typically low income, for upwardly mobile job opportunities within specific industries. I first explore the relationships between resource redistribution and health equity. Next, I discuss how sectoral job training theoretically redistributes resources and the ways in which these resources might translate into improved health. Finally, I make recommendations for strengthening the link between sectoral job training and improved health equity.

  3. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity - The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    . We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  4. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  5. An assessment of Regional and Gender equity in healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses regional and gender equity in healthcare coverage under two different ... 1Department of Geography and Resource Development ...... government budgets, 3) innovative financing and, 4) development assistance for health; ...

  6. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility terhadap Cost Of Equity Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta Ariyani

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Disclosure on Cost of Equity Capital. CSR disclosure index is measured based on Global Reporting Initiative standards, while Cost of Equity Capital is measured by Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM. This study uses manufacturing companies which is listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in 2010. By purposive sampling, this research obtained 72 companies as a samples. The control variables used are financial leverage and firm size. Multiple regression analysis by SPSS 16 was run for testing the hypothesis. The result show that CSR disclosure and financial leverage have no effect to Cost of Equity. Then, firm size have positive effect to Cost of Equity.

  7. Using connectivity for measuring equity in transit provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Popoks, Dmitrijs; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    . In addition, transit connectivity weighs the impedance components according to their relative importance to travelers. The assessment of equity was performed for the multi-modal transit system in the Greater Copenhagen Area, renowned for its transit-oriented finger-plan. The assessment method used a GIS...... representation of the network (i.e., service lines, timetables, metro stations, train stations, and bus stops), and transit assignment results (i.e., level-of-service times, passenger flows). The assessment method proved effective in calculating location-based and potential-accessibility measures and Gini...... coefficients of inequality in the Greater Copenhagen Area. Results show that the transit-oriented development contributes to spatial equity with high connectivity in densely populated zones, vertical equity with comparable connectivity in high income and low income zones, inter-generational equity with good...

  8. Learning health equity frameworks within a community of scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila A; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Beacham, Barbara; Bohinski, Julia M; Brawner, Bridgette M; Clements, Carla P; Everett, Janine S; Gomes, Melissa M; Harner, Holly; McDonald, Catherine C; Pinkston, Esther; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2011-10-01

    Scholars in nursing science have long espoused the concept of health equity without specifically using the term or dialoguing about the social determinants of health and social justice. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a doctoral and postdoctoral seminar collective entitled "Health Equity: Conceptual, Linguistic, Methodological, and Ethical Issues." The course enabled scholars-in-training to consider the construct and its nuances and frame a personal philosophy of health equity. An example of how a group of emerging scholars can engage in the important, but difficult, discourse related to health equity is provided. The collective provided a forum for debate, intellectual growth, and increased insight for students and faculty. The lessons learned by all participants have the potential to enrich doctoral and postdoctoral scientific training in nursing science and may serve as a model for other research training programs in the health sciences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Equity in access to ARV drugs in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... included):'We found that financial resources are not regarded as .... The dangers implied in this statement are obvious. ..... Mwansambo, A., & Chizimba, R. (2004) Consolidated report on equity in access to ARVs. Lilongwe:.

  10. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Uduchukwu (2001) observes that there is gender inequality in ... 2. The Gender Equity Employment Status in State-owned. Polytechnics in South East Zone of Nigeria .... traditional Occupation as well as the Perspectives of Married.

  11. 77 FR 15089 - Equity and Excellence Commission Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... rise to the achievement gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in... make recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of...

  12. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  13. Brand Equity – Measuring Corporate Brand Strength in the Swedish Smartphone Market; Dimensions of Corporate Brand Equity from a Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lökken, Andreas; Nayar, Malini; Runering, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the concept of brand equity composition in the Swedish smartphone market. The three dimensions used to describe brand equity are based on Aaker’s definition of consumer based brand equity namely; brand awareness, brand loyalty and perceived quality. The corporate brands represented on the market are analyzed with regards to consumer rating and brand equity composition using a proven theoretical model and a standardized questionnaire. The findings in this study indicate t...

  14. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  15. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  16. Determinants of Success in Private Equity-Venture Capital Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Eduardo Madureira Rodrigues Siqueira; Humberto Gallucci Netto

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of performance of the investments of private equity and venture capital (PEVC) funds in Brazil. We use two unique databases: the First Brazilian Private Equity and Venture Capital Census and the Guia-GVcepe Endeavor, with information on this industry for the period 1999 to 2007. As measures of performance we use the percentage and number of exits through IPO, acquisition by a company or by another investor. Our results indicate that the factors influen...

  17. The effects of selected marketing mix activities on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lee Chin

    2004-01-01

    Branding has never been more important than in a competitive environment. Branding is the process of creating an association between symbol / object / emotion / perception and a product / company with the goal of driving loyalty and creating differentiation. The importance of the concept of brand equity has been on the rise. The dimension of brand equity consists of (i) perceived quality, (ii) brand loyalty, (iii) brand awareness, (iv) brand associations and (iv) other proprietary brand asset...

  18. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    H?glund, Anna T.; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmstr?m, Inger K.; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person?s human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare...

  19. Determining the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Özçifçi, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted to determine whichbrand equity element is more effective regarding the mobile phone purchase ofuniversity students. Brand equity is defined in three dimensions which arebrand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Data was collected by1190 subjects studying at the faculties of Aksaray University. The data wastested by Structural Equation Modeling. As a result of the research, it wasfound that brand awareness affects perceived quality, but it does not a...

  20. Can Equity Volatility Explain the Global Loan Pricing Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Gaul; Pinar Uysal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unobservable differences in firm volatility are responsible for the global loan pricing puzzle, which is the observation that corporate loan interest rates appear to be lower in Europe than in the United States. We analyze whether equity volatility, an error prone measure of firm volatility, can explain this difference in loan spreads. We show that using equity volatility in OLS regressions will result in biased and inconsistent estimates of the difference in U.S. ...

  1. Private equity ownership and nursing home financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Harman, Jeffrey S; Laberge, Alex; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Private equity has acquired multiple large nursing home chains within the last few years; by 2009, it owned nearly 1,900 nursing homes. Private equity is said to improve the financial performance of acquired facilities. However, no study has yet examined the financial performance of private equity nursing homes, ergo this study. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the financial performance of private equity nursing homes and how it compares with other investor-owned facilities. It also seeks to understand the approach favored by private equity to improve financial performance-for instance, whether they prefer to cut costs or maximize revenues or follow a mixed approach. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, Area Resource File, and Brown University's Long-term Care Focus data set are combined to construct a longitudinal data set for the study period 2000-2007. The final sample is 2,822 observations after eliminating all not-for-profit, independent, and hospital-based facilities. Dependent financial variables consist of operating revenues and costs, operating and total margins, payer mix (census Medicare, census Medicaid, census other), and acuity index. Independent variables primarily reflect private equity ownership. The study was analyzed using ordinary least squares, gamma distribution with log link, logit with binomial family link, and logistic regression. Private equity nursing homes have higher operating margin as well as total margin; they also report higher operating revenues and costs. No significant differences in payer mix are noted. Results suggest that private equity delivers superior financial performance compared with other investor-owned nursing homes. However, causes for concern remain particularly with the long-term financial sustainability of these facilities.

  2. Antecedents dari Brand Equity pada Hotel Santika di Bsd Tangerang

    OpenAIRE

    Susiati, Asriani

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to previous studies, by kevin kam Fung So and Ceridwyn King (2009). The background of this research was to prove the management approaches that brand equity as the key assets for hotel industries and provide brand manger hotel to evaluate brand equity as an outcome brand strategies. The objectives of this research was : (a) the positive effect of company's presented brand to brand awareness, (b) the positive effect of company's presented brand to brand meaning, (c) the posit...

  3. Analisis Brand Equity Bina Nusantara University di Lingkungan SMU Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Dewanti, Retno; Masruroh, Masruroh; B., Doni

    2007-01-01

    This Research of Binus University brand equity have been conducted by using 5 elements of brand equity: brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand loyalty, and market behavior. The research methodologies was descriptive, its explained perception of 3th level high school students from 10 privates as well public high schools in west Jakarta and east Jakarta. The result of this research was Binus university brand awareness was in top of mind level. There were 3 (three) associat...

  4. Marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cánovas, Belén

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores some marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity creation. The research aims to study the effect of some elements under retailer's direct control such as in-store communications, in-store promotions and distribution intensity as well as other general marketing mix levers such as advertising, perceived price, and monetary promotions. The results indicate that the most efficient marketing mix tools for private label brand equity creation are private labels in...

  5. Craft's brand equity in CZ, focusing on canoeing

    OpenAIRE

    Šťastný, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    Title: Craft's brand equity in CZ, focusing on flat water canoeing. Objectives: The objective of this dissertation is to find out what is the Craft's brand equity and to suggest how to improve it on the Czech market. That would be based on marketing research and supplementary interview. I will be using marketing research and supplementary interview. Methods: In this dissertation the method of electronic questioning was used. The questionnaires were sent by email address after first contact on...

  6. Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Diderik

    2009-01-01

    Even for fully equity-financed firms there may be substantial effects of taxation on the after-tax cost of capital. Among the few studies of these effects, even fewer identify all effects correctly. When marginal investment is taxed together with inframarginal, marginal beta differs from average if there are investment-related deductions like depreciation. To calculate asset betas, one should not only 'unlever observed equity betas, but 'untax' and 'unaverage' them. Risky tax claims are value...

  7. Analyzing Equity Capital Programs of Banks for Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmad; Ken D. Duft; Ron C. Mittelhammer

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of Banks for Cooperatives term loan and equity capital programs contribute toward complex intermittent exchanges of positive and negative cash flows between the cooperative lender and borrower and complicate the analysis of the net present value and effective interest of the financing project. A multiperiod linear program was developed to analyze the effect of variations in equity capital program components on the present value of the financing project. Furthermore, the concep...

  8. An Equity Centered Management Approach to Exploiting Sport Employee Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal ofsport organizations is to exploit employees’ abilities to their fullestcapacities. Sport managers who successfully maximize employee productivity willgreatly increase the chances of achieving the organization’s goals andobjectives. The full potential of sport employees’ abilities can be realizedthrough the application of the equity component grounded in Adam’s EquityTheory (Adams, 1963). Centered on the premise that the relationship betweensport manager and employer must be o...

  9. Fair Value Accounting for Financial Instruments – Conceptual Approach and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru MATIS; Carmen Giorgiana BONACI

    2008-01-01

    This study complements the growing literature on the value relevance of fair value by examining the validity of the hypothesis that fair value is more informative than historical cost as a financial reporting standard for financial instruments. We therefore compare the relative explanatory power of fair value and historical cost in explaining equity values. In order to reflect fair values’ role in offering the fair view where financial instruments are concerned we briefly reviewed capital mar...

  10. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  11. The Tragedy of Maldistribution: Climate, Sustainability, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Stanton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an initial exploration of the dimensions of the equity/sustainability linkage from the perspective of public goods analysis. Sustainability requires an abundance of public goods. Where these commons lack governance, sustainability is at risk. Equity is a critical component of sustainability that can itself be viewed as a public good, subject to deterioration (maldistribution when left ungoverned. As is the case for so many forms of environmental degradation, the private benefits of maldistribution tend to overshadow the larger social costs, and the result is a degradation of equity. This article sketches out the analogy of equity as a public good by: examining the evidence regarding current and historical income equality within and between countries; introducing the characteristics of public goods and grounding equity in this idiom; reviewing several theories explaining the sub-optimal provision of environmental goods; applying these theoretical frameworks to the case of equity, with an examination of the potential causes of, and solutions to, maldistribution; and, finally, addressing equity’s critical role as a component of sustainability in the case of climate change, with implications for climate policy.

  12. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed to explain the relationship of brand awareness, brand image, brand association, and brand loyalty with Lahore Fort’s overall brand equity. We used various robust statistical techniques such as correlation, regression and confirmatory factor analysis (using PLS method to reach meaningful conclusions and found that brand image and brand associations positively contribute to brand loyalty. Furthermore, brand loyalty significantly contributes towards overall brand equity. Pragmatically, this study measures the customer based brand equity of the Lahore Fort, a destination brand. The results are useful as they suggest a few strategies that can help policy makers to enhance Lahore Fort’s brand performance.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  14. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-01-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  15. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  16. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  17. Social equity and livelihood implications of REDD+ in rural communities – a case study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Poudel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing international consensus that the use of the policy instrument REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries could be an effective way to reduce carbon emissions from the forestry sector and support bio-diversity with livelihood benefits, there are a range of unresolved issues, including potential implications for rural livelihoods. This paper presents results from recent research that examines social equity and livelihood implications of the piloting of REDD+ through Nepal’s community forestry system, within selected villages in the Gorkha district of Nepal. The research reveals the varying experiences of households, closely correlated to the socio-economic attributes of the households. Despite the ‘no harm and equitable’ policy, this research indicates that not everyone is experiencing the anticipated benefits of REDD+. Although poorer, women-headed and marginalized households are targeted in some ways (e.g. seed grants, the support is limited, and inadequately compensates the loss they have experienced in other ways (e.g. limited access to forests. Households bundling by caste may not necessarily address equity, but is likely to increase intra-caste marginalization.

  18. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations.

  19. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  20. Significant components of service brand equity in healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Hardeep; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine three significant components of service brand equity--i.e. perceived service quality, brand loyalty, and brand image--and analyze relationships among the components of brand equity and also their relationship with brand equity, which is still to be theorized and developed in the healthcare literature. Effective responses were received from 206 respondents, selected conveniently from the localities of Jammu city. After scale item analysis, the data were analyzed using factor analysis, correlations, t-tests, multiple regression analysis and path modeling using SEM. The findings of the study support that service brand equity in the healthcare sector is greatly influenced by brand loyalty and perceived quality. However, brand image has an indirect effect on service brand equity through brand loyalty (mediating variable). The research can be criticized on the ground that data were selected conveniently from respondents residing in the city of Jammu, India. But at the same time the respondents were appropriate for the study as they have adequate knowledge about the hospitals, and were associated with the selected hospital for more than four years. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the data are strong enough to take care of the limitations of the convenience sampling selection method. The study has unique value addition to the service marketing vis-à-vis healthcare literature, from both theoretical and managerial perspectives. The study establishes a direct and significant relationship between service brand equity and its two components, i.e. perceived service quality and brand loyalty in the healthcare sector. It also provides directions to healthcare service providers in creating, enhancing, and maintaining service brand equity through service quality and brand loyalty, to sustain competitive advantage.

  1. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  2. Practical course on reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2004-06-01

    This course is based on the description of the instrumentation of the TRIGA-reactor Vienna, which is used for training research and isotope production. It comprises the following chapters: 1. instrumentation, 2. calibration of the nuclear channels, 3. rod drop time of the control rods, 4. neutron flux density measurements using compensated ionization, 5. neutron flux density measurement with fission chambers (FC), 6. neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors (SPND), 7. pressurized water reactor simulator, 8. verification of the radiation level during reactor operation. There is one appendix about neutron-sensitive thermocouples. (nevyjel)

  3. Interactive social media interventions to promote health equity: an overview of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Welch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. Methods: We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter, blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Results: Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Conclusion: Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural, which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported

  4. Interactive social media interventions to promote health equity: an overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, V; Petkovic, J; Pardo Pardo, J; Rader, T; Tugwell, P

    2016-04-01

    Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural), which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported on the level of intervention use and all of these reported

  5. Interactive social media interventions to promote health equity: an overview of reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, V.; Petkovic, J.; Pardo, J. Pardo; Rader, T.; Tugwell, P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Social media use has been increasing in public health and health promotion because it can remove geographic and physical access barriers. However, these interventions also have the potential to increase health inequities for people who do not have access to or do not use social media. In this paper, we aim to assess the effects of interactive social media interventions on health outcomes, behaviour change and health equity. Methods: We conducted a rapid response overview of systematic reviews. We used a sensitive search strategy to identify systematic reviews and included those that focussed on interventions allowing two-way interaction such as discussion forums, social networks (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), blogging, applications linked to online communities and media sharing. Results: Eleven systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. Most interventions addressed by the reviews included online discussion boards or similar strategies, either as stand-alone interventions or in combination with other interventions. Seven reviews reported mixed effects on health outcomes and healthy behaviours. We did not find disaggregated analyses across characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as lower socioeconomic status or age. However, some targeted studies reported that social media interventions were effective in specific populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicities and place of residence. Four reviews reported qualitative benefits such as satisfaction, finding information and improved social support. Conclusion: Social media interventions were effective in certain populations at risk for disadvantage (youth, older adults, low socioeconomic status, rural), which indicates that these interventions may be effective for promoting health equity. However, confirmation of effectiveness would require further study. Several reviews raised the issue of acceptability of social media interventions. Only four studies reported on the

  6. International For-Profit Investments in Microfinance Institutions Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez Monroy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this document is to review the funding options for Microfinance Institutions (MFIs, define the size of the holdings of international investors in MFI equity and in particular the MFIs listed in stock exchanges, analyze the characteristics of these subset of the financial world and study the stock exchange evolution of some listed MFIs amid the financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach: Since academic literature on listed MFI equity is virtually inexistent, most of the information has been obtained from the World Bank, annual accounts of the listed MFIs, stock exchanges and from equity research documents. Findings and Originality/value: Microfinance Institutions share several common characteristics that make them a resilient business and the few MFIs that are listed in stock exchanges seem to have performed better in the financial crisis. Microfinance can be considered as one of the new frontiers of the expansion of the global banking industry. Practical implications: Presently, international for-profit investors have very few ways of investing in microfinance equity. Most of the equity of the MFI equity is funded locally or thanks to the local public sector. The stock exchange listing of the MFIs should drive MFIs towards a more professional management, more transparency and better governance. Social implications: Microfinance Institutions provide credit to microenterprises in poor countries that have no other alternative sources of external capital to expand its activity. If global investors could easily invest in the listed equity of the MFIs these institutions would expand its lending books and would improve its governance, part of the population living in poor areas or with lower income could ameliorate its standard of living. Originality/value: The number of Microfinance Institutions that are professionally run like commercial banks is still scarce and even more scarce are the MFI listed in public stock exchanges

  7. Development of a monitoring instrument to assess the performance of the Swiss primary care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Sonja T; Pittet, Valérie; Cornuz, Jacques; Senn, Nicolas

    2017-11-29

    The Swiss health system is customer-driven with fee-for-service paiement scheme and universal coverage. It is highly performing but expensive and health information systems are scarcely implemented. The Swiss Primary Care Active Monitoring (SPAM) program aims to develop an instrument able to describe the performance and effectiveness of the Swiss PC system. Based on a Literature review we developed a conceptual framework and selected indicators according to their ability to reflect the Swiss PC system. A two round modified RAND method with 24 inter-/national experts took place to select primary/secondary indicators (validity, clarity, agreement). A limited set of priority indicators was selected (importance, priority) in a third round. A conceptual framework covering three domains (structure, process, outcome) subdivided into twelve sections (funding, access, organisation/ workflow of resources, (Para-)Medical training, management of knowledge, clinical-/interpersonal care, health status, satisfaction of PC providers/ consumers, equity) was generated. 365 indicators were pre-selected and 335 were finally retained. 56 were kept as priority indicators.- Among the remaining, 199 were identified as primary and 80 as secondary indicators. All domains and sections are represented. The development of the SPAM program allowed the construction of a consensual instrument in a traditionally unregulated health system through a modified RAND method. The selected 56 priority indicators render the SPAM instrument a comprehensive tool supporting a better understanding of the Swiss PC system's performance and effectiveness as well as in identifying potential ways to improve quality of care. Further challenges will be to update indicators regularly and to assess validity and sensitivity-to-change over time.

  8. Equity markets : what a difference a year makes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the investment climate in the oil and gas industry at this juncture of extremely low oil prices and weak capital spending was presented. This paper focused on the economics of equity markets, examining (1) the NYMEX near-month averages WTI identifying six periods of significant oil price declines, (2) spot crude oil price fluctuations since 1973, (3) fluctuations in the PE 100 Energy Index and blended commodity prices, (4) oil and gas equity financing, (5) total oil and gas equity offerings from 1991 to 1998, and (6) Canadian gas export capacities. Overall, a major pullback in equity markets has occured and the investment climate is not favorable. Oil and gas stocks are down almost 45 per cent from the highs of 1997, oilfield service company stocks suffered losses of 69 per cent from the 1997 highs. New equity Issues are much more difficult to complete than previously. Institutions are reducing energy sector weightings, as do mutual funds. Lower industry cash flows are leading to lower capital spending. Increased relative debt levels are constraining many companies. Finding and development costs are generally disappointing, particularly when seen in relation to current commodity prices. No improvement in cash flow is expected in 1999 as oil prices are likely to remain depressed. The outlook in gas is somewhat better; it could be good, depending on the remainder of winter, possible supply shortfall, pipeline-related factors, natural gas drilling activity and the influence of gas storage

  9. Social innovation for the promotion of health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chris; Barraket, Jo; Friel, Sharon; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Stenta, Christian-Paul

    2015-09-01

    The role of social innovations in transforming the lives of individuals and communities has been a source of popular attention in recent years. This article systematically reviews the available evidence of the relationship between social innovation and its promotion of health equity. Guided by Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity and examining four types of social innovation--social movements, service-related social innovations, social enterprise and digital social innovations--we find a growing literature on social innovation activities, but inconsistent evaluative evidence of their impacts on health equities, particularly at the socio-economic, political and cultural level of the framework. Distinctive characteristics of social innovations related to the promotion of health equity include the mobilization of latent or unrealised value through new combinations of (social, cultural and material) resources; growing bridging social capital and purposeful approaches to linking individual knowledge and experience to institutional change. These have implications for health promotion practice and for research about social innovation and health equity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. CUSTOMER EQUITY:MAKING MARKETING STRATEGY FINANCIALLY ACCOUNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwin ARAVINDAKSHAN; Roland T. RUST; Katherine N. LEMON; Valerie A. ZEITHAML

    2004-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the literature on customer equity and how customer equity provides an opportunity for marketers to make marketing strategy financially accountable.Traditionally, Return on Investment (ROI) models have been used to evaluate the financial expenditures required by the strategies as well as the financial returns gained by them. However in addition to requiring lengthy longitudinal data, these models also have the disadvantage of not evaluating the effect of the strategies on a firm's customer equity. The dominance of customer-centered thinking over product-centered thinking calls for a shift from product-based strategies to customer-based strategies. Hence, it is important to evaluate a firm's marketing strategies in terms of the drivers of its customer equity. The article summarizes a unified strategic framework that enables competing marketing strategy options to be traded off on the basis of projected financial return, which is operationalized as the change in a firm's customer equity relative to the incremental expenditure necessary to produce the change.

  11. Equity financing constraints and corporate capital structure:a model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengwei Wang; Wuxiang Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose-The "supply-side effect" brought about by the imperfection of the capital market has increasingly been concerned.The purpose of this paper is to study how will the uncertainty of equity financing brought about by the equity financing regulations in emerging capital market affect company's capital structure decisions.Design/methodology/approach-This paper establishes a theoretical model and tries to introduce equity financing uncertainty into the company's capital structure decision-making.The paper uses mathematical derivation method to get some basic conclusions.Next,in order to characterize the quantitative impact of specific factor on capital structure,numerical solution methods are used.Findings-The model shows that firm's value would decrease with the uncertainty of equity financing,because of the relationship between firm's future cash and their financing policies.The numerical solution of the model suggests that the uncertainty of equity financing is one of the important factors affecting the choice of optimal capital structure,the greater the uncertainty is,the lower optimal capital structure is.Originality/value-The research of this paper has certain academic value for further understanding of the issues.

  12. The equity lens in the health care performance evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Sara; Nuti, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe how indicators of the equity of access to health care according to socioeconomic conditions may be included in a performance evaluation system (PES) in the regional context level and in the planning and strategic control system of healthcare organisations. In particular, the paper investigates how the PES adopted, in the experience of the Tuscany region in Italy, indicators of vertical equity over time. Studies that testify inequality of access to health services often remain just a research output and are not used as targets and measurements in planning and control systems. After a brief introduction to the concept of horizontal and vertical equity in health care systems and equity measures in PES, the paper describes the 'equity process' by which selected health indicators declined by socioeconomic conditions were shared and used in the evaluation of health care institutions and in the CEOs' rewarding system, and subsequently analyses the initial results. Results on the maternal and child path and the chronicity care path not only show improvements in addressing health care inequalities, but also verify whether the health system responds appropriately to different population groups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  14. Value at Risk in the South African equity market: a view from the tails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Milwidsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional parametric Value at Risk (VaR estimates assume normality in financial returns data.  However, it is well known that this distribution, while convenient and simple to implement, underestimates the kurtosis demonstrated in most financial returns.  Huisman, Koedijk and Pownall (1998 replace the normal distribution with the Student’s t distribution in modelling financial returns for calculation of VaR.  In this paper we extend their approach to the Monte Carlo simulation of VaR on both linear and non-linear instruments with application to the South African equity market.  We show, via backtesting, that the t-distribution produces superior results to the normal one.

  15. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  16. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Equity and child-survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Ek; Smith, L; Carneiro, I; Becher, H; Lehmann, D

    2008-05-01

    Recent advances in child survival have often been at the expense of increasing inequity. Successive interventions are applied to the same population sectors, while the same children in other sectors consistently miss out, leading to a trend towards increasing inequity in child survival. This is particularly important in the case of pneumonia, the leading cause of child death, which is closely linked to poverty and malnutrition, and for which effective community-based case management is more difficult to achieve than for other causes of child death. The key strategies for the prevention of childhood pneumonia are case management, mainly through Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), and immunization, particularly the newer vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcus. There is a tendency to introduce both interventions into communities that already have access to basic health care and preventive services, thereby increasing the relative disadvantage experienced by those children without such access. Both strategies can be implemented in such a way as to decrease rather than increase inequity. It is important to monitor equity when introducing child-survival interventions. Economic poverty, as measured by analyses based on wealth quintiles, is an important determinant of inequity in health outcomes but in some settings other factors may be of greater importance. Geography and ethnicity can both lead to failed access to health care, and therefore inequity in child survival. Poorly functioning health facilities are also of major importance. Countries need to be aware of the main determinants of inequity in their communities so that measures can be taken to ensure that IMCI, new vaccine implementation and other child-survival strategies are introduced in an equitable manner.

  18. 78 FR 69660 - Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial Energy... LLC, Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Entergy Arkansas, Inc., Entergy Gulf States Louisiana, LLC....206 (2013), Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission...

  19. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  20. Gender Mainstreaming or Instrumentalization of Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie France Labrecque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This question is discussed on the basis of first hand data collected in Mexico between 2004 and 2007. The research aimed at examining how gender equity policies elaborated at the international level using an approach known as “gender mainstreaming” are transformed within national and local contexts. In a first step, the context of the emergence of the gender mainstreaming approach is reconstituted, and in a second step we try to clarify how and under what circumstances, in a country like Mexico, women can be instrumentalized within this approach, as for example, when gender mainstreaming is applied without any critical vision as it is so under neoliberalism. The main example rests on the case of microcredit for maya women in the state of Yucatan.

  1. Characterization of Coastal Hydraulics: Simple Tools and Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, D.; Fertenbaugh, C.; Orou-Pete, S.; Mullen, A.; Smith, C.; Silliman, S. E.; Yalo, N.; Boukari, M.

    2009-12-01

    Field efforts are targeted at providing characterization of surface / subsurface interaction along coastal Benin as part of an overall research effort examining coastal hydrology and salt-water intrusion near the large urban center of Cotonou, Benin. Specifically, efforts at adapting an existing numerical model indicate substantial sensitivity of the model results to assumed conditions in a vast region of interconnected fresh-water / salt-water lagoons which are home to a distributed human population. Limits on funding for this project resulted in choice of a series of field techniques that focused predominantly on manual labor (truly sweat equity of undergraduate and graduate students from Benin and the United States) in order to characterize the shallow (less than 10 meters) hydrology and geochemistry of this coastal region. An integrated picture is therefore being developed through application of shallow geochemical analysis to depths less than 10 meters (collection of samples using a manual direct-push drilling method based on a Geoprobe® apparatus and chemical analyses of Cl, Na, Br, Fl, and conductivity performed using specific-ion electrodes), monitoring of the rate of advance of the direct-push to determine vertical distribution of sediment resistance, a home-made falling-head field permeameter to measure shallow (less than 2 meters) permeabilities, manually installed, multi-level piezometers at several points within Lake Nokoue (a large, shallow-water lake bordering Cotonou and the southern coast), and electrical resistivity imaging (using an entry-level resistivity assembly). All tests are performed by students and faculty from the U.S. and Benin, with plans in place for the Benin students to return multiple times per year to monitor changes at the field stations. Results to date have provided significant insight into spatial structure within the surface/subsurface that was not apparent in either satellite imagery or ground-level inspection of the region

  2. Wedging Equity and Environmental Justice into the Discourse on Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the problems and prospects for including meaningful indicators of intragenrational equity into the city based regional planning efforts unfolding around the globe. The central focus of the paper is on the challenges that environmental justice (EJ activists face as they attempt to frame the problem of equity in ways that the general public would see as not only informative, but compelling. After reviewing examples of successful efforts to reframe debates about equity, the paper concludes with a discussion of a set of EJ concerns and indicators that have the greatest potential for capturing public attention and commitment despite mounting resistance to the use of redistributive policies in support of sustainability goals.

  3. A Causal Model of Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőcs Attila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Branding literature suggests that consumer-based brand equity (CBBE is a multidimensional construct. Starting from this approach and developing a conceptual multidimensional model, this study finds that CBBE can be best modelled with a two-dimensional structure and claims that it achieves this result by choosing the theoretically based causal specification. On the contrary, with reflective specification, one will be able to fit almost any valid construct because of the halo effect and common method bias. In the final model, Trust (in quality and Advantage are causing the second-order Brand Equity. The two-dimensional brand equity is an intuitive model easy to interpret and easy to measure, which thus may be a much more attractive means for the management as well.

  4. Aspects of volatility targeting for South African equity investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekinkosi Khuzwayo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider so-called volatility targeting strategies in the South African equity market. These strategies are aimed at keeping the volatility of a portfolio consisting of a risky asset, typically an equity index, and cash fixed. This is done by changing the allocation of the assets based on an indicator of the future volatility of the risky asset. We use the three month rolling implied volatility as an indicator of future volatility to influence our asset allocation. We compare investments based on different volatility targets to the performance of bonds, equities, property as well as the Absolute Return peer mean. We examine risk and return characteristics of the volatility targeting strategy as compared to different asset classes.

  5. PERBANDINGAN BRAND EQUITY PRODUK SHAMPOO MEREK SUNSILK DENGAN MEREK PANTENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Raras Aristyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to know the difference in brand equity and its elements between shampoo products with brand Sunsilk and Pantene. The data analysis technique used was the mean difference test with paired samples. Based on the results of the study, it was found that there is no difference between brand equity Sunsilk with Pantene. the four dimensions of brand equity, just a different one, namely brand perceived quality. Therefore the next shampoo brand Sunsilk should be more focus on the improvement of the quality of its products by way of innovation in flavor, ingredients, and overall quality so as to always be in the top brand position together Pantene.

  6. Gender equity and contraceptive use in China: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2011-11-30

    Using data from China's population-based 2000 census, this ecological study examined the association between gender equity and women's contraceptive use in 30 provinces. Five province-level indicators of gender equity were used: sex ratio at birth, health, employment, education, and political participation. With the exception of sex ratio, all indices were comprised of several components. The indicators and components were grouped into tertiles. Generalized linear models were used to examine the associations between these indicators and contraceptive use. Provinces in the middle tertile of political participation had higher prevalence of contraceptive use than those in the lowest tertile (β = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.02-0.52, p gender equity and contraceptive use in China.

  7. Storytelling to access social context and advance health equity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, JoAnne

    2012-11-01

    Increased understanding of individual and social determinants of health is crucial to moving toward health equity. This essay examines storytelling as a vehicle for advancing health equity research. Contemplative examination of storytelling as a research strategy. An overview of story theory is provided. This is followed by an examination of storytelling as a tool for increasing understanding about the contexts in which people negotiate health, strengthening participation of communities in addressing health issues, and building bridges between researchers and target populations. Storytelling can be a powerful tool for advancing health equity research. However, its effective use requires a renegotiation of relationships between researchers and target communities, as well as setting aside routine time to attend storytelling events and read a variety of stories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECT OF BRAND CREDIBILITY, BRAND COMMITMENT AND LOYALTY INTENTIONS ON BRAND EQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Veeva Mathew; Sam Thomas; Joseph I Injodey

    2012-01-01

    Brand equity has been and will be an area of interest for marketing managers. All marketing efforts are directed toward the development ofbrand equity. Therefore efforts are taken among the researchers, to understand the concept of brand equity as deep as possible.This paper attempts to understand the interrelationships among key formative indicators of brand equity, using beliefattitude- intention hierarchy of effects. The formative indicators include brand credibility, brand commitment, and...

  9. From denial to awareness: a conceptual model for obtaining equity in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund, Anna T.; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmström, Inger K.; Lännerström, Linda; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2018-01-01

    Background Although Swedish legislation prescribes equity in healthcare, studies have reported inequalities, both in face-to-face encounters and in telephone nursing. Research has suggested that telephone nursing has the capability to increase equity in healthcare, as it is open to all and not limited by long distances. However, this requires an increased awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The aim of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of equity in health...

  10. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-06

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  11. User response and equity considerations regarding emission cap-and-trade schemes for travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrels, A.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries with greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments, transportation has been relatively spared, thus, far in the targeting of reduction obligations, owing to the supposedly high marginal cost. With the prospect of tightening reduction targets, pressure is, however, mounting to address transportation more seriously in the near term and not to rely solely on medium to long-term breakthroughs of alternative fuel technologies. This means stricter policies at the demand side of the mobility market. In addition to fiscal and spatial policies, cap-and-trade systems have been put forward as a new option that deserves serious consideration. This paper reviews the possibilities and pitfalls of such a system applied to passenger transport. Key concerns are the transaction costs of the system and trade-offs between transaction cost and equity effects. A simple system with low(er) transaction cost is more likely to invoke politically sensitive equity effects. On the basis of the recent upsurge in monitoring and feedback studies, one may also conclude that the organisation and tailoring of the information interfaces for the household/traveller requires still elaborate study and testing.

  12. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  13. VTAE Equity Staff Development Workshops and Services--Phase II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Lorayne; Nelson, Orville

    The Phase II Equity Staff Development project was revised in response to a need to develop an equity strategic planning model with a vision statement, goals, and objectives. The Equity Strategic Planning Model was presented to administrators of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) colleges for their use in district strategic…

  14. 75 FR 16529 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...] Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application March 26, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... investment companies. APPLICANTS: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason... ``Trusts'') and Legg Mason Partners Fund Advisor, LLC (``LMPFA'' or the ``Adviser''). FILING DATES: The...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-2 - Equity options with flexible terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-2 Equity options with... applicable stock price for Corporation Y stock is $14.75. Using the bench marks for an equity option with..., because the highest available strike price less than the applicable stock price for an equity option with...

  16. Game Analysis on Influence Mechanism of Equity Incentive on R&D Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Wen; Li Yuewen

    2014-01-01

    A game model between shareholders and manager is built to analyze influence mechanism of equity incentive on R&D investments based on principal-agent theory. Research shows that there are inverted U-shaped relationships between equity incentive and R&D investments, the modest equity should be gave for stimulate manager.

  17. Equity theories and financial reporting: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    van Mourik, Carien

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three aims. Firstly, to remind accounting academics, practitioners and standard setters of the origins and the substance of the equity theories and the debate surrounding them that took place from the late 19th century until the 1970s. Secondly, it seeks to understand why the equity theories do not play a role in current financial accounting and reporting theory, regulation and practice. It argues that never in history has there been a greater need to pick up the search for a c...

  18. EQUITY SHARES EQUATING THE RESULTS OF FCFF AND FCFE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Cegłowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the method of establishing equity shares in weight average cost of capital (WACC, in which the value of loan capital results from the fixed assumptions accepted in the financial plan (for example a schedule of loan repayment and own equity is evaluated by means of a discount method. The described method causes that, regardless of whether cash flows are calculated as FCFF or FCFE, the result of the company valuation will be identical.

  19. Dividend taxation, share repurchases and the equity trap

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias; Södersten, Jan

    2009-01-01

      This paper reconsiders the effects of dividend taxation. Particular attention is paid to the form of the “equity trap”, that is, the extent to which cash paid to the shareholders must be taxed as dividends. Our analysis shows that Sinn’s (1991) criticism of the well-known King and Fullerton (1984) methodology for underestimating the cost of new share issues amounts to a misleading comparison across two different regimes for the equity trap. Contrary to Sinn, we find that when dividends are ...

  20. ANTECEDENTS DARI BRAND EQUITY PADA HOTEL SANTIKA DI BSD TANGERANG

    OpenAIRE

    Asriani Susiati

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to previous studies, by kevin kam Fung So and Ceridwyn King (2009). The background of this research was to prove the management approaches that brand equity as the key assets for hotel industries and provide brand manger hotel to evaluate brand equity as an outcome brand strategies. The objectives of this research was : (a) the positive effect of company’s presented brand to brand awareness, (b) the positive effect of company’s presented brand to brand meaning, (c) the posit...

  1. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  2. Beam diagnostic instruments of TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1987-09-01

    The paper summarizes the beam diagnostic instruments of the low energy ion accumulation ring; TARN. With these monitors, position, profiles, bunch structure, intensity, emittance and momentum spread were measured to evaluate the injection and stacking experiments. The monitors provide the sensitivity of a few μA for the nondestructive and a few nA for the destructive monitors. Discussions on monitor probe and electronics are presented on the basis of an achievement of the beam stacking experiments. (author)

  3. Certification and equity: Applying an “equity framework” to compare certification schemes across product sectors and scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Constance L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Assessing equity requires a comprehensive conceptual framework. ► The framing of equity varies across sectors and schemes. ► Schemes vary in prioritizing the environment, communities or equity in the supply chain. ► Addressing contextual equity is essential lest certification reinforce inequities of global trade. -- Abstract: This paper applies a comprehensive equity framework to compare the priorities and trade-offs of different environmental and social certification schemes. The schemes selected for comparison are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC), the Fairtrade Labelling Organization (FLO), and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The framework considers how the parameters of equity are set in certification scheme governance, including who are the primary decision-makers and intended beneficiaries, and how this is reflected in the content of scheme standards and certification outcomes. Each of these parameters is assessed across the dimensions of procedural, contextual and distributive equity. Results reveal significant variation in the prioritization of the environment, non-commercial stakeholders or equity across the supply chain. In forestry, the FSC has placed primary emphasis on the procedural rights of non-commercial interests in standard-setting processes, the contextual rights of indigenous peoples, and the conservation of natural ecosystems, while the PEFC places more emphasis on procedural equity for producers and the legitimacy of sovereign governments as rule-makers. Both FLO and CCBA prioritize distributive equity regarding the sharing of material benefits with small-scale and/or community producers or workers, while FLO also emphasizes the contextual issue of “empowerment” and capacity-building. In all schemes, contextual factors related to capacity and access have disproportionately advantaged Northern and large

  4. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  5. Schools of Excellence AND Equity? Using Equity Audits as a Tool to Expose a Flawed System of Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Brown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how equity audits can be used as a tool to expose disparate achievement in schools that, on the surface and to the public, appear quite similar. To that end, the researcher probed beyond surface-level performance composite scores into deeper, more hidden data associated with state-recognized "Honor Schools of Excellence." How is "excellence" defined and operationalized in these schools? Are these schools "excellent" for all students? Can a school really be classified by the state as "excellent" and yet still have significant "gaps" and disparities? If so, is the state's formula used to identify exemplary schools too simple, dogmatic, and institutionally flawed? Through the use of equity audits, quantitative data was collected to scan for systemic patterns of equity and inequity across multiple domains of student learning and activities within 24 elementary schools. The intent was to document and distinguish between schools that are promoting and supporting both academic excellence (small gap schools; SGS and systemic equity and schools that are not (large gap schools; LGS. Results reveal that although demographic, teacher quality, and programmatic audits all indicated a fair amount of equity between SGS and LGS, the achievement audit between both types of schools indicated great disparities. By controlling for or eliminating some of the external variables and internal factors often cited for the achievement gaps between white middle-class children and children of color or children from low-income families, the findings from this study raise more questions than answers. Results do indicate that equity audits are a practical, easy-to-apply tool that educators can use to identify inequalities objectively.

  6. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  7. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  8. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  9. Equity of cadastral valuation and simplified methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Guerrieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real estate taxation has been intensely debated lately. The main issue concerns the formation of taxable values based on the current cadastral incomes. More specifically, the point is made against the iniquity that the current surveyed values generate in the fiscal system, thus the necessity of overcoming it. It is known that the iniquity depends on the failed revision of valuation fees (related to the two-year period 1988-1989 and on the classification (sometimes still related to the urban cadastral as well as on the modalities used to calculate the taxable basis through the multipliers (the IMU ones, particularly. These are the expression of a conventional (and certainly distorting rate of return procedure which have become tools for the income variation. During the last twenty years, the Government and the Parliament have found the solution to the problem of iniquity in the revision of the current cadastral incomes. Nevertheless, they never managed to start a veritable reform process. In fact, during these years, they have just managed to introduce temporary measures as for instance paragraph 335 e 336 of article 1 of Law 311 of December 30th for the revision of the classification of some territorial backgrounds or of some real estate units, thus managing to control the most evident iniquities. Some other norms were approved in order to conduct remote surveys to identify properties which were never listed in the cadastre office. More than once, other possible suitable solutions have been discussed which could have been, with a fast implementation and low use of resources, a first step towards the recovery of an equity of real estate taxation. Unfortunately, these came out to be temporary measures all the same. Last in order and worth of mention is the Ministry of Economic and Finance document by the Finance and Economy Department (hereinafter MEF named “Ipotesi di revisione del prelievo sugli immobili” (Revision of real estate taxation

  10. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of a brief personality screening instrument in predicting future substance use, emotional, and behavioral problems: 18-month predictive validity of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Sully, Laura; Conrod, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS), a measure of personality risk factors for substance use and other behavioral problems in adolescence. The concurrent and predictive validity of the SURPS was tested in a sample of 1,162 adolescents (mean age: 13.7 years) using linear and logistic regressions, while its sensitivity and specificity were examined using the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses. Concurrent and predictive validity tests showed that all 4 brief scales-hopelessness (H), anxiety sensitivity (AS), impulsivity (IMP), and sensation seeking (SS)-were related, in theoretically expected ways, to measures of substance use and other behavioral and emotional problems. Results also showed that when using the 4 SURPS subscales to identify adolescents "at risk," one can identify a high number of those who developed problems (high sensitivity scores ranging from 72 to 91%). And, as predicted, because each scale is related to specific substance and mental health problems, good specificity was obtained when using the individual personality subscales (e.g., most adolescents identified at high risk by the IMP scale developed conduct or drug use problems within the next 18 months [a high specificity score of 70 to 80%]). The SURPS is a valuable tool for identifying adolescents at high risk for substance misuse and other emotional and behavioral problems. Implications of findings for the use of this measure in future research and prevention interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Equity Incentives: Aligning The Interests Of Employees And Owners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews how to align the interests of employees and of owners of businesses and directs attention to policy issues that are critical to the attainment of this noble objective. It demonstrates that Tax Incentives and Reforms are necessary and offers recommendations on how to promote equity incentives in Nigeria.

  13. The Fine Structure of Equity-Index Option Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bondarenko, Oleg; Todorov, Viktor

    We analyze the high-frequency dynamics of S&P 500 equity-index option prices by constructing an assortment of implied volatility measures. This allows us to infer the underlying fine structure behind the innovations in the latent state variables driving the movements of the volatility surface...

  14. Relationship between cost of equity capital and voluntary corporate disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrova, E.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between disclosure and cost of equity capital has always been interesting not only for managers, but for investors as well. Economic theory suggests that by increasing the level of corporate reporting firms not only increase their stock market liquidity, but they also decrease the

  15. Advancing Equity in Accountability and Organizational Cultures of Data Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon-Slater, Nora; La Londe, Priya G.; Crenshaw, Hope L.; Evans, Margaret E.; Greene, Jennifer C.; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Data use cultures in schools determine data use practices. Such cultures can be muted by powerful macro accountability and organizational learning cultures. Further, strong equity-oriented data use cultures are challenging to establish. The purpose of this paper is to engage these cultural tensions. Design/methodology/approach: The data…

  16. Gender Equity and Renewable Energies : Thematic Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Oparaocha, Sheila; Roehr, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence on the role of renewable energies in bringing gender equity. The paper first explores the evolution of thinking on gender and energy, in particular that practitioners no longer specifically focus on women and stoves (often referred to as

  17. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  18. Smart Beta Equity Investing Through Calm and Storm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Darras, Joakim; Ha Nguyen, Giang; Peeters, Benedict

    2015-01-01

    Smart beta portfolios typically achieve a superior diversification than the benchmark market capitalization-weighted portfolio, but remain vulnerable to broad market downturns. We examine tactical investment decision rules to switch timely between equity and cash investments based on an underlying

  19. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's rapid economic progress has its costs. There has been a significant increase in social and economic inequalities by class, caste, ethnicity, gender, and location. ... Most of the studies fail to examine the combination of factors, pathways, and frameworks that influence how health equity issues are conceptualized, ...

  20. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  1. The Equity Consequences of School-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam E.; Miran, Meir

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the introduction of school-based management (SBM) affects schools' incomes and educational equity? Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of financial reports coming from 31 SBM schools during a period of four sequential years reveals that the overall inequity among schools has…

  2. Reform towards National Health Insurance in Malaysia: the equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses the potential equity impact of Malaysia's projected reform of its current tax financed system towards National Health Insurance (NHI). The Kakwani's progressivity index was used to assess the equity consequences of the new NHI system (with flat rate NHI scheme) compared to the current tax financed system. It was also used to model a proposed system (with a progressive NHI scheme) that can generate the same amount of funding more equitably. The new NHI system would be less equitable than the current tax financed system, as evident from the reduction of Kakwani's index to 0.168 from 0.217. The new flat rate NHI scheme, if implemented, would reduce the progressivity of the health finance system because it is a less progressive finance source than that of general government revenue. We proposed a system with a progressive NHI scheme that generates the same amount of funding whilst preserving the equity at the Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.213. A NHI system with a progressive NHI scheme is proposed to be implemented to raise health funding whilst preserving the equity in health care financing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived Equity in the Gendered Division of Household Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Baumgartner, Miriam K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite huge imbalances in the division of housework between women and men, previous studies have found perceptions of equity on the part of women to be much more frequent than feelings of injustice. Taking a comparative perspective on the basis of International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2002 data (N = 8,556), we find that, on the individual…

  4. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  5. Teachers, Equity, and Computers for Secondary Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The findings presented in this article were derived from a 3-year study aimed at examining issues associated with the use of computers for secondary mathematics learning in Victorian (Australia) schools. Gender and other equity factors were of particular interest. In this article, the focus is on the participating mathematics teachers. Data on…

  6. Equity and Computers for Mathematics Learning: Access and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen J.

    2004-01-01

    Equity and computer use for secondary mathematics learning was the focus of a three year study. In 2003, a survey was administered to a large sample of grade 7-10 students. Some of the survey items were aimed at determining home access to and ownership of computers, and students' attitudes to mathematics, computers, and computer use for…

  7. Implications of the Employment Equity Act for the higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that these crucial challenges B specialized higher education legislation and policy developments, the "pool" issue, funding and rationalization, universities as a unique workplace, and the individual legacies of universities B define the space in which the Employment Equity Act may be interpreted in the higher ...

  8. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's shortage of research on health inequities The Commission on Social ... project's activities will also include establishing a network of health equity researchers. ... Strength in collaboration and numbers The project will help increase the connections between previously disconnected researchers, civil ... Site internet.

  9. Enhancing Equity in the Classroom by Teaching for Mathematical Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Sarah R.; Sriraman, Bharath; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Equity is an important element of educational discourses pertaining to mathematics and science education. Creativity is an aspect of the classroom that is often ignored due to curricular constraints and the burden of testing. However mathematics offers avenues to infuse the regular curricula with activities that are thought provoking and require…

  10. Private equity and public-to-private transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhat considerations lie behind the decision to mount a management buy-out of a publicly listed firm, and should third party investors be involved? Indeed, does the involvement of private equity investors actually aid company performance after a deal is done?

  11. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... generally accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  12. Connection between customer relationship management and brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mandić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM is one of the basic and most crucial elements of the marketing philosophy. CRM puts customers and their satisfaction in the centre by pointing all company’s activities towards the customer. The main objective of CRM is to get to know the customer as well as possible so as to help a company deliver better, more appropriate and higher added value to the customer. A strong connection with customers is the key to their satisfaction, especially if this connection is established by recognizing customers’ needs and it may therefore become one of the crucial competitive advantages. On the other hand, the main link between the company and the customer is its brand, or brands, where the company itself may be recognized as a brand. Generally speaking, it is possible to say that brand management and brand equity are used increasingly in everyday business. The concept of brand equity has a very important role because brand represents one of the most important assets in globally-known companies. The main objective of this paper was to research the connection between CRM and brand equity. The research showed that, if we use it the right way, CRM can be very useful in building brand equity, brand identity, brand value and customer satisfaction/loyalty.

  13. Customer value disclosure and cost of equity capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orens, R.; Aerts, W.A.A.; Lybaert, N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the association between a firm's extent and precision of customer value disclosure and its implied cost of equity capital. In addition, it aims to investigate whether industry competition intensity attenuates this association. Design/methodology/approach – The

  14. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The theme of the 13th World Congress on Public Health, “Moving Towards Global Health Equity: Opportunities and Threats”, strikes an optimistic note as the gaps within and between countries are greater than at any time in recent history. There is no consensus on what globalization is, but most agree that it will ...

  15. Curricula Equity in Required Ninth-Grade Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper-Owen, Gloria E.; Kovar, Susan K.; Ermler, Kathy L.; Mehrhof, Joella H.

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed high school physical educators regarding required physical education programs, examining hidden curriculum about gender equity and culture. Team sports dominated the instructional units. Teachers had problems involving all students in coeducational activities. Female teachers were more apt to teach outside their socially accepted area of…

  16. 46 CFR 67.31 - Stock or equity interest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifying corporation or partnership may fail to meet stock or equity interest requirements because: Stock... corporate or partnership business; limit the actions of or replace the chief executive officer, a majority... owned by the corporation or partnership; or otherwise exercise authority over the business of the...

  17. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  18. The equity risk premium: A review of models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Fernando; Rosa, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the equity risk premium (ERP) by combining information from twenty models. The ERP in 2012 and 2013 reached heightened levels - of around 12 percent - not seen since the 1970s. We conclude that the high ERP was caused by unusually low Treasury yields.

  19. Longevity, Growth and Intergenerational Equity: The Deterministic Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór

    2016-01-01

    develop an overlapping-generations model in continuous time that encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for trend increases in both longevity and productivity, we address the normative issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...

  20. 75 FR 3593 - Concept Release on Equity Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Structure 2. Other Measures B. High Frequency Trading 1. Strategies a. Passive Market Making b. Arbitrage c... trend from a market structure with primarily manual trading to a market structure with primarily... Part III Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Concept Release on Equity Market...