WorldWideScience

Sample records for equipment fire extinguishing

  1. Fire extinguishing of electrical equipment under voltage at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Fire extinguishing on equipment that is under voltage is always hazardous. Conventional fire fighting equipment applicable to this task includes powder and gas extinguishers, which, however, have some drawbacks. Therefore, attention has been increasingly devoted to high-pressure fire extinguishing, whose assets include better heat removal as compared to a full water flow where the majority of the water runs off without any cooling effect. This article describes the testing of some types and combinations of extinguishing techniques and their interpretation based on earth-leakage current measurement and determination of a safe distance for fire extinguishing. Methodology described in CSN IEC 60-1:1994 and CSN EN 3-7:2004 was applied. To meet the criterion, none of the tests was to exhibit an earth-leakage current higher than 0.5 mA. In the accredited laboratory test room setup, 3 extinguishing equipment arrangements proved to extinguish fire on electrical equipment under voltage at a safe distance of 1 m (or 3 m). (orig.)

  2. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  3. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  4. Rationalization design on large equipment dismantling facility. The cell fire-extinguishing examination (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donomae, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takita, Koji; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Katoh, Noriyoshi; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi

    2002-07-01

    In order to rationalize for Large Equipment Dismantling Facility (LEDF), the plan of removing vaporizer belong to Cell-fire-extinguishing-system was investigated. When a vaporizer is cut down, it is necessary to grasp a fire-extinguishing performance. The fire-extinguishing performance check examination by liquefaction carbon dioxide in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (I) was carried out in 1999 fiscal year. As the result, the good performance was obtained to polyethylene. But there was the deep-seated fire about a piece of wood. Then, the check items were carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and CO2 concentration holding time for the deep-seated fire in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (III). The results were as follows; (1) By use of the combustion model in which a piece of wood and cotton were put is lit, temperature inside model, mass reduction, and combustion situation were examined. The model burned remarkably in 30∼60 min. The peak temperature rise to 680 degC (MAX), and attained smoldering after (ignition) 70 min. Moreover, in order to determine the generating conditions of a deep-seated fire, the situation of CO2 extinguishing after ignition by the time lag of 50∼90 min were examined. The model around ignition 50 minutes was the most difficult to extinguish, and it turned out that they are the conditions which were most suitable for the deep-seated fire examination model of an exam. (2) In order to decide on CO2 concentration and concentration holding time required for fire extinguishing of the deep-seated fire in LEDF, the fire-extinguishing performance was investigated by 40 ∼ 65% of CO2 concentration. Consequently, CO2 concentration required for deep-seated fire extinguishing was understood that 60% or more was required when safety was taken into consideration at 50% or more. Moreover, when it was 50% or more of CO2 concentration and the holding time of CO2 concentration was 180 minutes or more and 60% or more of CO2 concentration, it

  5. 46 CFR 27.305 - What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was contracted for on or after... for fire-extinguishing equipment on towing vessels in ocean or coastal service whose construction was...

  6. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  7. Fire extinguishment in hypobaric and hyperbaric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Work that has been performed to provide information on the effects of various fire extinguishing agents in special atmospheres is discussed. Data used in the development of both equipment and techniques for manned spacecraft and related equipment are discussed. The equipment includes a hypobaric chamber suitable for low pressure use and a hyperbaric chamber for high pressure operation. The effectiveness of agents in weightless environment is also discussed.

  8. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  9. Fire extinguishing device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Fire extinguishing pipelines disposed in turbine buildings of low earthquake proof grade and fire extinguishing pipelines disposed in reactor buildings of high earthquakes proof grade have been used in common with each other. Accordingly, if the fire extinguishing device in the turbine buildings designed for low earthquake proof grade are partially destroyed upon occurrence of medium-scale earthquakes, there is a worry that fire extinguishing water can not be supplied to the inside of the reactor buildings. In view of the above, an emergency fire extinguishing water system using a fire extinguishing reservoir at the outdoor of low earthquake proof grade as a feedwater source and suitable to the low earthquake proof grade is disposed in the turbine buildings. Another emergency fire extinguishing water system using an emergency fire extinguishing water reservoir disposed in the reactor buildings as a feedwater source and suitable to the high earthquake proof grade is disposed in the reactor buildings. Then, ordinary fire extinguishing water system and the emergency fire extinguishing water system are connected to each other. Thus, upon occurrence of earthquakes if the function of the ordinary fire extinguishing water system of low earthquake proof grade is lost, fires breaking out in the reactor buildings can rapidly be extinguished. (N.H.)

  10. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered... an active charge of not less than 4 pounds. Pressurized dry chemical extinguishers shall contain an...

  11. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzenhauer, P; Ochs, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1978-11-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires.

  12. Extinguisher powder for liquid metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.; Ochs, G.

    1978-01-01

    The extinguisher introduced here based on graphite exhibited considerably improved extinguishing properties compared to other extinguishing powders. It has no aggressive properties, is, as for as could be tested in the short time available, non-hygroscopic and thus very easy to remove after extinguishing and cooling of the fire. The amount of extinguisher necessary is only a fraction of the amounts needed of other common powders. Storage is no problem and nerely a small storage amount is required. This extinguisher is excellently suitable for fighting sodium surface fires. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  14. Introduction of Sodium Fire Extinguishing System for STELLA-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Dayoung; Kim, Jong-Man; Jung, Min-Hwan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Eoh Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    This characteristic is a big advantage as a thermal transfer fluid. However, the high reactivity of sodium, especially with water and oxygen, and white aerosol in the event of fire can cause serious accidents. Thus, large sodium facility needs a specific-developed fire extinguishing system for a safe experiment. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has conducted sodium heat transfer experiments using the facility named the Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment (STELLA-1). STELLA-1 fully equipped a sodium fire extinguishing system for the safe experiment and fire spread prevention. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishing system of STELLA-1 facility is introduced. This paper can provide an example of how to design a sodium fire extinguishing system for a large sodium experiment facility. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishment system for STELLA-1 as a large sodium experiment facility was introduced and explained. For safe operation of the liquid sodium utility, it is important to equip specific-developed fire extinguishing system because of the chemical characteristics of sodium. Operators should know the process and operating manual before conducting an experiment to prevent hazardous situation. Though the dry chemical extinguishing agent put out the fire target, removing agent at high temperature state can cause re-combustion. Thus, extinguishment confirmation work should be conducted after sufficient cooling time to stabilize the surface. And in case of fire at a sealed room, a method making the percentage of oxygen low(injecting nitrogen gas or argon gas) is effective

  15. Introduction of Sodium Fire Extinguishing System for STELLA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gam, Dayoung; Kim, Jong-Man; Jung, Min-Hwan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Eoh Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This characteristic is a big advantage as a thermal transfer fluid. However, the high reactivity of sodium, especially with water and oxygen, and white aerosol in the event of fire can cause serious accidents. Thus, large sodium facility needs a specific-developed fire extinguishing system for a safe experiment. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has conducted sodium heat transfer experiments using the facility named the Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment (STELLA-1). STELLA-1 fully equipped a sodium fire extinguishing system for the safe experiment and fire spread prevention. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishing system of STELLA-1 facility is introduced. This paper can provide an example of how to design a sodium fire extinguishing system for a large sodium experiment facility. In this paper, a preparation of the fire extinguishment system for STELLA-1 as a large sodium experiment facility was introduced and explained. For safe operation of the liquid sodium utility, it is important to equip specific-developed fire extinguishing system because of the chemical characteristics of sodium. Operators should know the process and operating manual before conducting an experiment to prevent hazardous situation. Though the dry chemical extinguishing agent put out the fire target, removing agent at high temperature state can cause re-combustion. Thus, extinguishment confirmation work should be conducted after sufficient cooling time to stabilize the surface. And in case of fire at a sealed room, a method making the percentage of oxygen low(injecting nitrogen gas or argon gas) is effective.

  16. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe

  17. Ignition and combustion of sodium, fire consequences, extinguishment and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d' Experimentation de Modelisation des Feux, C.E. Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). E-mail: malet at ipsncad.cea.fr

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the results of work carried out at the IPSN on: sodium inflammation, sodium combustion (pool fires and sprayed jet fires), extinguishment (passive means and extinguishing powder), the physico-chemical behaviour of aerosols and their filtration, the protection means of concretes, intervention during and after a fire, treatment of residues, intervention equipment. The calculation codes developed during these studies are described. The experimental basis which allowed the qualification of these codes and the technological means aimed at prevention and sodium fire fighting, was obtained using programmes carried out in the experimental facilities existing in Cadarache or in collaboration with the German teams of Karlsruhe.

  18. Fire extinguishing system in large underground garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antonov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work is considered an acceptable constructive scheme from a practical point of view at fire extinguishing in underground garages. The garage space is divided into quadrants which covering, for example, 2 cars. In case of ignition on one of them, a sprinkler nozzle system is triggered by the effect of the vertical convective jet. A protective curtain preventing the spread of fire to adjacent vehicles is realized. The solution is based on an integrated method which allows the calculation from hydrodynamic point of view on extinguishing time of the fire extinguishing system.

  19. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  20. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many fire extinguishers are needed? 149.409 Section 149.409 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.409 How many fire extinguishers are needed...

  1. Synthesis of Fire-Extinguishing Dawsonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple nonaqueous process synthesizes sodium or potassium, dawsonites effective against hydrocarbon fuel fires. Fire-extinguishing alkali metal dawsonites are prepared using a finely-pulverized equimolar mixture of hydrogen carbonate, or carbonates and aluminum hydroxide heated for 1 to 6 hours under carbon dioxide pressure.

  2. Liquid nitrogen fire extinguishing system test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidelman, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this test series was to demonstrate the feasibility of using liquid nitrogen as a fire-extinguishing agent for certain types of metal fires. It was intended to provide data and experience appropriate to the design of a second series which will test the applicability of this technique to plutonium fires and which will develop more detailed operating information and permit more precise measurement of test parameters-oxygen depletion rates and equilibrium concentrations, temperature effects, and nitrogen pressures, flow rates, spray methods and patterns, etc. The test series was directed specifically toward extinguishment of metal fires occurring in well-confined areas and was not intended to be representative of any larger classification. Fires of several types were tested, e.g., magnesium, mixed magnesium and zirconium, sodium and cerium

  3. New Agents for the Extinguishment of Magnesium Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    34 23 July 1942. German Patent 724,795. 8. Beythien, R., Wienhaus, H., and von Zehman, H., "Extinguish- ing Magnesium and Other Light Metal Fires ," 12...34Trimethoxyboroxine--An Extinguishing Agent for Metal Fires ," ACS Advances in Chemistry, No. 23, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. pp 158...13. Miyashima, Z., "Fire Extinguishing Agent," 7 October 1958. Japanese Patent 8,946. 14. Jenkner, H., "Extinguishing Metal Fires ," 12 September

  4. Graphite-based extinguishants for liquid metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.M.; Gardener, N.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Effective extinguishants for liquid alkali metal fires must be provided for all LMFBRs. Traditional sodium salt based extinguishants have disadvantages. An intercalation compound of graphite was identified as a possible alternative. Following successful tests on fires of up to 25 m 2 area the graphite based extinguishant has been introduced by the UKAEA at Dounreay. (author)

  5. HOT AEROSOL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND THE ASSOCIATED TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSince the phase out of Halon extinguishers in the 1980s, hot aerosol fire suppression technology has gained much attention. Unlike traditional inert gas, foam, water mist and Halon fire suppression agents, hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents do not need to be driven out by pressurized gases and can extinguish class A, B, C, D and K fires at 30 to 200 g/m3. Generally, hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology has developed from a generation I oil tank suppression system to a generation III strontium salt based S-type system. S-type hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology greatly solves the corrosion problem of electrical devices and electronics compared to potassium salt based generation I & II hot aerosol fire extinguishing technology. As substitutes for Halon agents, the ODP and GWP values of hot fire extinguishing aerosols are nearly zero, but those fine aerosol particles can cause adverse health effects once inhaled by human. As for configurations of hot aerosol fire extinguishing devices, fixed or portable cylindrical canisters are the most common among generation II & III hot aerosol fire extinguishers across the world, while generation I hot aerosol fire suppression systems are integrated with the oil tank as a whole. Some countries like the U.S., Australia, Russia and China, etc. have already developed standards for manufacturing and quality control of hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents and norms for hot aerosol fire extinguishing system design under different fire protection scenarios. Coolants in hot aerosol fire suppression systems, which are responsible for reducing hot aerosol temperature to avoid secondary fire risk are reviewed for the first time. Cooling effects are generally achieved through vaporization and endothermic chemical decomposition of coolants. Finally, this review discussed areas applying generation I, II or III hot aerosol fire suppression technologies. The generation III hot aerosol fire extinguishing

  6. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  7. Process and device for extinguishing fires inside gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P

    1975-01-09

    The present invention relates to a process of extinguishing all types of fire inside gloveboxes. Said process prevents the inner part of the box to communicate with the room atmosphere: the glove that is the nearest to the hearth of fire is perforated with an edged tip mounted on the outlet of the extinguisher and the product contained inside said extinguisher is released until the fire extinction is achieved. A device for operating said process consists in an edged tubular tip, the end of which is bevelled and in means of dispersion and of connection to an extinguisher at the other end.

  8. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  9. Process and fire extinguishing system for inflammable liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    A fire on the surface of a flammable liquid is extinguished by spreading a compact layer of sphere of uniform diameter, floating on the liquid surface. Spheres are stored in a tank and run out by gravity [fr

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...

  11. Planning an Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm, and Extinguishing System for Research Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Golmohamadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Educational and research laboratories in universities have a high risk of fire, because they have a variety of materials and equipment. The aim of this study was to provide a technical plan for safety improvement in educational and research laboratories of a university based on the design of automatic detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems . Methods : In this study, fire risk assessment was performed based on the standard of Military Risk Assessment method (MIL-STD-882. For all laboratories, detection and fire alarm systems and optimal fixed fire extinguishing systems were designed. Results : Maximum and minimum risks of fire were in chemical water and wastewater (81.2% and physical agents (62.5% laboratories, respectively. For studied laboratories, we designed fire detection systems based on heat and smoke detectors. Also in these places, fire-extinguishing systems based on CO2 were designed . Conclusion : Due to high risk of fire in studied laboratories, the best control method for fire prevention and protection based on special features of these laboratories is using automatic detection, warning and fire extinguishing systems using CO2 .

  12. Extinguishing agent for magnesium fire, phases 5 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, H. D.; Tapscott, R. E.; Mason, B. E.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the validation testing of the extinguishing system for metal fires developed as part of Phases 1 to 4. The results of this validation testing form the basis of information from which draft military specifications necessary to procure the agent and the agent delivery system may be developed. The developed system was tested against a variety of large-scale metal fire scenarios and the capabilities of the system were assessed. In addition the response of the system to storage and to changes in ambient conditions was tested. Results of this testing revealed that the developed system represented a reliable metal fire extinguishing system that could control and extinguish very large metal fires. The specifications developed for the agent and for the delivery system are discussed in detail.

  13. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan

  14. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, B H; Kim, T J; Choi, J H

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan.

  15. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  16. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  17. 16 CFR 1500.15 - Labeling of fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fire extinguishers. 1500.15 Section 1500.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT...)(1), the signal word “Danger” and the statement of hazard “Poisonous gases formed when used to...

  18. Fire extinguishing strength of the combustion product of wood saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty saw dust samples from four mature hard wood plants grown in southwestern part of Nigeria were analyzed for their ash contents, moisture contents, metallic contents and hence the fire extinguishing strength of the saw dust ash by classical and instrumental methods of analyses. Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) wood saw ...

  19. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing....45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) General requirements. (1...-extinguishing system. On such vessels contracted for prior to January 1, 1962, a steam smothering system may be...

  20. Extinguishing experiments of sodium fires carried out by TNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, G.J.A.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    For the collection of burning sodium from the components and pipes of the secondary circuit of SNR 300, spill-trays are foreseen which are connected to dump tanks. These spill-trays are covered with a sieve in order to reduce the flow of air to the sodium in the spill-tray and hence to reduce the burning rate. In order to further minimize the consequences of a large sodium fire for the components, the licensing authority required as a back-up the installation of a remotely operated distribution system by means of which an extinguishing powder can be sprayed upon the spill-trays. Experiments were carried out in which the effectiveness of different extinguishing powders in combination with the sieve covered spill-trays were tested in a comparative manner. Attention was paid to the question whether such a spray system would have also additional benefits in the case of smaller sodium leaks. To this purpose three commercially available extinguishing powders were tested, one on a sodium chloride, two on a carbonate base. Also the effectiveness of the sieves proper with respect to reducing the burning rate was tested without applying any extinguishing powders. Finally for a reference some tests were done on open spill-trays, i.e. spill-trays not covered with a sieve.The investigations which were carried out in 1976-1977 were limited to fire experiments, aspects of transport of the powder in the distribution system were not investigated

  1. 30 CFR 77.1111 - Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1111 Welding, cutting, soldering; use of fire extinguisher. One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided at each location where welding, cutting, or...

  2. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  3. Extinguishing smouldering fires in silos. BRANDFORSK project 745-961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisaari, M.; Baroudi, D.; Latva, R. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-11-01

    Combustible, porous materials may self-ignite during their storage time in silos as a result of internal heating. The self-ignition process may be slow, and it results in smouldering fires that are extremely difficult to extinguish. Suitable means to fight the smouldering fire were studied both theoretically and experimentally. General heat and mass transfer equations for porous media subject to fires and suppression were written. The equations together with dimensional analysis revealed critical parameters, like the grain size and moisture content, affecting the combustion and suppression process, but they also revealed the complexity of the problem. Experimental results of over 50 tests with varying combustibles and suppression agents were used as the basis for proposed qualitative guidelines on how to fight a smouldering silo fire. Among the potential gaseous agents, CO{sub 2} was found to be the most efficient one. Low expansion foam was also found to be a potential candidate, but its applicability requires further confirmation. Quantifying the guidelines requires a whole new study on the detection of a smouldering fire. The same detection system should be capable of monitoring the suppression process and - most importantly - verifying the extinguishment. (orig.) 46 refs.

  4. 75 FR 48728 - The Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the Office of... the information collection requirements contained in the Hydrostatic Testing provision of the Portable... 48729

  5. Design and Implementation of Fire Extinguisher Robot with Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Abdul Waris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot is a device, which performs human task or behave like a human-being. It needs expertise skills and complex programming to design. For designing a fire fighter robot, many sensors and motors were used. User firstly send robot to an affected area, to get live image of the field with the help of mobile camera via Wi-Fi using IP camera application to laptop. If any signs of fire shown in image, user direct robot in that particular direction for confirmation. Fire sensor and temperature sensor detects and measures the reading, after confirmation robot sprinkle water on affected field. During extinguish process if any obstacle comes in between the prototype and the affected area the ultrasonic sensor detects the obstacle, in response the robotic arm moves to pick and place that obstacle to another location for clearing the path. Meanwhile if any poisonous gas is present, the gas sensor detects and indicates by making alarm.

  6. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  7. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  8. 78 FR 70324 - Thy Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Hydrostatic Testing provision of the... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard are necessary to reduce workers...

  9. Handheld Delivery System for Modified Boron-Type Fire Extinguishment Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    was to develop and test a handheld portable delivery system for use with the modified boron-type fire extinguishing agent for metal fires . B...BACKGROUND A need exists for an extinguishing agent and accompanying delivery system that are effective against complex geometry metal fires . A modified...agent and its delivery system have proven effective against complex geometry metal fires containing up to 200 pounds of magnesium metal. Further

  10. Radio frequency security system, method for a building facility or the like, and apparatus and methods for remotely monitoring the status of fire extinguishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Larry [Richland, WA; Gunter, Wayne M [Richland, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Gilroy, CA

    2006-07-25

    A system for remotely monitoring the status of one or more fire extinguishers includes means for sensing at least one parameter of each of the fire extinguishers; means for selectively transmitting the sensed parameters along with information identifying the fire extinguishers from which the parameters were sensed; and means for receiving the sensed parameters and identifying information for the fire extinguisher or extinguishers at a common location. Other systems and methods for remotely monitoring the status of multiple fire extinguishers are also provided.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evacuate the affected work area upon the sounding of the fire alarm, the employer is exempt from the..., shavings, or similarly sized products are generated at least once every two weeks. (e) Inspection... equipment for testing compressed gas type cylinders shall be of the water jacket type. The equipment shall...

  12. Suicide by Fire Extinguisher Powder Ingestion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohammadi Kojidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man committed suicide by swallowing the contents of a fire extinguisher. A few hours after his suicide attempt, he was referred to the medical center for poisoning. At the time of admission, the patient was conscious with stable vital signs. The patient complained of burning lips and mouth, mentioning diarrhea. Initial treatments included gastric lavage with activated charcoal, while paraclinical measures were requested. The patient had undergone hypernatremia (Na: 152 mEq/l and metabolic alkalosis. Treatment focused on the adjustment of sodium level and alkalosis. On the first day of hospitalization, the patient experienced recurrent episodes of tonic-clonic seizure along with the loss of consciousness. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient developed respiratory arrest followed by cardiac arrest and death.

  13. A system extinguishing a fire by insulating a liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colome, Jacques; Duchene, Alain; Regnier, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    The invention refers to a system for quickly extinguishing a liquid fuel body on fire by insulating it completely from the ambient air. It applies particularly to the case of a high temperature liquid sodium sheet flowing accidentally from a circuit belonging to a fast neutron reactor. The system in question includes a lower receptacle for collecting the liquid fuel and a top cover shutting off the receptacle. This cover has inclined channels to take the liquid fuel flow and openings to allow this liquid through at the bottom end of the channels. These openings are closed by retractable shutters moving away under the pressure of the liquid in the channels and closing automatically after the liquid has flowed into the receptacle [fr

  14. Fire-extinguishing organic electrolytes for safe batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Watanabe, Eriko; Takada, Koji; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2018-01-01

    Severe safety concerns are impeding the large-scale employment of lithium/sodium batteries. Conventional electrolytes are highly flammable and volatile, which may cause catastrophic fires or explosions. Efforts to introduce flame-retardant solvents into the electrolytes have generally resulted in compromised battery performance because those solvents do not suitably passivate carbonaceous anodes. Here we report a salt-concentrated electrolyte design to resolve this dilemma via the spontaneous formation of a robust inorganic passivation film on the anode. We demonstrate that a concentrated electrolyte using a salt and a popular flame-retardant solvent (trimethyl phosphate), without any additives or soft binders, allows stable charge-discharge cycling of both hard-carbon and graphite anodes for more than 1,000 cycles (over one year) with negligible degradation; this performance is comparable or superior to that of conventional flammable carbonate electrolytes. The unusual passivation character of the concentrated electrolyte coupled with its fire-extinguishing property contributes to developing safe and long-lasting batteries, unlocking the limit toward development of much higher energy-density batteries.

  15. Research on environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers current status of application of water-based fire extinguishing agents, the environmental and research considerations of the need for the study of toxicity research. This paper also offers systematic review of test methods of toxicity and environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents currently available, illustrate the main requirements and relevant test methods, and offer some research findings for future research considerations. The paper also offers limitations of current study.

  16. Underground fires in oil shale mines: special traits of their spreading, extinguishing and liquidating of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakhonsky, E.

    1995-01-01

    Danger of catching fire in oil shale underground mines has considerably increased lately because of essential increase in mechanization level and frequent violation of fire-safety regulations. The largest underground fire in Estonia took place in the most mechanized mine 'Estonia' in the end of 1988 and lasted 81 days. The fire started in one of the conveyor drifts where two belt-conveyors with rubber-rope belts and a fire pipeline were installed. At the start of the fire and beginning of extinguishing work this pipeline contained no water. Driving heads of these conveyors were installed with automatic extinguishing equipment and with different primary means against fire. When the first group of the Johvi military mine-rescue squad reached the mine they established that the conveyor drift, pillars and a part of rail drift between them were caught by fire. The conveyor belt, oil shale and feeds of conveyor drives were burning. The flame had propagated about 350 metres along the rail and conveyor drifts but the smoke had spread 4 kilometres already. Air temperature near the burning area was about 40-60 deg C, rocks from the roof supported by pillars had crashed down. The mine air was polluted by combustion products. The fire caused a noticeable pollution of mine and surface waters with phenols formed at oil shale combustion. Their limit concentration was exceeded for more than 400 times. To decrease this number, an intensive saturation of waters with atmosphere air was started. For this purpose special dams were constructed on water-diversion ditches ensuring a 0.5-0.7 m difference in water levels. Nevertheless, the phenol concentration in Rannapungerya River and Lake Peipsi still exceeded the normal level 5-6 times. However, the actual maximum concentration of phenols was considerably lower than the lethal doses for fish and other water organisms. Their mass extinction in the river or in the lake was observed neither during nor after the fire. One may conclude the

  17. Testing of a graphite based extinguishing powder for use on liquid metal fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.; Ochs, G.; Peppler, W.

    1977-11-01

    A graphite based extinguishing powder, newly developed by a French firm for use on liquid metal fires has been tested on a sodium fire in a pan of 0.96 m 2 using 60 kg of sodium. The behaviour and extinguishing power are reported and compared with those of other materials tested in earlier experiments. The new powder has excellent efficiency in dealing with sodium pool fires. Application is simple. The amount required is more than an order magnitude less than that of currently available alternatives. The powder is not corrosive. (orig.) [de

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On mining...

  19. AT89S52 microcontroller Based A Fire Extinguisher Robot Using Ultrasonic and Ultraviolet Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Sapto Aji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire often takes many victims. Fire detection system sometime can not prevent this from happening. Therefore, it is essential to develop a robot that can detect the present of fire as well as extinguish it. This research aimed to design a fire extinguisher robot using AT89S52 microcontroller as its controller. A DC fan controlled by a relay is utilized to put out the fire and a fire sensor (UV-Tron is used to detect the presence of fire. The movement of the robot is driven by motor DC. The robot can detect the surrounding obstacles and possess an ultrasound-based navigation system. If the ultrasound system detects an obstacle, the robot will automatically turn without colliding the obstacle or other things around it. The result has shown that this fire extinguisher robot can be built using hardware and software controlled by an AT89S52 microcontroller. It can be concluded from the tests that the robot can detect fire as far as 5 meter distance and able to successfully put out the fire.

  20. MIL SPEC 28 Square Foot Fire Burnback and Extinguishment Testing of FireAde, FlameOut II and Hawk ALLFIRE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrett, Kimberly D; Kalberer, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    ... for hydrocarbon fuel fires. This report documents the evaluation performed on the fire extinguishing agents FireAde 2000 AFFF LP, FlameOut II and Hawk ALLFORE in accordance with the parameters set forth in Military Specification ( MIL SPEC...

  1. Sodium fires and its extinguishment; Gorenie, sredstva i sposoby tusheniya natriya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhedov, V G

    1979-03-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder.

  2. 46 CFR 181.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... less than 170 cubic meters (6000 cubic feet), release of an extinguishing agent into a space must... unoccupied space of less than 170 cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet) may have the storage cylinders located... between 16,550 and 19,300 kPa (2,400 and 2,800 psi) must be installed in the distribution manifold to...

  3. Use of Video Modeling to Teach Extinguishing of Cooking Related Fires to Individuals with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Gustafson, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling to teach fire extinguishing behaviors to three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities. A multiple probe design across three fire extinguishing behaviors and replicated across three students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based program. Results indicate that…

  4. Method for Increasing the Efficiency of Automatic Fire Extinguish System at Objects Of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of energy facilities requires compliance with all safety standards, and especially fire safety. Emergency situations that arise when operated the power equipment damage not only the objects of the technosphere but also the environment. In recent years, can be noted a trend of quite intensive development of technological bases of technology water mist fire extinguishing. Using the methods of optical panoramic imaging PIV, IPI and the method of high-speed video recording were performed the experimental studies of the characteristics of evaporation of large single water droplets as they pass through the flames of oil and oil products with varying parameters of the processes (the initial size of 2–6 mm, the rate of 2–4 m/s and the temperature of water drops 290–300 K, the temperature of the combustion products 185–2073 K. Was established decisive influence droplet size, velocities at which droplets enter the gaseous medium, the initial water temperature on heating rate and evaporation of droplets in a stream of high-temperature combustion products.

  5. 75 FR 20516 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Fire Extinguishing for Upper Aft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... defined in Sec. 11.19, under Sec. 11.38 and they become part of the type certification basis under Sec. 21... requiring and defining engine compartment fire extinguishing systems already exist for part 23 commuter... structure or the fuselage. In essence the engine could burn off of the pylon and not adversely compromise...

  6. 33 CFR 149.405 - How are fire extinguishers classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... percentages of water, are of primary importance; (2) “B” for fires of flammable liquids, greases, or other thick flammable substances where a blanketing effect is essential; and (3) “C” for fires in electrical...

  7. The use of boron trifluoride and alkoxiboroxines as extinguishants for magnesium alloy fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1987-11-01

    The extinguishants currently available for putting out magnesium alloy fires work by covering the burning fuel and excluding both the oxygen and nitrogen from the reaction zone. It has been reported that boron trifluoride and trimethoxi-and tributoxi-boroxine may act in a more specific chemical way on the combustion reactions. In this report an investigation into the effectiveness of these compounds on magnesium alloy fires is described. (author)

  8. Numerical prediction of fire extinguishment characteristics of sodium leak collection tray in a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, S.V.; Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Kasinathan, N.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium fire extinguishment in a leak collection tray is modeled by lumped approach. ► Hydrodynamics of liquid sodium on tray is emulated through a draining/sloshing model. ► Pool burning rates in the tray and holdup vessel are numerically estimated. ► The model directly yields the mass of sodium recovered after extinction of fire. ► Model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. - Abstract: Sodium leak collection tray (LCT) is an efficient passive device used for the extinguishment of liquid sodium fire in case of an accidental leakage from the secondary circuit of a fast breeder reactor. The LCT essentially isolates the leaking sodium into closed containers where the resulting fire is extinguished due to limited availability of oxygen. The current work aims to highlight the combustion extinguishment characteristics of LCT through a lumped formulation by conserving the mass and energy of liquid sodium and constituent gases in various parts of the LCT. Here, the complex hydrodynamics of liquid sodium is emulated through a semi-analytical draining/sloshing model and its burning rates are predicted through a three-dimensional open pool combustion model for the tray region and a closed pool combustion model for the holdup vessel. These simulations evaluate the burning rates at discrete levels of liquid sodium which are subsequently interpolated to establish correlations involving instantaneous liquid levels and oxygen concentration. Using the correlations obtained from the draining and combustion models, the overall lumped formulation directly predicts the un-burnt sodium recoverable after the extinguishment of fire in the LCT. The predicted results of this model compare well with the available experimental data.

  9. Research on fire extinguishing and disaster measures techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruda, Takashi; Amano, Hisanori; Liao, Chihong

    2004-01-01

    As for a fire of alkali metals in nuclear facilities, measures to cope with the situation should be prepared. It has been experimentally investigated with a success to stabilize and treat safe in the air the leavings of burned sodium, which were extinguished by the nitrogen and poured with fire extinguishing powder for metal fire. Furthermore research and development has been conducted on a series of robots such as installing protection wall between radiation sources and victims and carrying victims out of the disaster room. Basic functional experiments on key components of robot system have been carried out using a trial product. Total control system of a series of robots will be updated based on control mechanism and software of a trial robot system. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  11. Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This three phase SBIR project from ADA Technologies Inc. (ADA) builds upon the experience of ADA in development of fine water mist (FWM) fire suppression technology....

  12. 33 CFR 145.05 - Classification of fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects of quantities of water, or solutions containing large percentages of water, are of first importance. (2) “B” for fires in flammable liquids, greases, etc., where a blanketing effect is essential. (3... first importance. (c) The number designations for size will start with “I” for the smallest to “V” for...

  13. 46 CFR 95.05-10 - Fixed fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... oil units, valves, or manifolds in the line between the settling tanks and the boilers. (e) Fire... approved system must be installed in all cargo compartments and tanks for combustible cargo, except for vessels engaged exclusively in the carriage of coal or grain in bulk. For cargo compartments and tanks...

  14. 46 CFR 118.410 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved by the Commandant and protected from damage or accidental activation. A pull cable used to... outside against corrosion unless otherwise approved by the Commandant. Aluminum or other low melting... rotating electrical propulsion equipment a fixed carbon dioxide system must meet the following requirements...

  15. Fire prevention and protection for trackless equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    With the increased use of trackless diesel and electrical equipment underground, the fire danger associated with this equipment has increased. The need for adequate fire prevention and protection on all aspects of trackless mechanised mining must be taken into consideration. This paper describes briefly the causes of fires on trackless equipment and the precautions taken to reduce the risk of ignition. 1 tab.

  16. Surface Accessibility with Spatial Analysis During Fire Extinguishing Procedures: Example on the Island of Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruno Lepoglavec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The existing public and forest transport infrastructure (truck forest roads are permanent objects used when passing through forests. They also serve as a firefighter belt and provide direct access to firefighting vehicles, or are used as the starting point where firefighting teams extinguish fires or move toward remote fires. The paper identifies the existing fire road network (including public roads, forest roads, non-classified roads and fire roads for access of firefighting vehicles during fire extinguishing interventions. Material and Methods: An analysis of the intervention rate was conducted on a dispersive sample (35 positions from two volunteer fire associations (VFA on the island of Vis. Also, an analysis of the surface availability to fire vehicles concerning the time of departure from the fire station was conducted, as well as the comparison with the Standard time of intervention defined by the regulations on fire department organization in the Republic of Croatia. Results: For each simulated fire location for intervention of two existing volunteer fire associations: VFA Komiža and VFA Vis, results show that for a few fire locations, despite a smaller distance from the VFA Komiža, a quicker intervention is possible from the VFA Vis (locations 4, 5 and 14, and vice versa (locations 21, 22 and 25. With the use of a New Service Area, tool intervention times regarding different areas were calculated. Intervention times were divided into intervals: 25 min. The last two categories of area are beyond reach for firefighters within the Standard time of intervention (15 min and together they comprise to 27.88% of the total research area. Conclusions: The results of Closest Facility tool indicate that for the simulated fire position the best/fastest route is not always the shortest one, because of a significant effect of the structural elements of each road, the state of the road and the longitudinal slope of the road

  17. Fire-Retardant, Self-Extinguishing Inorganic/Polymer Composite Memory Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumyajyoti; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy

    2017-12-27

    Polymeric foams used in furniture and automotive and aircraft seating applications rely on the incorporation of environmentally hazardous fire-retardant additives to meet fire safety norms. This has occasioned significant interest in novel approaches to the elimination of fire-retardant additives. Foams based on polymer nanocomposites or based on fire-retardant coatings show compromised mechanical performance and require additional processing steps. Here, we demonstrate a one-step preparation of a fire-retardant ice-templated inorganic/polymer hybrid that does not incorporate fire-retardant additives. The hybrid foams exhibit excellent mechanical properties. They are elastic to large compressional strain, despite the high inorganic content. They also exhibit tunable mechanical recovery, including viscoelastic "memory". These hybrid foams are prepared using ice-templating that relies on a green solvent, water, as a porogen. Because these foams are predominantly comprised of inorganic components, they exhibit exceptional fire retardance in torch burn tests and are self-extinguishing. After being subjected to a flame, the foam retains its porous structure and does not drip or collapse. In micro-combustion calorimetry, the hybrid foams show a peak heat release rate that is only 25% that of a commercial fire-retardant polyurethanes. Finally, we demonstrate that we can use ice-templating to prepare hybrid foams with different inorganic colloids, including cheap commercial materials. We also demonstrate that ice-templating is amenable to scale up, without loss of mechanical performance or fire-retardant properties.

  18. Carbon dioxide not suitable for extinguishment of smouldering silo fires: static electricity may cause silo explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2018-01-01

    argues that injection of inert carbon dioxide into the silo headspace is unsafe. Carbon dioxide is generally available as a liquid under high pressure. When discharged, small particles of dry ice are formed. The rapid flow of particles can generate considerable amounts of static electricity, which can...... act as a source of ignition if ignitable pyrolysis gasses are present. This article discusses a serious wood pellet smouldering fire and silo explosion in Norway in 2010, which took place when firefighters discharged portable CO2 fire extinguishers into the headspace. The attempt to suppress the fire...... may have ignited pyrolysis gasses. The article examines selected guidelines, standards, popular wood pellet handbooks and other literature and argues that the electrostatic hazard is widely under-appreciated. In the past, major explosions have been attributed to electrostatic ignition of flammable...

  19. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beason, D. G.; Staggs, K. J.

    1994-08-01

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  20. Possibility of increasing the fire-suppression efficiency of the foam in automatic extinguishing installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanov, I. V.; Veremenyuk, V. V.; Karpenchuk, I. V.; Pavlyukov, S. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanics of movement of a liquid in the diffuser of the injector of an automatic extinguishing installation with preaeration of the fire-fighting substance was theoretically investigated. An integral solution of the equation for movement of the preaerated fire-fighting gas-liquid mixture in the indicated diffuser has been obtained. A mathematical model of two-phase liquid flow in this diffuser, which allows one to calculate the distribution of the average pressure in the diffuser along its length and to determine the loss in this pressure, has been developed. This model can be used for designing the output region of a hydraulic system with a hydrodynamic drag providing the operation of its injector in a definite regime.

  1. Oil well fire extinguisher having upper and lower external flame retardant-dispersing rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an extinguisher system for extinguishing flames from combustible fluid exiting from a pipe. It comprises an elongated tubular extinguisher body disposable over the combustible fluid emitting pipe; valve means mounted in the extinguisher body adjacent the upper outlet end for eliminating the flow of the combustion

  2. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  3. Experimental study on combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow using extinguishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yan; Zhang Zhigang; Li Jinke; Liu Zhongkun; Ma Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the leakage and fire accident of liquid sodium is common and it is frequent in sodium-related facilities. This study focuses on the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow. Liquid sodium (250°C) is injected into a 7.9 m"3 cylindrical chamber at a flow rate of about 1.0 m"3/h to create a columnar sodium fire, and 18.4 kg class D extinguishing powder is sprayed after the liquid sodium injection. The temperature in the chamber space and sodium collection plate and the heat release rate from sodium fire are measured and analyzed. Based on the temperature data the sodium fire under suppression could be divided into four phases of dropping sharply, continuously remaining lower, rising and declining mildly, and depressing. The sodium fire in the space could be suppressed and cooled down if the extinguishing agent could spray in the early period of the liquid sodium injection. The extinguishing agent could suppress the combustion and spreading of liquid sodium dropping on the collection plate, limit the pool combustion area and postpone the commencement of sodium pool burning in spite of its later re-ignition happening. This study promises to evaluate the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  4. 30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 57.4203 Section 57.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 56.4203 Section 56.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  6. L-026: EPR-First Responders: Action Guides Extinguishing Fire Brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference will cover how and when to apply the Fire Brigades. Instructions and guidelines within the IAEA-EPR-First Responders to be used to guide the fire fighting brigade in a radiological emergency response to radioactive material in a manner that will minimize risks while performing the task. It will take into consideration the use of several types of monitoring equipment such as oxygen level meters, sight explosive, chemical meters and radiation detectors

  7. Nitrogen gas extinguisher system as a countermeasure against a sodium fire at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ikeda, M.; Kikuchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Monju is a prototype sodium cooled FBR in Japan and occurred a sodium leakage incident in the secondary heat transport system on Dec. 8, 1995. The cause of the sodium leakage was a thermocouple well tube failure resulting from high cycle fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. The investigative research revealed that this type of flow-induced vibration was not a well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. In the light of lessons from the sodium leakage incident, Monju will take several improvements in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the plant. A nitrogen gas extinguisher system will be installed at Monju as one of countermeasures against sodium fires. The basic design specifications of the system were determined by some experiments. Three kinds of experiment were conducted with the object of confirming; (1) an oxygen concentration to suppress the sodium fire, (2) a nitrogen gas mixing efficiency to decrease the oxygen concentration, and (3) a nitrogen gas feed rate to prevent air in-leak from the outside to keep the low oxygen atmosphere. This paper reports these tests which were performed to determine the design specification of the system. (authors)

  8. Nitrogen gas extinguisher system as a countermeasure against a sodium fire at Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M; Ikeda, M [MONJU Construction Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Kikuchi, H [Kobe Shipyard, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Monju is a prototype sodium cooled FBR in Japan and occurred a sodium leakage incident in the secondary heat transport system on Dec. 8, 1995. The cause of the sodium leakage was a thermocouple well tube failure resulting from high cycle fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. The investigative research revealed that this type of flow-induced vibration was not a well-known Von Karman vortex shedding, but a symmetric vortex shedding. In the light of lessons from the sodium leakage incident, Monju will take several improvements in order to enhance the safety and reliability of the plant. A nitrogen gas extinguisher system will be installed at Monju as one of countermeasures against sodium fires. The basic design specifications of the system were determined by some experiments. Three kinds of experiment were conducted with the object of confirming; (1) an oxygen concentration to suppress the sodium fire, (2) a nitrogen gas mixing efficiency to decrease the oxygen concentration, and (3) a nitrogen gas feed rate to prevent air in-leak from the outside to keep the low oxygen atmosphere. This paper reports these tests which were performed to determine the design specification of the system. (authors)

  9. 46 CFR 108.419 - Fire main capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.419 Fire main capacity. The diameter of the fire... pumps operating simultaneously. ...

  10. Potential production of palm oil-based foaming agent as fire extinguisher of peatlands in Indonesia: Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, P.; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Suryadarma, P.

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the potential aplication of of palm oil-based foaming agent as peat fires fighter in Indonesia. From literature review, it has been known that the foaming agent able to form foam to extinguish fire, wrap and refrigerate the burning peat. It is necessary to develop the production and application of foaming agent in Indonesia because peat fires occur almost every year that caused smoke haze. Potential raw material for the production of environmental friendly foaming agent as foam extinguishing for peat fires in Indonesia aong other is palm oil due to abundant availability, sustainable, and foam product easily degraded in the environment of the burnt areas. Production of foaming agent as fire-fighting in Indonesia is one alternative to reduce the time to control the fire and smog disaster impact. Application of palm oil as a raw material for fire-fighting is contribute to increase the value added and the development of palm oil downstream industry.

  11. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed... specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing equipment. * * * * * * * * * * * This Halon 1211 has subsequently been used to fill certain FFE [Fire Fighting Enterprises] portable...

  12. Fighting fire with gas. CO{sub 2} extinguishes smouldering fires in biomass silos and waste bunkers; Effizientes Feuerwehr-Gas. CO{sub 2} loescht Schwelbraende in Biomasse-Silos und Abfallbunkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Organic materials are a great source of energy and so biomass is in big demand. But wherever large amounts of wood, waste and straw are stored in huge silos, there is also a risk of smouldering fires and even explosions. Conventional methods are relatively ineffective at extinguishing fires such as these. But a new extinguishing system from Linde uses CO{sub 2} to effectively fight smouldering fires at the source. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body

  14. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  15. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... permit the use of any approved fire extinguishers, including semiportable extinguishers, which provide equivalent fire protection. (c) All portable fire extinguishers installed on vessels must be of an approved...

  16. Fire and fire extinguishment in silos. An experimental study[Storage of wood fuel pellets]; Brand och brandslaeckning i siloanlaeggningar. En experimentell studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Henry; Blomqvist, Per; Zhenghua Yan

    2007-01-15

    A series of four tests have been conducted with wood pellets stored in a reduced size silo. The tests were conducted in order to increase the knowledge on fire development, detection and extinction technique in silo fires. The project originated from a pre-study on the extinction of silo fires made for the Swedish Rescue Service Agency (SRV). The test silo was built of concrete rings, had a diameter of 1 m, and a height of almost 6 m, which gave a volume of 4.4 m{sup 3}. The silo was filled with wood pellets up to a height of 5 m. A local auto ignition was imitated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo and a self sustaining pyrolysis zone was established within one hour. The silo was instrumented with almost 100 thermocouples as a mean to follow the development of the pyrolysis zone and later the efficiency of the extinguishment. Gas analyses were further made, both in the top of the silo, and at four different levels in the pellet bulk. After 30 hours the extinguishment was initiated using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), respectively. The gas was injected into the bottom of the silo. Two tests were also conducted where gas injection was combined foam application in the top of the silo. The tests showed that the pyrolysis zone preferably spreads downwards in the silo, while moisture and pyrolysis gases form a wave that slowly spreads upwards. It was difficult to detect the fire before the main 'gas wave' reached the pellet surface in the silo top, and detection time was about 20 hours in these tests. The spread of the pyrolysis zone, downward, was even slower. The slow development is probably an explanation of why real silo fires often are rather extensive once discovered. Inerting the silo with either nitrogen or carbon dioxide worked out well in the tests. The gas must be in gas phase and slowly introduced into the silo, as close to the bottom as possible. An efficient extinction implies an air

  17. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Stage of Construction on or After or Which Undergo a Major Conversion Completed on or After September 15... pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA...

  18. Effervescent Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Microgravity Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fire suppression systems provide an essential safety function onboard spacecraft. The transition away from halon-based systems has presented an opportunity for...

  19. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  20. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  1. Study of the physicochemical properties of an extinguishing powder for sodium fires: aging, fabrication, and mechanism of extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumanindyah, Nur-Andriani-Pramudita

    2016-01-01

    The French atomic and alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) developed an effective powder capable of extinguishing sodium fire. It is a powder based on a mixture of lithium carbonate (Li_2CO_3) and low-hydrated sodium carbonate (Na_2CO_3.H_2O) in a near eutectic proportion, with a melting temperature of around 500 C, associated with graphite. However, ever since the dismantling of several old sodium installations, CEA has at its disposal an important stock of unused powder batches. The idea of re-utilizing these powders initiates the question about their efficiency to extinguish a sodium fire after long term storage. This study proposed the physicochemical analyses of these powders in order to identify their compositions and characteristics for different batches. The results highlight the presence of lithium sodium carbonate (LiNaCO_3) and trona (Na_2CO_3.NaHCO_3.2H_2O), which are not mentioned in the patent. The aging experiments were developed to study the role of moisture and ambient carbon dioxide during the storage. The results showed that LiNaCO_3 is sensitive to the presence of moisture, able to transform it into lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate monohydrate, meanwhile the latter reacts with water and carbon dioxide to form trona. a study of the formation of LiNaCO_3 allowed the understanding of the fabrication method of the powder. This compound is found to be produced as the results of mechano-chemical reactions between Li_2CO_3 and Na_2CO_3.H_2O during the grinding process. The Chris(X)ti-Na experimental facility is built to understand the mechanisms of extinction especially related to the role of physicochemical properties on extinction. Two steps of extinction mechanisms are proposed that includes (1) the formation of liquid sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and (2) the melting of eutectic carbonates. The first step can happen directly (via the direct reaction of trona and/or Na_2CO_3.H_2O with Na(g) and/or Na_2O(s)) or indirectly (via the decomposition

  2. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-45... school ship propelled by internal combustion engines, the quantity of carbon dioxide required may be... arrangement of the piping shall be such as to give a general and fairly uniform distribution over the entire...

  3. 75 FR 52034 - Portable Fire Extinguishers (Annual Maintenance Certification Record); Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... normally in case of fire; in addition, this requirement provides evidence to OSHA compliance officers... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0039...: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for public comment. SUMMARY: OSHA...

  4. Study of Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NO ), ammonia (NH3 ), hydrogen suifide (H 2S), phosgene (COC12 ), and many other compounds. * . "From fires in...that the effective volume is up to 300 times that of the stored volume. Foam is an effective scrubber for fumes and smoke. Foam blankets over

  5. Halon Flightline Extinguisher Evaluation: Data Supporting Standard Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dierdorf, Dougls S; Kiel, Jennifer C

    2005-01-01

    .... An F-100 engine nacelle mockup was used to evaluate the full extinguishment times and amount of extinguishing agent used on a series of twenty aft engine and pool fires of 100-ft2 and ten access panel fires...

  6. Maintenance of fire systems and equipment at Virginia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubrely, E.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basics of fire protection systems maintenance are well codified and documented in the National Fire Codes published by the National Fire Protection Association. In addition, Insurers often promulgate minimum standards for fire protection systems design and maintenance to which they attach conditions of insurability. Regulatory agencies and even in-house corporate policies can impact the maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment. This presentation will focus on the various methods and alternate ways of performing system maintenance, whether required by code, insurer, or by some regulatory commitment at Virginia Powers North Anna and Surry nuclear power stations. The approach to performing similar work is handled differently at each station. This difference can be attributed to proximity to outside assistance as well as plant philosophy. In addition to station maintenance practices, a discussion of in-house servicing of portable fire suppression equipment is offered. 1 tab

  7. 46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499 Fire axes. Each unit must have at least two...

  8. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  9. 46 CFR 105.35-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 105.35-5 Section 105.35-5 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-5 Fire pumps. (a) All vessels shall be provided with a hand operated portable fire pump having a capacity of at least 5 gallons per...

  10. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  11. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  12. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If a... space. (b) The fire detection system must be designed to minimize false alarms. ...

  13. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  14. 30 CFR 57.4230 - Surface self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 57.4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... fire or its effects could impede escape from self-propelled equipment, a fire extinguisher shall be on...

  15. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  16. Review of Portable, Manually Operated, and Non-Total Flooding Fire Extinguishing Technologies for Use on Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    alkaline salt historically prepared by kiln heating potash or extracting the salts from the ash of vegetable matter; it is principally Potassium...Class C fires. They are electrically non-conductive; however they are less effective against three dimensional Class A fires, or those with a complex...Carbon dioxide will not burn and displaces air. Carbon dioxide can be used on electrical fires because, being a gas, it does not leave residues which

  17. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 23.1199... Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of...

  18. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located where— (1) No...

  19. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operate a passenger-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a smoke...-carrying airplane unless each lavatory in the airplane is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste located within the lavatory. The built-in fire...

  20. Experience in the field of sodium fire and prevention in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzawa, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The existing facilities of sodium technology development and liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactors are equipped with fire-extinguishing powder capable of putting out fire by smothering in case of accidental sodium fire induced by the leakage of high temperature sodium from the circulating system. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain quantitatively the relationship between such a fire-extinguishing powder needed and sodium temperature and its depth. The fourteen different experiments were performed using Na 2 CO 3 type and NaCl type powder both of which are authorized as fire-extinguishing agent under the present governmental regulation, and the sodium (25 cm deep in the test container) being heated up to 300 deg. C and 600 deg. C, and burned. The present experiment has shown the prospective that the amount of fire extinguishing powder of 45 kg/m 2 at maximum is sufficient to control the accidental sodium fire under the foreseeable circumstances. (author)

  1. INCREASING EXTINGUISHING EFFECT OF WATER MIST BY ELEKTRIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes extinguishing experiments to verify the possibility of increasing the fire-extinguishing efficiency of low-, medium- and high-pressure water mist by its charging by the electric field of high DC voltage. The experimental results confirmed the effects of the electrical voltage, the configuration of electrodes (anode, cathode, the volumetric water flow rate, water pressure and the type of mist nozzle. Higher fire-extinguishing effect of electrically-charged water mist was shown by a shorter extinguishing time, a smaller volume of water to extinguish the fire and a higher percentage of successful extinguishing attempts. Benefit: faster and more efficient fire-fighting with a smaller risk of injury of persons and smaller subsequent damage in the protected space.

  2. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved

  3. 46 CFR 27.209 - What are the requirements for training crews to respond to fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are familiar with their fire-fighting duties, and, specifically, with the following contingencies: (1) Fighting a fire in the engine room and elsewhere on board the vessel, including how to— (i) Operate all of the fire-extinguishing equipment on board the vessel; (ii) Stop any mechanical ventilation system for...

  4. Fire protection in nuclear power plants. Pt. 3. Fire protection for mechanical and electrotechnical equipment and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The KTA rule applies to LWRs and defines requirements to be met for fire protection of equipment and installations of the safety system, and all safety-relevant systems, and of those operating systems that under the effect of fire, may cause improper functioning of safety system components. (orig./HP) [de

  5. The Effect of Extinguishing Agents on Burning Sonobuoys Containing Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    components and the JP-5. In addition, the types of extinguish- ment materials, such as carbor spheres, that have some degree of success on metal fires , would...NWC TP 6571, publication UNCLASSIFIED.) 8. John F. Riley. "Na-X, a New Fire Extinguishing Agent for Metal Fires ," Fire Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4

  6. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  7. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  8. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.163 - Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. 1910.163... Suppression Equipment § 1910.163 Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using water or foam solution as the...

  10. Foam formation in low expansion fire fighting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Lucy Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the foam generation mechanisms involved in producing foam from a low expansion fire fighting branchpipe. The investigation was carried out using scale models of branchpipes, and a high-speed video camera was used to study the formation of the foam. The experiments provided evidence of three possible methods of bubble formation within this type of system: Stage 1 - Mixing within the branchpipe; Stage 2 - Air entrainment and bubble growth during the flight of the jet; Stage 3 - Aeration produced from the collision of the high speed jet onto a surface. Each stage is described in detail and the mechanism which has the greatest effect on the expansion ratio of the foam produced has been determined. The relevance of these findings to the design of branchpipes is discussed. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  12. Metallographic examination of fire damages in electronic equipment; Metallographische Untersuchung von Brandschaeden in der Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Katja; Puls, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Siliziumtechnologie, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Defects in electronic components and defects caused by electronic components are a frequent cause of fire damage. 35 % of examined cases of fire damage are found to be caused by electrical equipment or by the handling of electricity. Fire damage caused by electronic elements and in electronic assemblies may have a multitude of causes. Minor damages occurring during the manufacture of electronic components and assemblies can lead to operational disruptions in electronic devices and to life-threatening situations. In order to reconstruct a fire damage, a complex failure analysis and comprehensive knowledge of the principle of operation of the devices is required. Metallographic target preparation serves to detect and describe faults. Some damage patterns taken from practice are presented and analyzed here.

  13. Fire protection programme during construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian Umer, M.

    1998-01-01

    A clear view is given of several measures that have been taken with regard to fire prevention, protection and fire fighting during all phases of the construction, installation and commissioning of the Chasma nuclear power plant to protect personnel and equipment so that any delays in plant operation as a result of fire incident can be avoided. These measures include the precautions taken, the provisions made for fire extinguishers and hydrants, and the setting up of a fire brigade. An overview is also given of the fire incidents that have occurred. (author)

  14. New fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres Vinagre, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Fire detection methods and systems have advanced rapidly in recent years. In practice, there are two categories of fire detection system: conventional, collective identification, and addressable, individual identification. Hybrid systems are also used. Most Spanish nuclear power plants are equipped with the first type, as they were the only types available when the plants were built. Individual identification systems have been a radical change and have opened up new possibilities for nuclear power plants not available using conventional systems. Conventional systems provide no indication of the exact provenance of the fire-alarm signal, which could even come from different rooms. When a new generation detector initiates an alarm, it identifies itself, and the location of the fire, explicity. Faculty detectors can be located and counted, for fast, efficient replacement, or recording if replacement is not necessary immediately. In the past HALON was used in situations that required an extinguishing agent that was clean for people and equipment such as electrical panels, and in control rooms. Now that it is no longer available, faster detection techniques have had to be developed, to avoid the need for generalized extinction or inadequate extinguishing agents. This presentation analyses the new detection technology, and the ways it is being applied to typical cases in nuclear power plants. (Author)

  15. Reliability data of fire protection equipment and features in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Riekert, T.; Sehrbrock, W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to perform probabilistic fire safety analyses, a comprehensive data base is needed including physical characteristics of fire compartments and their inventory, fire occurrence frequencies, technical reliability data for all fire-related equipment, human actions and human error probabilities, etc. In order to provide updated and realistic reliability data, the operational behaviour of different fire protection features in two German nuclear power plants was analysed in the framework of the study presented here. The analyses are based on the examination of reported results of the regular inspection and maintenance programs for nuclear power plants. Besides a plant specific assessment of the reliability data a generic assessment for an application as input data for fault tree analyses in the framework of probabilistic risk studies for other German plants was carried out. The analyses of failures and unavailabilities gave the impression that most of them are single failures without relevance for the plant safety. The data gained from NPPs were compared to reliability data of the German insurance companies for the same protection features installed in non-nuclear installations and to older nuclear specific reliability data. This comparison showed up a higher reliability. (orig.) [de

  16. Project-oriented management of industrial production of fire and rescue equipment by means of geometric modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Iu; Bondarenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the research is to develop a method based on the geometric modelling for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of fire protection project management in industrial production of fire protection technology systems. Methods: The theoretical inheritance mode of effective management in project-organizational structure of fire protection and specialized technical equipment production using geometric modelling. Results: Mathematical and geometric models of project ma...

  17. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  18. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

  19. Safety tests carried out at Cadarache. Sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, M.

    1976-01-01

    Safety test on sodium fires developed at the Cadarache Nuclear Centre by the Department of Nuclear Safety, section of safety experiments on radioactivity transfer are conducted in two main directions: analysis of the behavior and thermodynamic consequences of accidental fires, working on the basis of typical experimental results; research and development of methods and equipment to control and if possible extinguish these fires. The most important part of this programme is concerned with the sodium pool fires which would result from the failure of a secondary coolant circuit pipe [fr

  20. OECD-FIRE PR02. Summary report to finalize project stage 1 (2002-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, L.

    2005-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: (1) Project background; (2) Project goals; (3) Project infrastructure; (4) Database scope; (5) Data collection history and current status; (6) Database structure; (7) Statistical observations; (8) Conclusions. The following data are presented in graphs: Fire extinguishing database; Building (site) of fire incidence and total number of incidences in the database; Component on which fire was initiated; Mechanism of combustion; Root cause of the fire; Fire detection types; Technical data of the fire detection system; Fire detector type; Fuel/flammable material/fire load; Fire extinguishing type; Technical data of the fire extinguishing system; Who extinguished the fire; Fire consequences. (P.A.)

  1. Liquid metals fire control engineering handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballif, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    This handbook reviews the basic requirements of the use of liquid metals with emphasis on sodium which has the greatest current usage. It delineates the concepts necessary to design facilities both radioactive and nonradioactive for use with liquid metals. It further reviews the state-of-the-art in fire extinguishers and leak detection equipment and comments on their application and sensitivity. It also provides details on some engineering features of value to the designer of liquid metal facilities

  2. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  3. Experience in the field of sodium fire and prevention in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzawa, Y [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1979-03-01

    The existing facilities of sodium technology development and liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactors are equipped with fire-extinguishing powder capable of putting out fire by smothering in case of accidental sodium fire induced by the leakage of high temperature sodium from the circulating system. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain quantitatively the relationship between such a fire-extinguishing powder needed and sodium temperature and its depth. The fourteen different experiments were performed using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} type and NaCl type powder both of which are authorized as fire-extinguishing agent under the present governmental regulation, and the sodium (25 cm deep in the test container) being heated up to 300 deg. C and 600 deg. C, and burned. The present experiment has shown the prospective that the amount of fire extinguishing powder of 45 kg/m{sup 2} at maximum is sufficient to control the accidental sodium fire under the foreseeable circumstances. (author)

  4. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  5. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  6. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  7. Cardiovascular health effects following exposure of human volunteers during fire extinction exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Pedersen, Peter Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Firefighters have increased risk of cardiovascular disease and of sudden death from coronary heart disease on duty while suppressing fires. This study investigated the effect of firefighting activities, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), on biomarkers...... firefighting exercises in a constructed firehouse and flashover container. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The exposure to particulate matter ( PM) was assessed at various locations and personal exposure was assessed by portable PM...

  8. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  9. Boating Accident Investigations 1974, Fire and Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    Fuel Tanks - The two 28 gallon saddle tanks were manu- factured by Aluminum Fabricated Products , Inc. of .090 in. thick 5052 aluminum. The tanks, which...Extinguishers - The boat contained two fire portable fire ext~inguishers. One Amway Model 275R-5C fire extinguisbc: was found to be in good shape. It had

  10. Experimental Extinguishment of Fires by Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Attn: Technical Library Office of Science and Technology Policy Watertown, Massachusetts 02172 Executive Office Bldg. Washington, D. C. 20500 Civil ...ST CHART NATIONAL BURFAU OF SIANDARDS 193 -A Mr. Donald A. Bettge Mr. Ed L. Hill Office of Civil Preparedness Research Triangle Institute National...Suite 104 Attn: ENGENE -RD Palo Alto, California 94303 Washington, D. C. 20314 Director, Defense Nuclear Agency Mr. Walser (Jerry) Strops Attn: Tom

  11. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  12. Analysis of Flame Extinguishment and Height in Low Frequency Acoustically Excited Methane Jet Diffusion Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ruowen; Kang, Ruxue; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zhi, Youran

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of microgravity conditions in space is increasing and existing fire extinguishing technology is often inadequate for fire safety in this special environment. As a result, improving the efficiency of portable extinguishers is of growing importance. In this work, a visual study of the effects on methane jet diffusion flames by low frequency sound waves is conducted to assess the extinguishing ability of sound waves. With a small-scale sound wave extinguishing bench, the extinguishing ability of certain frequencies of sound waves are identified, and the response of the flame height is observed and analyzed. Results show that the flame structure changes with disturbance due to low frequency sound waves of 60-100 Hz, and quenches at effective frequencies in the range of 60-90 Hz. In this range, 60 Hz is considered to be the quick extinguishing frequency, while 70-90 Hz is the stable extinguishing frequency range. For a fixed frequency, the flame height decreases with sound pressure level (SPL). The flame height exhibits the greatest sensitivity to the 60 Hz acoustic waves, and the least to the 100 Hz acoustic waves. The flame height decreases almost identically with disturbance by 70-90 Hz acoustic waves.

  13. The Effects of Water Spray Cooling in Conjunction with Halogenated Extinguishants on Hydrogen Fluoride Generation and Decay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The halogenated extinguishants Halon 1301, HFC-227ea (FM200) and NAF-S-III used within Royal Australian Navy vessels for total flooding fire suppression applications have hydrogen fluoride (HF) toxicity concerns...

  14. Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Fire Fighting Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopmeier, Michael; Christen, Hank T; Malone, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    This report is the result of an effort to develop an understanding of fire fighter needs through an assessment of relevant research and fire fighter-related literature, forums, conferences, and symposia...

  15. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  16. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  17. Learning fire-fighting lessons after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Fire protection measures in Soviet nuclear power plants were set out in November 1987, in the Nuclear Power Plant Design Fire Protection Standards (VSN 01-87, USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy). The most important of these measures are. Avoiding as far as possible the use of combustible materials in plant structures and equipment. Dividing buildings and areas into suitable fire-fighting zones. Ensuring reliable fire protection of the control and safety systems. Protecting technical personnel from the dangers of a fire while they are performing essential accident-repair work and facilitating evacuation procedures (providing at least two evacuation routes and exits, anti-smoke protection of evacuation routes and control panel areas etc). Installing automatic fire-extinguishing and fire alarm systems. Providing various stationary facilities and equipment to assist the use of mobile fire-fighting appliances. In addition, a special fire-fighting division is being set up in every nuclear power plant while the first unit is still being constructed. These divisions work in close co-operation with the technical personnel management of the plant and with the bodies responsible for monitoring nuclear safety. (author)

  18. CERN fire fighters roll out in style

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    On Thursday, 20 October, CERN fire fighters celebrated the arrival of a new equipment transport truck.   Measuring 13m3 and weighing 2.5 tonnes, the truck can carry several types of response materials in the event of chemical or radiological accidents, pollution incidents or floods. It can also pull trailers carrying fire extinguishers and oxygen masks. "Despite its size, this vehicle is extremely practical and flexible, and it can be put to work quickly and easily,” says Patrick Berlinghi, logistics officer for the Fire Brigade. “It is equipped with a rear-view camera and lighting on the rear and the side. It can also be loaded and unloaded very quickly, as it takes only 15 seconds to lower the truck box and open the doors! "  

  19. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 4: a checklist of best practice requirements for the prevention and management of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available . Routine cleaning of air-cooled switchgear and transformers to prevent coal dust build up. 7.3.3.1 All protection relay settings verified and recorded. Check settings have not been altered without approval COL605PART4 CHECKLIST FOR BEST PRACTICES... and/or painted with intumescent paint. Routinely test for hot connections and overheating equipment. Routinely check fire warning system. Fire extinguishers - correct and sufficient. Can overload & overcurrent relays on switches feeding...

  20. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  1. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  2. Combustion and extinction of magnesium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1988-01-01

    The studies made in France on magnesium combustion and extinguishing means are associated at the nuclear fuel of the graphite-gas reactor. Safety studies are made for ameliorate our knowledge on: - magnesium combustion - magnesium fire propagation - magnesium fire extinguishing [fr

  3. The Dialectic: Not just the Absolute Recoil, but the World’s Living Fire that Extinguishes and Kindles Itself. Reflections on Slavoj Žižek’s Version of Dialectical Philosophy in "Absolute Recoil: Towards a New Foundation of Dialectical Materialism".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slavoj Žižek shows in his book Absolute Recoil (and previous Hegelian works such as Less than Nothing the importance of repeating Hegel’s dialectical philosophy in contemporary capitalism. Žižek contributes especially to a reconceptualisation of dialectical logic and based on it the dialectic of history. The reflections in this paper stress that the dialectic is only the absolute recoil, a sublation that posits its own presuppositions, by working as a living fire that extinguishes and kindles itself. I point out that a new foundation of dialectical materialism needs a proper Heraclitusian foundation. I discuss Žižek’s version of the dialectic that stresses the absolute recoil and the logic of retroactivity and point out its implications for the concept of history as well as Žižek’s own theoretical ambiguities that oscillate between postmodern relativism and mechanical materialism. I argue that Žižek’s version of the dialectic should be brought into a dialogue with the dialectical philosophies of the German Marxists Hans Heinz Holz and Herbert Hörz. Žižek’s achievement is that he helps keeping alive the fire of dialectical materialism in the 21st century. Such a dialectical fire is needed for a proper revolutionary theory.

  4. Hangar Fire Suppression Utilizing Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    fuel fires in aircraft hangars. A 30×30×8-ft concrete-and-steel test structure was constructed for this test series. Four discharge assemblies...that agent concentration in the test structure exceeded the required extinguishing concentration for at least 5 min after discharge. Two fire ...involved suppression of a 4.6-gal, approximately 5-ft diameter, Jet-A pool fire . Both fires were successfully extinguished by the Novec 1230 discharge

  5. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  6. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  7. A national cohesive wildland fire management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of Wildland Fire Coordination. Department of the Interior

    2011-01-01

    Addressing wildfire is not simply a fire management, fire operations, or wildland-urban interface problem - it is a larger, more complex land management and societal issue. The vision for the next century is to: Safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire. Three...

  8. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  9. Corrosion of fire extinguishing systems and fire fighting fittings

    OpenAIRE

    RAKOWSKA JOANNA; ŚLOSORZ ZUZANNA

    2011-01-01

    Устройства пожаротушения должны характеризоваться высокой эффективностью и надёжностью. Одним из вопросов, связанных с надёжностью таких устройств, является задержка развития коррозии благодаря правильному выбору материалов, из которых изготавливаются детали или применение оптимальных методов защиты от коррозийного разрушительного воздействия. В статье представлены типы коррозии, каким могут подвергаться отдельные элементы установок пожаротушения и пожарной арматуры, на которые воздействуют в...

  10. Liquefied extinguishing agent discharge to an overpressure-sensitive enclosed volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurda Lukáš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The throttling of liquefied substances from high pressure vessels to an enclosed volume starting at atmospheric pressure is described in order to determine thermodynamic state of the extinguished room gaseous contents. Time dependent, 0D mathematical model is implemented describing the state inside the agent container, the isenthalpic throttling in the distribution system, agent vaporization and mixing with air. The agent is modelled as real gas. Other influences on the process including the heat transfer from selected solid parts inside the room and the gas mixture leakage out of the room are taken into account. Main outcome is an MS Excel tool for integrated fire extinguishers design optimization. The optimization balances the two contradictory requirements: Agent volumetric concentration to sustain the fire extinguishing capabilities and tolerable room overpressure. Agent fill weight and discharge time are being adjusted. The discharge time is controlled by the distribution piping and spray nozzles design. System operation is checked concerning various initial and boundary conditions.

  11. Chemistry fighting against fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffalsky, K.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed report is given on the general principle 'fire' and on fires as fast chemical reactions between consumable material and oxygen of the air (exothermal oxidation) as well as on the classes of fires A to D. Class D includes strongly incadescent burnable metals such as K, Na, Li, Cs, Rb, U, Pu, Ce, Zr, Be, Ca, Sr, Ba etc. The burning process, the extinguishing effects, the development of the extinguisher and its present state are individually dealt with. (HK/LH) [de

  12. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  13. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  14. Perspective methods of fire and explosion protection of 'Ukrytie' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhmatov, V.D.; Potikha, V.M.; Shkarabura, N.G.

    1999-01-01

    There are 5 atomic power stations in Ukraine-Chernobyl, Zaporozhe, Rivne, Khmelnytsk, Yuzhnoukrainsk. Fire statistics on them: 1993 - 5 fires, 1994 - 2, 1995 - 2, 1996 - 3, 1997-98 no fires. The most valuable unique experience, accumulated in Ukraine, -is extinguishing of different fires, arising in the radioactive zone. There were the following kinds of fires: burning roof of the 4-th bloc; forest fires; fires in cable tunnels; spilled oil in wrecked constructions and buildings. Professional impulse fire-extinguisher is one of the most perspective developments. These fire-extinguishers have high power, range and scale of action. They are universal: able to solve different tasks in extinguishing, to decontaminate, for group and individual light and heat protection, for preventing explosions of dust and gas of up to 50 m 3 volume and in the open space

  15. Investigation of Lab Fire Prevention Management System of Combining Root Cause Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process with Event Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chan Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new approach, combining root cause analysis (RCA, analytic hierarchy process (AHP, and event tree analysis (ETA in a loop to systematically evaluate various laboratory safety prevention strategies. First, 139 fire accidents were reviewed to identify the root causes and draw out prevention strategies. Most fires were caused due to runaway reactions, operation error and equipment failure, and flammable material release. These mostly occurred in working places of no prompt fire protection. We also used AHP to evaluate the priority of these strategies and found that chemical fire prevention strategy is the most important control element, and strengthening maintenance and safety inspection intensity is the most important action. Also together with our surveys results, we proposed that equipment design is also critical for fire prevention. Therefore a technical improvement was propounded: installing fire detector, automatic sprinkler, and manual extinguisher in the lab hood as proactive fire protections. ETA was then used as a tool to evaluate laboratory fire risks. The results indicated that the total risk of a fire occurring decreases from 0.0351 to 0.0042 without/with equipment taking actions. Establishing such system can make Environment, Health and Safety (EH&S office not only analyze and prioritize fire prevention policies more practically, but also demonstrate how effective protective equipment improvement can achieve and the probabilities of the initiating event developing into a serious accident or controlled by the existing safety system.

  16. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. 1910.161 Section... § 1910.161 Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to all fixed extinguishing systems, using dry chemical as the extinguishing agent, installed to meet a...

  18. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  19. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. On the preparation of fire-wood splitting machines equipped with feeder devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Bionergy research programme, the TTS Institute's Department of Forestry conducted a study on firewood splitting machines manufactured by Bilke Oy and Peurala Oy. The said machines are the first of their kind in Finland to be equipped with a feeder device. The Bilke unit is fed by a conveyor belt arrangement while the Peurala unit is equipped with a feeder roll. In addition, both machine types are equipped with a conveyor belt discharging device (e.g. for discharging split wood directly into a trailer). The Bilke unit can also be operated on extraction racks in the woods as the stems due to be split are fed into it from the side and the conveyor discharges the split wood rearwards into the trailer. The trailer can be hooked onto the splitting unit's draw-hook. At the landing, the Bilke unit was used to split a total of 14.2 m 3 and the Peurala unit 8.0 m 3 of approx. 3-metrelong stems averaging 9 cm in diameter. In addition to this, the Bilke unit was used to split ca. 17 m 3 of 3.5 metre-long stems with on average diameter of ca. 6 cm; the stems were in bunches alongside the extraction racks. The person operating the machines for the purposes of this study was a 27-year- old forest worker. The mean productivity achieved at the landing when using the Bilke unit was 7.7 m 3 while that of the Peurala unit was 5.8 m 3 per effective hour. When operated in the woods, the productivity achieved with the Bilke unit (excluding felling-cross cutting-delimbing-bunching and forest haulage work) was 2.8 m 3 /h. When applying a productivity of 1.7 m 3 for felling-cross cutting- delimbing-bunching work and 5.5. m 3 for forest haulage, the entire harvesting chain's productivity was 0.9 m 3 per effective hour

  1. Circuit bridging of digital equipment caused by smoke from a cable fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Anderson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced reactor systems are likely to use protection systems with digital electronics that ideally should be resistant to environmental hazards, including smoke from possible cable fires. Previous smoke tests have shown that digital safety systems can fail even at relatively low levels of smoke density and that short-term failures are likely to be caused by circuit bridging. Experiments were performed to examine these failures, with a focus on component packaging and protection schemes. Circuit bridging, which causes increased leakage currents and arcs, was gauged by measuring leakage currents among the leads of component packages. The resistance among circuit leads typically varies over a wide range, depending on the nature of the circuitry between the pins, bias conditions, circuit board material, etc. Resistance between leads can be as low as 20 kΩ and still be good, depending on the component. For these tests, the authors chose a printed circuit board and components that normally have an interlead resistance above 10 12 Ω, but if the circuit is exposed to smoke, circuit bridging causes the resistance to fall below 10 3 Ω. Plated-through-hole (PTH) and surface-mounted (SMT) packages were exposed to a series of different smoke environments using a mixture of environmentally qualified cables for fuel. Conformal coatings and enclosures were tested as circuit protection methods. High fuel levels, high humidity, and high flaming burns were the conditions most likely to cause circuit bridging. The inexpensive conformal coating that was tested - an acrylic spray - reduced leakage currents, but enclosure in a chassis with a fan did not. PTH packages were more resistant to smoke-induced circuit bridging than SMT packages. Active components failed most often in tests where the leakage currents were high, but failure did not always accompany high leakage currents

  2. The use of commercial microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; McInnes, C.; Firkin, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of commercially available microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired plutonium dioxide (POX) and mixed oxide (MOX) samples has been evaluated for application to Safeguards Analysis. Under the auspices of the UK R and D Support Programme to the IAEA, equipment has been purchased and tested for the high-pressure microwave dissolution of POX samples fired to 1250 deg. C and MOX samples fired to 1600 deg. C, in concentrated nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture. Considerable problems were encountered during development of procedures for microwave dissolution, resulting largely from sudden changes in pressure within dissolution vessels, which resulted in actuation of safety interlocks designed to prevent overpressurisation. These difficulties were alleviated by controlling the microwave power to reduce the reaction temperature and pressure, and also by introducing additional safety valves into the digestion vessels. Using microwave digestion, dissolution times for high fired POX and MOX samples were substantially reduced. Samples which required ca. 10 hours to dissolve by conventional means could be dissolved in ca. 80 minutes by microwave digestion. Whilst a similar performance in terms of plutonium recovery was achieved for some materials by microwave and conventional dissolution, for other materials microwave dissolution gave higher plutonium recoveries but with poorer precision. This suggests the possible presence of some plutonium oxide within high-fired materials which is more difficult to dissolve than the bulk, and which is perhaps dissolved to an additional but variable degree by the current microwave dissolution procedure. Microwave dissolution has been demonstrated to increase the speed of dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX materials, compared with conventional dissolution. However, the technique has not yet proved satisfactory for the complete dissolution of all high-fired materials tested because of

  3. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA damage in human volunteers during fire extinction exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Clausen, Per Axel

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training...... course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The personal exposure was measured as dermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and urinary...

  4. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  5. Updates of the fire protection system of the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant; Actualizaciones del Sistema de Proteccion Contra Incendios de la Fabrica de Combustible Nuclear de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado, P.; Palomo, J. J.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant fire protection system is one of the most important safety system of the plant. Every year, a large part of the annual investment is employed to improve this system, to update its technology, in order to improve detection and extinction capability to minimize fire risk. Over the last few years, several improvement projects have been carried out that focused on fire detection technology update and on optimization of local detectors integration with a centralized control system, as well as on an advanced public address system, which used clear and unambiguous messages improving personnel response to a plant evacuation. Planned projects and those, which are currently under development, focus on improving passive fire protection means as well as fire protection of key emergency response equipment s such as emergency diesel generators and fire extinguishing bombs. (Author)

  6. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  7. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  8. Fire protection in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penot, J.

    1986-01-01

    Graphex-CK 23 is a unique sodium fire extinction product. Minimum amounts of powder are required for very fast action. The sodium can be put to use again, when the fire has been extinguished. It can be applied in other industrial branches and with other metals, e.g. sodium/potassium circuits or lithium coolant in power plants. [de

  9. Extension and update of the reliability data for fire protection equipment in German light water reactors; Ergaenzung und Aktualisierung von Zuverlaessigkeitskenngroessen fuer Brandschutzeinrichtungen in deutschen Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forell, Burkhard; Einarsson, Svante

    2016-12-15

    Within the BMUB project 3610R01370 ''Extension and update of reliability data for fire protection equipment in German light water reactors'' plant-specific as well as generic failure rates for the technical reliability of active fire protection features in German nuclear power plants have been calculated. Based on results of previous projects, in this project observation times of components were updated and extended and additional components and functions were assessed. Now, the data evaluated results from a total of six German reference plants with seven reactor units.

  10. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  11. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Officer has according to Swedish law a right and an obligation to make a decision in the case of a fire and rescue operation in a nuclear power plant. Are this responsibility in conflict with the responsibility of the operating managers duties who is responsible for the safe operation of the plant according to the nuclear legislation. The opinion of SKI is that the Nuclear Plant Operator and the Fire Authority must act as a team and that there is no conflict between the laws. In-depth discussions has been started between the involved parties and the mutual consensus is that the question can be removed from the agenda. 2. A nuclear power plant is classified according to the Swedish law as a hazardous plant due to the risk of a nuclear incident followed by leakage of radioactivity. The interpretation of SKI is that a co-ordination between the authorities must take place. The mutual opinion between SKI, Fire Authorities and the operators of the Nuclear Power Plants is that the mutual objective for the areas of fire protection and planning and awareness of undesired events are as follows: The Fire Authorities require that the licensees perform safety analyses and presents the details the outcome of the analyses within for example the area of emergency readiness. The result should also include analyses performed to date. The licensee should detail what measures has been taken, for example for incident plans, emergency readiness, safety equipment etc, necessary with respect to the result of the analyses. The Fire Authority and SSI/SKI consults with each other about the results of the analyses and the measures taken by the operators and evaluate the accuracy of the results and if the measures taken are sufficient. General recommendations in order to choose the appropriate extinguishing media are presented in tables within the report. The recommendations are based on the risk for reactor safety, spread of radioactive contamination and property protection

  12. Full-scale horizontal cable-tray tests: Fire-propagation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), as at any high-energy physics laboratory, the experimental program depends on complex arrays of equipment that require years to assemble and place in service. These equipment arrays are typically located in enclosed tunnels or experimental halls and could be destroyed by rapidly propagating, uncontrolled fire. Cable trays, both vertical and horizontal, are an integral and ubiquitous component of these installations. Concurrently, throughout industry and within the professional fire-fighting community, there has been concern over the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. While some information was available concerning fire propagation in vertical cable trays, little was known about fires in horizontal cable trays. In view of the potential for loss of equipment and facilities, not to mention the programmatic impact of a fire, Fermilab initiated a program of full-scale, horizontal cable-tray fire tests to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable-tray configurations and cable mixed typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings as Fermilab. This series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable-tray fill, fire-fighting techniques, and the effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection, and cable-coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling, or extinguishing a cable-tray fire. Detailed descriptions of each fire test, including sketches of cable-tray configuration and contents, instrumentation, ventilation rates, Fermilab Fire Department personnel observations, photographs, and graphs of thermocouple readings are available in a report of these tests prepared by the Fermilab Safety Section

  13. Remote handling equipment for laboratory research of fuel reprocessing in Nuclear Research Institute at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, J.; Novy, P.; Kyrs, M.

    1985-04-01

    Laboratory installations were developed for two nuclear fuel reprocessing methods, viz., the solvent extraction process and the fluoride volatility process. The apparatus for solvent extraction reprocessing consists of a pneumatically driven rod-chopper, a dissolver, mixer-settler extractors, an automatic fire extinguishing device and other components and it was tested using irradiated uranium. The technological line for the fluoride volatility process consists of a fluorimater, condensers, sorption columns with NaF pellets and a distillation column for the separation of volatile fluorides from UF 6 . The line has not yet been tested using irradiated fuel. Some features of the remote handling equipment of both installations are briefly described. (author)

  14. Optimization of extinguishing agents for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boleman, M.; Lipar, M.; Balog, K.

    1998-01-01

    Focus is placed on use of extinguishing agents in nuclear power plants. The advantages and disadvantages of these agents are compared. Further perspectives for using particular extinguishing agents in nuclear power plants are outlined. (author)

  15. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  16. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  17. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 29.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of each...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 25.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of each...

  19. Automatic Fire Detection: A Survey from Wireless Sensor Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic fire detection is important for early detection and promptly extinguishing fire. There are ample studies investigating the best sensor combinations and appropriate techniques for early fire detection. In the previous studies fire detection has either been considered as an application of a

  20. Fast and Accurate Residential Fire Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, Majid; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and accurate residential fire detection is important for on-time fire extinguishing and consequently reducing damages and life losses. To detect fire sensors are needed to measure the environmental parameters and algorithms are required to decide about occurrence of fire. Recently, wireless

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dioxide, or dry chemical. Combustible metal (Class D hazards) fires pose a different type of fire problem... control this type of fire. Therefore, certain metals have specific dry powder extinguishing agents which... use on certain metal fires provide the best protection; however, there are also some “universal” type...

  2. Analysis of sodium pool fire in SFEF for assessing the limiting pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Ramesh, S.S.; Nashine, B.K.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental sodium leaks and resultant sodium fires in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems can create a threat to the safe operation of the plant. To avoid this defence-in depth approach is implemented from the design stage of reactor itself. Rapid detection of sodium leak and fast dumping of the sodium into the storage tank of a defective circuit, leak collection trays, adequate lining of load bearing structural concrete and extinguishment of the sodium fire are the important defensive measures in the design, construction and operation of a LMFBR for protection against sodium leaks and their resultant fires. Evaluation of sodium leak events and their consequences by conducting large scale engineering experiments is very essential for effective implementation of the above protection measures for sodium fire safety. For this purpose a Sodium Fire Experimental Facility (SFEF) is constructed at SED, IGCAR. SFEF is having an experimental hall of size 9 m x 6 m x 10 m with 540 m 3 volume and its design pressure is 50 kPa. It is a concrete structure and provided with SS 304 liner, which is fixed to the inside surfaces of walls, ceiling and floor. A leak tight door of size (1.8 m x 2.0 m) is provided to the experimental hall and the facility is provided with a sodium equipment hall and a control room. Experimental evaluation of sodium pool fire consequences is an important activity in the LMFBR sodium fire safety related studies. An experimental program has been planned for different types of sodium fire studies in SFEF. A prior to that numerical analysis have been carried out for enclosed sodium pool fires using SOFIRE-II sodium pool fire code for SFEF experimental hall configuration to evaluate the limiting pool fire. This paper brings out results of the analysis carried out for this purpose. Limiting pool fire of SFEF depends on the exposed surface area of the pool, amount of sodium in the pool, oxygen concentration and initial sodium temperature. Limiting

  3. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  4. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  5. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  6. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    Officer has according to Swedish law a right and an obligation to make a decision in the case of a fire and rescue operation in a nuclear power plant. Are this responsibility in conflict with the responsibility of the operating managers duties who is responsible for the safe operation of the plant according to the nuclear legislation. The opinion of SKI is that the Nuclear Plant Operator and the Fire Authority must act as a team and that there is no conflict between the laws. In-depth discussions has been started between the involved parties and the mutual consensus is that the question can be removed from the agenda. 2. A nuclear power plant is classified according to the Swedish law as a hazardous plant due to the risk of a nuclear incident followed by leakage of radioactivity. The interpretation of SKI is that a co-ordination between the authorities must take place. The mutual opinion between SKI, Fire Authorities and the operators of the Nuclear Power Plants is that the mutual objective for the areas of fire protection and planning and awareness of undesired events are as follows: The Fire Authorities require that the licensees perform safety analyses and presents the details the outcome of the analyses within for example the area of emergency readiness. The result should also include analyses performed to date. The licensee should detail what measures has been taken, for example for incident plans, emergency readiness, safety equipment etc, necessary with respect to the result of the analyses. The Fire Authority and SSI/SKI consults with each other about the results of the analyses and the measures taken by the operators and evaluate the accuracy of the results and if the measures taken are sufficient. General recommendations in order to choose the appropriate extinguishing media are presented in tables within the report. The recommendations are based on the risk for reactor safety, spread of radioactive contamination and property protection.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATER SPOUT FOR THE ACTIVE EXTINGUISHING OF THE FOCUS OF AN INTENSE FLAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is devoted to the experimental development of directional charges, which have a front part filled with water and are thus capable of forming a high velocity water jet, which has intense cooling effects and is accompanied by a shock wave created by the explosion of the charge. The water jet can then be used to extinguish the flame from an intense fire epicenter caused, for example, by a gas pipe failure, a tank with flammable liquid or an oil well. The text is accompanied with the visual design of the water spout prototype, including the experimental test of extinguishing the focus of an intense flame caused by various sources.

  8. Fire prevention in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The causes and frequency of fires at nuclear power plants in various countries are briefly given. Methods are described of fire hazard assessment at nuclear power plants, such as Gretener's method and the probabilistic methods. Approaches to the management of nuclear reactor fire protection in various countries as well as the provisions to secure such protection are dealt with. An overview and the basic characteristics of fire detection and extinguishing systems is presented. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... of the location. The Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS) employs innovations in nozzle design, lightweight composites and combination agents to design a system with extinguishment capabilities of much larger ARFF vehicles...

  10. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sufficient choice in accessing adequate, affordable, reliable, high- quality, safe and ... The impact of informal settlement shack fires on individuals and communities has ... often the loss of lives. Fires kill thousands of people every year, with many more disabled .... self-extinguishing mechanism, which ensures that the flame is ...

  11. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  12. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment. Following a market survey carried out among 54 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3090/ST) was sent on 29 August 2003 to one firm and four consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received four tenders from four consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract with the consortium HEKATRON (DE) - SOTEB (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of automatic fire-detection and emergency-evacuation equipment for a total amount not exceeding 1 900 000 euros (2 946 650 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 70%; FR - 30%.

  13. A Mega-fire event in Central Russia: fire weather, radiative, and optical properties of the atmosphere, and consequences for subboreal forest plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataly Y. Chubarova; Nickolay G. Prilepsky; Alexei N. Rublev; Allen R. Riebau

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a major drought and prolonged high temperatures occurred in central Russia that resulted in unprecedented wildland fires. These fires occurred under extreme fire danger conditions and were impossible for the Russian authorities to extinguish. It is perhaps somewhat unique that the fires were first burning peat bogs and later forests, causing very massive smoke...

  14. Oil alarm. Equipment and techniques for fire brigades for combatting spills of ground water pollutants. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattner, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The little red book discusses liquid and liquefying substances that present a groundwater hazard, their occurrence, the hazards of spills, and the equipment and techniques required for combatting them. (orig.) [de

  15. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  16. Depositional characteristics of post-fire flooding following the Schultz Fire, San Francisco Peaks, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen A. Koestner; Mike D. Carroll; Daniel G. Neary; Peter E. Koestner; Ann Youberg

    2011-01-01

    During the summer of 2010 the northern Arizona mountain town of Flagstaff experienced three fires all blazing the same week in late-June, the height of the fire season for this region. By July 1st, all three were extinguished, but that was only the first phase of disturbance. The largest and most detrimental of these fires was the Schultz Fire. From June 20th to July...

  17. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  18. The turbine oil fire in the nuclear power plant, Muehleberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    At 21.15 hours on the evening of the 28th July 1971, a turbine oil fire broke out in the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG, resulting in damage amounting to around 20 million Swiss Francs and a delay of some ten months in putting the plant into operation. The plant is equipped with a General Electric boiling water reactor and two BBC saturated steam turbines. Up to the time of the fire, both turbo-sets had already been run singly up to their full capacity of 160 MWe and the initial trials with both sets working parallel were shortly due to be carried out. Following the outbreak of fire, the causes of which are described in the contributions of the authors Hagn, L. and H. Huppmann and Christian, H. and H. Grupp, fire fighting action was immediately taken, in line with the emergency measures laid down in the operating regulations. With the assistance of the Berne City Fire Brigade, the blaze in the roof of the turbine hall was first extinguished and the spreading cable conflagration then fought, using foam and water. (orig.) [de

  19. Equipment sizing in a coal-fired municipal heating plant modernisation project with support for renewable energy and cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sizing of biomass fired cogeneration block is performed for existing heating plant. • Mathematical model for cogeneration block optimisation is presented. • Impact of financial support mechanisms on optimal solution is discussed. • Influence of short term variations of prices and support intensity is presented. • Different design parameters are suggested by economic and technical quality indices. - Abstract: The paper presents results of design parameters optimisation of a wood chips fired steam boiler based heat and power block in a sample project of coal fired municipal heating plant modernisation. The project assumes the conversion of the heating plant into a dual fuel heat and power plant. The problem that is presented is selection of cogeneration block structure and thermodynamic parameters taking into account financial support mechanisms for cogeneration and renewable energy technologies. There are examined energy conversion and financial performances of the project. The results show that without the financial support the project is not profitable although it generates savings of primary energy of fossil fuels. If an administrative incentives are applied the optimal technical solution is different than suggested by energy conversion efficiency or fossil fuel savings. Financial calculations were performed for Polish marked conditions in the years 2011 and 2014 showing the impact of relatively short term variations of prices and support intensity on optimal plant design parameters

  20. Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Korolchenko Dmitriy; Voevoda Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the size of water drops, process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation. The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid (FL) surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam...

  1. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  2. Reinstatement of an Extinguished Fear Conditioned Response in Infant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revillo, Damian A.; Trebucq, Gastón; Paglini, Maria G.; Arias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently accepted that the extinction effect reflects new context-dependent learning, this is not so clear during infancy, because some studies did not find recovery of the extinguished conditioned response (CR) in rodents during this ontogenetic stage. However, recent studies have shown the return of an extinguished CR in infant…

  3. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires and prevention. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of the specialists' meeting was to summarize the IWGFR member countries' knowledge of sodium combustion and extinguishment technology, including prevention and detection of sodium fires and protective clothes and to review and discuss critical features of sodium fires contaminated with fission products and fuel, evolution and filtration of aerosols and to determine the critical gaps in our knowledge and what should be done to develop knowledge in this area. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into three major sections, as follows: sodium fires; prevention and extinguishing of sodium fires, and aerosols

  4. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires and prevention. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The purpose of the specialists' meeting was to summarize the IWGFR member countries' knowledge of sodium combustion and extinguishment technology, including prevention and detection of sodium fires and protective clothes and to review and discuss critical features of sodium fires contaminated with fission products and fuel, evolution and filtration of aerosols and to determine the critical gaps in our knowledge and what should be done to develop knowledge in this area. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into three major sections, as follows: sodium fires; prevention and extinguishing of sodium fires, and aerosols.

  5. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  6. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  7. Flammability of self-extinguishing kenaf/ABS nanoclays composite for aircraft secondary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, S.; Majid, D. L.; Mohd Tawil, M. L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the flammability properties of kenaf fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) with nanoclays composites. Natural fiber is one of the potential materials to be used with thermoplastic as a composite due to its attractive properties such as lightweight and strong. In this paper, flammability properties of this material are evaluated through Underwriters Laboratory 94 Horizontal Burning (UL94 HB), which has been conducted for both controlled and uncontrolled conditions, smoke density and limiting oxygen index tests (LOI). These flammability tests are in compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) requirement. The results from UL94 HB and smoke density tests show that the presence of nanoclays with effective composition of kenaf fiber reinforced ABS has enhanced the burning characteristics of the material by hindering propagation of flame spread over the surface of the material through char formation. Consequently, this decreases the burning rate and produces low amount of smoke during burning. On contrary, through LOI test, this material requires less oxygen to burn when exposed to fire, which hinders the enhancement of burning characteristics. This is due to burning mechanism exhibited by nanoclays that catalyzes barrier formation and flame propagation rate over the surface of the biocomposite material. Overall, these experimental results suggest that this biocomposite material is capable of self-extinguishing and possesses effective fire extinction. The observed novel synergism from the result obtained is promising to be implemented in secondary structures of aircraft with significant benefits such as cost-effective, lightweight and biodegradable self-extinguishing biocomposite.

  8. Utilisation of a new fire fighting device on board of a diesel vehicle in the underground German black coal industry; Einsatz einer neuartigen bordfesten Loeschanlage auf dieselgetriebenen Fahrzeugen im untertaegigen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetting, Dieter; Alze, Matthias [Bergwerk Ost, Hamm (Germany); Cerny, Udo [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik - DZGR

    2010-03-15

    In the German hard coal mining industry approximately since the 1970ies, automatically releasing stationary powder snow based fire fighting systems are built on diesel vehicles due to reasons of fire protection. These fire fighting systems are to recognize a developing fire by sensors and to extinguish the fire by an automatic output of a fire fighting agent with high rate (HRD = High Rate Discharge) into a closed engine compartment or within the range of hydraulics. Simultaneously with the releasing of the fire extinguishing system the engine of the vehicle is stop automatically. Due to the stationary fire fighting systems diesel vehicles are not classified with views of risk as fire load.

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency face to the NO{sub x} emissions from European gas-fired heat process equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, M.J.; Quinqueneau, A. [Gaz de France, Saint-Denis la Plaine (France); Karll, B. [Dansk Gasteknisk Center, Hoersholm (Denmark); Breithaupt, P. Gasunie [Gasunie, Groningue (Netherlands); Jonsson, O. [Svensk Gastekniskt Center AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Navarri, P. [CETIAT, Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-10-01

    In the frame of the project, tests have been performed by Gaz de France, CETIAT, DGC, GASUNIE and SGC on 35 European industrial sites in order to depict what the European industry using natural gas as an energy source actually looks like in 1997, the levels of efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions currently being achieved. These 35 industrial sites were chosen among the three following sectors: steam or water boilers, engines or turbines and industrial processes (food processing industry, metallurgy, ceramic, paper and textile industries). The partners focused on relatively new installations or newly retrofitted which were equipped with low NOx technologies. To create an open database between the Partners, a common EXCEL sheet has been defined and used to report the results for the three sectors concerned including principally the following items: General background on the site: it includes the description of the installation, technical characteristics of the furnace, the boiler or the engine, operating scenarios, gas total rating, and depending of the type of installation power density, rated electric power or production rate; Description of the equipment: it includes, if available, the control system of the heating equipment and the low NOx techniques identified; Description of the measurement techniques: In order to compensate for the lack of international standard, this part has been particularly detailed. It includes the description of flue gas analysers (CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NOx, CH{sub 4}, UHC, N{sub 2}O, VOC), metering and pressure and temperature probes in terms of measurement principle, supplier, measurement rang and accuracy and gas calibration. It precise the position of the sampling points and the type of the sampling line; Results: The operating conditions (atmospheric data, type of natural gas burnt during the test and measurement period) are given before the results themselves (complete flue gas analysis and determination of combustion

  10. Active and passive fire protection system in academic building KH. Mas Mansur, Islamic University of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro M. Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of fire triangle, the existence of combustible materials, heat, and oxygen can cause fire disaster. KH. Mas Mansur building, Islamic University of Indonesia has a fire protection, but rarely to be checked regularly and the number of equipment is less standard as well as the lack of an evacuation route map to facilitate the evacuation process. Inside the building also does not provide safety signs such as the evacuation directions, exit, and warning in case of fire. Therefore, researchers analysed the infrastructure of prevention and control in the building KH. Mas Mansur. Researchers used the method of observation, interviews, and checklist to know the condition directly, and compare with the standard regulations. Results concordance rate of existing infrastructure is 67% fire extinguisher, hydrant box 56%, 71% alarms, sprinkler 0%, 40% detectors, emergency doors 71%, 50% emergency stairs, assembly point 0% and directions 0%. The current results were below the standard of at least 80%. As for recommendations, researchers create a new evacuation map then put the existing infrastructure according to standard regulations, and it had consulted with the specialist of Occupational Safety and Health in the field of fire.

  11. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Materials Used for Urea Hydrolysis Equipment in Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jinyang; Xu, Hongjie

    2018-05-01

    Corrosion tests were performed in the laboratory in order to assess the corrosion resistance of candidate materials used in urea hydrolysis equipment. The materials to be evaluated were exposed at 145 °C for 1000 h. Alloys 316L, 316L Mod., HR3C, Inconel 718, and TC4 were evaluated. Additionally, aluminide and chromate coatings applied to a 316L substrate were examined. After exposure, the mass changes in the test samples were measured by a discontinuous weighing method, and the morphologies, compositions, and phases of the corrosion products were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Results indicated that continuous pitting and dissolution corrosion were the main failure modes for 316L stainless steel. 316L Mod. and HR3C alloy showed better corrosion resistance than 316L due to their relatively high Cr contents, but HR3C exhibited a strong tendency toward intergranular corrosion. Inconel 718, TC4, and aluminide and chromate coating samples showed similar corrosion processes: only depositions formed by hydrothermal reactions were observed. Based on these results, a possible corrosion process in the urea hydrolysis environment was discussed for these candidate materials and questions to be clarified were proposed.

  13. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must be...

  14. The testing of the in situ fire extinction system of the Trawsfynydd splitter debris storage package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed design of a Magnox splitter debris storage drum for Trawsfynydd incorporates an in situ solid fire extinguishant Graphex CK23 on the debris surface. This is an interlamellar graphite residue compound that intumesces when heated to provide an air-restricting layer. Two series of fire tests with the extinguishant in place have been carried out on full sized drums containing unirradiated splitter debris, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. (author)

  15. Perspective pulse devices and automatic systems fire explosive protection of the radioactive infected objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhmatov, V.D.; Kozhemyakin, A.S.; Pyatova, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The suppression of fires in Chernobyl zone has shown complete unprofitable of traditional fire engineering to work on is radioactive of the infected district. In this connection as effective ways extinguishive in object 'Shelter' alongside with known traditional means and the systems offer to apply more perspective pulse systems, based on use energy small practically safe charges of gunpowder or explosive substances, in particular. Pulse explosive cone extinguishive of the device various sizes

  16. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering with...

  17. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 11 on Aircraft Fire Safety. Volume 2. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    which make burning metal particles a potent igni- tion source and extinguishment of bulk metal fires a difficult task. In the latter case, the difficulty...aircraft to fires induced by uncon- tained engine failures and internal engine metal fires . With respect to the uncontained engine failure current engine

  18. 76 FR 22383 - National Fire Codes: Request for Proposals for Revision of Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Chemical Extinguishing Systems. NFPA 22-2008 Standard for Water 5/23/2011 Tanks for Private Fire Protection... Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents. NFPA 1925-2008 Standard on Marine Fire- 5/23/2011 Fighting Vessels... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Codes: Request...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures which have contained toxic or flammable substances shall, before welding, cutting, or heating is..., cutting, or heating shall be done where the application of flammable paints, or the presence of other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard. (d) Suitable fire extinguishing...

  20. CV equipment responsibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollet, B

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the limits of the responsibilities of the TS/CV for fire fighting equipment at the LHC. The various interfaces, providers and users of the water supply systems and clean water raising systems are described.

  1. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  2. Fire safety in dental clinics: Basics for dentists and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety is essential component and requirement in health care sector. It includes components like emergency exits, manual call outs, different types of fire extinguishers, safe assembly area, fire hydrant system with water sprinkler systems etc. We attempt to provide some basics about fire and fire safety that are prerequisite for safe working environment in dental clinics along with some recommendations that can be incorporated in the curriculum.

  3. 46 CFR 95.50-90 - Vessels contracted for prior to November 19, 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cases, minor modifications may be made to the same standard as the original installation: Provided, That... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire...

  4. 46 CFR 76.50-90 - Vessels contracted for prior to November 19, 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by table 76.50-10(a). In such cases, minor modifications may be made to the same standards as the... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  5. Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolchenko Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the size of water drops, process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation. The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid (FL surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam-air mixture becomes nonflammable. As a result of solve of a heat balance equation it was made the following conclusion: water drops which size is equal to 100 μm will completely evaporate in a zone of combustion with extent of 1 m if the flying speed of drops is even 16 mps (acc. to Stokes v = 3 mps; whereas drops of larger size will evaporate only partially.

  6. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  7. Car crash fatalities associated with fire in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Åsa; Björnstig, Johanna; Larsson, Magnus; Björnstig, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    To study the epidemiology and causes of death in fatal car crashes on Swedish roads in which the victim's vehicle caught fire. The data set is from the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth studies of fatal crashes 1998-2008. Autopsies from all cases provided data on injuries, toxicological analyses, and cause of death. In total, 181 people died in 133 burning cars, accounting for 5 percent of all deaths in passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, and minibuses during 1998 to 2008. The cause of death for a third of the victims was fire related, as burns and/or smoke inhalation injuries, with no fatal trauma injuries. Twenty-five of these 55 deaths were persons 19 years or younger and included 15 of 18 rear seat deaths. Over half of the 181 deaths were in vehicles that had collided with another vehicle and, of these cases, half were killed in collisions with heavy vehicles. The percentage of drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (27%) and suicides (5.5%) were not higher than in other fatal crashes on Swedish roads. The ignition point of the fire was indicated in only half of the cases and, of those, half started in the engine compartment and one fourth started around the fuel tank or lines. Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem.

  8. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  9. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  10. Neural circuits involved in the renewal of extinguished fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaqing; Li, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The last 10 years have witnessed a substantial progress in understanding the neural mechanisms for the renewal of the extinguished fear memory. Based on the theory of fear extinction, exposure therapy has been developed as a typical cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the fear memory can be extinguished by repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus, the fear memory is not erased and tends to relapse outside of extinction context, which is referred to as renewal. Therefore, the renewal is regarded as a great obstruction interfering with the effect of exposure therapy. In recent years, there has been a great deal of studies in understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of fear renewal. These offer a foundation upon which novel therapeutic interventions for the renewal may be built. This review focuses on behavioral, anatomical and electrophysiological studies that interpret roles of the hippocampus, prelimbic cortex and amygdala as well as the connections between them for the renewal of the extinguished fear. Additionally, this review suggests the possible pathways for the renewal: (1) the prelimbic cortex may integrate contextual information from hippocampal inputs and project to the basolateral amygdala to mediate the renewal of extinguished fear memory; the ventral hippocampus may innervate the activities of the basolateral amygdala or the central amygdala directly for the renewal. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):470-478, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  12. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  13. “Use of fire extinguishers”—a new course with a new simulator

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit & GS/FB

    2012-01-01

    Don’t wait, sign up! A new training course, “Handling of fire extinguishers”, is available since the beginning of March 2012. The training course is given by members of CERN’s Fire Brigade (GS-FB) and is intended for all members of personnel of CERN. Upon successful completion of the training course, you will be able to do the following: recognise a potentially combustible item and the various fire classes; choose the appropriate extinguisher for a given fire class; handle a fire extinguisher properly and efficiently; apply CERN's safety instructions. An important part of the training are the different firefighting exercises conducted using a new simulator, which makes it possible to simulate real conditions such as the following: a fire in the office; a fire in an electrical cabinet; a fire involving chemicals.        Don’t wait:  sign up for the training course directly ...

  14. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  15. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  16. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  17. Review of the IAEA fire symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on Fire Protection and Fire Fighting in Nuclear Installations covered a large scope in the field in order to provide the opportunity for screening all aspects of present technology, research and development, standardization, licensing and fire fighting practices. Although application to any nuclear facility was within its scope, the majority of presentations concerned nuclear power plants. The approach to fire protection is the classical one in all plant designs: reduction of fire loads, appropriate zoning, manual and automatic extinguishment. However, methods of analysis and consequence prediction are changing. Computerized fire modelling is becoming a powerful tool in this area; probabilistic analytical methods are being improved, though they are not yet used widely for fire hazards. Differences in opinion were revealed in the definition of barrier resistance, the prediction of cable insulation behaviour and the optimal design of extinguishing systems. Greater international co-operation, especially in these areas, may be a good way of optimizing results with limited resources. Discussion contributions showed interest in exchange of experience in more specialized topics and encouraged the IAEA to increase its activity in the area of fire protection. (orig.)

  18. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of not...

  19. Analysis of the fire hazard in reprocessing plant UP3-A at La Hague. The case of cells containing solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, L.; Savornin, J.

    1991-11-01

    In the rooms of plant UP3-A where there are conventional fire hazards, arrangements have been taken to provide fire protection using a deterministic approach: creation of fire zones, installation of fire detection and occasionally extinguishing systems. These measures are determined by comparing the fire load density in each room with threshold levels. In the rooms where there are process-related fire hazards liable to involve radioactive materials, the fire protection measures are generally reinforced, especially if the rooms contain solvents: installation of fixed fire extinguishing systems depending on the quantity of solvent and the radioactive inventory as well as outlet fire dampers operable at high temperatures. Simultaneously, probabilistic studies of certain cells have made it possible to confirm the validity of the solutions adopted. (author)

  20. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  1. A study on the fire response of compressed hydrogen gas vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Yohsuke; Tomioka, Junichi; Suzuki, Jinji [Japan Automobile Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with compressed hydrogen CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) composite cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet flame caused by the activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles. (orig.)

  2. Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1: Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants; Affaldsforbraendingsmodeller til driftsoptimering. Fase 1: Avanceret maeleudstyr til forbedret drift af affaldsfyrede anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    This report describes results from the PSO projects ELTRA-5294 and ELTRA-5348: Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1, and Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants. Phase 1. The two projects form the first step in a project course build on a long-term vision of a fully automatic system using a wide range of advanced measurement data, advanced dynamic models for prediction of operation and advanced regulation methods for optimization of the operation of waste incinerator plants. (BA)

  3. Pre-fire planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Regardless of the fire prevention measures which are taken, plant experience indicates that fires will occur in a nuclear power plant. When a fire occurs, the plant staff must handle the fire emergency. Pre-fire planning is a method of developing detailed fire attack plans and salvage operations to protect equipment from damage due to fire and fire fighting operations. This paper describes the purpose and use of a pre-fire plan to achieve these goals in nuclear power plants

  4. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  5. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  6. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  7. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  8. 46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must be equipped with fire pumps as required in Table 169.559(a). Table 169.559(a)—Fire Pumps Length Exposed and...

  9. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained...-type water extinguisher. (g) First aid facilities shall be provided and readily accessible for use at...

  10. A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Zhaofei Fan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played a prominent role in the history of oak in eastern North America, and it is useful today for promoting oak regeneration where competition with other woody vegetation is a problem and for managing savannas and woodlands. We spent the last century extinguishing wildfire from forests for good reason, but now we must spend some time relearning how to use...

  11. Interesting spontaneous combustion fire at Haus Aden colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, W; Weinheimer, O

    1976-02-05

    Spontaneous combustion ahead of the face occurred in an over-worked and under-worked seam. When the first cavity containing hot ash was found, an attempt to extinguish the fire with water was abandoned because of the quantity of steam produced, but the fire was extinguished by covering it with paste containing magnesium chloride and hydroxide and calcium chloride. Mining operations continued while the coal surrounding the hot region was cooled with water. The steps taken to detect and deal with other fires in advance of the face are described. These included pre-infusion with calcium chloride solution via boreholes and treatment of the hot cavities encountered with magnesium chloride paste. This method of fire-fighting was more successful than the use of water alone.

  12. Development of compressor equipment for technologies of hydrocarbons extraction using nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kirik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the results of research and development work aimed at the development and implementation of technologies compressor using nitrogen to extract hydrocarbons. Nitrogen as the most affordable gas, is used as a neutral environment while performing a variety of works: gas injection into wells to stabilize the reservoir pressure in the development of oil and gas fields, gas condensate production, as well as the performance of repair work and testing of pipelines. A significant role is played by the use of nitrogen for extinguishing fires in coal mines. The implementation of these technologies requires the design and development of domestic production of the compressor equipment. The article gives some examples of developments of compressor stations based on screw and piston compressors, which meet modern requirements of efficiency, reliability, ergonomics and ecology, equipped with systems of control and regulation on the basis of controllers. The description and characteristics of the compressor equipment, and some results of the implementation compressors and technologies using nitrogen as a neutral environment.

  13. Operation of Browns Ferry, Units 1 and 2 following the March 22, 1975 fire. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report issued February 23, 1976, presents the NRC evaluation regarding the acceptability of the restoration and modifications at the Browns Ferry Plant Units 1 and 2, following the March 22, 1975 fire, to establish that the facility may be operated in the restored and modified condition without endangering the health and safety of the public. The modifications involved enhancing separation of redundant safeguards equipment by some rerouting of cable and by the application of a fire-retardant coating to the cable; enhancing fire extinguishing capability by the addition of fixed spray and sprinkler systems and expanded smoke and heat detection systems; and enhancing the overall fire protection program by changes in procedures, training, and organization. The NRC staff indicated some items that remained to be resolved prior to operation and concluded that subject to their satisfactory resolution the restoration of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plants Units 1 and 2 including the modifications is acceptable and that there is reasonable assurance that the health and safety of the public will not be endangered by operation of the facility as restored and modified

  14. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  15. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  16. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Liguria and is limited in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to study almost all the species that characterize the Mediterranean region. This work shows that the fire regime in Mediterranean area is strongly related with vegetation patterns, is almost totally independent by the cause of ignition, and only partially dependent by fire extinguishing actions.

  17. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  18. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-01-01

    post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation

  19. Selection and use of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids for underground mining equipment. [Oil-in-water emulsions; water-in-oil emulsions; phosphate esters; chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A J

    1981-02-01

    During the initial introduction of fire-resistant fluids to the Canadian underground mining industry, all hydraulic systems for which they were being considered were originally designed for operation with mineral oil. This meant that each system had to be individually examined and assessed with regard to its suitability in terms of acceptable component life and operation, at the same time as the selection of a fluid was being undertaken. Fluid selection by cost differential, toxicity content and fire resistancy was narrowed to types HFB and HFC, with HFB water-in-oil emulsion being the preferred fluid based on performance characteristics. By incorporating British mining industry experience and superior fluid types with practical trials, it was found that by modifing the design of some systems and slightly derating the operational parameters of individual components, it was possible to obtain a system performance comparable to that obtained when mineral oil was being used.

  20. Weapon Simulator Test Methodology Investigation: Comparison of Live Fire and Weapon Simulator Test Methodologies and the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    variables analyzed included shot group tightness, radial error from the center of the target, and multiple time variables. The weapon simulator and...performance could be analyzed to determine if the weapon simulator data aligns with live fire data (i.e., if similar performance decrements appear in the...Analysis and Reporting The Noptel NOS4 software records shot performance data real-time and presents multiple statistical calculations as well as

  1. Fire Situations and Prevention Measures of residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Baixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of residential building is the largest in all buildings. With the development of urbanization, residential building fires are at high momentum. The paper lists the residential building fires and the number of casualties’ proportion to total fires from 2011 to 2014, analyzing the high incidence causes of the fires and casualties and putting forward suggestions and countermeasures including carrying out fire safety education to improve the fire safety awareness of residents, fulfilling responsibility to enhancing fire safety management capabilities, perfecting fire apparatus to develop fire safety environment and enhancing public awareness of fire safety, equipping evacuation equipments to promote response ability to deal with disasters etc.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  3. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  4. 46 CFR 181.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 181.600 Section 181.600 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 181.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  5. 46 CFR 169.569 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 169.569 Section 169.569 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.569 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel must carry at least the number of fire axes set forth in Table 169.569(a). The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection may require...

  6. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire test. 183.590 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps are...

  7. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  8. Ceramic fiber blanket wrap for fire protection of cable trays and conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaille, C.E.; Reiman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In some areas of nuclear power plants, cables of redundant electrical systems, which are necessary for the safe shutdown of the reactor, are in close proximity. If a fire should occur in one of these areas, both electrical systems could be destroyed before the fire is extinguished and control of the reactor may be lost. A ceramic fiber blanket was evaluated as a fire protective wrap around cable trays and conduits. 2 refs

  9. Maritime Evaluation of Aerosol Fire Knock Down Tools. Part 2: Toxicity and Corrosion Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    as fire is suppressed) 8 A low flame flicker was seen as the door was opened; however, the fire did extinguish shortly thereafter. 26 the repeat...clean and d) in which the CD was also exposed to diesel fire gases, indicated that wiping the surface of the disc might mitigate the damage somewhat...outlined in red in the images. Results indicate that wiping the surface of the disc might mitigate the damage somewhat; however, in all cases, pitting

  10. A new proved field-tested system for early detection of smouldering fire at conveyor belt equipment; Ein neues betriebsreifes System zur Glimmbrandfrueherkennung an Gurtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, H. [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW, Dortmund (Germany); Misz, Thomas [Zentralstab Kernbereich, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany)

    2009-11-05

    In underground mining, a CO (carbon oxide)-monitoring is not suitable, to detect a beginning fire in a very early stage and at its place of origin, especially when the ventilation current is very high. By the fibre-optical supervision system GESO, an additional early warning system was developed, which is very safe. It is used especially for belt conveyors in underground roadways. The technology for service temperature measurement, developed and extended for use in explosive atmosphere is state-of-the-art in industries on the surface. (orig.)

  11. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b) Each...

  12. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  13. Improvement of fire fighting means for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problems dealing with testing of flame dampers for NPP ventilation systems are considered. The characteristics of the Darmatt fire-resistant material developed for protection of cable lines and equipment against fire effects are given

  14. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. Fire safety in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part report on the fire hazards in nuclear power stations and some of the precautions necessary. This part lists the United Kingdom reactors, outlines how they work, the fuels used, the use of moderators and coolants and the control systems. Although the risk of fire is no higher than in fossil-fuel stations the consequences can be more serious. The radioactive materials used mean that there is biological shielding round the core, limitations on waste emissions allowed and limited access to some zones. Reliable shut-down systems are needed. Care in the use of water to fight fires must be exercised -it can act as a moderator and cause an otherwise safe core to go critical. The Wigner effect in graphite moderated reactors is explained. Fires in graphite can be extinguished by carbon dioxide. Argon, chlorine and sodium silicate can also be effective. In sodium cooled reactors fires can be allowed to burn themselves out, or TEC and argon could be used to extinguish the flame. (UK)

  16. SEM Characterization of Extinguished Grains from Plasma-Ignited M30 Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkennon, A.; Birk, A.; DelGuercio, M.; Kaste, P.; Lieb, R.; Newberry, J.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Schroeder, M.

    2000-01-01

    M30 propellant grains that had been ignited in interrupted closed bomb experiments were characterize by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previous chemical analysis of extinguished grains had given no indications of plasma-propellant chemical interactions that could explain the increased burning rates that had been previously observed in full-pressure closed bomb experiments. (This does not mean that there is no unique chemistry occurring with plasma ignition. It may occur very early in the ignition event and then become obscured by the burning chemistry.) In this work, SEM was used to look at grain morphologies to determine if there were increases in the surface areas of the plasma-ignited grains which would contribute to the apparent increase in the burning rate. Charges were made using 30 propellant grains (approximately 32 grams) stacked in two tiers and in two concentric circles around a plastic straw. Each grain was notched so that, when the grains were expelled from the bomb during extinguishment, it could be determined in which tier and which circle each grain was originally packed. Charges were ignited in a closed bomb by either a nickel wire/Mylar-capillary plasma or black powder. The bomb contained a blowout disk that ruptured when the pressure reached 35 MPa, and the propellant was vented into a collection chamber packed with polyurethane foam. SEM analysis of the grains fired with a conventional black powder igniter showed no signs of unusual burning characteristics. The surfaces seemed to be evenly burned on the exteriors of the grains and in the perforations. Grains that had been subjected to plasma ignition, however, had pits, gouges, chasms, and cracks in the surfaces. The sides of the grains closest to the plasma had the greatest amount of damage, but even surfaces facing the outer wall of the bomb had small pits. The perforations contained gouges and abnormally burned regions (wormholes) that extended into the web. The SEM photos indicated that

  17. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  18. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  19. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  20. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  1. 安全评价中作业场所灭火器配置评价的研究%Research on safety assessment of extinguisher distribution in workplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国强; 胡凌艳; 张双保; 张颖; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    灭火器具有轻便灵活,易于掌握操作的特点,是扑救初起火灾的重要消防器材,对应急状态下的消防火火工作尤为重要.在建设项目安全预评价和验收评价中,往往受项目建设内容多,可行性研究报告或初步设计中对消防灭火器配置的设计详细程度有限等因素的影响,评价人员对建设项目作业场所灭火器配置情况是否符合相关规范、标准的要求,更多是通过检查该建设项目是否通过了当地公安消防部门的消防设计审核或消防验收来予以确认,往往很难具体确定作业场所灭火器材的配置包括规格、数量、设置位置是否满足该作业场所的要求.鉴于作业场所灭火器设置的重要性,就如何在建设项目安全评价中更好的对作业场所灭火器材的配备与设计进行评价,本文通过实例进行分析说明.旨在保证项目设计过程中对灭火器材配备的准确性,避免因灭火器配置规格、数量、位置的不当,造成火灾事故现场后果的严重化、扩大化,以减少火灾损失,保障人身和财产安全.%Fire extinguisher is a very important fire control device. It is flexible handing and can be easily operated by operation staffs who have been simply trained. So it is very important for fire fighting in emergency condition. In construction project safety assessment prior to start and construction project safety assessment upon completion,safety assessment staffs usually evaluate the extinguisher distribution situation whether meets the code and standard requirements according to check the construction project whether passes the fire control design examination or acceptance approval. It is usually difficult for them to concretely confirm whether extinguisher distribution including model、amount and setting position is meeting the workplace request. Because the design of extinguisher distribution is not detailed enough in feasibility study report and primary layout

  2. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  3. Physical, chemical and agricultural investigations of fly ash originating from oil-fired equipment, with special regard to the damaging effect on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, I; Czibulya, J; Ravasz, T; Boszormenyi, Z

    1972-01-01

    Physical and chemical investigations and green house tests performed with fly ash samples from a large-capacity, oil-fired thermal power plant, are described. The vanadium content determined by a colorimetric method, ranged from 3.82 to 4.14% and the nickel content was determined by a gravimetric method as 0.59-0.62%. The bulk of the fly ash belonged in a fraction of 0.06-0.10 mm. A spherical, soot-like fraction and a mineral fraction with silica, iron oxides, and alkali earth metals as main components were distinguished by morphological investigations. The soot fraction, composed of spheres with smooth surface with limited adhesion, represents minor environmental, including corrosion, hazards, while the mineral fraction which contains hard, abrasive particulates of very irregular shape with large specific surface may produce slight silicosis in man and animals, and plug the stomata in plants. In addition, this fraction represents low-temperature corrosion hazards due to the presence of tetravalent vanacylsulfate and free sulfuric acid. Greenhouse tests with overdosed fly ash revealed white mustard (Brassica hirta) to be most sensitive for fly ash, which thus may be used as an indicator plant. The damage is also dependent on the water supply. The fairly high resistivity of leguminous species, especially of beans may be due to the stimulating effect of vanadium and the increased heat absorption through the fly ash buildups.

  4. Influence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Fajardo, Oscar A; Deng, Jianguo; Duan, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM 2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM 2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m 3 and 5.02 ± 1.73 mg/m 3 at the FGD inlet and outlet, respectively, and the corresponding contributions of ionic species were 19.1 ± 7.7% and 38.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The FGD was found to enhance the conversion of NH 3 slip from the SCR to NH 4 + in the PM 2.5 , together with the conversion of SO 2 to SO 4 2- , and increased the primary NH 4 + and SO 4 2- aerosol emissions by approximately 18.9 and 4.2 times, respectively. This adverse effect should be considered when updating the emission inventory of CFPPs and should draw the attention of policy-makers for future air pollution control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  6. New fire hazard in the company. Lithium batteries and lithium accumulators; Neue Brandgefahr im Betrieb. Lithiumbatterien und -akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambotte, Stephan [Hochschule Furtwangen (Germany). Security and Safety Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Almost every fire prevention officer and each firefighter knows metal fires from demonstration tests as part of his training: gleaming bright light, high temperatures and spectacular reactions with water stay memorable to everyone present in these experiments. Everyone learns, that light metal fires practically can not be extinguished with water. On the contrary, the reaction with water induces a significant spread of fire. It is therefore understandable that fire safety officers are insecure when lithium based energy storage devices are used in companies. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration report on the dangerousness of energy storage devices in the event of a fire.

  7. Fire Technology Abstracts, volume 4, issue 1, August, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, L. J.; Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Jernigan, J. B.

    This bibliography contains over 400 citations with abstracts addressing various aspects of fire technology. Subjects cover the dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention, suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, insurance, economics of loss and prevention, and more.

  8. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices

  9. The principles for creation of fire-prevention forest belts with barriers of deciduous species for protection from crown fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discuss one of the priority security problems in Russia, which is elaboration of the strategic system of the forest and society safeguards from catastrophic forest crown fires in connection with rapid climate warming. It is postulated, that a most effective and reliable barrier for the dispersal of the intensive crown fire in a coniferous forest massive can be a sufficiently wide strip of deciduous tree species – «deciduous forest barrier», which has phytomass capable of absorbing crown fire energy and transforming them to surface fire, which may be extinguished by technical means. The actuality of the natural study of the transition parameters from the crown fire to surface fire has been noted, depending on climate, fire intensity and the deciduous barrier structure. The results of the quantitative natural investigation of the consequences of catastrophic crown fires of 2004 in the island pine forests of forest-steppe zone in Kurgan Oblast, which passed through the belt of 50–70 year-old birch stands of middle density, has been cited and formalized mathematically. It has been shown, that 150 m width of deciduous forest barrier is necessary as a minimum for the reliable transition of the high intensive front crown fire to surface fire in the forest-steppe conditions of the Western Siberia, but this width reduces with a decreasing heating effect. It has been proposed to create the complex fire-prevention forest belts of different construction for the protection of forests, industrial objects and settlements. Besides a basic deciduous barrier, their structure should include technologically necessary buffer zones and zones for the localization and extinguishing surface fire, which stop a crown fire. It has been recommended to use natural regeneration of deciduous tree species, as a most effective and non-deficient method for the creation of deciduous forest barriers in the predominant forest types, except the lichen pine forests

  10. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  11. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  12. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  13. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  14. 46 CFR 34.05-5 - Fire-extinguishing systems-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subparagraph. (3) Lamp and paint lockers and similar spaces. A carbon dioxide or water spray system must be installed in all lamp and paint lockers, oil rooms, and similar spaces. (4) Pump rooms. A carbon dioxide..., etc., that are subject to the discharge pressure of the fuel oil service pumps. (6) Machinery spaces...

  15. Fire Extinguishing Agents for Protection of Occupied Spaces in Military Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    unlimited. 10 Comparison of Fluorinated Agents UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 11... Toxicity evaluation of candidate agents – Long-term storage and material compatibility of agent mixtures and storage containers – Agent distribution

  16. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  17. The interaction of fire and mankind: Introduction†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Fire has been an important part of the Earth system for over 350 Myr. Humans evolved in this fiery world and are the only animals to have used and controlled fire. The interaction of mankind with fire is a complex one, with both positive and negative aspects. Humans have long used fire for heating, cooking, landscape management and agriculture, as well as for pyrotechnologies and in industrial processes over more recent centuries. Many landscapes need fire but population expansion into wildland areas creates a tension between different interest groups. Extinguishing wildfires may not always be the correct solution. A combination of factors, including the problem of invasive plants, landscape change, climate change, population growth, human health, economic, social and cultural attitudes that may be transnational make a re-evaluation of fire and mankind necessary. The Royal Society meeting on Fire and mankind was held to address these issues and the results of these deliberations are published in this volume. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216519

  18. Refractometry and Extinguishment/Burnback Testing of Pacific Air Forces AFFF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer L; Barrett, Kimberly D

    2006-01-01

    At the request of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) performed refractometry and extinguishment/burnback tests on samples of Ansulite and 3M aqueous film forming foam...

  19. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  20. A Hybrid Three Layer Architecture for Fire Agent Management in Rescue Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Geramifard

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new architecture called FAIS for imple- menting intelligent agents cooperating in a special Multi Agent environ- ment, namely the RoboCup Rescue Simulation System. This is a layered architecture which is customized for solving fire extinguishing problem. Structural decision making algorithms are combined with heuristic ones in this model, so it's a hybrid architecture.

  1. A Hybrid Three Layer Architecture for Fire Agent Management in Rescue Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Geramifard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new architecture called FAIS for implementing intelligent agents cooperating in a special Multi Agent environment, namely the RoboCup Rescue Simulation System. This is a layered architecture which is customized for solving fire extinguishing problem. Structural decision making algorithms are combined with heuristic ones in this model, so it's a hybrid architecture.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Wheeled Ultra-High Pressure Extinguisher System with Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    extinguisher containing the Novec 1230 firefighting agent manufactured by 3M. This effort expanded upon a previous evaluation of the Amerex Corporation model...Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) performed a series of tests to evaluate the performance of the Amerex Corporation model 775 wheeled...Extinguishing Effectiveness Tests, McDonald , Michael J. et al. Defense Technical Information Center. AFRL-ML-TY-TR-2004-4554, October 2005. 9. F100

  3. Study of plutonium fire extinction in glove-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, H.; Chappellier, A.; Debiar, A.; Savornin, J.

    1965-01-01

    The report concerns attempts to extinguish fire in uranium - chosen as a basis for comparison - and in plutonium, these being contained in glove boxes. The extinguishing powders TEC and MG 10 were tried and compared. The operator used in plastic bags. The metal was dealt with respectively in the form of billets, compact chips and finally thin shavings. In each case fire control was without difficulty. One must allow a certain time for cooling. The powder MG 10 showed very good results. Moreover, the trials proved that densely packed shavings are a very real security factor. The interior lay-out of the glove boxes ought, in order to facilitate further manipulations, be such as to render extinction as easy as possible should the need arise. (authors) [fr

  4. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, Patrick; Canavan, Ken; St. Germain, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures.

  5. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  6. Advanced methods for a probabilistic safety analysis of fires. Development of advanced methods for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analysis (fire PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Roewekamp, M.; Tuerschmann, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the research project RS 1112 'Development of Methods for a Recent Probabilistic Safety Analysis, Particularly Level 2' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), advanced methods, in particular for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analyses (fire PSA), should be developed. The present Technical Report gives an overview on the methodologies developed in this context for assessing the fire hazard. In the context of developing advanced methodologies for fire PSA, a probabilistic dynamics analysis with a fire simulation code including an uncertainty and sensitivity study has been performed for an exemplary scenario of a cable fire induced by an electric cabinet inside the containment of a modern Konvoi type German nuclear power plant taking into consideration the effects of fire detection and fire extinguishing means. With the present study, it was possible for the first time to determine the probabilities of specified fire effects from a class of fire events by means of probabilistic dynamics supplemented by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The analysis applies a deterministic dynamics model, consisting of a dynamic fire simulation code and a model of countermeasures, considering effects of the stochastics (so-called aleatory uncertainties) as well as uncertainties in the state of knowledge (so-called epistemic uncertainties). By this means, probability assessments including uncertainties are provided to be used within the PSA. (orig.) [de

  7. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  8. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and... and have the vessel ready for inspection of its fire protection equipment, including the following: (1...

  9. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  10. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  11. Behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Allam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite difference analysis was performed to investigate the behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs exposed to fire. The objective of the study was to investigate the fire resistance and the fire risk after extinguishing the fire. Firstly, the fire resistance was obtained using the ISO834 standard fire without cooling phase. Secondly, the ISO834 parametric fire with cooling phase was applied to study the effect of cooling time. Accordingly, the critical time for cooling was identified and the corresponding failure time was calculated. Moreover, the maximum risk time which is the time between the fire extinguishing and the collapse of slab was obtained. Sixteen one-way reinforced concrete slabs were considered to study the effect of important parameters namely: the concrete cover thickness; the plaster; and the live load ratio. Equations for heat transfer through the slab thickness were used in the fire resistance calculations. Studying the cooling time revealed that the slabs are still prone to collapse although they were cooled before their fire resistance. Moreover, increasing the concrete cover thickness and the presence of plaster led to an increase in the maximum risk time. However, the variation in the live load ratio has almost no effect on such time.

  12. Building Fire Safety Audit at Faculty X, University of Indonesia, Year 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Lestari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire may cause loss of life, material and valuable assets. The objective of this study is to conduct audit for fire safety and emergency response in the building at Faculty X, University of Indonesia, Depok. The audit results on the building fire safety facilities including emergency response and preparedness are then compared to the Building Code Australia (BCA and Indonesian regulation on the building fire safety (Kep.MenPU.No 10 and 11/KPTS/2000. The building selected are Building A, B, C, D, F and G. Building classification for A, B, D, F and G are classified as Class 5, while Building C is classified as Class 9b. Variable which are evaluated including emergency exit, building structure, fire alarm and detector, communication and fire warning system, evacuation procedure, portable fire extinguishers, hydrant, sprinkler, and emergency response preparedness. Results suggested that emergency exit is locked, and this is not comply to the regulation. Building structure has been complied to the regulation since it was made of concrete. Fire detector and alarm only provided in Building G, while other building is not available. There is no evacuation procedure available. Portable fire extinguisher has been available in all the building. Hydrant an sprinkler only available in building G. There is no emergency response preparedness in this faculty. In conclusion, the fire safety facilities in this faculty need to be improved.

  13. Method and device for fire extinction of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Hikichi, Takayoshi; Sato, Yoshihiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively restrain fires with coolant in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. Method: The core material of fire-extinguishing agent is coated with a non-combustible material and capsulated to prevent moisture absorption and at the same time the capsule thus made is coated with a suitable material to restrain a fire with a coolant. A desirable coating material to be used is a material which is little reactive to sodium; for example such a low-melting point metal as Pb or Sn, or paraffin, or sodium-silicate should be used. For the core material, Na 2 CO 3 , NaCl sand are recommendable materials. The core material thus made will never absorb moisture during long-time storage and has no hazard to promote a fire likely to be caused by moisture absorption. Furthermore, the coating material and the core material act to each other, restraining a sodium fire. The fire-extinguishing agent, being granular and capsulated, is easy to transport, thereby reducing a cost required for disposition. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Reported fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in 16 American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Hudson R; Jones, Vanya C; Gielen, Andrea

    2018-05-07

    Airbnb helps hosts rent all or part of their home to guests as an alternative to traditional hospitality settings. Airbnb venues are not uniformly regulated across the USA. This study quantified the reported prevalence of fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in the USA. The sample includes 120 691 venues in 16 US cities. Proportions of host-reported smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, fire extinguishers and first-aid kits were calculated. The proportion of venues that reportedly contained amenities are as follows: smoke detectors 80% (n=96 087), CO detectors 57.5% (n=69 346), fire extinguishers 42% (n=50 884) and first-aid kits 36% (n=43 497). Among this sample of Airbnb venues, safety deficiencies were noted. While most venues had smoke alarms, approximately 1/2 had CO alarms and less than 1/2 reported having a fire extinguishers or first-aid kits. Local and state governments or Airbnb must implement regulations compliant with current National Fire Protection Association fire safety standards. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Self-extinguishment of cross-laminated timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, R.; van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Terwel, K.C.; Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; Steenbakkers, P.; Breunesse, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber, or CLT, is receiving attention for its potential use in tall buildings. As a combustible material, one of the challenges for the construction of these buildings is the fire risk that results from its use in the structure. Unprotected CLT can burn along with the fuel load

  16. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, N.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  17. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  18. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  19. Fire Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  20. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  1. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  2. Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Important hot laboratory safety issues are the general design/construction of the building with respect to fire, fire prevention, fire protection, administrative controls, and risk assessment. Within the network of the European Working Group Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling items concerning 'fire preparedness measures in hot laboratories' were screened and studied. Two questionnaires were sent to European hot laboratories; the first in November 2002 on 'fire preparedness measures, fire detection and fire suppression/extinguishing in lead shielded cells, concrete shielded cells' and the second in June 2003 on 'Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories'. The questionnaires were filled in by a total of ten hot laboratories in seven European countries. On request of participants the answers were evaluated and 'anonymised' for presentation and discussion at the plenary meeting. The answers showed that many European hot laboratories are implementing improvements to their fire protection programmes to comply with more stringent requirements of the national authorities. The recommendations ('International guidelines for the fire protection of Nuclear Power Plants') given by the insurance pools are followed up with national variations. An ISO standard (ISO 17873) is in progress giving criteria for the design and the operation of ventilation systems as well as fire hazard management in nuclear installations others than reactors

  3. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times. ...

  4. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  5. Co-firing biomass and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In June 1989, the Alaska Energy Authority and the University of Alaska Anchorage published a monograph summarizing the technology of co-firing biomass and fossil fuels. The title of the 180 page monograph is 'Use of Mixed Fuels in Direct Combustion Systems'. Highlights from the monograph are presented in this paper with emphasis on the following areas: (1) Equipment design and operational experience co-firing fuels; (2) The impact of co-firing on efficiency; (3) Environmental considerations associated with co-firing; (4) Economic considerations in co-firing; and (5) Decision making criteria for co-firing

  6. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269 . 3. Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications, NFPA 1001; National Fire... of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease-Laden Vapor from Commercial Cooking Equipment, NFPA...

  7. A Review of Water Mist Technology for Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    TATEM Navy Technology Center for Safeny and Survivability Chemistry Division C. L. BEYLER P. J. DINENNO E. K. BUDNICK G. G. BACK S.E. YOUNIS Hughes ...Institute, Boris, Sweden, 91 R30189A, April 30, 1992. 32. Jackman , L.A., "Mathematical Model of the Interact’i- of Sprinkler Spray Drops with Fire Gases...of Phase II Energy Fields for Fire Extinguishment," prepared for the U.S. Air Force, Hughes Associates, Irc., Columbia, MD, January 1993. 53. Evans

  8. New on-board extinguisher system on diesel-driven vehicles in the German underground coal mining industry; Neuartige bordfeste Loeschanlage auf dieselgetriebenen Fahrzeugen im untertaegigen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetting, Dieter; Alze, Matthias [Bergwerk Ost, Hamm (Germany); Cerny, Udo [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Hauptstelle fuer das Grubenrettungswesen

    2010-01-15

    A new extinguisher system has been developed by protectfire Brandschutztechnik GmbH and has now been approved for use in underground mines. This extinguisher system is interesting by virtue of its reliability (no faulty tripping e.g. by defective electrical components is possible) and it's extinguishing efficiency (significantly longer extinguishing time compared to a powder extinguisher). No outside energy source is required for operation of the extinguisher. The motor is stopped more quickly by connection of the motor shutdown valve in the exciter line. Economic considerations - easier maintenance and lower costs compared to similar systems - also make this system interesting. (orig.)

  9. Methodology for fire PSA during design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Blombach, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA is an essential part of a full scope level 1 PSA. Cable fires play an important role in fire PSA. Usually, cable routing is therefore modeled in detail. During the design of new nuclear power plants the information on cable routing is not yet available. However, for the use of probabilistic safety insights during the design and for licensing purposes a fire PSA may be requested. Therefore a methodology has been developed which makes use of the strictly divisional separation of redundancies in the design of modern nuclear power plants: cable routing is not needed within one division but replaced by the conservative assumption that all equipment fails due to a fire in the concerned division; critical fire areas are defined where components belonging to different divisions may be affected by a fire. For the determination of fire frequencies a component based approach is proposed. The resulting core damage frequencies due to fire are conservative. (orig.)

  10. Appraisal of Fire Safety Management Systems at Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzim N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational buildings are one type of government asset that should be protected, and they play an important role as temporary communal meeting places for children, teachers and communities. In terms of management, schools need to emphasize fire safety for their buildings. It is well known that fires are not only a threat to the building’s occupants, but also to the property and the school environment. A study on fire safety management has been carried out on schools that have recently experienced fires in Penang. From the study, it was found that the school buildings require further enhancement in terms of both active and passive fire protection systems. For instance, adequate fire extinguishers should be provided to the school and the management should inspect and maintain fire protection devices regularly. The most effective methods to increase the level of awareness on fire safety are by organizing related programs on the management of fire safety involving all staff, teachers and students, educational talks on the dangers of fire and important actions to take in the event of an emergency, and, lastly, to appoint particular staff to join the management safety team in schools.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment... tank. (f) Vehicles transporting explosives and blasting agents shall be equipped with fire protection...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4230 - Self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4230 Self-propelled equipment. (a)(1) Whenever a fire or its effects...

  13. Fire extinction utilizing carbon dioxide hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, T.; Aida, E.; Yokomori, T.; Ohmura, R.; Ueda, T. [Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Clathrate hydrates formed with nonflammable gases may be suitable for use as fire extinguishing agents because dissociation of the hydrates results in the temperature decrease in the combustion field and the nonflammable gases released from the dissociated hydrates prevent the supply of the oxygen to the combustion field. This paper discussed experiments in which ordinary ice and dry ice were used to evaluate the performance of CO{sub 2} hydrate as a fire extinguishing agent. The paper described the apparatus and procedure for the preparation of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals. A schematic of the reactor to form CO{sub 2} hydrate and a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystal formed in the study were also presented. Other illustrations, photographs, and tables that were presented included a schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used for the flame extinction experiments; a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate powder; sequential video graphs of the flame extinction by the supply of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals to the methanol pool flame and the relevant illustration; and heat of CO{sub 2} hydrate dissociation, water vaporization and sublimation of dry ice. It was concluded that the critical mass of the CO{sub 2} hydrate required to extinguish a flame was much less than that of ordinary ice, indicating the superiority of CO{sub 2} hydrate to the ice. In addition, the experiments also revealed that the size of the CO{sub 2} hydrate particles had a significant effect on the performance of flame extinction. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Relapse of Extinguished Fear after Exposure to a Dangerous Context Is Mitigated by Testing in a Safe Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Travis D.; Kim, Janice J.; Maren, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events can trigger relapse of extinguished fear memories, presenting a major challenge to the long-term efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined factors regulating the relapse of extinguished fear after exposure of rats to a dangerous context. Rats received unsignaled shock in a distinct context ("dangerous"…

  15. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  16. Determination Of Measures That The Operating Nurses Take For The Fire Safety: Example Of Karabuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Isik Andsoy

    2012-06-01

    Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 32 operating room nurses in Karabuk hospitals who accept volunteer to participate. The data were collected with face to face interviews. Questionnaire was prepared by the researcher with the accompaniment of literature. Evaluation of the data, number and percentage were used. Results: In this study, 96.9% of the nurses have indicated that precautionary measures are taken against fire, and 75% of them have reported to have fire extinguishers and alarm system, and also 93.8% of them have stated that maintenance of existing systems in the operating room is done at certain intervals. Furthermore, 87.6% of the nurses have noted to have a fire extinguisher instruction in the operating room, and 62.5% of them have remarked that there are fire exit signs. Conclusion: Finally all of the nurses have indicated that routine checks of the operating rooms' electirical system are done. It has been found out that most of the nurses are knowledgable but inadequate about precautions against fire. As a result, it has been recommended to do an emergency planning in case of fires in operating rooms; to teach this plan to nurses, anesthetists, surgeon and other surgical team by fire drills; to train surgical team about fire risks and measures and to repeat this training regularly. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 87-93

  17. Kuwait summons more fire fighting teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-05

    Kuwait is calling in more muscle to help kill its wild wells. This paper reports on the latest action in Kuwait, the leasing of well control contracts to Abel Engineering/Well Control Inc., Houston, and China Petroleum Engineering Construction Co. (CPEC). Abel is the sixth North American well control company called to the scene, while CPEC is the first summoned from the East. In addition, the service responsible for combating well fires and blowouts in the U.S.S.R.'s Azerbaijan oil fields signed an agreement with Kuwait's government, apparently involving a contract valued at more than $100 million, to extinguish fires at 150 Kuwaiti wells, reported Eastern Bloc Energy, a publication of Eastern Bloc Research Ltd., Newton Kyme, U.K. More help likely is on the way.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-6 - Capacity of fire suppression devices; location and direction of nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nozzles of each fire suppression device shall, where practicable, be located so as to take advantage of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capacity of fire suppression devices; location... Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment...

  19. Fire Fighters' Ability and Willingness to Participate in a Pandemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaney, Jr, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Issues that may influence fire fighters ability and willingness to work include childcare, concern of family, adequate personal protective equipment, worker's compensation coverage, and availability...

  20. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. E.; Dietrich, D. L.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Urban, D. L.; Ruff, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    An accidental fire inside a spacecraft is an unlikely, but very real emergency situation that can easily have dire consequences. While much has been learned over the past 25+ years of dedicated research on flame behavior in microgravity, a quantitative understanding of the initiation, spread, detection and extinguishment of a realistic fire aboard a spacecraft is lacking. Virtually all combustion experiments in microgravity have been small-scale, by necessity (hardware limitations in ground-based facilities and safety concerns in space-based facilities). Large-scale, realistic fire experiments are unlikely for the foreseeable future (unlike in terrestrial situations). Therefore, NASA will have to rely on scale modeling, extrapolation of small-scale experiments and detailed numerical modeling to provide the data necessary for vehicle and safety system design. This paper presents the results of parallel efforts to better model the initiation, spread, detection and extinguishment of fires aboard spacecraft. The first is a detailed numerical model using the freely available Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). FDS is a CFD code that numerically solves a large eddy simulation form of the Navier-Stokes equations. FDS provides a detailed treatment of the smoke and energy transport from a fire. The simulations provide a wealth of information, but are computationally intensive and not suitable for parametric studies where the detailed treatment of the mass and energy transport are unnecessary. The second path extends a model previously documented at ICES meetings that attempted to predict maximum survivable fires aboard space-craft. This one-dimensional model implies the heat and mass transfer as well as toxic species production from a fire. These simplifications result in a code that is faster and more suitable for parametric studies (having already been used to help in the hatch design of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, MPCV).

  2. Sodium fire studies in France. Safety experiments applied to fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.; Berlin, M.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Justin, J.; Duco, J.

    1976-01-01

    In fast reactors, the risk of sodium fires must be analyzed in detail and the consequences of an accidental fire must be known precisely. Beyond the search for prevention and detection means, techniques must be developed to set up a limit to damages created by an accidental fire: extinguishing, aerosol confinement, protection of the reactor structures. The program developed by the Nuclear Safety Department of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique to solve these various problems is described. The main results and their applications to the Super-Phenix reactor are presented [fr

  3. Sodium fire studies in France safety tests and applications on an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.; Berlin, M.; de Cuy, G.D.; Justin, J.; Duco, J.; Fourest, B.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of sodium fires in an LMFBR requires thorough analysis, and the possible consequences of an accidental fire must be accurately determined. Not only must means of prevention and detection be perfected, but techniques must be developed to limit the damage caused by a fire: extinguishment, aerosol containment, protection of reactor structures. The program currently undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department covering these problems is described. The major results obtained as well as their application to the SUPER-PHENIX reactor are included

  4. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  5. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  6. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T.; Thomas, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes (‘FSC cigarettes’) that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk. PMID:28751788

  7. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  8. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  9. “Use of fire extinguishers” course: A hot tip for your safety!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Training Team

    2013-01-01

    The “Use of fire extinguishers – live exercises” course was introduced in conjunction with the Fire and Rescue Service and the HSE Unit at the start of 2012. Since then, more than 800 people have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers.   Photo: Vanessa Bandier. This course is aimed at all members of the CERN personnel. It takes place at the Prévessin training centre, lasts an hour and a half and consists of a theoretical part and a practical part with a role-play exercise in the simulator. The course can be taken in French or English. Here are some examples of comments received from people who have taken the course: “Excellent training session, very useful, especially the practical part. I’m no longer afraid to use a fire extinguisher.” “I was impressed with the quality of the installations used for the training. I didn’t expect every participant to be able to practise dealing with an emergency...

  10. Fire safety regulations and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Experience of the past tow decades of nuclear power plant operation and results obtained from modern analytical techniques confirm that fires may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the design phase throughout the life of the plant. Fire events, in particular influence significantly plant safety due to the fact that fires have the potential to simultaneously damage components of redundant safety-related equipment. Hence, the importance of fire protection for the overall safety of a nuclear power plant has to be reflected by the fire safety regulations and to be checked during the licensing process of a plant as well as during the continuous supervision of the operating plant

  11. Spontaneous Recovery But Not Reinstatement of the Extinguished Conditioned Eyeblink Response in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Reinstatement, the return of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) after reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US), and spontaneous recovery, the return of an extinguished CR with the passage of time, are two of four well-established phenomena which demonstrate that extinction does not erase the conditioned stimulus (CS)-US association. However, reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs has never been demonstrated and spontaneous recovery of extinguished eyeblink CRs has not been systematically demonstrated in rodent eyeblink conditioning. In Experiment 1, US reexposure was administered 24 hours prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 2, US reexposure was administered 5 min prior to a reinstatement test. In Experiment 3, a long, discrete cue (a houselight), present in all phases of training and testing, served as a context within which each trial occurred to maximize context processing, which in other preparations has been shown to be required for reinstatement. In Experiment 4, an additional group was included that received footshock exposure, rather than US reexposure, between extinction and test, and contextual freezing was measured prior to test. Spontaneous recovery was robust in Experiments 3 and 4. In Experiment 4, context freezing was strong in a group given footshock exposure but not in a group given eyeshock US reexposure. There was no reinstatement observed in any experiment. With stimulus conditions that produce eyeblink conditioning and research designs that produce reinstatement in other forms of classical conditioning, we observed spontaneous recovery but not reinstatement of extinguished eyeblink CRs. This suggests that reinstatement, but not spontaneous recovery, is a preparation- or substrate-dependent phenomenon. PMID:21517145

  12. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  13. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  14. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  15. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  16. Criticality and fire-fighting - Recent developments at Westinghouse, Springfields Fuels Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D. A.; Clemson, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-fighting advice in criticality-controlled areas has traditionally presented unique challenges to the nuclear industry, primarily because of the introduction of moderators / reflectors from water and foam and the potential rearrangement of materials. In an actual emergency, the decision to use water-based fire extinguishing methods is best influenced by a consensus between the criticality and fire specialists as part of the emergency planning process. A recent review of the fire-fighting arrangements at the site operated by Springfields Fuels Limited (SFL) in Preston in the United Kingdom has identified that more detailed guidance may be valuable relating to the specific areas and materials at risk, particularly to highlight the degree of risk and provide guidance on the risk of criticality if water-based fire extinguishing methods were deemed necessary. This has prompted consideration of a criticality 'Fire Tag' system, consisting of colour coded markers in the area (an immediate visual indicator of both the degree of risk and the appropriate fire-fighting response) and single sheet cards (specific guidance for the areas and materials at risk), with the process supported by appropriate training. The approach is currently being trialled on a small scale, and initial feedback from personnel has been positive. (authors)

  17. French research on a general approach to sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, JC.

    1989-01-01

    This document gives a general idea of how one may deal with the safety of an installation in case of a sodium leak generating either a sodium pool fire, or a sodium spray fire, or a combined sodium fire, and in case of a sodium leak either with or without fire and/or any aggravating phenomenon such as aerosols or sodium-concrete reactions, for example. This paper describes the means used to reduce fire consequences. These means are either design codes used for dimensioning premises with their ventilation system or for defining a course of action to be taken in case of fire, or equipment and components (fire fighting equipment, detection devices, etc.) used to prevent or to fight fires, or finally, to repair the installation after a fire, the latter operation including the processing of the residues. (author)

  18. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  19. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 238.103 Section 238.103..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a...

  20. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  1. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  2. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  3. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  4. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  5. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  6. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  7. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  8. 46 CFR 193.50-90 - Vessels contracted for prior to March 1, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-10(a). Minor modifications may be made to the same standard as the original installation: Provided... service so long as they are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers and Semiportable Fire Extinguishing...

  9. Computer-aided system for fire fighting in an underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, F; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of an algorithm for computer-aided planning of fire fighting and rescue in an underground coal mine. The algorithm developed by the Mining Institute of the Wroclaw Technical University consists of ten options: regulations on fire fighting, fire alarm for miners working underground (rescue ways, fire zones etc.), information system for mine management, movements of fire fighting teams, distribution of fire fighting equipment, assessment of explosion hazards of fire gases, fire gas temperature control of blower operation, detection of endogenous fires, ventilation control. 2 refs.

  10. Browns Ferry nuclear power-plant fire on March 22, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the March 22, 1975, fire at the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant. The fire originated in the electrical cable trays and burned for 7 hr before it was extinguished by water. The use of water was delayed until the reactors were in a stable shutdown condition because of the possibility of shorting circuits, which might have caused further degradation of conditions that would have been more difficult to control. However, when water was authorized, the fire was quickly extinguished. The fire-fighting efforts and the damage caused by the fire are described. The loss of electrical power and control circuits resulted in the unavailability of emergency core-cooling systems and hampered efforts to provide normal cooling to the reactor fuel. The availability of alternate cooling methods is reviewed, the efforts to maintain cooling of the reactor fuel are discussed, and the basic reasons for the common-mode failures are described. Assessments of the fire were made by three groups in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as by an independent insurance group. Some of the details of these assessments are presented, in particular, some deficiencies that the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement found during its investigation and some of the lessons learned from the events as determined by the NRC Special Review Group

  11. 46 CFR 108.463 - Foam rate: Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam rate: Protein. 108.463 Section 108.463 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.463 Foam rate: Protein. (a) If the outlets of a protein foam extinguishing system are in a space, the foam rate at each outlet must be at...

  12. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam extinguishing...

  13. Post Fire Safe Shutdown Analysis Using a Fault Tree Logic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Hyun Tae; Park, Jun Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Every nuclear power plant should have its own fire hazard analysis including the fire safe shutdown analysis. A safe shutdown (SSD) analysis is performed to demonstrate the capability of the plant to safely shut down for a fire in any given area. The basic assumption is that there will be fire damage to all cables and equipment located within a common fire area. When evaluating the SSD capabilities of the plant, based on a review of the systems, equipment and cables within each fire area, it should be determined which shutdown paths are either unaffected or least impacted by a postulated fire within the fire area. Instead of seeking a success path for safe shutdown given all cables and equipment damaged by a fire, there can be an alternative approach to determine the SSD capability: fault tree analysis. This paper introduces the methodology for fire SSD analysis using a fault tree logic model

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1985-07-01

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  15. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  16. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  17. Station set requirements document. Volume 82: Fire support. Book 2: Preliminary functional fire plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The fire prevention/protection requirements for all shuttle facility and ground support equipment are presented for the hazardous operations. These include: preparing the orbiter for launch, launch operations, landing operations, safing operations, and associated off-line activities.

  18. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results

  19. Chemistry experiences from a containment fire at Ringhals unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Bengt; Svanberg, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    At the refuelling outage in Ringhals unit 2, during an ongoing Containment Air Test (CAT), a fire event occurred at the refuelling deck/entrance floor. Due to the ongoing CAT with high pressure, all attempts to enter the containment to extinguish the fire were impossible. The fire started as a short circuit (spark) in a vacuum cleaner that was left in the containment by mistake and then set fire to nearby material. Approximate, 5 kg of rubber material and 30 kg of plastic material were estimated to have been burned out. The complete inside of the containment from the level of fire (+115) up to the ceiling/dome (+156) was colored black by soot. Soot or smoke was also spread throughout the whole containment building and the cavity/reactor vessel was contaminated by a minor part of soot due to some unsuccessful covering of the area during CAT. All fuel assemblies were stored in the fuel pool building and not affected by the fire. During the pressure reduction of containment, high air humidity with moisture precipitation occurred and caused a rapid general corrosion on steel surfaces due to high levels of chloride in the soot together with some pitting on stainless steel piping. Immediate action was to install portable dryers to lower the humidity, followed by the start of an extensive cleaning program with objectives to prevent plant degradation/recontamination of soot and bring the unit back in operation. More than 1300 people including >150 cleaners has been appointed to this project. All piping, insulation, cables, >4.500 components, 6.340 m 2 of concrete wall surface and 5.100 m 2 of concrete floor surface have been cleaned during 7 months to an estimated cost of 20 million Euro. Chemistry staff has been deeply involved in sampling and chemical analysis of contaminated surfaces/objects as well as establishing criteria's for cleaning equipment, procedures and specifications. Approximately 12000 measurements have been performed using portable salt meters in

  20. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  1. 数据中心高压细水雾灭火系统设计分析%High pressure water mist fire suppression system design of data center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋皓

    2012-01-01

    Considering the (unction and protection requirement of computer room with different safety classes in the data center* and through the discussion on the system selection, sprinkler setting and system integration optimization of high pressure waj ter mist fire suppression system, design plans of high pressure water mist fire suppression system in different computer room, equipment room and workplace were put forward, and specific parameters were designed. The investment was saved while the extinguishing efficiency was ensured, and the flexibility and effectiveness of the system design were improved.%针对数据中心内不同安全等级机房的使用功能及防护要求,通过对高压细水雾灭火系统从系统选型、喷头设置及优化系统集成等方面进行探讨分析,提出了不同机房、设备用房及工作间的高压细水雾灭火系统设计方案,并设计了具体参数,在保证灭火有效性的基础上节约投资,提高了该系统设计的灵活性及有效性.

  2. Regulatory process for material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Agarwal, Kailash

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Energy (Factories) Rules (AEFR) 1996, Rule 35 states, 'Thorough inspection and load testing of a Crane shall be done by a Competent Person at least once every 12 months'. To adhere to this rule, BARC Safety Council constituted 'Material Handling Equipment Committee (MHEC)' under the aegis of Conventional Fire and Safety Review Committee (CFSRC) to carry out periodical inspection and certification of Material Handling Equipment (MHE), tools and tackles used in BARC Facilities at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam

  3. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  4. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  5. Mine shaft fire and smoke protection systems - an update on hardware development and in-mine testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    In 1976, The Bureau of Mines developed a prototype system to sense and extinguish fires in shafts and shaft stations in underground metal and nonmetal mines. Subsequent work modified this technology to include fueling areas, spontaneous combustion zones and coal mines. This paper updates IC-8783 ''In-mine Fire Tests of Mine Shaft Fire and Smoke Protection Systems'', which was published in 1978 and summarized the design and in-mine, actual fire testing of the first prototype mine shaft fire and smoke protection system. This paper also updates related work from IC-8775 ''Spontaneous Oxidation and Combustion of Sulfide Ores in Underground Mines, (also published in 1978) and IC-8808 ''In-mine Evaluation of Underground Fire and Smoke Detectors'', (published in early 1979)

  6. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  7. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  8. Inertisation and mine fire simulation using computer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Gillies; Hsin Wei Wu [Gillies Wu Mining Technology (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    Inertisation is a technique used to enhance the safety of underground coal mine areas either to avoid the potential for a combustion event or to stabilise a situation after an ignition, fire or heating. The primary objective of the study was to review coal mine inertisation in Australia, in particular, to focus on the use of the Polish mine fire simulation software 'VENTGRAPH' to gain better understanding of how inertisation (GAG, Mineshield, Nitrogen Pressure Swing Adsorption (Floxal) and Tomlinson Boiler) units interact with the complex ventilation behaviour underground during a substantial fire. Most emphasis has been given to understanding the behaviour of the GAG unit because of its high capacity output. Critical aspects targeted for examination include location of the unit for high priority fire positions, size of borehole or pipe range required, time required for inertisation output to interact with and extinguish a fire, effects of seam gases on fire behaviour with inertisation present and main fan management. The project aims to increase understanding of behaviour of mine fires in modern mine ventilation networks with the addition of inert gas streams. A second aim of the project has been to take findings from the simulation exercises and develop inertisation related modifications to the program in conjunction with the Polish program authors. Exercises based on Oaky North and Oaky No 1 mines have involved 'evaluation or auditing' of ability to deliver inert gases generated from GAG units to high priority underground fire locations. These exercises have been built around modelling of fire scenarios across the mine layouts. The fire simulation exercises at Oaky North and Oaky No 1 mines demonstrated that it is possible to efficiently evaluate possible inertisation strategies appropriate to a complex mine layout extracting a gassy seam and determine which approach strategy (if any) can be used to stabilise a mine in a timely fashion.

  9. Planning for fire control and protection of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Because nuclear installations are designed and built to high standards with segregation and fire barriers included, the risk from fires is not high. However, small fires can become large and nuclear sites present additional hazards to fire fighters because of radiation release and from metal fires (magnesium alloys and sodium) which require special techniques of firefighting. All sites have their own fire fighting force which would tackle a fire initially and these should train and work in close cooperation with the Local Authority fire service. The main points raised concern radiation protection for the fire fighters including the issuing of emergency dosemeters and potassium iodate tablets, decontamination of personnel, vehicles and equipment, communications, and the need for standardisation of plans at all installations throughout the country. (U.K.)

  10. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  11. Extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging gray wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    A free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), habituated to human presence (the author) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, learned to anticipate experimental feeding by a human, became impatient, persistent, and bold and exhibited stalking behaviour toward the food source. Only after the author offered the wolf about 90 clumps of dry soil over a period of 45 minutes in three bouts, did the wolf give up this behaviour. To my knowledge, this is the first example of extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging wolf and provides new insight into the learning behaviour of such animals.

  12. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  13. U.S. Navy Halon 1211 Replacement Program: Assessment of Aircraft Collateral Damage From Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-15

    tested: 304 stainless steel, 13-8 Mo PH stainless steel, AM 355 stainless steel, stainless steel alloy 21-6-9 (Nitronic 40), 4130 alloy steel, Inconel 625 ...indicated a break down of the lubricant with deleterious effects on wear and performance. While corrosion tests were also run in a Tropical Testing...increased wear and corrosion in areas where the sodium bicarbonate would become entrapped in tight fitting and overlapping joints. Due to normal

  14. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  15. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  16. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  17. Los Alamos Before and After the Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On May 4, 2000, a prescribed fire was set at Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, to clear brush and dead and dying undergrowth to prevent a larger, subsequent wildfire. Unfortunately, due to high winds and extremely dry conditions in the surrounding area, the prescribed fire quickly raged out of control and, by May 10, the blaze had spread into the nearby town of Los Alamos. In all, more than 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes and more than 200 houses were destroyed as the flames consumed about 48,000 acres in and around the Los Alamos area. The pair of images above were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor, flying aboard NASA's Landsat 7 satellite, shortly before the Los Alamos fire (top image, acquired April 14) and shortly after the fire was extinguished (lower image, June 17). The images reveal the extent of the damage caused by the fire. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false-color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green. Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. In the lower image, the areas recently burned appear bright red. Landsat 7 data courtesy United States Geological Survey EROS DataCenter. Images by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  18. Estimation of fire frequency from PWR operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Barrachin, G.; Bonino, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire PSA), the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for estimating the frequency of fire in a nuclear power plant room. This method is based on the analysis of French Pressurized Water Reactors operating experience. The method adopted consists is carrying out an in-depth analysis of fire-related incidents. A database has been created including 202 fire events reported in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe reactors from the start of their commercial operation up to the first of March 1994, which represents a cumulated service life of 508 reactor-years. For each reported fire, several data were recorded among which: The operating state of the reactor in the stage preceding the fire, the building in which the fire broke out, the piece of equipment or the human intervention which caused the fire. Operating experience shows that most fires are initiated by electrical problems (short-circuits, arcing, faulty contacts, etc.) and that human intervention also plays an important role (grinding, cutting, welding, cleaning, etc.). A list of equipment and of human interventions which proved to be possible fire sources was therefore drawn up. the items of this list were distributed in 19 reference groups defined by taking into account the nature of the potential ignition source (transformers, electrical cabinets, pumps, fans, etc.). The fire frequency assigned to each reference group was figured out using the operating experience information of the database. The fire frequency in a room is considered to be made out of two contributions: one due to equipment which is proportional to the number of pieces of equipment from each reference group contained in the room, and a second one which is due to human interventions and assumed to be uniform throughout the reactor. Formulas to assess the fire frequencies in a room, the reactor being in a shutdown state or at power, are then proposed

  19. A novel and facile strategy for highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials: Transforming silicone resin coating into silica self-extinguishing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Li; Li, Shi-Neng; Wu, Lian-Bin; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Tang, Long-Cheng

    2017-08-15

    In this study, a novel strategy was developed to fabricate highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials coated by synthesized silicone resin (SiR) polymer via a facile dip-coating processing. Applying the SiR polymer coating, the mechanical property and thermal stability of SiR-coated polymer foam (PSiR) composites are greatly enhanced without significantly altering their structure and morphology. The minimum oxygen concentration to support the combustion of foam materials is greatly increased, i.e. from LOI 14.6% for pure foam to LOI 26-29% for the PSiR composites studied. Especially, adjusting pendant group to SiOSi group ratio (R/Si ratio) of SiRs produces highly flame retardant PSiR composites with low smoke toxicity. Cone calorimetry results demonstrate that 44-68% reduction in the peak heat release rate for the PSiR composites containing different R/Si ratios over pure foam is achieved by the presence of appropriate SiR coating. Digital and SEM images of post-burn chars indicate that the SiR polymer coating can be transformed into silica self-extinguishing porous layer as effective inorganic barrier effect, thus preserving the polymer foam structure from fire. Our results show that the SiR dip-coating technique is a promising strategy for producing flame retardant polymer foam composite materials with improved mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  1. Burning behavior in a poor-ventilation compartment fire - ghosting fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Osami; Kawagoe, Kunio; Oka, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    We investigated compartment fire behavior under poor-ventilation conditions using a methyl alcohol pool fire as the source with a diameter of 30 cm set in a tight box of 2 m (W)x3 m(L)x0.6 m(H). The temperatures in the box and the fuel, gas concentrations of CO, CO 2 , and O 2 , and the fuel consumption rate were measured simultaneously. The burning fuel surface level was kept constant during the test by means of an automatic fuel supply system. It was found that the flame begun to detach from the fuel surface as the oxygen concentration decreased to about 16%, and the color changed to pale blue. The flame detached completely from the fuel and a 'ghosting flame' was observed just under the ceiling which showed a thin pale blue flame and looked line an aurora. The oxygen concentration measured in the ghosting period under the ceiling was 9-10 vol%, and CO 2 was 4.5 vol% so that the oxygen of such concentration acted as in inert gas. CO 2 gas concentration looked almost a single-layer with gradient in the upper half part in ghosting period. Temperatures in the same layer decreased after ghosting occurred with gradient. For poor-ventilated fires, air exchange rate as 1.6-2.4 times/hr was estimated in the test; the burning rate decreased finally to about 1/6 of the fuel controlled fire. It has been tacitly assumed that the flame (reaction zone) and pyrolyzing material area (fuel) exit in almost the same zone, but ghosting fire is not necessarily the case. Therefore, extinguishment of ghosting fire which may occur in an enclosure with fuel and energy rich but poor-ventilation such as a power plant will be extremely difficult. (orig.)

  2. Methods and criteria for evaluation of nuclear reactor fire protection alternatives and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the evaluation of a fire protection system in a nuclear power plant and demonstrate the feasibility of encoding this method in a computer program. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed; it is divided into the four phases of a fire scenario: ignition, detection, suppression and propagation. The ignition model consists of probabilistically determining at what location within the zone a fire will occur. The detection model is divided into two components. THe first is the automatic detection model, which calculates the fire's physical symptoms and compares them against the threshold values of the detectors specified for the zone to determine a time-to-detection. The second part is the human detection model; this evaluates the time required for a human to observe and report a fire. If detection is successful, the suppression mode determines if the fire is effectively extinguished, and if so, the time required to do so. This model is also divided into an automatic and human component. The propagation model is embedded in a deterministic, control-volume computer code which calculates the fire scenario history. A computer program, FIRES, is described which supports the developed models. FIRES is an interactive graphics package providing a simple means of establishing the many input parameters. In addition to allowing parameter values to be easily set or modified, the graphics provides a convenient display mode for the results of a simulation

  3. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  4. Observations concerning the COMPBRN III fire growth code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plant fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) usually involve application of a fire growth model to calculate fire growth and the time required to damage critical safety equipment. Attempts to use the fire growth model COMPBRN III resulted in the observation of problems and nonphysical behavior in the code. In this paper the causes of these problems and nonphysical behavior are identified and possible modifications suggested. Incorporation of these modifications into COMPBRN III results in some significant differences in the calculated fire damage times, as well as making the code more physically realistic. 12 refs., 6 figs

  5. Nuclear power plants: a unique challenge to fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of fire safety in a nuclear power plant must include the consideration of the impact of a fire on the operability of plant safety equipment and systems. This issue is not typical of the life safety and property protection issues which dominate traditional fire safety concerns. This paper provides a general discussion of the issue of nuclear power plant fire safety as it currently exists in the USA. Included is a discussion of the past history of nuclear power plant fire events, the development of nuclear industry specific fire safety guidelines, the adverse experience associated with the inadvertent operation of fire suppression systems, and the anticipated direction of fire safety requirements for future reactor designs in the USA. (Author)

  6. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  7. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  8. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  9. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  11. 46 CFR 193.50-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 193.50-10 Section 193.50-10 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-10 Location. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a). The location of the equipment...

  12. 46 CFR 95.50-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 95.50-10 Section 95.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...-10 Location. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with Table 95.50-10(a). The location of the equipment shall be to...

  13. 46 CFR 108.443 - Controls and valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.443 Controls and valves. (a) At least one control for operating a CO2 system must be outside the space or spaces that the...

  14. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... should be used in determining placement of required fire extinguishers and protective breathing equipment... blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or... ventilation rate. The system must have sufficient extinguishing agent to provide an initial knockdown and...

  15. 46 CFR 181.400 - Where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where required. 181.400 Section 181.400 Shipping COAST... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 181.400 Where required. (a) The... cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet); (2) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be in...

  16. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Effects of Fire Suppression Agents and Weathering in the Analysis of Fire Debris by HS-MS eNose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Falatová

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In arson attacks the detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs at fire scenes provides key evidence since ignitable liquids, such as gasoline, are commonly used to initiate the fire. In most forensic laboratories gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is employed for the analysis of ILRs. When a fire occurs, suppression agents are used to extinguish the fire and, before the scene is investigated, the samples at the scene are subjected to a variety of processes such as weathering, which can significantly modify the chemical composition and thus lead to erroneous conclusions. In order to avoid this possibility, the application of chemometric tools that help the analyst to extract useful information from data is very advantageous. The study described here concerned the application of a headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (HS-MS eNose combined with chemometric tools to determine the presence/absence of gasoline in weathered fire debris samples. The effect of applying two suppression agents (Cafoam Aquafoam AF-6 and Pyro-chem PK-80 Powder and delays in the sampling time (from 0 to 48 h were studied. It was found that, although the suppression systems affect the mass spectra, the HS-MS eNose in combination with suitable pattern recognition chemometric tools, such as linear discriminant analysis, is able to identify the presence of gasoline in any of the studied situations (100% correct classification.

  18. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  19. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  20. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  1. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L −1 were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m −3 was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored. - Highlights: ► High concentration of volatile mercury was observed in the aeration pool. ► More than 0.3% of total discharged Hg emitted from the pool into the air. ► Higher aeration rate resulted in more mercury emitted into the air. ► The dust and topsoil around the pool were polluted with the mercury

  2. 49 CFR 176.69 - General stowage requirements for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection system, the freight containers or barges need... by paragraph (a) of this section if fire fighting equipment capable of reaching and piercing the..., their removal from a potentially dangerous situation, and the removal of packages in case of fire. (b...

  3. Effects of Multiple Contexts and Context Similarity on the Renewal of Extinguished Conditioned Behaviour in an ABA Design with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The ABA renewal procedure involves pairing a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) in one context (A), presenting extinction trials of the CS alone in a second context (B), and nonreinforced test trials of the CS in the acquisition context (A). The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour is observed during test. The…

  4. Probabilistic fire risk assessment for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobbelaar, J.F.; Foster, N.A.S.; Luesse, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    A probabilistic fire risk assessment was done for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. Areas where fires are likely to start were identified. Equipment important to safety, as well as their power and/or control cable routes were identified in each fire confinement sector. Fire confinement sectors where internal initiating events could be caused by fire were identified. Detection failure and suppression failure fault trees and event trees were constructed. The core damage frequency associated with each fire confinement sector was calculated, and important fire confinement sectors were identified. (author)

  5. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  6. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  7. Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Roger; Jin, Jingji; Goode, Travis D.

    2018-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the extinction of emotional memories, including conditioned fear. We found that ventral hippocampal (vHPC) projections to the infralimbic (IL) cortex recruited parvalbumin-expressing interneurons to counter the expression of extinguished...... fear and promote fear relapse. Whole-cell recordings ex vivo revealed that optogenetic activation of vHPC input to amygdala-projecting pyramidal neurons in the IL was dominated by feed-forward inhibition. Selectively silencing parvalbumin-expressing, but not somatostatin-expressing, interneurons...... in the IL eliminated vHPC-mediated inhibition. In behaving rats, pharmacogenetic activation of vHPC→IL projections impaired extinction recall, whereas silencing IL projectors diminished fear renewal. Intra-IL infusion of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists, respectively, reproduced these effects. Together...

  8. Effect of vacuum arc cathode spot distribution on breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Can; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2017-10-01

    A DC circuit breaker performs a key function in breaking an intermediate-frequency (IF) current since breaking a pure IF current is equivalent to breaking a very small DC with a reverse IF current. In this study, it is found that cathode spots show a ring-shaped distribution at 2000 Hz. An arc with an uneven distribution of cathode spots has been simulated. The simulation results show that the distribution of cathode spots significantly affect the microparameter distribution of arc plasma. The current distribution on the anode side differs from that on the cathode side under the total radial electric field. Specifically, the anode current distribution is both uneven and concentrated. The applied axial magnetic field, which cannot reduce the concentrated anode current distribution effectively, might increase the concentration of the anode current. Finally, the uneven distribution of cathode spots reduces the breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber.

  9. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 95.10-5(a). Table 95.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of...

  10. 46 CFR 76.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 76.10-5 Section 76.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Details § 76.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with table 76.10-5(a). Table 76.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of pumps...

  11. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  12. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  13. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  14. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  15. 78 FR 6133 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... information collection request (ICR) revision titled, ``Fire Protection in Underground Coal Mines,'' to the... sections of part 75 require fire drills to be conducted quarterly, equipment to be tested, and a record to...

  16. U.S. position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.; Powers, D.A.

    1982-05-01

    Sodium combustion phenomena and U.S. computer codes developed for sodium fires are discussed. Ways of preventing and mitigating sodium fires are described. Effects of sodium fires and spills on LMFBR structural materials, thermal insulation materials, and equipment/instrumentation are considered

  17. Ecological modeling of pollutants in accidental fire at the landfill waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanov Sonja B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents tyre as flammable material and some examples of tyre fires in the world. Uncontrolled tyre fires produce a lot of smoke and air pollutants, including benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Great heat leads to the generation of pyrolytic oil which, when mixed with the fire extinguishing agent, contaminates the surrounding soil, surface water and underground water. Paper analyzes and presents in particular the emission factors of incomplete burning of waste car tyres. Metal dust emissions have been presented, volatile organic compund (VOC emissions, slightly volatile organic compound (SVOC emissions and emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Evaluation of the effect on the air quality has been graphically presented by modelling of uncotrolled tyre burning by using EPA "SCREEN 3 MODEL".

  18. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  19. Fire safety requirements for electrical cables towards nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electrical power supply forms a very important part of any nuclear reactor. Power supplies have been categorized in to class I, II, III and IV from reliability point. The safety related equipment are provided with highly reliable power supply to achieve the safety of very high order. Vast network of cables in a nuclear reactor are grouped and segregated to ensure availability of power to at least one group under all anticipated occurrences. Since fire can result in failures leading to unavailability of power caused by common cause, both passive and active fire protection methods are adopted in addition to fire detection system. The paper describes the requirement for passive fire protection to electrical cables viz. fire barrier and fire breaks. The paper gives an account of the tests required to standardize the products. Fire safety implementation for cables in research reactors is described

  20. 77 FR 17099 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Diesel-Powered Equipment for Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... to underground coal miners who work in mines that use diesel-powered equipment. Diesel equipment can... provide important safety protections to underground coal miners who work in mines that use diesel-powered... maintenance of fire suppression systems on the equipment and at fueling stations; exhaust gas sampling...

  1. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of ignition. A motor vehicle or mechanical equipment showing any signs of leakage or electrical fault... equipment is stowed. (f) Each hold or compartment must be ventilated and fitted with an overhead water... smoke or fire detection system capable of alerting personnel on the bridge. (h) All electrical equipment...

  2. Investigation of Fire Safety Awareness and Management in Mall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of having sufficient fire safety system installed in buildings, the incidence of fire hazard becomes the furthermost and supreme threat to health and safety, as well as property to any community. In order to make sure that the safety of the building and its users, the fundamental features depends on the fire precaution system and equipment which should be according to the standard requirements. Nevertheless, the awareness on fire safety could necessarily alleviate the damages or rate of fatality during the event of fire. This paper presents the results on the investigation of fire safety awareness and management, concentrating on shopping mall. The endeavour of this study is to explore the level of fire safety knowledge of the users in the mall, and to study the effectiveness level of fire safety management in a mall. From the study, public awareness is highly related to understanding human behaviour and their personal background. The respondents’ levels of awareness are rather low, which reflects on their poor action when facing emergency situation during fire. The most effective methods identified to improve the awareness and effectiveness of fire safety level is through involvement in related fire safety programmes, distribution of pamphlets or brochures on fire safety and appointing specific personnel for Emergency Response Team in the mall.

  3. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  4. Probabilistic assessment of fire hazard: a contribution of power industry to the development of fire protection engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrac, J.; Skvarka, P.

    1990-01-01

    Draft methodology was developed for assessment of fire hazard in nuclear power plants. Named DIMEHORP, the methodology is based on fire hazard analyses and on the analyses of the possible ways of fire propagation and of the power plant systems. The former includes determining the spaces of the power plant in which a fire can arise. Fire propagation analysis deals with the probability that within a given section the fire will propagate and cause damage to the equipment before it is localized. The mathematical model used is based on probability theory in conjunction with expert estimates. The methodology was applied to the assessment of the effect of fire in the cable rooms of the Dukovany nuclear power plant on the safety and reliability of its operation. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 6 refs

  5. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. CERN firemen simulate the backdraft phenomena for training. The demonstration, which you will have the opportunity to observe, on the next Discovery Monday, is spectacular. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well b...

  6. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. In response to recommendations of /VIR 93/, CSNI/PWG5 established a Task Group to review the present status and maturity of current methods used in fire risk assessments for operating nuclear power plants. The Task Group issued a questionnaire in May 1997 to all nuclear power generating OECD countries. The prime focus of the questionnaire (see Appendix A) was on a number of important issues in fire PSA: Fire PSA methodology and applications; Fire simulation codes; Ignition and damageability data; Modeling of fire spread on cables or other equipment; Modeling of smoke production and spread; Impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation, electronics, or other electrical equipment; Impact of actual cable fires on safety systems. The questionnaire requested specific information on these topics (e.g., computer codes used in fire PSAs, the physical parameters used to model ignition). Responses to the questionnaire were provided by Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA. This report summarizes the questionnaire responses and thereby: a) provides a perspective on the current fire PSA state of the art (SOAR) with respect to the issues listed above, and b) provides numerous references for more detailed information regarding these issues. The main responsibility for writing different chapters of this report was divided between some

  7. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  8. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  9. Specific equipment for the transfer and transport of radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblais, R.

    1983-01-01

    Safety regulations impose a system of transport high-level radioactive liquids which excludes all risk of accidental projections. Ets. LEMER have collaborated with the A.E.C. for the industrial manufacture of more than 250 pieces of equipment for FRANCE and for 13 nuclear centres abroad. This equipment can be classified in two categories: - CENDRILLON containers which must be placed in special shock-proof and fire-proof shells for transport on public roads; - containers mounted on trailors provided with their own shock-proof and fire-proof protection

  10. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    The polymetallic nodules occur at an average depth of 4500 m. Adequate equipment and techniques are required for the exploration at such depths. Shipboard and various laboratory equipments for the sampling of polymetallic nodules is described...

  11. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  12. 46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps-T/ALL. 34.10-5 Section 34.10-5 Shipping COAST... § 34.10-5 Fire pumps—T/ALL. (a) Tankships shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with table 34.10-5(a). Table 34.10-5(a)—Fire Pumps Size vessel, L.O.A. (feet) Over— Not over...

  13. Assessing the adequacy and reliability of fire barriers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Fire barriers on nuclear power plants are essential for proper segregation of redundant trains of safety equipment. The contribution they make to nuclear safety is obviously significant, but difficult to quantify. As a result, the analysis of fire barriers for nuclear safety justification purposes tends to concentrate on demonstrating that they are adequate instead. The paper discusses various methods of analysing fire barriers and introduces work being completed on a method for quantifying the reliability of a fire barrier. (orig.)

  14. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  15. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  16. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  17. Environmental contamination by perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates following the use of fire-fighting foam in Tomakomai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research

    2004-09-15

    On September 26, 2003, a magnitude (M) 8.3 offshore earthquake struck Hokkaido, Japan. The earthquake and ensuing tsunami injured hundreds of people and resulted in significant damage to port and coastal communities. Immediately following the earthquake, a major fire occurred at an oil storage facility of a refinery (Idematsu Kosan Company Ltd) located in the west part of Tomakomai, a Pacific coast city in southern Hokkaido. Idemitsu Kosan Company is the second largest oil refinery in Japan, with a capacity of 140,000 barrels per day (bpd) in Tomakomai. Forty five of the 105 oil storage tanks were damaged following the earthquake and resulted in release of petroleum naphtha, which ignited accidentally. The first fire was reported immediately after the earthquake on 26 September 2003 and was extinguished after 7 hours. The second fire occurred on 28 September and lasted for 44 h. More than three hundred fireman and about one hundred fire engines were brought from several prefectures by air carriers to extinguish the fire. More than 130,000 L of fire fighting foams (FFF) was delivered to extinguish these fires and at least 40,000 L was used. Detailed information regarding the type of FFF used was not available, but aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) have been used in the control of fuel-related fires. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated acids are a component of AFFF. The issue of environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates has received much attention in the last four years. PFCs possess unique physicochemical properties and exhibit a wide range of volatility/ water solubility depending on the functional group. Environmental dynamics of PFCs is complex due to their unique characteristics and to their release from multitude of sources with various compositions. Previous studies have reported on environmental contamination by PFCs due to accidental release of AFFF. Large amount of

  18. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine prevents the return of extinguished auditory-cued conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaux, Olivier; Spennato, Guillaume; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Garcia, René

    2011-05-01

    We have recently shown that post-extinction exposure of rats to a sub-threshold reminder shock can reactivate extinguished context-related freezing and found that chronic treatment with fluoxetine before fear extinction prevents this phenomenon. In the present study, we examined whether these findings would be confirmed with auditory fear conditioning. Rats were initially submitted to a session of five tone-shock pairings with either a 0.7- or 0.1-mA shock and underwent, 3 days later, a session of 20 tone-alone trials. At the beginning of this latter session, we observed cue-conditioned freezing in rats that received the strong, but not the weak, shock. At the end, both groups (strong and weak shocks) displayed similar low levels of freezing, indicating fear extinction in rats exposed to the strong shock. These rats exhibited again high levels of cue-evoked freezing when exposed to three tone-shock pairings with 0.1-mA shock. This reemergence of cue-conditioned fear was completely abolished by chronic (over a 21-day period) fluoxetine treatment which spared, when administered before the initial fear conditioning, the original tone-shock association. These data extend our previous findings and suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment favor extinction memory by dampening the reactivation of the original tone-shock association.

  19. Hippocampus-driven feed-forward inhibition of the prefrontal cortex mediates relapse of extinguished fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Roger; Jin, Jingji; Goode, Travis D; Giustino, Thomas F; Wang, Qian; Acca, Gillian M; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Ploski, Jonathan E; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W; Maren, Stephen; Sah, Pankaj

    2018-03-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the extinction of emotional memories, including conditioned fear. We found that ventral hippocampal (vHPC) projections to the infralimbic (IL) cortex recruited parvalbumin-expressing interneurons to counter the expression of extinguished fear and promote fear relapse. Whole-cell recordings ex vivo revealed that optogenetic activation of vHPC input to amygdala-projecting pyramidal neurons in the IL was dominated by feed-forward inhibition. Selectively silencing parvalbumin-expressing, but not somatostatin-expressing, interneurons in the IL eliminated vHPC-mediated inhibition. In behaving rats, pharmacogenetic activation of vHPC→IL projections impaired extinction recall, whereas silencing IL projectors diminished fear renewal. Intra-IL infusion of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists, respectively, reproduced these effects. Together, our findings describe a previously unknown circuit mechanism for the contextual control of fear, and indicate that vHPC-mediated inhibition of IL is an essential neural substrate for fear relapse.

  20. Investigations concerning fire-induced accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuth, P.; Lernout, L.A.; Bonneval, F.; Cottaz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of fire protection in technical buildings of French nuclear facilities, three principles have been adopted: prevention, detection and fire-fighting. Their implementation makes it possible on the one hand to limit the fire ignition and the fire growth, and on the other hand to prevent fire extent which would lead to unavailability of several safety related equipment. Although progress has been made in this direction, the fire risks have still not been eliminated. It is therefore essential to evaluate the fire effects and to assess their consequences. To this end, three main R and D programs have been conducted into fires. Part I sets out the fire PSA methodology used for a 900 MWe PWR. Part II gives an outline of two fire and ventilation computer codes useful for the fire PSA. Finally, part III gives an outline of the tests already performed and those currently under way in the two laboratories of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in order to qualify the codes and provide useful information for the safety assessment. (author)

  1. Regulatory point of view on defense in depth approach to fire protection in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Filppula, Samu; Lehto, Matti; Vaelikangas, Pekka [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    The defense-in-depth (DiD) principle is a relatively new approach to fire protection design, even though DiD has been used in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety evaluation and design for decades (IAEA 75-INSAG-3, Rev. 1/INSAG-12). It is the main design criterion in fire protection in the latest edition of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) issued guide YVL B.8 for the fire protection in nuclear facilities. The DiD approach to fire protection consists of four levels of defense: preventing the ignition of fires, detecting and extinguishing of ignited fires, preventing fire growth and spreading, confining the fire so that safety functions can be performed irrespective of the effects of the fire. The design of fire protection should take all these levels into account so that fire protection is well balanced and not dependent on a single fire protection factor or level of DiD. Despite being central to the design of fire protection, corresponding evaluations of DiD are done according to more or less unambiguous methods. The main goal of this study is to start the development of such, as much as possible, unambiguous systematic and logical method. First issue then is to build a picture of how fire safety features are executed on different levels of DiD and what is the corresponding safety importance to NPP. The Loviisa NPP was studied as an example case due to a long history of fire safety improvements since commissioning in 1977. The improvements are sorted qualitatively by their means of fire safety impact and level of DiD approach to fire protection and general plant DiD. The correspondence between the two DiD principles is an interesting issue which is discussed in this paper. Finally, Fire PRA is used to determine the safety importance of the improvements. The method proposed for the evaluation of DiD approach to fire protection is a combined ignition root cause analysis - event tree of fire scenario - consequential failure modes and effects analysis

  2. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Insufficiencies in the fire protection system of the nuclear reactor facilities were pointed out when the fire occurred due to the Niigata prefecture-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in July, 2007. This prompted the revision of the fire protection safety examination guideline for nuclear reactors as well as commercial guidelines. The commercial guidelines have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Now commercial fire protection standards for nuclear facilities such as the design guideline and the management guideline for protecting fire in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are available, however, those to apply to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility (MFFF) have not been established. For the improvement of fire protection system of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the development of a standard for the fire protection, corresponding to the commercial standard for LWRs were required. Thus, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) formulated a fire protection guidelines for nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a standard relevant to the fire protection of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considering functions specific to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In formulating the guidelines, investigation has been conduced on the commercial guidelines for nuclear reactors in Japan and the standards relevant to the fire protection of nuclear facilities in USA and other countries as well as non-nuclear industrial fire protection standards. The guideline consists of two parts; Equipments and Management, as the commercial guidances of the nuclear reactor. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (an electric cabinet, cable, oil etc.) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  3. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  4. Fire fighting capability assessment program Bruce B NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Bruce B NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures. Finally the execution of fire plans by Bruce B NGS, as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. The fire fighting equipment and the personal protective clothing and associated equipment that was in use was all of good quality and in good condition. There had also been notable improvement in communications equipment. Similarly, the human resources that had been assigned to fire fighting and rescue crews and that were available were more than adequate. Use of a logical incident command system, and the adoption of proper policy and procedures for radio communications were equally significant improvements. Practice should correct the breakdowns that occurred in these areas during the exercise. As well, there remains a need for the development of policy on fire fighting and rescue operations with more depth and clarity. In summary, the key point to be recognized is the degree of improvement that has been realized since the previous evaluation in 1990. Clearly the Emergency Response Teams organization of Bruce B NGS is evolving into an effective fire fighting force. Providing that the deficiencies identified in this report are addressed satisfactorily, Fire Cross is confident that the organization will have the capability to provide rescue and fire fighting services that will satisfy the need. 2 figs

  5. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  6. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  7. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  8. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  9. Department of Energy: Opportunities Exist to Improve Los Alamos' Equipment Purchasing Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, the Department of Energy (DOE) received $13.2 million in supplemental funding to replace equipment lost in the May 2000 Cerro Grande fire that damaged the Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  10. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  11. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  12. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin, which provides both radiant and convective heat...TEST METHODS FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS TORCHES SIMULATION TEST EQUIPMENT FLAME RESISTANT CLOTHING PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING... fabric during a fire , and even after the fire has been extinguished. The best known full scale transmitted heat flux test is the "ASTM F1930

  13. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... should be used in determining placement of required fire extinguishers and protective breathing equipment... the possibility of blockage, which might result from fire, mechanical or structural failure, or... capacity to suppress a fire considering the fire threat, the volume of the compartment, and the ventilation...

  14. 46 CFR 107.231 - Inspection for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... effectively carry out abandonment and fire fighting procedures. Fire Fighting Equipment (h) Each hand portable... accordance with § 107.235(a). (i) Each fixed fire-extinguishing system is inspected, and serviced if required, in accordance with § 107.235(b). (j) Each fire main system meets the testing requirements in § 107...

  15. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  16. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  17. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  18. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  19. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  20. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...