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Sample records for equine regional dermal

  1. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

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    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  3. Dermatological and morphological findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Pantoja, José Carlos F; Moreira, José C L; Conceição, Lissandro G; Borges, Alexandre S

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting quarter horses (QHs); affected horses exhibit characteristic skin abnormalities related to abnormal collagen biosynthesis. To characterize the thickness and morphological abnormalities of the skin of HERDA-affected horses and to determine the interobserver agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of histopathological examination of skin biopsies from horses with HERDA. Six affected QHs, confirmed by DNA testing, from a research herd and five unaffected QHs from a stud farm. The skin thickness in 25 distinct body regions was measured on both sides in all affected and unaffected horses. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies was performed. The average skin thickness in all of the evaluated regions was thinner in the affected horses. A statistically significant difference between skin thickness of the affected and unaffected animals was observed only when the average magnitude of difference was ≥38.7% (P = 0.038). The interobserver agreement for the histopathological evaluation was fair to substantial. The histopathological sensitivity for the diagnosis of HERDA was dependent on the evaluator and ranged from 73 to 88%, whereas the specificity was affected by the region sampled and ranged from 35 to 75%. Despite the regional pattern of the cutaneous signs, skin with decreased thickness was not regionally distributed in the HERDA-affected horses. Histopathological evaluation is informative but not conclusive for establishing the diagnosis. Samples of skin from the neck, croup or back are useful for diagnosis of HERDA. However, the final diagnosis must be confirmed using molecular testing. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Tensile properties in collagen-rich tissues of Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).

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    Bowser, J E; Elder, S H; Pasquali, M; Grady, J G; Rashmir-Raven, A M; Wills, R; Swiderski, C E

    2014-03-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of Quarter Horses characterised by skin fragility. Horses with HERDA have a missense mutation in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B (PPIB), which encodes cyclophilin B and alters folding and post translational modifications of fibrillar collagen. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that tendons, ligaments and great vessels, which, like skin, are rich in fibrillar collagen, will also have abnormal biomechanical properties in horses with HERDA. Ex vivo biomechanical study comparing horses with and without a diagnosis of HERDA. Forelimb suspensory ligament, superficial and deep digital flexor tendons; withers, forelimb and abdominal skin; the main pulmonary artery and the aortic arch were harvested from 6 horses with HERDA and 6 control horses without the HERDA allele. Tissues were distracted to failure. Tensile strength (TS), elastic modulus (EM) and energy to failure (ETF) were compared. Horses with HERDA had significantly lower TS and EM in tendinoligamentous tissues and great vessels, respectively. The TS, EM and ETF were significantly lower in skin from horses with HERDA. Differences in TS and ETF were more extreme at the withers than at the forelimb or abdomen. Tendinoligamentous tissue, great vessels and skin are significantly weaker in horses with HERDA than in horses lacking the PPIB mutation, substantiating that diverse tissues with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in HERDA and that the HERDA phenotype is not limited to the integument. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

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    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E modulate gene expression in cultured equine dermal fibroblasts.

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    Wise, Lyn M; Bodaan, Christa J; Mercer, Andrew A; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Wounds in horses often exhibit sustained inflammation and inefficient vascularization, leading to excessive fibrosis and clinical complications such as "proud flesh". Orf virus-derived proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E and interleukin (ovIL)-10, enhance angiogenesis and control inflammation and fibrosis in skin wounds of laboratory animals. The study aimed to determine if equine dermal cells respond to VEGF-E and ovIL-10. Equine dermal cells are expected to express VEGF and IL-10 receptors, so viral protein treatment is likely to alter cellular gene expression and behaviour in a manner conducive to healing. Skin samples were harvested from the lateral thoracic wall of two healthy thoroughbred horses. Equine dermal cells were isolated using a skin explant method and their phenotype assessed by immunofluorescence. Cells were treated with recombinant proteins, with or without inflammatory stimuli. Gene expression was examined using standard and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell behaviour was evaluated in a scratch assay. Cultured cells were half vimentin(+ve) fibroblasts and half alpha smooth muscle actin(+ve) and vimentin(+ve) myofibroblasts. VEGF-E increased basal expression of IL-10 mRNA, whereas VEGF-A and collagenase-1 mRNA expression was increased by ovIL-10. In cells exposed to inflammatory stimulus, both treatments dampened tumour necrosis factor mRNA expression, and ovIL-10 exacerbated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein. Neither viral protein influenced cell migration greatly. This study shows that VEGF-E and ovIL-10 are active on equine dermal cells and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects that may enhance skin wound healing in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Use of Ir192 interstitial brachytherapy for an equine malignant dermal schwannoma : clinical communication

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    M.N. Saulez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old Hanoverian mare was evaluated for a right buccal swelling that recurred 3 months following surgical resection. Ultrasonographic examination showed a broadly pedunculated subcutaneous mass at the level of 106-109 and 406-409 cheek teeth associated with an erosive mucosal lesion on the inside of the cheek. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a well-demarcated, malignant, dermal schwannoma. Following subcutaneous placement of platinum coated Ir192 wires under general anaesthesia, low-dose radiation of 5 gray per day was delivered for 14 days. Short-term complications included loss of patency of the right nasolacrimal duct, erythema, dermatitis, leukotrichia and left-sided deviation of the muzzle. Ten months later, there has been no tumour recurrence. Findings suggest that the use of interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for a malignant, dermal schwannoma that has recurred or is not amenable to surgery.

  8. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  9. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  10. Changes in dermal papilla structures due to aging in the facial cheek region.

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    Mizukoshi, K; Yonekura, K; Futagawa, M; Nakamura, T; Hirayama, K; Takahashi, K

    2015-05-01

    In the past, it has been possible to measure the dermal papilla structures which are undulations between the epidermis and dermis by noninvasive method. However, almost all of previous studies were not intended to measure facial skin but another site of body. Here, we investigated age-dependent alterations for dermal papilla structures in the facial cheek region after elucidating the difference of characteristics between the body site. The surface of the dermis was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) using face and abdominal skin biopsy samples. A total of 90 Japanese women were investigated by in vivo confocal laser microscope (CLSM). The number and the shape in the horizontal cross-sectional images of the dermal papilla were analyzed. The facial skin had different characteristics in comparison to the abdominal skin by SEM observation. Under CLSM observation, we found abnormal dermal papilla structures which were accompanied by spots or enlarged pore areas and eliminated these structures from our analysis. We revealed a decrease in the number of normal dermal papilla structures with age and large individual differences at younger ages. We found abnormal dermal papilla structures and differences in the dermal papilla structures between face and other body site. With these taken into consideration, we could precisely investigate the aging alteration of normal dermal papilla structures in the face. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

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    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  12. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

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    Agustín Góngora O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100 from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was carried out no positives samples to EAV were found in the population analyzed. Conclusions. Although the sample size of the population screened in this study does not represent the total equine population size for the region or the country, data obtained has shown the absence of EAV infection in these animals. However, a wider study area including other regions of the country, with a feasible statistical design, would determine if this infection continues to be an exotic disease for Colombia.

  13. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken

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    Ming TIAN,Rui HAO,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented. This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene (ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. By genotyping, ID was found to be closely linked to the region between GGA_rs16127903 and GGA_rs14685542 (8406919 bp on chromosome Z, which contains ten functional genes. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene. Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP(s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues.

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    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-02-01

    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  15. Morphology of endothelial cells from different regions of the equine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Faganello, Cláudia Skilhan; Silva, Vanessa Ruiz Moura da; Andrade, Maria Cristina Caldart de; Carissimi, André Silva; Pigatto, João Antonio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of different regions of the equine cornea using optical microscopy. Both healthy eyes of eight horses, male or female, of different ages were evaluated. Corneas were stained with alizarin red vital dye and subsequently examined and photographed using optical microscopy. Corneal endothelial morphology of central, superior, inferior, temporal and nasal areas was assessed. One hundred endothelial cells from each corneal area we...

  16. Radiological appearance of air introduced during equine regional limb anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirberger, R.M.; Gottschalk, R.D.; Guthrie, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve horses were injected intra-articularly into the metacarpophalangeal joint and extra-articularly in the region of the lateral palmar digital nerve with 1 ml air and local anaesthetic to simulate gas accidentally introduced during regional anaesthesia. Half the horses underwent limited exercise after which all horses were radiographed at 15 and 45 min and then every 24 h until all evidence of gas had disappeared. Intra-articular gas appeared as gas capped radiolucencies (GCR) in the proximal aspect of the joint. Extra-articular gas appeared as linear radiolucencies (LR) which initially tended to migrate proximally. There was no significant difference in gas resorption in exercised and nonexercised horses. All gas was resorbed within 96 h with most of the gas already gone at 48 h

  17. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: Soft tissues.

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    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The equine fetlock is the joint most commonly associated with lameness. Although the fetlock is regarded as a simple joint, diagnosis of a fetlock disorder can be a challenge and various imaging modalities are routinely used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. This review describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the fetlock region and addresses some of the technical aspects involved in taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different soft tissue lesions. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most commonly used diagnostic approach in clinical practice.

  18. A case of congenital dermal sinus of the occipital region detected by CT at the onset of meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Esumi, Noriko; Nishimura, Osamu

    1985-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl who was found to have congenital dermal sinus of the occipital region by CT at the second onset of meningitis is reported. CT at the first onset of meningitis (at the age of 3 years and 9 months) revealed only small, oval low density areas in the posterior fossa of the occipital region. CT at the second onset showed an abscess in the posterior fossa and dissociation in the posterior part of the cranium. Skin examination in the occipital region disclosed induration of the median area. Thus, congenital dermal sinus was suspected. Further CT disclosed that the patient subsequently developed hydrocephalus despite the intravenous and intrameningeal administration of antibiotics. Therefore, she underwent excision of a cyst and was pathologically diagnosed as having dermoid associated with abscess in the tip of the dermal sinus, which was followed by induration of the occipital skin. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Radiographic anatomy of soft tissue attachments in the equine metacarpophalangeal and proximal phalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.C.B.; Stover, S.M.; O'Brien, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The sites of bony attachment of the tendons, ligaments, and fibrous portion of the joint capsules of the equine metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint region were determined by gross dissection. These sites were transposed to standard radiographic views of the fetlock joint to yield illustrations that can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of soft tissue pathology from radiographs. Evidence of direct attachment of the common digital extensor tendon to the proximal phalanx was not found. Branches of the superficial digital flexor tendon were found to insert only on the middle phalanx. The recently described sites of insertion of the branches of the superficial digital flexor tendon to the proximal phalanx were found to be sites for attachment of the deep axial palmar ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal joint

  20. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

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    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 2: the bony disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2009-08-01

    The metacarpophangeal/metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joint in the horse is commonly associated with equine lameness and diagnostic imaging is routinely used to investigate disorders of the joint and its surrounding tissues. This review describes the osseous disorders of the fetlock as well as the technical aspects of taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different lesions. In current clinical practice, a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most frequently used approach to arrive at a diagnosis.

  2. The relationship between the variants in the 5′-untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels

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    ShuQin Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG genes and the serum eCG levels. Methods SNPs in 5′-UTR of eCG genes were screened across 10 horse breeds, including 7 Chinese indigenous breeds and 3 imported breeds using iPLEX chemistry, and the association between the serum eCG levels of 174 pregnant Da’an mares and their serum eCG levels (determined with ELISA was analyzed. Results Four SNPs were identified in the 5′-UTR of the eCGα gene, and one of them was unique in the indigenous breeds. There were 2 SNPs detected at the 5′ end of the eCGβ subunit gene, and one of them was only found in the Chinese breeds. The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα was associated significantly with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (pC mutation causes appearance of the specific binding site of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 forkhead homolog 2 (HFH-2, which is a transcriptional repressor belonging to the forkhead protein family of transcription factors. Conclusion The SNP g.39948246T>C at the 5′-UTR of eCGα is associated with eCG levels of 75-day pregnant mare serum (p<0.05.

  3. Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in equine cadavers.

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    Stack, John David; Bergamino, Chiara; Sanders, Ruth; Fogarty, Ursula; Puggioni, Antonella; Kearney, Clodagh; David, Florent

    2016-09-20

    To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Safety and efficacy could not be established. Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.

  4. Parameters and functional analysis of the deep epaxial muscles in the thoracic, lumbar and sacral regions of the equine spine.

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    García Liñeiro, J A; Graziotti, G H; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Ríos, C M; Affricano, N O; Victorica, C L

    2018-04-30

    The epaxial muscles produce intervertebral rotation in the transverse, vertical and axial axes. These muscles also counteract the movements induced by gravitational and inertial forces and movements produced by antagonistic muscles and the intrinsic muscles of the pelvic limb. Their fascicles are innervated by the dorsal branch of the spinal nerve, which corresponds to the metamere of its cranial insertion in the spinous process. The structure allows the function of the muscles to be predicted: those with long and parallel fibres have a shortening function, whereas the muscles with short and oblique fibres have an antigravity action. In the horse, the multifidus muscle of the thoracolumbar region extends in multiple segments of two to eight vertebral motion segments (VMS). Functionally, the multifidus muscle is considered a spine stabiliser, maintaining VMS neutrality during spine rotations. However, there is evidence of the structural and functional heterogeneity of the equine thoracolumbar multifidus muscle, depending on the VMS considered, related to the complex control of the required neuromuscular activity. Osteoarticular lesions of the spine have been directly related to asymmetries of the multifidus muscle. The lateral (LDSM) and medial (MDSM) dorsal sacrocaudal muscles may be included in the multifidus complex, the function of which is also unclear in the lumbosacral region. The functional parameters of maximum force (F max ), maximum velocity of contraction (V max ) and joint moment (M) of the multifidus muscles inserted in the 4th, 9th, 12th and 17th thoracic and 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae of six horses were studied postmortem (for example: 4MT4 indicates the multifidus muscle that crosses four metameres with cranial insertion in the T4 vertebra). Furthermore, the structural and functional characteristics of LDSM and MDSM were determined. Data were analysed by analysis of variance (anova) in a randomised complete block design (P ≤ 0.05). For some

  5. A xeroradiographic study of the developing equine foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region from birth to six months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Albright, S.M.; Metcalf, M.R.; Thrall, D.E.; Harrington, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the developing equine foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region. Using xeroradiographic techniques, both foredigits and meta-carpophalangeal regions of six Quarter Horse foals were radiographed at one day of age and at two-week intervals until the foals were six weeks old. The foals were then radiographed at four-week intervals until they were 12 months old. This report deals specifically with the first six months of postnatal development. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar xeroradiographs of each foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region and a dorsal 65° proximal-palmarodistal oblique view of the distal part of the digit were made for each examination. The foals were weighed and measured at the withers immediately prior to each examination. Representative xeroradiographs were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radio-graphic anatomy of these regions. First radiographic appearance of distal epiphyseal ossification in metacarpal 2 and metacarpal 4 was extremely variable and ranged from four to 38 weeks. Radiographic closure of the proximal physis of the middle phalanx ranged from 18 to 30 weeks (mean = 26 weeks). Radiographic closure of the proximal physis of the proximal phalanx ranged from 22 to 38 weeks (mean = 30 weeks). Radiographic closure of the distal physis of metacarpal 3 ranged from 18 to 38 weeks (mean = 29 weeks). When xeroradiographic physeal closure times were compared with scintigraphic closure times from a companion study, results correlated very well. A crena marginis solearis was observed in ten of 12 forelimbs (83.3%); its first radiographic appearance ranged from four to 22 weeks (mean = 11–12 weeks). A consistent groove in the hoof wall, which formed near the time of birth and moved distally at about 3 mm per week, was noted. The groove's distance from the proximal hoof border may be useful in age estimation of foals less than 18–20 weeks old

  6. Equine influenza: An overview

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    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  7. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  8. Brucella spp. in equines slaughtered in the south region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacteria of the genus Brucella are widespread in many countries. These microorganisms can infect humans and many wild and domestic animal species. These bacteria have zoonotic potential, and can cause economic and public health problems since they can be transmitted by direct contact with sick animals, through consumption of contaminated milk, raw meat and its derivatives (Soares et al., 2015. Brucellosis is considered a chronic evolving disease, unusual in horses, predominantly caused by Brucella abortus. However, it is not characterized by reproductive disorders in horses, but primarily by abscess in the cervical region, bursa, tendons, and joints. Transmission is likely to occur via ingestion of contaminated water and pastures, especially in areas endemic for bovine brucellosis (Ribeiro et al., 2008. The slaughterhouse is a strategic point for obtaining information about the animal and animal products, edible or not. This study investigated the presence of anti-Brucella spp. immunoglobulins in the serum samples from horses slaughtered in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, to estimate the frequency of Brucella spp. antibodies and determine the spatial distribution of the cases.

  9. Finite element approach to study the behavior of fluid distribution in the dermal regions of human body due to thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khanday

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a complex structure where the balance of mass and heat transport in all tissues is necessary for its normal functioning. The stabilities of intracellular and extracellular fluids are important physiological factors responsible for homoeostasis. To estimate the effects of thermal stress on the behavior of extracellular fluid concentration in human dermal regions, a mathematical model based on diffusion equation along with appropriate boundary conditions has been formulated. Atmospheric temperature, evaporation rate, moisture concentration and other factors affecting the fluid concentration were taken into account. The variational finite element approach has been employed to solve the model and the results were interpreted graphically.

  10. Equine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michau, Tammy Miller

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers. Therapy for glaucoma is aimed at decreasing aqueous humor production through medical and surgical means. Even with therapy, long-term prognosis for vision is poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the infection of equine fibroblasts by equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevjer-Anderson, P.; Cheevers, W.P.; Crawford, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    Equine dermal fibroblasts persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) show no alterations in cell morphology or growth kinetics when compared to uninfected cells. The percentage of cells immunofluorescent positive for viral proteins fluctuated, depending upon the stage of the cell cycle, while production of extracellular virus was uniform throughout the cell cycle, increasing only as the cell number increased. This was shown in log versus stationary phase cultures as well as in cultures synchronized by serum starvation. The establishment of productive infection did not require host cell DNA synthesis. Normal levels of progeny virus were produced in cultures pretreated with mitomycin C and placed in serum-containing medium. Serum-starved cultures, however, did not support EIAV replication as well as other cultures, presumably because synthesis of provirus was inhibited. (author)

  12. Molecular Characteristics of the Equine Periodontal Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Pöschke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The equine periodontal ligament (PDL is a fibrous connective tissue that covers the intra-alveolar parts of the tooth and anchors it to the alveolar bone—it, therefore, provides a similar function to a tendinous structure. While several studies have considered the formation and structure of tendons, there is insufficient information particularly on the molecular composition of the PDL. Especially for the equine PDL, there is limited knowledge concerning the expression of genes commonly regarded as typical for tendon tissue. In this study, the gene expression of, e.g., collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1, collagen type 3 alpha 1 (COL3, scleraxis (SCX, and fibrocartilage markers was examined in the functional mature equine PDL compared with immature and mature equine tendon tissue. PDL samples were obtained from incisor, premolar, and molar teeth from seven adult horses. Additionally, tendon samples were collected from four adult horses and five foals at different sampling locations. Analyses of gene expression were performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Significantly higher expression levels of COL1 and 3 were found in the mature equine PDL in comparison with mature tendon, indicating higher rates of collagen production and turnover in the mature equine PDL. The expression levels of SCX, a specific marker for tenogenic-differentiated cells, were on a similar level in functional mature PDL and in mature tendon tissue. Evidence of chondrogenic metaplasia, often found in tendon entheses or in pressurized regions of tendons, was not found in the mature equine PDL. The obtained results justify further experiments focused on the possible use of equine PDL cells for cell-based regenerative therapies.

  13. A review of equine renal imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.K.; Toal, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiography has a limited role in the evaluation of the kidneys in foals and adult horses. Ultrasonography is the current method of choice for structural evaluation of the kidneys in horses as it provides additional information to standard serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluation. A variety of structural abnormalities have been identified in diseased equine kidneys with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound guided renal biopsy is the preferred method for performing renal biopsy in the horse. The use of Duplex Doppler ultrasound may allow for the characterization of regional hemodynamics of the equine kidney, but is currently an untapped method for evaluation of equine renal hemodynamics. Radionuclide methods including scintigraphy and quantitative renal function measurement can be used to provide further information about equine renal function. Scintigraphy can provide structural and possibly functional information. Quantitative methods using radiopharmaceuticals can provide precise measurement of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal blood flow. This method is especially helpful in identifying acute renal failure and in guiding response to treatment. All equine renal imaging techniques should be a supplement to the physical examination and standard laboratory tests. Additional diagnostic aids such as urinary tract endoscopy should also be considered in horses with hematuria, hydroureter, and suspected calculi. Taken together, all these modalities provide a thorough evaluation of the equine renal system and provide a basis for the clinician to select treatment options and provide prognostic information to the owner

  14. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2013-01-01

    and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...... equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers....

  15. Scintigraphy in equine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, I.C.; Anderson, B.

    2002-01-01

    The most common use for nuclear medicine in equine practice is bone imaging using technetium 99m as the radionuclide. This article will describe establishment of a facility to perform equine scintigraphy, the peculiarities associated with nuclear medicine and horses and describe a variety of the pathology we identify using scintigraphy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  17. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome

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    Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED cells during in vitro infection. Published integration sites of EIAV and HIV-1 in the human genome were also analyzed as references. Our results demonstrated that EIAVFDDV13 tended to integrate into genes and AT-rich regions, and it avoided integrating into transcription start sites (TSS, which is consistent with EIAV and HIV-1 integration in the human genome. Notably, the integration of EIAVFDDV13 favored long interspersed elements (LINEs and DNA transposons in the horse genome, whereas the integration of HIV-1 favored short interspersed elements (SINEs in the human genome. The chromosomal environment near LINEs or DNA transposons potentially influences viral transcription and may be related to the unique EIAV latency states in equids. The data on EIAV integration in its natural host will facilitate studies on lentiviral infection and lentivirus-based therapeutic vectors.

  18. High genetic diversity of equine infectious anaemia virus strains from Slovenia revealed upon phylogenetic analysis of the p15 gag gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, U; Malovrh, T

    2016-03-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), which belongs to the Retroviridae family, infects equids almost worldwide. Every year, sporadic EIAV cases are detected in Slovenia. To characterise the Slovenian EIAV strains in the p15 gag gene region phylogenetically in order to compare the Slovenian EIAV strains with EIAV strains from abroad, especially with the recently published European strains. Cross-sectional study using material derived from post mortem examination. In total, 29 EIAV serologically positive horses from 18 different farms were examined in this study. Primers were designed to amplify the p15 gag gene region. Amplicons of 28 PCRs were subjected to direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Altogether, 28 EIAV sequences were obtained from 17 different farms and were distributed between 4 separate monophyletic groups and 9 branches upon phylogenetic analysis. Among EIAV strains from abroad, the closest relatives to Slovenian EIAV strains were European EIAV strains from Italy. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that some animals from distantly located farms were most probably infected with the same EIAV strains, as well as animals from the same farm and animals from farms located in the same geographical region. This is the first report of such high genetic diversity of EIAV strains from one country. This led to speculation that there is a potential virus reservoir among the populations of riding horses, horses kept for pleasure and horses for meat production, with some farmers or horse-owners not following legislation, thus enabling the spread of infection with EIAV. The low sensitivity of the agar gel immunodiffusion test may also contribute to the spread of infection with EIAV, because some infected horses might have escaped detection. The results of the phylogenetic analysis also provide additional knowledge about the highly heterogeneous nature of the EIAV genome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Focal dermal hypoplasia without focal dermal hypoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina N.; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; Goltz-Gorlin syndrome) is an X-linked dominant disorder affecting mainly tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. The phenotype is characterized by hypoplastic linear skin lesions, eye malformations, hair and teeth anomalies, and multiple limbs malformations. The

  20. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktaz Hafshejani, Taghi; Nekoei, Shahin; Vazirian, Behnam; Doosti, Abbas; Khamesipour, Faham; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98%) and 6 (16.21%) were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66%) and 3 (8.10%) were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18%) and 1 (16.66%) were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2%) and 1 (7.69%) were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28%) and 2 (13.33%) were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22%) and 2 (15.83%) Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04%) and 4 (26.66%) Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  1. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98% and 6 (16.21% were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66% and 3 (8.10% were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18% and 1 (16.66% were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2% and 1 (7.69% were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28% and 2 (13.33% were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22% and 2 (15.83% Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04% and 4 (26.66% Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  2. Equine dental advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S K

    2001-08-01

    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  3. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Microencapsulated equine mesenchymal stromal cells promote cutaneous wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussche, Leen; Harman, Rebecca M; Syracuse, Bethany A; Plante, Eric L; Lu, Yen-Chun; Curtis, Theresa M; Ma, Minglin; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2015-04-11

    The prevalence of impaired cutaneous wound healing is high and treatment is difficult and often ineffective, leading to negative social and economic impacts for our society. Innovative treatments to improve cutaneous wound healing by promoting complete tissue regeneration are therefore urgently needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been reported to provide paracrine signals that promote wound healing, but (i) how they exert their effects on target cells is unclear and (ii) a suitable delivery system to supply these MSC-derived secreted factors in a controlled and safe way is unavailable. The present study was designed to provide answers to these questions by using the horse as a translational model. Specifically, we aimed to (i) evaluate the in vitro effects of equine MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM), containing all factors secreted by MSCs, on equine dermal fibroblasts, a cell type critical for successful wound healing, and (ii) explore the potential of microencapsulated equine MSCs to deliver CM to wounded cells in vitro. MSCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy horses. Equine dermal fibroblasts from the NBL-6 (horse dermal fibroblast cell) line were wounded in vitro, and cell migration and expression levels of genes involved in wound healing were evaluated after treatment with MSC-CM or NBL-6-CM. These assays were repeated by using the CM collected from MSCs encapsulated in core-shell hydrogel microcapsules. Our salient findings were that equine MSC-derived CM stimulated the migration of equine dermal fibroblasts and increased their expression level of genes that positively contribute to wound healing. In addition, we found that equine MSCs packaged in core-shell hydrogel microcapsules had similar effects on equine dermal fibroblast migration and gene expression, indicating that microencapsulation of MSCs does not interfere with the release of bioactive factors. Our results demonstrate that the use of CM from MSCs might be a promising

  5. Marketing your equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  6. Development and application of a quantitative PCR assay to study equine herpesvirus 5 invasion and replication in equine tissues in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, Lila M; High, Emily A; Nelli, Rahul K; Bolin, Steven R; Williams, Kurt J; Hussey, Gisela

    2017-10-01

    Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on EHV-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to measure EHV-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. Furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study EHV-5 pathogenesis at the respiratory tract. PCR primers and a probe were designed to target gene E11 of the EHV-5 genome. Sensitivity and repeatability were established, and specificity was verified by testing multiple isolates of EHV-5, as well as DNA from other equine herpesviruses. Four-week old fully differentiated (mature), newly seeded (immature) primary equine respiratory epithelial cell (ERECs), and equine dermal cell cultures were inoculated with EHV-5 and the cells and supernatants collected daily for 14days. Blood lymphocytes and nasal swabs were collected from horses experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). The qPCR assay detected EHV-5 at stable concentrations throughout 14days in inoculated mature EREC and equine dermal cell cultures (peaking at 202 and 5861 viral genomes per 10 6 cellular β actin, respectively). EHV-5 copies detected in the immature EREC cultures increased over 14days and reached levels greater than 10,000 viral genomes per 10 6 cellular β actin. Moreover, EHV-5 was detected in the lymphocytes of 76% of horses and in the nasal swabs of 84% of horses experimentally infected with EHV-1 pre-inoculation with EHV-1. Post-inoculation with EHV-1, EHV-5 was detected in lymphocytes of 52% of horses while EHV-5 levels in nasal swabs were not significantly different from pre-inoculation levels. In conclusion, qPCR was a reliable technique to investigate viral load in in vivo and in vitro samples, and EHV-5 replication in equine epithelial cells

  7. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal....... Medical and surgical treatments are now directed towards elimination of fungal and bacterial infections, reduction and replacement of diseased corneal stroma, and suppression of iridocyclitis. If the abscess and anterior uveitis do not respond satisfactorily to medical therapy, full thickness or split...

  9. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  10. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  11. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  12. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  13. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center offers new treatment for lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Musick, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center has begun offering a new therapy for treating lameness associated with osteoarthritis and cartilage damage in horses, a problem that affects all segments of the equine industry.

  14. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  15. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

  16. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The embryogenesis of the equine femorotibial joint : The equine interzone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; van Osch, G J V M; Weninger, W; Geyer, S; Stout, T; van Weeren, René; Brama, P; van Weeren, René

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Articular cartilage regeneration is the focus and goal of considerable research effort. Since articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in embryonic nascent joints (interzones), establishing the timing of equine interzone

  19. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand

    2014-01-01

    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides....... The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic...

  20. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  2. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions.

  3. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  4. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  5. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  6. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  7. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people with focal dermal hypoplasia is an omphalocele , which is an opening in the wall of ... Dermal Hypoplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Ectodermal dysplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Omphalocele General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  8. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  9. Characterization and Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    provides greater amounts of test material for research than traditional rodent models. 72 The ease of breeding in captivity coupled with the fact that...A., Guevara, 528 C., Rios, Z., Tesh, R.B., Watts, D.M., Olson, J., Weaver, S.C. 2007. Endemic eastern equine 529 encephalitis in the Amazon region...of Peru . Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76, 293-298. 530 Arechiga-Ceballos, N., Aguilar-Setien, A. 2015. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, 531

  10. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  12. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and natriuretic peptides are routinely used in human medicine for the evaluation of myocardial damage and heart failure. Recently, these markers have also been introduced in veterinary medicine. Comparison between human and equine cardiac biomarker studies sho...

  13. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  14. Equine Assisted Couples Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Taylor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Equine assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an emerging experiential methodologythat has recently gained recognition as a method for addressing a range of presentingproblems for a wide variety of client populations. Couples therapy is one area that thepractice of equine assisted psychotherapy has recently gained traction. This studydescribes the practice of equine assisted couples therapy in terms of practitionercharacteristics, approach to treatment, therapeutic goals and outcomes. Mental healthp...

  15. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2004-11-01

    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  16. BAG3 protects bovine papillomavirus type 1-transformed equine fibroblasts against pro-death signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugno, Roberta; Gallotta, Dario; d'Avenia, Morena; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Roperto, Franco; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate the expression of BAG3 protein both in equine sarcoids in vivo and in EqS04b cells, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that most tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from healthy horses displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrate in EqS04b the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation was indeed shown to promote cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized EqS04b cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent present in edible cruciferous vegetables. Notably, such a pro-survival role of BAG3 was less marked in E. Derm cells, an equine BPV-negative fibroblast cell line taken as a normal counterpart. Altogether our findings might suggest a mutual cooperation between BAG3 and viral oncoproteins to sustain cell survival.

  17. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  18. The equine veterinarian : past, present and prospects of a profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited

  19. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... APHIS-2006-0168] RIN 0579-AC49 Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the commercial transportation of equines to slaughter to add a definition of equine for slaughter... of equines in commercial transportation to slaughter are met. DATES: Effective Date: October 7, 2011...

  20. Antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by equine veterinary practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Browning, G F; Thursky, K; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Stevenson, M A; Bailey, K E

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used in Australian veterinary practices, but no investigation into the classes of antimicrobials used, or the appropriateness of use in horses, has been conducted. The aim of the study was to describe antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in equine practice in Australia. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was used to document antimicrobial usage patterns. Information solicited in the questionnaire included demographic details of the respondents, the frequency with which antimicrobials were used for specific surgical conditions (including the dose, timing and duration of therapy) and practice antimicrobial use policies and sources of information about antimicrobials and their uses. A total of 337 members of the Australian veterinary profession completed the survey. Generally, the choice of antimicrobial was appropriate for the specified equine surgical condition, but the dose and duration of therapy varied greatly. While there was poor optimal compliance with British Equine Veterinary Association guidelines in all scenarios (range 1-15%), except removal of a nonulcerated dermal mass (42%), suboptimal compliance (compliant antimicrobial drug selection but inappropriate timing, dose or duration of therapy) was moderate for all scenarios (range 48-68%), except for an uninfected contaminated wound over the thorax, where both optimal and suboptimal compliance was very poor (1%). Veterinarians practicing at a university hospital had higher odds of compliance than general practice veterinarians (Odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1-8.9, P = 0.03). Many survey responses were collected at conferences which may introduce selection bias, as veterinarians attending conferences may be more likely to have been exposed to contemporary antimicrobial prescribing recommendations. Antimicrobial use guidelines need to be developed and promoted to improve the responsible use of antimicrobials in equine practice in Australia. An emphasis

  1. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  2. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  3. Dermal morphological changes following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Motaleb, Amira A; Abu-Dief, Eman E; Hussein, Mahmoud Ra

    2017-12-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peeling are popular, inexpensive, and safe methods for treatment of some skin disorders and to rejuvenate skin. To study the alterations of the dermal connective tissue following salicylic acid peeling and microdermabrasion. Twenty patients were participated in our study. All participants underwent facial salicylic acid 30% peel or microdermabrasion (10 cases in each group) weekly for 6 weeks. Punch biopsies were obtained from the clinically normal skin of the right postauricular region 1 week before treatment (control group). Other punch skin biopsies were obtained 1 week after the end of the treatments from the left postauricular area. This region was treated in a similar way to the adjacent lesional skin (treated group). We used routine histological techniques (H&E stain), special stains (Masson trichrome and orcein stains), and image analyzer to study the alterations of the dermal connective tissues. Our study demonstrates variations in the morphological changes between the control and the treated groups, and between chemical peels and microdermabrasion. Both salicylic acid 30% and microdermabrasion were associated with thickened epidermal layer, shallow dermal papillae, dense collagen, and elastic fibers. There was a significant increase among those treated sites vs control regarding epidermal thickness and collagen thickness. Also, there was a highly statistically significant increase among those treated with salicylic acid vs microdermabrasion regarding the epidermal, collagen, and elastin thickness. Both methods stimulate the repair process. The mechanisms underlying these variations are open for further investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  5. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  6. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  8. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  9. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  10. Flexible Dermal Armor : Designs Learned from Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Irene Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Designs derived from nature have become a perfect blueprint for today's engineers and scientists to follow and implement. One particularly noted area is the defense industry, wherein flexible dermal armor inspired by nature has been pioneering many sophisticated technologies and designs in recent years. Designers today are considering borrowing aspects of flexibility and mobility of natural dermal armors to enhance the maneuverability of man-made armor by imitating the following mechanisms : ...

  11. Equine Vaccines: How, When and Why? Report of the Vaccinology Session, French Equine Veterinarians Association, 2016, Reims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Paillot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF at Reims (France in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus, rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4, and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin. (1 Emergency vaccination: while it has been very successful to reduce the impact of equine influenza epizooties and it is also recommended for tetanus in case of surgery and accident, the benefit of emergency vaccination against equine herpes virus 1/4 remains arguable; (2 Compatibility of equine vaccines from different brands: despite being a frequent concerns for equine veterinarians, little information is available about the compatibility of equine vaccines from different commercial origins. The consequence of mixing different equine vaccines targeting the same disease is believed to be limited but scientific evidences are sparse; and, (3 Laps vaccination and vaccine shortage: they could have serious consequences in terms of protection and their impact should be evaluated on a case by case basis, taking into account the risk of contact with the pathogen and the effect on herd immunity.

  12. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L S; Kraus, Virginia B

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:823-831, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  14. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  15. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial ...

  16. Polymorphism at Expressed DQ and DR Loci in Five Common Equine MHC Haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common Equine Leukocyte Antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse. PMID:27889800

  17. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faverjon, C.; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical...... and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by ‘what-if’ scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before...

  18. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  19. Inductive capacity of irradiated dermal papillae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, L.; Wright, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the importance of the dermal papilla for the maintenance and control of hair cycles in mammals has long been recognised, but there has been little direct evidence of its mode of functioning. Permanent removal of rat body hair has resulted from large doses of X-radiation and it was believed that this caused destruction of the dermal papilla, which in turn resulted in permanent epilation. A study is here reported on the effect of heavy doses of irradiation on the dermal papilla and epithelial elements of the hair follicles of mice and rats. It was found that the high doses that caused permanent epilation destroyed the epithelium but left the dermal papilla anatomically and functionally intact, so that even on transplantation it could induce a series of new hairs. The dose employed was 2500 R of X-radiation for mice or 5000 R for rats. Hairs after transplantation were shorter than normal and had a slower rate of growth; depending on the size of the transplanted dermal papilla. The hairs become shorter with successive cycles of irradiation. (U.K.)

  20. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  1. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  2. Benzimidazoles Pharmacodynamics in Equine Strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to assess the effectiveness of four benzimidazoles: albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole against equine strongyles. The tests were performed between March 2015 and May 2016, on samples collected from 20 horses and 8 donkeys living in Harghita County. In vivo, Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was used to evaluate fenbendazole pharmacodynamics. In vitro, Egg hatch assay (EHA and Larval development assay (LDA were used to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole. The predominance of small strongyle species was observed, mostly Cyathostomum type A. In the horse group, before treatment, the average intensity was 1595.5 EPG, the maximum value being 4000, and extensivity 55%. Tested again at 14 days after treatment, all samples were negative. In the donkey group, before treatment, the total number was 6550 EPG, intensity of 935.7 and extensivity of 87.5%. 14 days after treatment, the average intensity was 150 and the extensivity 50%. In the horse group, EHA proved the efficacy of fenbendazole (0.0192%, albendazole (0.3740% and thiabendazole (11.62% and a major risk of inducing adaptive phenomena for mebendazole (Y parameter 1009.92. In the donkey group, all benzimidazoles had limited effectiveness: thiabendazole (73.93%, mebendazole (87.51%, fenbendazole (94.05%, albendazole (111.67%. All benzimidazoles inhibited larval development. For all tested benzimidazoles, the resistance induction predictive comparative risk analysis highlighted the benefit of their use, provided that the treatment protocol allows sufficient contact time.

  3. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  4. Update on botulinum toxin and dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbos, Zachary J; Lipham, William J

    2010-09-01

    The art and science of facial rejuvenation is an ever-evolving field of medicine, as evidenced by the continual development of new surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities. Over the past 10 years, the use of botulinum toxin and dermal fillers for aesthetic purposes has risen sharply. Herein, we discuss properties of several commonly used injectable products and provide basic instruction for their use toward the goal of achieving facial rejuvenation. The demand for nonsurgical injection-based facial rejuvenation products has risen enormously in recent years. Used independently or concurrently, botulinum toxin and dermal filler agents offer an affordable, minimally invasive approach to facial rejuvenation. Botulinum toxin and dermal fillers can be used to diminish facial rhytides, restore facial volume, and sculpt facial contours, thereby achieving an aesthetically pleasing, youthful facial appearance.

  5. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  6. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  7. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  8. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  9. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses.

  10. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  11. The Equine Business: The Spectacular Growth of a new Equine segment market in France

    OpenAIRE

    Grefe , Gwenaëlle; Pickel-Chevalier , Sylvine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A social revolution in riding has created incredible growth in the equine-product market. This new equine economy is, in fact, characterized by the range of activities available (32 riding styles are listed by the FFE 1), by riders' needs (equipment for both riders and their horses including fences, water troughs, horse-boxes etc.), by product ranges (from entry-level to luxury goods), but also by fashion which, thanks to the profile of today's horse-riders (predominan...

  12. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  13. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  14. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins-Markle, Leslie; Kelly, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies. PMID:24073343

  15. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  16. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  17. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  18. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  19. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  20. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  1. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  2. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  3. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capomaccio

    Full Text Available The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases, as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise

  4. Development and evaluation of aerosol delivery of antivirals for the treatment of equine virus induced respiratory infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An aerosol delivery system incorporating the DeVilbiss ultrasonic nebulizer was developed for antiviral chemotherapy of equine viral respiratory infections. The system's delivery capabilities were proven effective by two modes of analysis: (a) a non-destructive, non-invasive radioactive tracer method utilizing a saline solution of DTPA labelled 99mTc and, (b) an invasive-terminal study using fluorescent polystyrene monodispersed latex particles. Particles were efficiently distributed throughout the lung parenchyma with deposition more heavily concentrated in the tracheobronchial region. Amantadine HCl was administered to the lungs of a yearling horse and three yearling Shetland ponies over a single 15-30 minute period with no untoward side effects. Likewise, ribavirin was aerosolized into the respiratory trace of an adult pony and a yearling horse for 15-30 minutes twice a day for three and seven days respectively. Neither the horse nor pony demonstrated signs of clinical illness or other signs of ribavirin toxicity. Attempts to produce a reproducible equine influenza disease model were made. During these studies, the authors were unsuccessful in developing a consistent respiratory disease model. Without this model the efficacy of antiviral compounds cannot be assessed. From the data generated in these studies, the implication of equine influenza viruses as the major single etiological agents responsible for equine respiratory disease is brought into question. Further, the author proposed that equine respiratory disease is a multiple agent-induced disease, which needs extensive investigation

  5. Morphofunctional diversity of equine of varied genetic compositions raised in the Pantanal biome of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Marcos Paulo Gonçalves; de Souza, Julio Cesar; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Bozzi, Riccardo; Jardim, Rodrigo Jose Delgado; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes

    2018-06-01

    Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal's size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.

  6. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  7. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  9. Pathogenesis of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Mice and Development of a Second Generation Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru ." Am J Trop Med Hyg 76(2): 293-298. Alsharifi, M., Y. Furuya, et al. (2009). "Intranasal flu...the Amazon River Basin. The strains in these groups are highly divergent, polyphyletic, co- circulating, geographically-associated, and primarily...well understood and serological associations with wild birds, ground-dwelling rodents , marsupials, and reptiles have been reported (Monath, Sabattini

  10. Dissolving microneedle patches for dermal vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, M.; Monkare, J.T.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Kersten, G.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antige...

  11. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  12. Dermal pocketing following distal finger replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T

    2010-08-01

    Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  14. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  15. Primary cell culture and morphological characterization of canine dermal papilla cells and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratka-Robia, Christine B; Mitteregger, Gerda; Aichinger, Amanda; Egerbacher, Monika; Helmreich, Magdalena; Bamberg, Elmar

    2002-02-01

    Skin biopsies were taken from female dogs, the primary hair follicles isolated and the dermal papilla dissected. After incubation in supplemented Amniomax complete C100 medium in 24-well culture plates, the dermal papilla cells (DPC) grew to confluence within 3 weeks. Thereafter, they were subcultivated every 7 days. Dermal fibroblast (DFB) cultures were established by explant culture of interfollicular dermis in serum-free medium, where they reached confluence in 10 days. They were subcultivated every 5 days. For immunohistochemistry, cells were grown on cover slips for 24 h, fixed and stained with antibodies against collagen IV and laminin. DPC showed an aggregative growth pattern and formation of pseudopapillae. Intensive staining for collagen IV and laminin could be observed until the sixth passage. DFB grew as branching, parallel lines and showed only weak staining for collagen IV and laminin.

  16. Toxicity of middle distillates from dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschier, F J

    1999-02-01

    This report focuses on recent studies that investigated the effects of kerosine dermal exposure on neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Background toxicity information will also be reviewed for kerosine range mid distillates. The kerosine range mid distillates have a carbon range of C9-C16 and have a boiling range of 302-554 degrees F (150-290 degrees C). This category includes kerosine, aviation fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP-5 and JP-8), no. 1 fuel oil and diesel fuel oil. In general, the kerosine range mid distillates demonstrate relatively low acute toxicity by any route of exposure. High inhalation exposures can induce central nervous system depression characterized by ataxia, hypoactivity and prostration. Kerosines are known to cause skin irritation and inflammation under conditions of acute and repeated exposure in animals and humans, but are only slightly irritating to the eye and are not skin sensitizers. In addition, the absorption of kerosine range mid distillates through the skin has been demonstrated to be fairly rapid, but limited to approximately 10-15% of the applied dose after 24 hours. The kerosine range mid distillates are generally inactive in genetic toxicity tests although positive studies have been reported. Positive results, while at times equivocal, have been reported for straight run kerosine and jet fuel A in the mouse lymphoma assay with metabolic activation, and hydrodesulfurized kerosine (mouse) and jet fuel A (rat) in the bone marrow cytogenetic assay. Effects on the nervous and reproductive systems have been reported in humans and experimental animals under conditions where inhalation and dermal exposure to specific kerosine type fuels are sometimes difficult to separate. Recent laboratory studies have addressed this point and examined the effects of dermal exposure. In these studies, rats were exposed to hydrodesulfurized kerosine by skin application to determine the potential of dermal contact to cause reproductive

  17. The Dermal Apron Technique for Immediate Implant Socket Management: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry P

    2016-01-01

    With immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIP) in the esthetic zone, measures to counter hard and soft tissue loss are frequently necessary. To reduce the morbidity associated with bone and connective tissue procurement, various exogenous materials are utilized. The "Dermal Apron Technique" presented in this article demonstrates the use of a composite bone particulate (allograft/xenograft) plus a dermal allograft, adapted around screw-retained temporary crowns and secured within a subperiosteal pouch. The purpose is to augment the thickness of peri-implant mucosa for the purpose of preserving ridge dimensions and preventing mucosal recession. Controlled studies are required to further support its use. Clinical significance: Soft tissue health and harmony are critical for successful implant therapy in the esthetic regions of the dentition. Often, autogenous soft tissue grafts are used to augment peri-implant soft tissues. The Dermal Apron Technique is a method, that in specific situations, obviates the need for autogenous grafting. This reduces treatment time and morbidity associated with procurement of these grafts. The Dermal Apron Technique is used simultaneous with immediate placement and provisionalization and can improve long-term esthetic outcomes for patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning in Occupational Therapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lynne; Wilson, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Equine-assisted occupational therapy (EAOT) employs horse and human cooperation in activities that facilitate social, emotional, and cognitive development. The potential benefits of equine-assisted activities for students may influence the development of these types of skills in professional occupational therapy practice. This study explored the…

  19. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  20. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine infectious diseases continue to be one of the most important threats to the overall health of domesticated horses and proper vaccination is one the most important preventive measure against such infectious diseases. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among horse ...

  2. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  3. Autism and Equine-Assisted Interventions: A Systematic Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel Peters, B. Caitlin; Wood, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies,…

  4. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  5. Equine infectious anemia on Marajo Island at the mouth of the Amazon river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra F.Q.R. Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a transmissible and incurable disease caused by a lentivirus, the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. There are no reports in the literature of this infection in Equidae on Marajo Island. The objective of this study was to diagnose the disease in the municipalities of Cachoeira do Arari, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure, on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil. For serological survey samples were collected from 294 horses, over 5-month-old, males and females of puruca and marajoara breeds and from some half-breeds, which were tested by immunodiffusion in Agar gel (AGID. A prevalence of 46.26% (136/294 positive cases was found. EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease.

  6. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml

  7. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    . The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5o......Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low...

  8. Restriction of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus by Equine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene. PMID:19458006

  9. Dermal exposure to monoterpenes during wood work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kare; Wiklund, Leif

    2004-06-01

    The dermal exposure to the suspected allergenic monoterpenes [small alpha]-pinene, [small beta]-pinene and [capital Delta](3)-carene was assessed with a patch sampling technique. The patch used was made of activated charcoal sandwiched between two layers of cotton cloth. Patches were fastened at 12 different spots on a sampling overall and at the front of a cap to estimate the potential exposure of the body. Fastening two patches on a cotton glove, one patch representing the dorsal side and one patch representing the palm of the hand respectively, assessed the exposure on the hands. Sampling was carried out during collecting of pine and spruce boards in sawmills and during sawing of pine wood pieces in joinery shops respectively. The potential dermal exposure of the total body was 29.0-1 890 mg h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 238 mg h(-1) during sawing. During collecting the GM was estimated to 100 mg h(-1) with a range of 12.2-959 mg h(-1). The hands had a mean exposure of 9.24 mg h(-1) during sawing and 3.25 mg h(-1) during collecting respectively. The good correlation between the mass of contamination on the individual body parts and the potential body exposure indicates that sampling can be performed on one body part to give a good estimation of the potential body exposure. Monoterpenes were detected at patches fastened underneath the protective clothing indicating a contamination of the skin of the worker. The patch used may overestimate the dermal exposure.

  10. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cherubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  11. Use of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Dermal Substitute in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anil; DeSagun, Evangeline Z.; Jennings, Lawrence J.; Sethi, Stephen; Phuangsab, Anan; Hanumadass, Marella; Reyes, Hernan M.; Walter, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as a xenogenic dermal substitute in a rat model. Summary Background Data Acellular dermal matrix has been used in the treatment of full-thickness skin injuries as an allogenic dermal substitute providing a stable wound base in human and animal studies. Methods Xenogenic and allogenic ADMs were produced by treating porcine or rat skin with Dispase and Triton X-100. Full-thickness skin defects (225 mm2) were created on the dorsum of rats (n = 29), porcine or rat ADMs were implanted in them, and these were overlain with ultrathin split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). In two adjacent wounds, 0.005- or 0.017-inch-thick autografts were implanted. In other experiments, the antimicrobial agent used during ADM processing (azide or a mixture of antibiotics) and the orientation of the implanted ADM (papillary or reticular side of ADM facing the STSG) were studied. Grafts were evaluated grossly and histologically for 30 days after surgery. Results Significant wound contraction was seen at 14, 20, and 30 days after surgery in wounds receiving xenogenic ADM, allogenic ADM, and thin STSGs. Contraction of wounds containing xenogenic ADM was significantly greater than that of wounds containing allogenic ADM at 30 days after surgery. Graft take was poor in wounds containing xenogenic ADM and moderately good in those containing allogenic ADM. Wound healing was not significantly affected by the antimicrobial agent used during ADM preparation or by the ADM orientation. Conclusion Dispase–Triton-treated allogenic ADM was useful as a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin defects, but healing with xenogenic ADM was poor. PMID:11224629

  12. Dermal pharmacokinetics of microemulsion formulations determined by in vivo microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data.......To investigate the potential of improving dermal drug delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances by formulation in microemulsion vehicles and to establish a reliable pharmacokinetic model to analyze cutaneous microdialysis data....

  13. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas D; Marquart, Hans; Christopher, Yvette; Laitinen, Juha; VAN Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of new measurements of dermal exposure together with detailed contextual information. This article describes the development of a set of generic task-based models capable of predicting potential dermal exposure to both solids and liquids in a wide range of situations. To facilitate modelling of the wide variety of dermal exposure situations six separate models were made for groupings of exposure scenarios called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units). These task-based groupings cluster exposure scenarios with regard to the expected routes of dermal exposure and the expected influence of exposure determinants. Within these groupings linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the influence of various exposure determinants and to estimate components of variance. The models predict median potential dermal exposure rates for the hands and the rest of the body from the values of relevant exposure determinants. These rates are expressed as mg or microl product per minute. Using these median potential dermal exposure rates and an accompanying geometric standard deviation allows a range of exposure percentiles to be calculated.

  14. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  16. Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) In vivo veritas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology LAB-1

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 0. 200. 400. 600. 800. 1000. 1200. 1400. 1600 ... Rapid diagnostic tests exist (PKDL?) • Effective ... ld (C t). No: of parasites/ 200 µl of blood. Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL); dermal ...

  17. Methanol as a cryoprotectant for equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L D; Denniston, D J; Maclellan, L J; McCue, P M; Seidel, G E; Squires, E L

    2004-09-15

    Equine embryos (n=43) were recovered nonsurgically 7-8 days after ovulation and randomly assigned to be cryopreserved in one of two cryoprotectants: 48% (15M) methanol (n=22) or 10% (136 M) glycerol (n=21). Embryos (300-1000 microm) were measured at five intervals after exposure to glycerol (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min) or methanol (0, 15, 35, 75 and 10 min) to determine changes (%) in diameter over time (+/-S.D.). Embryos were loaded into 0.25-ml plastic straws, sealed, placed in a programmable cell freezer and cooled from room temperature (22 degrees C) to -6 degrees C. Straws were then seeded, held at -6 degrees C for 10 min and then cooled to -33 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Two or three embryos within a treatment group were thawed and assigned to be either cultured for 12 h prior to transfer or immediately nonsurgically transferred to a single mare. Embryo diameter decreased in all embryos upon initial exposure to cryoprotectant. Embryos in methanol shrank and recovered slightly to 76+/-8 % of their original diameter; however, embryos in glycerol continued to shrink, reaching 57+/-6 % of their original diameter prior to cryopreservation. Survival rates of embryos through Day 16 of pregnancy were 38 and 23%, respectively (P>0.05) for embryos cryopreserved in the presence of glycerol or methanol. There was no difference in pregnancy rates of mares receiving embryos that were cultured prior to transfer or not cultured (P>0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated that 48% methanol was not toxic to fresh equine embryos but methanol provided no advantage over glycerol as a cryoprotectant for equine blastocysts.

  18. Microbial quality of equine frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Cherchi, R

    2009-10-01

    Bacteriological surveillance is little applied in management of equine frozen semen but it is quite important to verify the microbial contamination in order to find out the chance of transmission of pathology to the mare in AI. Authors describe a qualitative and quantitative analysis for bacterial contamination on long time (3-17 years) equine frozen semen stored in liquid nitrogen. The semen checked, produced in Italy and in another Europe country, was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen inside sealed plastic straws. One hundred and ten straws were checked out for pathogenic and no pathogenic bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes and fungi (moulds and yeasts). The Total Microbial Charge was quite variable with an average of about 1.4 x 10(5)CFU/ml. Mostly the microbial agents identified were fungi (17.5%), Enterobacter-coccus spp. (15%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.25%), Stenothophomonas maltophila (6.25%) and anaerobic bacteria like Propionibacterium granulosum (7.5%) and Clostridium spp. (3.75%). 3.75% were unidentified Gram-negative rod and cocci. Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, E. coli, Th. equigenitalis and Mycoplasma spp. were not detected. The most represented species were Enterobacter-coccus spp. (1.1 x 10(5)CFU/ml), St. maltophila (8 x 10(4)CFU/ml) and Pr. granulosum (7 x 10(4)CFU/ml) while yeast and even more moulds were little abundant (4.7 x 10(4) and 3.4 x 10(4)CFU/ml respectively). The knowledge of equine frozen semen microbial quality is essential to check out transmission of venereal disease and improve the quality of cryopreserved germplasm.

  19. Pitiose eqüina no Pantanal brasileiro: aspectos clínico-patológicos de casos típicos e atípicos Equine pythiosis in the Brazilian Pantanal region: clinical and pathological findings of typical and atypical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana B. Monteiro Leal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose eqüina é doença endêmica no Pantanal Brasileiro e causa prejuízos significativos a eqüinocultura. Neste trabalho são relatados 16 casos de pitiose subcutânea em eqüinos no Pantanal Sul-Matogrossense, que foram divididos em onze casos típicos e cinco casos atípicos, de acordo com o quadro clínico e o tempo de duração das lesões. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela detecção de anticorpos específicos pelo teste ELISA, isolamento do agente e histopato-lógico. A duração da doença variou entre 1 e 6 meses nos casos típicos e superior a 12 meses nos casos atípicos. As lesões dos casos típicos caracterizavam-se por granulomas subcutâneos, ulcerados, com abundante secreção serossangui-nolenta e prurido. Nos casos atípicos foram observadas lesões subcutâneas caracterizadas por grandes massas "tumorais" circunscritas, recobertas por pele escura, sem ulcerações e com pouca secreção. Os animais estavam em bom estado nutricional e as lesões apresentavam-se de aspecto organizado, às vezes pedunculadas. Histologicamente, foi observado tecido de granulação com muitos eosinófilos nos casos típicos, enquanto os atípicos, se caracterizaram por hiperplasia pseudo-epiteliomatosa da epiderme e infiltrado eosinofílico. As características clínicas e histopato-lógicas completas das duas formas clínicas e os possíveis fatores responsáveis pelas diferenças entre as duas formas são apresentados e discutidos.Equine pythiosis is an endemic disease of horses and causes significant economic losses to equine breeding in the Brazilian Pantanal. This article describes 16 cases of subcutaneous pythiosis in horses from that region. The clinical cases were divided in typical (11 and atypical (5, according to the clinical features and duration of the disease. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies by ELISA, isolation of the agent and histopathology. The duration of the disease varied from 1

  20. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    Red cell mass and blood volume of 16 thoroughbred horse, 11 healthy and 5 with naturally acquired equine infectious anemia, were determined by means of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes. The mean values obtained in healthy thoroughbred horses were as follows: red cell mass 40,64 and blood volume 102,32 ml/kg body weight. The mean red cell mass and blood volume in anemic horses were respectively 21,13 and 107,71 ml/Kg body weight. The difference in red cell mass value between the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  1. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    The half-life of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes of 16 thoroughbred horses, 11 healthy and 5 naturally injected by equine infections anemia, was determined in Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL. The half-life of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes of healthy horses was 15,5 (S.D. +- -+ 2,08) days, and of anemic horses 8,98 (S.D. +- -+ 1,20) days. The difference between the mean values of the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  2. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  4. Ten Years of Equine-related Injuries: Severity and Implications for Emergency Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Scott B; Blostein, Paul A; Schrotenboer, Andrew; Sloffer, Chris A; VandenBerg, Sheri L

    2015-11-01

    The size, speed, and unpredictable nature of horses present a significant risk for injury in all equine-related activities. We sought to examine the mechanism, severity, frequency, body regions affected, surgical requirements, rehabilitation needs, safety equipment utilization, and outcomes of equine-related injured patients. Records of inpatients who sustained an equine-related injury from 2002-2011 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes E828 and E906 were retrospectively reviewed for pertinent data. Ninety patients, 70% female, age (mean ± SD) 37.3 ± 19.4 years, length of stay 3.7 ± 4.5 days, Injury Severity Score 12.9 ± 8.4. Predominant mechanism of injury was fall from horse (46.7%). The chest (23%) was most frequently injured, followed by brain/head (21.5%). Thirty patients (33%) required 57 surgical procedures. Twenty percent of patients required occupational therapy and 33.3% required physical therapy while hospitalized. Only 3% required rehabilitation, with 90% discharged directly home. Safety equipment was not used in 91.9% of patients. One patient sustained a cord injury. Six patients expired, all from extensive head injuries. The majority of equine-related injuries occur while pursuing recreational activities and are due to falls. Our patients experienced more severe injuries to the trunk and head and required more surgical intervention for pelvic, facial, and brain injuries than previously reported. Failure to use safety equipment contributes to the risk of severe injury. Education and injury prevention is essential. The need for complex surgical intervention by multiple specialties supports transfer to Level I trauma centers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Innate immune responses of equine monocytes cultured in equine platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Norton, Natalie A; Copland, Ian B; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-01-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. In a first experiment, equine monocytes were isolated and incubated with donor horse serum (DHS), FBS, six individual donors ePL or pooled ePL from all horses. In a second experiment, monocytes were stimulated with E. coli LPS in the presence of 1, 5 or 10% DHS and/or pooled ePL. After 6h of incubation, cell culture supernatants were assayed via ELISA for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) as well as for the anti-inflammatory Interleukin 10 (IL-10). Equine monocytes incubated with pooled ePL produced significantly less TNF-α and significantly more IL-10 than monocytes incubated in FBS. A statistically significant difference was not identified for the production of IL-1β. The second experiment showed that pooled ePL added to LPS-stimulated equine monocytes resulted in a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β production. IL-10 production was not significantly upregulated by the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes. Finally, the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes in the presence of various concentrations of DHS resulted to statistically significant decrease of TNF-α and IL-1β compared to the control groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that ePL suppresses

  6. The equine practitioner-farrier relationship: building a partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William; O'Grady, Stephen E; Werner, Harry W

    2012-04-01

    The importance of hoof care in maintaining the health and soundness of a horse cannot be overstated. The aphorism, “No foot, no horse” still holds true. For equine ambulatory practitioners, the time devoted to a thorough understanding of the equine digit and it’s care is well worth the investment. The effort devoted to developing good relationships with individuals who will likely be responsible for implementing the changes suggested as a result of that understanding will be rewarded many times over in the course of the equine ambulatory practitioner’s career.

  7. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  8. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A complex genomic rearrangement involving the endothelin 3 locus causes dermal hyperpigmentation in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3, a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals.

  10. Formulation of diclofenac for dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Lane, Majella E

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DF) was first synthesized in the 1960's and is currently available as ophthalmic, oral, parenteral, rectal and skin preparations. This review focuses on the administration of DF to the skin. As a member of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs the primary indications of DF are for the management of inflammation and pain but it is also used to treat actinic keratosis. The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of DF following oral and topical administration; (ii) examine critically the various formulation approaches which have been investigated to enhance dermal delivery of DF; and (iii) identify new formulation strategies for enhanced DF skin penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  12. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) performed mandatory testing on all remaining equines at the stud (n=30), resulting in a further 4 positive animals. All positive animals were treated and subsequently tested negative for T. equigenitalis. Since this outbreak, over 2000 genital ...

  13. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivkin AZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Z Rivkin David Geffen/UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. Keywords: dermal fillers, hands, volumization, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite

  14. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG)

  15. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  16. Western equine encephalitis with rapid onset of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G

    1977-11-01

    A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.

  17. Fundamentals of equine podiatry: balanced trimming and physiological shoeing

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of balanced trimming and physiological shoeing of the equine hoof as a way to prevent asymmetrical weight bearing and related orthopedic problems are discussed in this paper. Suggestions are given for the technical training of the personnel involved.  Considering the quantity and quality of the existing equine herd in Costa Rica, it is recommended to create a Farrier School as well as to coordinate the necessary efforts with other educational institutions related to the animal in...

  18. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai

    2015-01-01

    The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain impr...

  19. Advances in equine computed tomography and use of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in equine computed tomography have been made as a result of improvements in software and hardware and an increasing body of knowledge. Contrast media can be administered intravascularly or intrathecally. Contrast media is useful to differentiate between tissues of similar density. Equine computed tomography can be used for many different clinical conditions, including lameness diagnosis, fracture identification and characterization, preoperative planning, and characterization of skull diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in equine sarcoids: molecular and epigenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamura Gennaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs types 1 and 2 are the only known papillomaviruses able to jump the species. In fact, BPVs 1/2 induce neoplasia in their natural bovine host but infection is also associated to neoplastic skin lesions in equids termed sarcoids. The equine sarcoid is considered to be the most common equine cutaneous tumour worldwide for which no effective therapy is available. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying tumourigenesis, although genes contributing to sarcoid development have been identified. Several studies associate the development of cancer to the loss of function of a number of oncosuppressor genes. In this study the putative role of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltrasferase (MGMT was investigated for sarcoids. The expression of the oncosuppressor protein was assessed in normal and sarcoid cells and tissues. In addition, the DNA methylation profile was analysed to assess the role of epigenetic mechanism in regulation of MGMT expression. Results A group of 15 equine sarcoids and two primary sarcoid cell lines (fibroblasts were analyzed for the expression of MGMT protein by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting techniques. The sarcoid cell line EqSO4b and the tumour samples showed a reduction or absence of MGMT expression. To investigate the causes of deregulated MGMT expression, ten samples were analyzed for the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island associated to the MGMT promoter. The analysis of 73 CpGs encompassing the region of interest showed in 1 out of 10 (10% sarcoids a pronouncedly altered methylation profile when compared to the control epidermal sample. Similarily the EqSO4b cell line showed an altered MGMT methylation pattern in comparison to normal fibroblasts. Conclusion As previously demonstrated for the oncosuppressor gene FHIT, analysis of MGMT expression in sarcoid tissues and a sarcoid-derived fibroblast cell line further suggests that

  2. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  3. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-02

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of serotype specific antibody to equine encephalosis virus in Thoroughbred yearlings South Africa (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Howell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of yearlings were sampled over a period of 6 years in a retrospective serological survey to establish the annual prevalence of serotype specific antibody to equine encephalosis virus on Thoroughbred stud farms distributed within defined geographical regions of South Africa. Seasonal seroprevalence varied between 3.6% and 34.7%, revealing both single and multiple serotype infections in an individual yearling. During the course of this study serotypes 1 and 6 were most frequently and extensively identified while the remaining serotypes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 were all identified as sporadic and localized in fections affecting only individual horses. This study of the seasonal prevalence of equine encephalosis virus has a corollary and serves as a useful model in the seasonal incidence of the serotypes of African horse sickness and bluetongue in regions where the respective diseases are endemic.

  5. Equine nasopharyngeal cryptococcoma due to Cryptococcus gattii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Sales da Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus gattii is often associated with pulmonary and systemic infections in humans and animals. In this research we report a case of nasopharyngeal cryptococoma caused by C. gatti in an equine. A 10-year-old mare presented a mass obstructing the oropharynx. Macroscopically the mass was asymmetric, and was attached to the ethmoidal sinuses and obstructed the oropharynx. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed multiple yeast cells ranging from spherical to oval, 4-8μm in diameter, with some of them showing narrow base polar budding. Cryptococcus gattii growth in mycological culture (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and was L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue Agar positive. The molecular identification confirmed the isolate as C. gattii by means of the amplification of universal primers. C. gattii is considered an emerging fungal agent, as it affects human and animals and does not respond efficiently to commonly established treatments.

  6. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  7. Radiographic examination of the equine stifle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denoix, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A radiographic technique is described for the equine stifle joint with the horse in the standing position or under general anaesthesia. The method with the animal anaesthetised in the dorsal recumbency and the leg extended was preferred because it gave greater flexibility with a better range of views and greatly reduced the safety hazards. In the standing position a useful practical tip for the lateral view was to raise and extent the limb caudally. This provides some flexion and ventral movement of the stifle allowing improved access for the cassette, a more accurate lateral view of the joint and a reduction in exposure. Some of the features of radiographic anatomy, from birth to adulthood, of this rather complex joint are described to form a basis for radiological interpretation in cases of suspected stifle lameness

  8. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  9. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of dermal elastin of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, H E V; Van Brantegem, L; Affolter, V K; Oosterlinck, M; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) in horses, a disease of certain draught breeds, is associated with altered elastin metabolism. The characteristic lesions are seen in the skin of the lower (distal) limbs. This study was based on horses of susceptible breeds, with and without CPL, and on horses of a non-susceptible breed. Skin samples were obtained for examination from the neck (considered a non-affected region) and from the distal limb. The skin lesions were characterized histologically and the dermal elastic fibres were evaluated morphologically and quantitatively. In all horses the mean elastin concentrations were highest in the superficial dermis, gradually decreasing in the mid-dermis and deep dermis. As compared with horses of a non-susceptible breed, affected horses had increased amounts of dermal elastin in both the distal limb and neck, while non-affected horses of a susceptible breed had decreased amounts. The findings support an earlier hypothesis that CPL of horses is a generalized disease. Reduced efficiency of the elastic network in supporting the dermal lymphatics may explain the development of CPL.

  10. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  11. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The preference for a fairer skin-tone has become a common trend ... to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum ... Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream ...

  12. Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute complex traumatic wounds of the lower limbs are usually ... The recovery is lengthy, and the outcome dependent on the initial injury, the surgical ... of fracture and use of a dermal regeneration template over the fracture site, ...

  13. Brain abscess as a manifestation of spinal dermal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Emami-Naeini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Emami-Naeini, Ali Mahdavi, Hamed Ahmadi, Nima Baradaran, Farideh NejatDepartment of Neurosurgery, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, IranAbstract: Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brain abscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brain abscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed.Keywords: brain abscess, spinal dermal sinus, spinal abscess

  14. Evaluation of a positioning method for equine lateral stifle scintigrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Marion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current lack of a standardized protocol for positioning of the gamma camera relative to the horse limb in a lateral stifle scintigram, and thus the reliance on subjective positioning, may be a cause of diagnostic error and inter-operator variability due to variations of the view angle. The aims of this study were to develop a reliable method to obtain a lateral scintigram of the equine stifle based on fixed anatomical landmarks and measure the resulting foot to gamma camera angle on sequential measurements of the same horse and of different horses Methods Technetium filled capsules were glued on the skin on sites adjacent to the origin of the medial and lateral femorotibial collateral ligaments in 22 horses using ultrasound guidance. A lateral view of the stifle was defined as the image where the two radioactive point sources were aligned vertically (point sources guided method. Five sequential lateral acquisitions (one to five of the stifle with the point sources vertically aligned were acquired in each horse, and the angle between the mid-sagittal foot-axis and the vertical axis of the gamma camera (FC angle was measured for each of these acquisitions Results For acquisition group one to five, the mean of the means FC angle was 91.6 ± 2° (2SD and the coefficient of variation (COV was 1.1%. In the 22 horses the 95% CI for the mean FC angles was 91.6° ± 12.1° (2SD and the COV was 6.6%. Conclusions The use of point sources to guide gamma camera position results in less variation in the lateral scintigram than if the distal limb is used as guidance due to a difference in FC angle between horses. The point source guided positioning method is considered suitable as a reference standard method to obtain lateral scintigrams of the equine stifle, and it will be of value in clinical scintigraphy and research. The use of alignment of specifically located point sources may also be applied in other regions to

  15. Dermal Sensitization Potential of Triethyleneglycol Dinitrate (TEGDN) in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mutagenicity assay, acute oral toxicity tests in rats and mice, acute dermal toxicity in rabbits, dermal and ocular irritation studies in rabbits, and...conditions: 85E0102 had diffuse tracheitis, mild endocarditis , mild hepatitis, and diffuse pigment granules in the small intestine; 85E0103 had mild...severe ulceration progressing to necrosis. Sensitization is manifested as indirect inflammation mediated by components of the immune system in

  16. Proof-of-Principle Dermal Decontamination Experiments: Swine Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    cycles and the measurements taken after each cycle were recorded. All water rinses were performed using tap water and applied using a gentle stream...uniform and highly reproducible. EpiDermFT ( EFT ) consists of organized basal, spinous, granular, and cornified epidermal layers analogous to those found...in vivo. The dermal compartment is composed of a collagen matrix containing viable normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). EFT is mitotically and

  17. Local anesthetics and nuclear medical bone images of the equine fore limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaughan, E.M.; Wallace, R.J.; Kallfelz, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of two local anesthetic agents on the diagnostic quality of nuclear medical bone images (NMBIs) of distal parts of the equine fore limb were investigated. Local effects on bone uptake of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) 4 and 24 hours after perineural and intraarticular injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride and bupivacaine hydrochloride were evaluated in the carpal and metacarpophalangeal regions of 12 horses and ponies. Neither mepivacaine hydrochloride nor bupivacaine hydrochloride significantly altered the diagnostic quality of the NMBIs. The injection and subsequent action of local anesthetics do not appear to influence local bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP significantly

  18. Equine dermatopathies in southern Brazil: a study of 710 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Dode de Assis-Brasil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of equine skin diseases diagnosed in the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas was conducted between 1978 and 2013. The necropsy and biopsy protocols for horses received for diagnosis were reviewed to determine the prevalence of dermatopathies in southern Brazil. The most prevalent skin diseases in decreasing order were: sarcoid [234/710 (32.9%], exuberant granulation tissue [81/710 (11.4%], pythiosis [67/710 (9.4%], squamous cell carcinoma [55/710 (7.7%], papillomatosis [33/710 (4.6%] and habronemiasis [30/710 (4.2%]. Other skin lesions accounted for 25.3% of all cases studied. The Crioulo breed was the most prevalent [310/710 (43.6%]. Horses aged between 2-5 years old [230/710 (32.3%] were the most frequently affected. The data obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of skin diseases that affect horses in southern Brazil. The most of the dermatopathies observed in horses, although not resulting in death could cause aesthetic damage resulting in animal rejection, the inability to participate in collective sports activities and economic losses due to treatment and surgery costs

  19. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center uses innovative lameness treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center is now offering an equine lameness therapy that prevents further degeneration of the affected joint and offers a longer-lasting benefit than traditional steroid treatment.

  20. The structure and mechanical design of rhinoceros dermal armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwick, R E; Russell, A P; Lauff, R F

    1992-09-29

    The collagenous dermis of the white rhinoceros forms a thick, protective armour that is highly specialized in its structure and material properties compared with other mammalian skin. Rhinoceros skin is three times thicker than predicted allometrically, and it contains a dense and highly ordered three-dimensional array of relatively straight and highly crosslinked collagen fibres. The skin of the back and flanks exhibits a steep stress-strain curve with very little 'toe' region, a high elastic modulus (240 MPa), a high tensile strength (30 MPa), a low breaking strain (0.24) and high breaking energy (3 MJm-3) and work of fracture (78 kJm-2). By comparison, the belly skin is somewhat less stiff, weaker, and more extensible. In compression, rhinoceros skin withstands average stresses and strains of 170 MPa and 0.7, respectively, before yielding. As a biological material, rhinoceros dorsolateral skin has properties that are intermediate between those of 'normal' mammalian skin and tendons. This study shows that the dermal armour of the rhinoceros is very well adapted to resist blows from the horns of conspecifics, as might occur during aggressive behaviour, due to specialized material properties as well as its great thickness.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of the Intact Dermal Sheath Cup of Human Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Shiro; Ishimatsu-Tsuji, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuzo; Soma, Tsutomu; Ideta, Ritsuro; Mukai, Hideki; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2018-04-24

    Cells that constitute the dermal papillae of hair follicles might be derived from the dermal sheath, the peribulbar component of which is the dermal sheath cup. The dermal sheath cup is thought to include the progenitor cells of the dermal papillae and possesses hair inductive potential; however, it has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the gene expression profile of the intact dermal sheath cup, and identified dermal sheath cup signature genes, including extracellular matrix components and BMP-binding molecules, as well as TGF-b1 as an upstream regulator. Among these, GREM2, a member of the BMP antagonists, was found by in situ hybridization to be highly specific to the dermal sheath cup, implying that GREM2 is a key molecule contributing to maintenance of the properties of the dermal sheath cup.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  3. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  4. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by..., Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 36, Riverdale, MD...

  5. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center...

  6. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the enforcement of all provisions of the interim... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports...

  7. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY... contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National...

  8. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine carcasses...

  9. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  10. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  11. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  12. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kelen, Patrick T; Downs, Joni A; Stark, Lillian M; Loraamm, Rebecca W; Anderson, James H; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-11-05

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  13. Melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes of Japanese Silky chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani-Machado, C F; Freitas, P F; Faraco, C D

    2009-08-01

    The Japanese Silky chicken (SK) shows dermal and visceral hyperpigmentation. This study characterizes ultrastructurally the melanin granules developing in dermal melanocytes of the dorsal skin of SK, in an attempt to better understand the processes of melanogenesis in these permanently ectopic cells. The steps of melanogenesis are similar to those described for epidermal melanocytes, with melanosomes going from stage I to IV but, in SK, the maturation occurs in the cell body, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes. At stage III, the deposition of melanin is cumulative and can aggregate in rounded structures, which combine to turn into the mature granule. The final destiny of mature melanosomes is still unclear, although it was observed that dermal macrophages can accumulate melanin granules in their phagosomes. Even with the close proximity between melanocytes and other dermal cells, the transference of melanosomes was not observed. Our findings indicate that melanogenesis in dermal melanocytes in SK has the same morphological characteristics found in epidermal melanocytes, but the functional aspect still remains to be elucidated.

  14. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Oyamada, T; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Itakura, C

    1990-05-01

    The histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas was studied in 78 warts naturally occurring in 50 one to 3-year-old Thoroughbred or Arab horses and in 54 warts experimentally induced in three 2-year-old Thoroughbreds. Lesions in the natural cases were categorized into three phases, growth, development and regression. Main lesions of the growing phase were marked hyperplasia of the basal cells and mild to moderate acanthosis, hyper- and parakeratosis with a few intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIB) which were positive with anti-bovine papillomavirus serum. In the developing phase, there was prominent acanthosis with cellular swelling and fusion, and marked hyper- and parakeratosis. Many IIB were also present in swollen or degenerative prickle cells and granular cells, with a high degree of parakeratosis in keratinocytes. In the regressing phase, epidermal layers were almost normal with only slight hyperplastic change. However, there was rete peg proliferation downward into the dermis with moderate proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. In addition, in 10 spontaneous and one experimental wart, the lesions were fibropapillomas and this has never been described in horses previously. It was concluded that papillomas were initiated by basal cell hyperplasia without viral antigen production, with formation of acanthosis and hyper- and parakeratosis with IIB production. These findings were confirmed by examination of the experimental cases on the basis of the gross diameter of the warts.

  16. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  19. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  20. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%

  2. Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Debbie Renee

    2001-07-01

    Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber

  3. Measurements of Dermal and Oral Emissions from Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Sayana; Bekö, Gabriel; Bossi, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Human related pollutants (bioeffluents) emitted through skin and via exhaled breath were measured. Two climate chambers were connected via flexible ducts. The ducts were in one chamber attached to a breathing mask, through which five subjects exhaled on one occasion the air into the other chamber......: Human bioeffluents emitted orally were in this way isolated from those that were emitted dermally. On another occasion, the subjects exhaled the air into the chamber where they were sitting, thus exposure contained oral and dermal bioeffluents. Another twenty subjects assessed the air quality...... in the chambers. They judged the air quality in the chamber with dermal bioeffluents to be lower than in the one containing orally exhaled bioeffluents, and similar to the air quality in the chamber with all bioeffluents. The chemical compounds with slightly elevated concentrations differed between the two...

  4. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  5. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  6. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  7. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; Ginini, Jiriys George; van Aalst, John A; Shilo, Dekel; Naddaf, Raja; Aizenbud, Dror; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%). We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  9. Complications caused by injection of dermal filler in Danish patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Zachariae, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number of complicati......Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number...

  10. Labeled chloroquine analog in diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of the melanin-specific properties of chloroquine, an 125 I-labeled chloroquine analog (NM-113) was synthesized for use in the diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas. The limitations and indications for the use of NM-113 in the diagnosis of dermal melanomas are summarized, and its efficiency in the diagnosis of ocular melanomas is discussed. The low probability of side effects (radiation effects) on the retina from a diagnostic dose of 2 m Ci (46 rads) is mentioned. (U.S.)

  11. Serum antibodies and DNA indicate a high prevalence of equine papillomavirus 2 (EcPV2) among horses in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nina M; Favrot, Claude; Birkmann, Katharina; Jackson, Michele; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Müller, Martin; Tobler, Kurt; Geisseler, Marco; Lange, Christian E

    2014-06-01

    The DNA of equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) is consistently found in equine papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas, indicating a causal association of EcPV2 in the pathogenesis of these tumours; however, little is known about the prevalence of this virus. The aim of this study was to determine the geno- and seroprevalence of EcPV2 in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. Fifty horses presented to the equine department of the university clinic, displaying no skin or mucous membrane lesions or severe signs of other diseases, were sampled. Cytobrush samples from the penis or vulva and serum samples were collected. To determine the genoprevalence of EcPV2, DNA was extracted from cytobrush samples and tested for viral DNA with a PCR assay amplifying a 338 bp fragment of the E7/E1 region of the viral genome. Seroprevalence was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay aimed to detect antibodies against the major capsid protein (L1) of EcPV2. In five of 50 horses (10%), EcPV2-specific DNA was amplified but no antibodies could be detected, whereas in 14 of 50 horses (28%), antibodies against EcPV2 but no DNA were demonstrated. Both antibodies and viral DNA were detected in four of 50 horses (8%). Neither antibodies nor viral DNA were found in 27 of 50 horses (54%). The seroprevalence suggests that EcPV2 is prevalent in the Swiss equine population, while the genoprevalence indicates that currently ongoing infections are less common. The discrepancy between geno- and seroprevalence probably indicates different stages of infection in the tested cohort. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p humans.

  13. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  14. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  15. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) : A scale-construction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-01-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for

  16. Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Franken, Remy; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody

    2017-08-01

    The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a

  17. Cloning, expression and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) gp45 ectodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Pei-Long; Lv, Shu-Xia; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xin-Qi

    2011-01-01

    The equine infectious anaemia virus gp45 ectodomain was cloned, expressed and crystallized. Preliminary crystallographic analysis showed that the protein belonged to space group P6 3 and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) belongs to the lentivirus genus. The first successful lentiviral vaccine was developed for EIAV. Thus, EIAV may serve as a valuable model for HIV vaccine research. EIAV glycoprotein 45 (gp45) plays a similar role to gp41 in HIV by mediating virus–host membrane fusion. The gp45 ectodomain was constructed according to the structure of HIV gp41, with removal of the disulfide-bond loop region. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized following purification. However, most of the crystals grew as aggregates and could not be used for data collection. By extensively screening hundreds of crystals, a 2.7 Å resolution data set was collected from a single crystal. The crystal belonged to space group P6 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.84, c = 101.61 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Molecular replacement was performed using the coordinates of various lengths of HIV gp41 as search models. A long bent helix was identified and a well defined electron-density map around the long helix was obtained. This primary model provided the starting point for further refinement

  18. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  19. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r = 0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r = 0.95) and cattle (r = 0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r = 0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

  20. Pigment retinopathy in warmblood horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and equine motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Kaese, Heather J; Miller, Andrew D; Gianino, Giuliana; Divers, Thomas; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    A pigment retinopathy has been reported in adult horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) arising from chronic α-tocopherol (α-TP) deficiency. A pigment retinopathy has not been identified in horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) that affects genetically susceptible young horses with α-TP deficiency. The objective of this report is to describe, for the first time, a pigment retinopathy in a family of α-TP-deficient Warmbloods (WB) with clinically apparent NAD/EDM or EMND. Twenty-five WB horses from one farm underwent complete neurologic and ophthalmic examinations and serum α-TP concentrations were assessed. Two of the most severely ataxic horses were euthanized and postmortem examinations performed. Alpha-TP deficiency was widespread on this farm (22 of 25 horses). Eleven of 25 horses were clinically normal (age range 2-12 years), one had signs of EMND (6 years of age), 10 had signs of ataxia consistent with NAD/EDM (1-10 years), and two of these were postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND. A pigment retinopathy characterized by varying amounts of granular dark pigment in the tapetal retina was observed in four clinically apparent NAD/EDM horses (two postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND) and one horse with clinical signs of EMND. A pigment retinopathy can be present in young α-TP-deficient Warmblood horses with clinical signs of EMND as well as those with signs of NAD/EDM. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  3. Plasma proteomics shows an elevation of the anti-inflammatory protein APOA-IV in chronic equine laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine laminitis is a devastating disease that causes severe pain in afflicted horses and places a major economic burden on the horse industry. In acute laminitis, the disintegration of the dermal-epidermal junction can cause the third phalanx to detach from the hoof wall, leaving the horse unable to bear weight on the affected limbs. Horses that survive the acute phase transition into a chronic form of laminitis, which is often termed “founder”. Some evidence suggests that chronic laminar inflammation might be associated with alterations in the endocrine and immune systems. We investigated this broad hypothesis by using DIGE to assess global differences in the plasma proteome between horses with chronic laminitis and controls. Results We identified 16 differentially expressed proteins; the majority of these were involved in the interrelated coagulation, clotting, and kininogen cascades. Clinical testing of functional coagulation parameters in foundered horses revealed a slight delay in prothrombin (PT clotting time, although most other indices were within normal ranges. Upregulation of the intestinal apolipoprotein APOA-IV in horses with chronic laminitis was confirmed by western blot. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that localized laminar inflammation may be linked to systemic alterations in immune regulation, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. Gastrointestinal inflammation has been implicated in the development of acute laminitis but has not previously been associated with chronic laminitis.

  4. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, R.; Lappin, D.F.; Dixon, P.M.; Buijs, M.J.; Zaura, E.; Crielaard, W.; O'Donnell, L.; Bennett, D.; Brandt, B.W.; Riggio, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative

  5. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  6. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  7. Magnetic resonance microscopy atlas of equine embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; Närväinen, J; de Ruijter-Villani, M; Stout, T A E; van Weeren, P R; Brama, P

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine embryogenesis post implantation is not well studied, and only two-dimensional illustrations are available. A thorough appreciation of the complex three-dimensional relationship between tissues and organs and their development is, however, crucial for

  8. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  9. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  10. Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western Algeria in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Hue, E; Fortier, C; Morilland, E; Legrand, L; Hans, A; Pronost, S

    2017-08-01

    An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Delivery and evaluation of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in the equine distal extremity for the treatment of laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Gurda, B L; Van Wettere, A; Engiles, J B; Wilson, J M; Richardson, D W

    2017-01-01

    Our long-term aim is to develop a gene therapy approach for the prevention of laminitis in the contralateral foot of horses with major musculoskeletal injuries and non-weightbearing lameness. The goal of this study was to develop a practical method to efficiently deliver therapeutic proteins deep within the equine foot. Randomised in vivo experiment. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) to deliver marker genes using regional limb perfusion through the palmar digital artery of the horse. Vector serotypes rAAV2/1, 2/8 and 2/9 all successfully transduced equine foot tissues and displayed similar levels and patterns of transduction. The regional distribution of transduction within the foot decreased with decreasing vector dose. The highest transduction values were seen in the sole and coronary regions and the lowest transduction values were detected in the dorsal hoof-wall region. The use of a surfactant-enriched vector diluent increased regional distribution of the vector and improved the transduction in the hoof-wall region. The hoof-wall region of the foot, which exhibited the lowest levels of transduction using saline as the vector diluent, displayed a dramatic increase in transduction when surfactant was included in the vector diluent (9- to 81-fold increase). In transduced tissues, no significant difference was observed between promoters (chicken β-actin vs. cytomegalovirus) for gene expression. All horses tested for vector-neutralising antibodies were positive for serotype-specific neutralising antibodies to rAAV2/5. The current experiments demonstrate that transgenes can be successfully delivered to the equine distal extremity using rAAV vectors and that serotypes 2/8, 2/9 and 2/1 can successfully transduce tissues of the equine foot. When the vector was diluted with surfactant-containing saline, the level of transduction increased dramatically. The increased level of transduction due to the addition of surfactant also improved the

  12. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  13. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete.

  14. Hydroquinone PBPK model refinement and application to dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Carlton, Betsy D; Deyo, James A; Hinderliter, Paul M

    2010-11-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hydroquinone (HQ) was refined to include an expanded description of HQ-glucuronide metabolites and a description of dermal exposures to support route-to-route and cross-species extrapolation. Total urinary excretion of metabolites from in vivo rat dermal exposures was used to estimate a percutaneous permeability coefficient (K(p); 3.6×10(-5) cm/h). The human in vivo K(p) was estimated to be 1.62×10(-4) cm/h, based on in vitro skin permeability data in rats and humans and rat in vivo values. The projected total multi-substituted glutathione (which was used as an internal dose surrogate for the toxic glutathione metabolites) was modeled following an exposure scenario based on submersion of both hands in a 5% aqueous solution of HQ (similar to black and white photographic developing solution) for 2 h, a worst-case exposure scenario. Total multi-substituted glutathione following this human dermal exposure scenario was several orders of magnitude lower than the internal total glutathione conjugates in rats following an oral exposure to the rat NOEL of 20 mg/kg. Thus, under more realistic human dermal exposure conditions, it is unlikely that toxic glutathione conjugates (primarily the di- and, to a lesser degree, the tri-glutathione conjugate) will reach significant levels in target tissues. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  16. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  17. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  18. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A new technique. ... Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report ... Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However ...

  19. Implanon sub-dermal implant: an emerging method of contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implanon, a single rod sub-dermal implant is a relatively new contraceptive which offers long term reversible contraception for women. This study seeks to determine the safety, efficacy and acceptor characteristics of Implanon at the family planning clinic of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria.

  20. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However, these materials may be expensive, inappropriate or unavailable. The aim of this study is to determine the place of de-epithelialized dermal ...

  1. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  2. Respiratory and dermal symptoms in Thai nurses using latex products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supapvanich, C; Povey, A C; de Vocht, F

    2013-09-01

    Despite known health risks related to the use of powdered latex gloves (PLGs), they are still widely used in hospitals in developing countries due to the high cost of alternatives. To determine the prevalence of dermal and respiratory symptoms associated with latex glove use in nurses in Thailand and evaluate the influence of previously reported occupational risk factors in this population. A cross-sectional study in female nurses working in three Thai hospitals. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, occupational and personal history, use of latex products at work and dermal and respiratory symptoms attributed to occupational use of latex gloves. Of 899 nurses, 18% reported health effects attributed to the use of latex products. After adjustment for confounding, occupational risk factors associated with increased reporting of dermal symptoms included wearing more than 15 pairs of PLG per day (odds ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.32-3.34]), using chlorhexidine (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: [1.22-3.52]) and being an operating theatre nurse (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: [1.47-4.12]). Being a labour ward nurse (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: [1.26-9.85]) was the only factor associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms. Continuing use of PLGs in Thai nurses is associated with increased prevalence of dermal symptoms compared with data from developed countries. Measures to reduce such health effects are well established and should be considered. Additionally, replacement of chlorhexidine with an alternative detergent seems advisable.

  3. Dextran derivatives modulate collagen matrix organization in dermal equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Laetitia; Lebreton-Decoster, Corinne; Godeau, Gaston; Coulomb, Bernard; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Dextran derivatives can protect heparin binding growth factor implied in wound healing, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds on human dermal fibroblasts in culture with or without TGF-beta1. Several dextran derivatives obtained by substitution of methylcarboxylate (MC), benzylamide (B) and sulphate (Su) groups were used to determine the effects of each compound on fibroblast growth in vitro. The data indicate that sulphate groups are essential to act on the fibroblast proliferation. The dextran derivative LS21 DMCBSu has been chosen to investigate its effect on dermal wound healing process. Fibroblasts cultured in collagenous matrices named dermal equivalent were treated with the bioactive polymer alone or associated to TGF-beta1 or FGF-2. Cross-sections of dermal equivalent observed by histology or immunohistochemistry, demonstrated that the bioactive polymer accelerates the collagen matrices organization and stimulates the human type-III collagen expression. This bioactive polymer induces apoptosis of myofibroblast, property which may be beneficial in treatment of hypertrophic scar. Culture media analyzed by zymography and Western blot showed that this polymer significantly increases the secretion of zymogen and active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), involved in granulation tissue formation. These data suggest that this bioactive polymer has properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of wound healing.

  4. Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Retain a Pericyte-Like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Cristina L; Sheldrake, Tara A; Dawson, Lucy; Menghini, Timothy; Rink, Burgunde Elisabeth; Amilon, Karin; Khan, Nusrat; Péault, Bruno; Donadeu, Francesc Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in human and equine regenerative medicine, and interest in exploiting their potential has increased dramatically over the years. Despite significant effort to characterize equine MSCs, the actual origin of these cells and how much of their native phenotype is maintained in culture have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MSCs, derived from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM), and pericytes in the horse. Both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and αSMA) and MSC (CD29, CD90, and CD73) markers were detected in equine AT and colocalized around blood vessels. Importantly, as assessed by flow cytometry, both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and αSMA) and MSC (CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105) markers were present in a majority (≥90%) of cells in cultures of AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs; however, levels of pericyte markers were variable within each of those populations. Moreover, the expression of pericyte markers was maintained for at least eight passages in both AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Hematopoietic (CD45) and endothelial (CD144) markers were also detected at low levels in MSCs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, in coculture experiments, AT-MSCs closely associated with networks produced by endothelial cells, resembling the natural perivascular location of pericytes in vivo. Our results indicate that equine MSCs originate from perivascular cells and moreover maintain a pericyte-like phenotype in culture. Therefore, we suggest that, in addition to classical MSC markers, pericyte markers such as CD146 could be used when assessing and characterizing equine MSCs.

  5. Biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of equine cervical facet joint cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, S A; White, J L; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2018-04-15

    The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of this tissue. Descriptive cadaver studies. A total of 132 facet joint surfaces were harvested from the cervical spines of six skeletally mature horses (11 surfaces per animal) for compiling biomechanical and biochemical properties of hyaline cartilage of the equine cervical facet joints. Gross morphometric measurements and histological staining were performed on facet joint cartilage. Creep indentation and uniaxial strain-to-failure testing were used to determine the biomechanical compressive and tensile properties. Biochemical assays included quantification of total collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA content. The facet joint surfaces were ovoid in shape with a flat articular surface. Histological analyses highlighted structures akin to articular cartilage of other synovial joints. In general, biomechanical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between the inferior and superior joint surfaces as well as among spinal levels. Interestingly, compressive and tensile properties of cervical facet articular cartilage were lower than those of articular cartilage from other previously characterised equine joints. Removal of the superficial zone reduced the tissue's tensile strength, suggesting that this zone is important for the tensile integrity of the tissue. Facet surfaces were sampled at a single, central location and do not capture the potential topographic variation in cartilage properties. This

  6. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  7. Dermal Contributions to Human Interfollicular Epidermal Architecture and Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kynan T. Lawlor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human interfollicular epidermis is renewed throughout life by populations of proliferating basal keratinocytes. Though interfollicular keratinocyte stem cells have been identified, it is not known how self-renewal in this compartment is spatially organized. At the epidermal-dermal junction, keratinocytes sit atop a heterogeneous mix of dermal cells that may regulate keratinocyte self-renewal by influencing local tissue architecture and signalling microenvironments. Focusing on the rete ridges and complementary dermal papillae in human skin, we review the identity and organisation of abundant dermal cells types and present evidence for interactions between the dermal microenvironment and the interfollicular keratinocytes.

  8. Quality of equine veterinary care. Part 2: Client satisfaction in equine top sports medicine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.; Waaijer, P.G.; Maree, J.T.M.; Weeren, van P.R.; Barneveld, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the quality of equine veterinary top sports medicine in The Netherlands and the degree to which the expectations in the field are met. Focus was on structure, process and outcome of care. The structure of care is generally satisfactory but there

  9. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current understanding and recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Equine Endocrine Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Bailey, S R; de Laat, M A; Hughes, K J; Stewart, A S; Sonis, J M; Tan, Rhh

    2018-06-03

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current knowledge and opinions about the epidemiology, clinical findings (including sequelae), diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, particularly in the Australian context. This information and the recommendations provided will assist practitioners in making informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of this disorder. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Equine keratomycosis in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2017 28 cases : Voorjaarsdagen 2017 - Equine short communications (BEVA and Xcellent Horse Insurance Award)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.; Spoormakers, T.J.P.; Ensink, J.M.; Boevé, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    EQUINE KERATOMYCOSIS IN THE NETHERLANDS FROM 2007 TO 2017 (28 CASES) Equine keratomycosis or fungal keratitis is a relatively common sight-threatening corneal disease in horses, particularly in warm, humid climates. Clinical manifestation includes corneal ulceration with or without corneal melting,

  11. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  12. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for equine influenza spread onto horse premises during the 2007 epidemic in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Schemann, Kathrin A; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2011-06-01

    The 2007 epidemic of equine influenza in Australia provided an opportunity to investigate the effectiveness of on-farm biosecurity measures in preventing the spread of a novel pathogen in a largely naive population. We conducted a case-control study of 200 horse premises from highly affected regions of the state of New South Wales (NSW), to investigate risk factors for the spread of equine influenza onto horse premises, specifically, non-compliance with biosecurity measures recommended to horse owners by the relevant animal health authority, the NSW Department of Primary Industries. The study was restricted to cases occurring during the first seven weeks of the epidemic, a period prior to vaccination and the relaxation of some movement restrictions. Case and control premises were selected from a laboratory testing dataset and interviews were conducted with horse owners and managers on premises between July and November 2009. The proximity of premises to the nearest infected premises was the factor most strongly associated with case status. Case premises were more likely than control premises to be within 5 km and beyond 10 km of an infected premises. Having a footbath in place on the premises before any horses were infected was associated with a nearly four-fold reduction in odds of infection (odds ratio=0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.83). This protective association may have reflected overall premises biosecurity standards related to the fomite transmission of equine influenza. Compliance with certain on-farm biosecurity practices seemingly prevented horses on premises in high risk areas being infected with equine influenza during the 2007 outbreak in Australia. In future outbreaks, in addition to broader disease control measures, on-farm biosecurity practices should be adopted by horse owners and managers to prevent equine influenza spread. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  15. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  16. Altered Dermal Fibroblasts in Systemic Sclerosis Display Podoplanin and CD90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Banafsheh; Rice, Lisa M; Stifano, Giuseppina; Barron, Alexander M S; Wang, Yu Mei; Korndorf, Tess; Lee, Jungeun; Bhawan, Jag; Lafyatis, Robert; Browning, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Tissue injury triggers the activation and differentiation of multiple cell types to minimize damage and initiate repair processes. In systemic sclerosis, these repair processes appear to run unchecked, leading to aberrant remodeling and fibrosis of the skin and multiple internal organs, yet the fundamental pathological defect remains unknown. We describe herein a transition wherein the abundant CD34(+) dermal fibroblasts present in healthy human skin disappear in the skin of systemic sclerosis patients, and CD34(-), podoplanin(+), and CD90(+) fibroblasts appear. This transition is limited to the upper dermis in several inflammatory skin diseases, yet in systemic sclerosis, it can occur in all regions of the dermis. In vitro, primary dermal fibroblasts readily express podoplanin in response to the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor and IL-1β. Furthermore, we show that on acute skin injury in both human and murine settings, this transition occurs quickly, consistent with a response to inflammatory signaling. Transitioned fibroblasts partially resemble the cells that form the reticular networks in organized lymphoid tissues, potentially linking two areas of fibroblast research. These results allow for the visualization and quantification of a basic stage of fibroblast differentiation in inflammatory and fibrotic diseases in the skin. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Engraftment potential of dermal fibroblasts following in vivo myogenic conversion in immunocompetent dystrophic skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Muir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous dermal fibroblasts (dFbs are promising candidates for enhancing muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD due to their ease of isolation, immunological compatibility, and greater proliferative potential than DMD satellite cells. We previously showed that mouse fibroblasts, after MyoD-mediated myogenic reprogramming in vivo, engraft in skeletal muscle and supply dystrophin. Assessing the therapeutic utility of this system requires optimization of conversion and transplantation conditions and quantitation of engraftment so that these parameters can be correlated with possible functional improvements. Here, we derived dFbs from transgenic mice carrying mini-dystrophin, transduced them by lentivirus carrying tamoxifen-inducible MyoD, and characterized their myogenic and engraftment potential. After cell transplantation into the muscles of immunocompetent dystrophic mdx4cv mice, tamoxifen treatment drove myogenic conversion and fusion into myofibers that expressed high levels of mini-dystrophin. Injecting 50,000 cells/µl (1 × 106 total cells resulted in a peak of ∼600 mini-dystrophin positive myofibers in tibialis anterior muscle single cross-sections. However, extensor digitorum longus muscles with up to 30% regional engraftment showed no functional improvements; similar limitations were obtained with whole muscle mononuclear cells. Despite the current lack of physiological improvement, this study suggests a viable initial strategy for using a patient-accessible dermal cell population to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration in DMD.

  18. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  19. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Darma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  20. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Darma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen. Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  1. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-κB pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  3. Surgical Implications of Asymmetric Distribution of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in Two Orientations of Skin Samples from Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinically, scar related complications are observed to be dissimilar in different regions of the body. Unequal distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in different orientations could be one of the multifocal causes of scar related complications, for which this evaluating study has been taken up. Materials and Method. 300 skin samples collected in horizontal and vertical orientations were studied histomorphometrically. This study involved image analysis of specially stained histological section using tissue-quant software. The outcome result was termed as quantitative fraction. From the result, various ratio values were also calculated for the ratio analysis. Results. The differences in the quantitative fraction of dermal elastic content between 2 directions were statistically significant at joint areas (shoulder joint, wrist, and ankle (P<0.001 but for collagen, significant difference was observed at shoulder joint and wrist only. Dermis of the forearm and thigh did not show any differences in their collagen content, but for elastic, thigh did show a significant difference while forearm had no change between 2 directions. Conclusion. Analysis of unequal content of dermal element in two directions under the perspective of wound healing consequences is subjective depending upon the anatomical position and functional status of the areas.

  4. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jun Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  5. Radiographic measurements from the lateromedial projection of the equine foot with navicular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschooten, F.; Roels, J.; Lampo, P.; Desmet, P.; Moor, A. de; Picavet, T.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic measurements from the lateromedial projection of the equine foot were compared in three groups of horses. Group 1 consisted of 143 normal horses, group 2 were 60 horses with clinical navicular disease and group 3 were 161 horses with clinical and radiographic navicular disease. Several measurements tended to be larger in group 3 and group 1. An enlargement of the navicular bone was observed in proximodistal and dorsopalmar directions. Partial enlargement of the pedal bone was observed between age classes. All horses aged four years and over had an increased length of the hoof in the dorsopalmar direction and a decrease of the cranial angle of the hoof. Enlargement of the navicular bone fits well into the concept of osteroarthrosis. The pedal bone was partly engaged. These findings may be an expression of a regional acceleratory phenomenon

  6. Technetium-99m-HDP uptake characteristics in equine fractures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, E; Geissbühlerl, U; Doherr, M G; Lang, J

    2006-10-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive diagnostic tool to detect elevated bone metabolism. In cases of fractures and fissure fractures, the radiopharmaceutical uptake in the bone is said to be increased within a few hours after the injury. In this retrospective study, the scintigraphic uptake characteristics at the fracture site of 36 horses with radiographically confirmed fractures or fissure fractures were evaluated. Uptake ratios between the fracture region and adjacent normal bone or soft tissue activity respectively were calculated and compared to different anamnestic and radiographic data. The overall sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 94.4% (34 positive cases out of 36). In the 36 horses, no correlation between the age of the fracture and the radiopharmaceutical uptake was found. However, there seems to be a lack of sensitivity in early detection of equine pelvic fractures when a standing bone scintigraphy examination protocol is used.

  7. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

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    Violeta Isai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain improvements, which allow the separate registration of biological assets, their valuation at the fair value and the separate registration of the economic benefits brought by the biological assets to the entity. This paper presents a part of these aspects, in the context of the new settlements adopted in accounting by the Romanian legislation.

  8. Babesiosis in equines in Pakistan: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Rashid

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.

  9. Comparison of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional X-ray of the equine digit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiter, M.

    1996-10-01

    An anatomical study of the equine digit with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed. In addition, the observed pathologic findings were compared with their diagnosticity in associated radiographs. Twenty isolated forelimbs were radiographed and compared with the according CT-images. From 19 isolated forelimbs and one hindlimb MR-images were taken using spinecho and overview gradient-echo sequences. The appearance of bone and soft tissue is described in various sectional positions. CT images allow excellent evaluation of bone tissue in cases in which the X-ray examination suffers from the superimposition of adjacent structures. Thus, in several cases of navicular disease additional findings were made using CT. An insertional desmopathy of the interosseus, a cartilagineous fetlock chip, a separation of the hoof wall and osteophytes of the distal phalanx were found with CT but not in the associated radiographs. MRI allows the specific diagnosis of joint-, ligament- and tendon diseases also in the hoof region. The possibility to evaluate the navicular region, the distal interphalangeal joint and the hoof matrix is of great diagnostic value. In one case of navicular d sease a defect of the flexor cortex with pannus formation could be diagnosed. In a case with chronical laminitis the separation of the epidermal lamellae and the growth of the scar horn were depicted. A tendinitis of the interosseus, fibrocartilage in the insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon, the interosseus and in the distal sesamoid ligaments are well documented. It is concluded that in some equine patients CT and MRI are indicated due to the substantial diagnostic information. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of an equine fracture model containing stainless steel metal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownder, S L; Koff, M F; Shah, P H; Fortier, L A; Potter, H G

    2016-05-01

    Post operative imaging in subjects with orthopaedic implants is challenging across all modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred to assess human post operative musculoskeletal complications, as soft tissue and bones are evaluated without using ionising radiation. However, with conventional MRI pulse sequences, metal creates susceptibility artefact that distorts anatomy. Assessment of the post operative equine patient is arguably more challenging due to the volume of metal present, and MRI is often not performed in horses with implants. Novel pulse sequences such as multiacquisition variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) now provide improved visibility in the vicinity of surgical-grade implants and offer an option for imaging horses with metal implants. To compare conspicuity of regional anatomy in an equine fracture-repair model using MAVRIC, narrow receiver bandwidth (NBW) fast spin echo (FSE), and wide receiver bandwidth (WBW) FSE sequences. Nonrandomised in vitro experiment. MAVRIC, NBW FSE and WBW FSE were performed on 9 cadaveric distal limbs with fractures and stainless steel implants in the third metacarpal bone and proximal phalanx. Objective measures of artefact reduction were performed by calculating the total artefact area in each transverse image as a percentage of the total anatomic area. The number of transverse images in which fracture lines were visible was tabulated for each sequence. Regional soft tissue conspicuity was assessed subjectively. Overall anatomic delineation was improved using MAVRIC compared with NBW FSE; delineation of structures closest to the metal implants was improved using MAVRIC compared with WBW FSE and NBW FSE. Total artefact area was the highest for NBW FSE and lowest for MAVRIC; the total number of transverse slices with a visible fracture line was highest in MAVRIC and lowest in NBW FSE. MAVRIC and WBW FSE are feasible additions to minimise artefact around implants. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Cleft Palate Fistula Closure Utilizing Acellular Dermal Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Emodi, DMD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Fistulas represent failure of cleft palate repair. Secondary and tertiary fistula repair is challenging, with high recurrence rates. In the present retrospective study, we review the efficacy of using acellular dermal matrix as an interposition layer for cleft palate fistula closure in 20 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2016. Complete fistula closure was obtained in 16 patients; 1 patient had asymptomatic recurrent fistula; 2 patients had partial closure with reduction of fistula size and minimal nasal regurgitation; 1 patient developed a recurrent fistula without changes in symptoms (success rate of 85%. We conclude that utilizing acellular dermal matrix for cleft palate fistula repair is safe and simple with a high success rate.

  12. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  13. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Conjugated equine estrogen enhances rats' cognitive, anxiety, and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The ovarian hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the body and brain, and can influence cognitive, affective, and social behavior. However, functional effects of commonly prescribed E2-based hormone therapies are less known. The effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on middle-aged female rats for cognitive (object recognition), anxiety (open field, plus maze), and social (social interaction, lordosis) behavior were compared-with vehicle. Our hypothesis that CEE would enha...

  15. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, C.A.; Jaramillo, C.; Loaiza, M.J.; Blanco, R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses) have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adi...

  16. Further delineation of the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégarbané, Hala; Haddad, May; Delague, Valérie; Renoux, Julien; Boehm, Nelly; Mégarbané, André

    2004-08-30

    We report on three boys, two brothers and their maternal cousin, presenting with dry hair, pilar keratosis, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue, onychodysplasia, and keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles. Histology of the skin showed orthokeratotic, hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, and mild acanthosis in the epidermis. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair showed longitudinal depressions in some hair. These features are close to a rare entity: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia but with some differing features. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria: aberrant dermal melanocytosis and nevus spilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone

    2011-08-15

    We present a dermal melanocytosis with superimposed nevus spilus on the arm of a 5-year-old boy. We recently introduced a new type of phacomatosis, which we termed "phacomatosis pigmentopigmentalis," that is analogous to phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica or pigmentovascularis, for describing the association of two pigmented nevi. The present case is an example of this type of phacomatosis, which now we prefer to define phacomatosis pigmento-pigmentaria according to the correct Latin terminology.

  18. Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria L C R; Galiza, Glauco J N; Dantas, Antônio F M; Oliveira, Rafael N; Iamamoto, Keila; Achkar, Samira M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster. © 2011 The Author(s)

  19. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  20. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, M.; Lischer, C.; Ohlerth, S.; Vargas, J.; Auer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PXTM, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually

  1. Utility of an Equine Clinical Skills Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce W; Danielson, Jared A

    Recent publications have revealed inadequacies in the veterinary training of future equine practitioners. To help address this problem, a 2-week Equine Clinical Skills course was designed and implemented to provide fourth-year veterinary students with opportunities to have hands-on experience with common equine clinical skills using live animals and cadavers. Alumni and employers of alumni were surveyed to determine whether or not students participating in the course were more competent performing clinical skills during their first year post-graduation than those who had not participated in the course. Students who participated in the course were also surveyed before and after completing the course to determine whether or not their self-assessed skills improved during the course. Alumni who had taken the course rated their ability to perform the clinical skills more highly than alumni who had not taken the course. Similarly, students participating in the course indicated that they were significantly more able to perform the clinical skills after the course than when it began. Employers did not indicate a difference between the clinical skills of those who had taken the course and those who had not. Because this study involved a limited number of respondents from one institution, further studies should be conducted to replicate these findings and determine their generalizability.

  2. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  3. Equine-Facilitated Therapy and Trauma: Current Knowledge, Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlys Staudt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine-facilitated therapy (EFT is a relatively new treatment for trauma and PTSD. EFT as well as animal assisted interventions in general have been introduced and implemented in mental health treatment for children and adults, though the research in support of these interventions has not kept up with practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of EFT for clients suffering from trauma/PTSD. Studies were included if PTSD/trauma was assessed and/or was measured as an outcome. A search of relevant databases resulted in nine peer-reviewed studies that met criteria. Studies are summarized and implications for future research are discussed. In general, findings suggest that EFT is a promising intervention for trauma/PTSD. Recommendations include a call for more research that includes veterans as well as for research that explicates the mechanisms by which EFT may be effective.      Key words: trauma, PTSD, equine, equine therapy

  4. Localization of Bovine Papillomavirus Nucleic Acid in Equine Sarcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A M; Zhu, K W; Dela Cruz, F N; Affolter, V K; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV1/BPV2) have long been associated with equine sarcoids; deciphering their contribution has been difficult due to their ubiquitous presence on skin and in the environment, as well as the lack of decent techniques to interrogate their role in pathogenesis. We have developed and characterized an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that uses a pool of probes complementary to portions of the E5, E6, and E7 genes. This assay is highly sensitive for direct visualization of viral transcript and nucleic acid in routinely processed histopathologic samples. We demonstrate here the visualization of BPV nucleic acid in 18 of 18 equine sarcoids, whereas no detectable viral DNA was present in 15 of 15 nonsarcoid controls by this technique. In nearly 90% (16/18) of the sarcoids, 50% or more of the fibroblastic cell nuclei distributed throughout the neoplasm had detectable hybridization. In the remaining 2 cases, fewer than half of the fibroblastic cells contained detectable hybridization, but viral nucleic acid was also detected in epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and epidermis. A sensitive ISH assay is an indispensable addition to the molecular methods used to detect viral nucleic acid in tissue. We have used this technique to determine the specific cellular localization and distribution of BPV in a subset of equine sarcoids. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  6. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  7. Dynamic interactions between dermal macrophages and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Reinhild; Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream. This quantitative renewal is promoted further at the beginning of life, when prenatally seeded cells are rapidly replaced and in healing phases after injuries or infections. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the dynamic dermal Mϕ biology on the establishment and maintenance of immunity against Staphylococcus aureus, which can either be a harmless colonizer or an invasive pathogen. The understanding of the heterogeneity of the "mature" dermal Mϕ compartment driven both by the influx of differentiating monocytes and by a bone marrow-independent Mϕ persistence and expansion may help to explain failing immunity and immunopathology originating from the skin, the important interface between host and environment. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  9. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, C J; Nazaroff, W W

    2012-10-01

    This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that--in central tendency--an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assuming that thermodynamic equilibrium prevails. Then, equations are developed, based upon idealized mass-transport considerations, to estimate transdermal penetration of an SVOC either from its concentration in skin-surface lipids or its concentration in air. Kinetic constraints limit air-to-skin transport in the case of SVOCs that strongly sorb to skin-surface lipids. Air-to-skin transdermal uptake is estimated to be comparable to or larger than inhalation intake for many SVOCs of current or potential interest indoors, including butylated hydroxytoluene, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diethyl phthalate, Galaxolide, geranyl acetone, nicotine (in free-base form), PCB28, PCB52, Phantolide, Texanol and Tonalide. Although air-to-skin transdermal uptake is anticipated to be slow for bisphenol A, we find that transdermal permeation may nevertheless be substantial following its transfer to skin via contact with contaminated surfaces. The paper concludes with explorations of the influence of particles and dust on dermal exposure, the role of clothing and bedding as transport vectors, and the potential significance of hair follicles as transport shunts through the epidermis. Human exposure to indoor pollutants can occur through dietary and nondietary ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Many factors influence the relative importance of these pathways, including physical and chemical properties of the pollutants. This paper argues that exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through the dermal pathway has often been underestimated. Transdermal permeation of SVOCs can be substantially greater than is commonly assumed. Transport of SVOCs from the air to and through the skin is

  10. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  11. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  12. Chitosan solutions as injectable systems for dermal filler applications: Rheological characterization and biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, C; Montembault, A; Guerry, A; Delair, T; Viguier, E; Fulchiron, R; David, L

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of dermal filler for wrinkle filler based on chitosan was compared to current hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers by using a new rheological performance criterion based on viscosity during injection related to Newtonian viscosity. In addition an in vivo evaluation was performed for preclinical evidence of chitosan use as dermal filler. In this way, biocompatibility and dermis reconstruction was evaluated on a pig model.

  13. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  14. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  15. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  16. Testing the Sarcocystis neurona vaccine using an equine protozoal myeloencephalitis challenge model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important equine neurologic disorder, and treatments for the disease are often unrewarding. Prevention of the disease is the most important aspect for EPM, and a killed vaccine was developed for just that purpose. Evaluation of the vaccine has been hamp...

  17. Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J; Neira, V; Mena, J; Brito, B; Garcia, A; Gutierrez, C; Sandoval, D; Ortega, R

    2017-12-01

    A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  19. Mechanical adaptability of the Bouligand-type structure in natural dermal armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Dave, Neil K. N.; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2013-10-01

    Arapaima gigas, a fresh water fish found in the Amazon Basin, resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armour. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in distinct lamellae. Here we show how the Bouligand-type (twisted plywood) arrangement of collagen fibril lamellae has a key role in developing their unique protective properties, by using in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering during mechanical tensile tests to observe deformation mechanisms in the fibrils. Specifically, the Bouligand-type structure allows the lamellae to reorient in response to the loading environment; remarkably, most lamellae reorient towards the tensile axis and deform in tension through stretching/sliding mechanisms, whereas other lamellae sympathetically rotate away from the tensile axis and compress, thereby enhancing the scale’s ductility and toughness to prevent fracture.

  20. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  1. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverjon, C; Leblond, A; Lecollinet, S; Bødker, R; de Koeijer, A A; Fischer, E A J

    2017-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical distribution. Using stochastic spatiotemporal models of virus entry, we assessed and compared the probabilities of both viruses entering France via two pathways: importation of live-infected animals or importation of infected vectors. Analyses were performed for three consecutive years (2010-2012). Seasonal and regional differences in virus entry probabilities were the same for both diseases. However, the probability of EE entry was much higher than the probability of AHS entry. Interestingly, the most likely entry route differed between AHS and EE: AHS has a higher probability to enter through an infected vector and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by 'what-if' scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before their importation was the most effective in reducing the probability of AHS entry. On the other hand, the most significant reduction in the probability of EE entry was obtained by the implementation of quarantine before import for horses coming from both EU and non-EU countries. The developed models can be useful to implement risk-based surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Quasispecies In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-15

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro -adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral quasispecies

  3. Critical incidence reporting systems - an option in equine anaesthesia? Results from a panel meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Driessen, Bernd; Pang, Daniel; Wohlfender, Franziska

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief introduction into Critical Incident Reporting Systems (CIRS) as used in human medicine, and to report the discussion from a recent panel meeting discussion with 23 equine anaesthetists in preparation for a new CEPEF-4 (Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities) study. Moderated group discussions, and review of literature. The first group discussion focused on the definition of 'preventable critical incidents' and/or 'near misses' in the context of equine anaesthesia. The second group discussion focused on categorizing critical incidents according to an established framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical medicine. While critical incidents do occur in equine anaesthesia, no critical incident reporting system including systematic collection and analysis of critical incidents is in place. Critical incident reporting systems could be used to improve safety in equine anaesthesia - in addition to other study types such as mortality studies. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Adipose tissue as mesenchymal stem cells source in equine tendinitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Mattos Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendinitis is an important high-relapse-rate disease, which compromises equine performance and may result in early athletic life end to affected animals. Many therapies have been set to treat equine tendinitis; however, just few result in improved relapse rates, quality of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased biomechanical resistance of the treated tissue. Due to advances in the regenerative medicine, promising results were initially obtained through the implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC derived from the bone marrow in the equine tendon injury. Since then, many studies have been using MSCs from different sources for therapeutic means in equine. The adipose tissue has appeared as feasible MSC source. There are promising results involving equine tendinitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AdMSCs.

  5. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  6. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  7. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  8. Design of an elastin-layered dermal regeneration template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Suzanne M; Weiss, Anthony S

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach for the production of tunable quantities of elastic fibers. We also show that exogenous tropoelastin is rate-limiting for elastin synthesis regardless of the age of the dermal fibroblast donor. Additionally, we provide a strategy to further enhance synthesis by older cells through the application of conditioned media. We show that this approach delivers an elastin layer on one side of the leading dermal repair template for contact with the deep dermis in order to deliver prefabricated elastic fibers to a physiologically appropriate site during subsequent surgery. This system is attractive because it provides for the first time a viable path for sufficient, histologically detectable levels of patient elastin into full-thickness wound sites that have until now lacked this elastic underlayer. The scars of full thickness wounds typically lack elasticity. Elastin is essential for skin elasticity and is enriched in the deep dermis. This paper is significant because it shows that: (1) we can generate elastic fibers in tunable quantities, (2) tropoelastin is the rate-limiting component in elastin synthesis in vitro, (3) we can generate elastin fibers regardless of donor age, (4) we describe a novel approach to further increase the numbers and thickness of elastic fibers for older donors, (5) we improve on Integra Dermal Regeneration Template and generate a new hybrid biomaterial intended to subsequently surgically deliver these elastic fibers, (6) the elastic fiber layer is presented on the side of Integra that is intended for delivery into its physiologically appropriate site i.e. the deep dermis. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Mori, Seiji; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kohzo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2017-09-23

    SVVYGLR peptide (SV peptide) is a 7-amino-acid sequence with angiogenic properties that is derived from osteopontin in the extracellular matrix and promotes differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblast-like cells and the production of collagen type Ⅲ by cardiac fibroblasts. However, the effects of SV peptide on dermal cells and tissue are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of this peptide in a rat model of dermal wound healing. The synthetic SV peptide was added to dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes, and their cellular motility was evaluated. In an in vivo wound healing exeriment, male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the SV peptide treatment, non-treated control, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) groups. Wound healing was assessed by its repair rate and histological features. Scratch assay and cell migration assays using the Chemotaxicell method showed that SV peptide significantly promoted the cell migration in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In contrast the proliferation potency of these cells was not affected by SV peptide. In the rat model, wound healing progressed faster in the SV peptide-treated group than in the control and PBS groups. The histopathological analyses showed that the SV peptide treatment stimulated the migration of fibroblasts to the wound area and increased the number of myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of von Willebland factor-positive neomicrovessels in the SV peptide-treated group. In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  11. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  12. Atypical post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis with "muzzle area" swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter.

  13. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-04-16

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  14. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most...... compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating the possibility of removing chemicals from the skin through different cleansing procedures following unintended dermal exposures....

  15. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  16. Equine performance genes and the future of doping in horseracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Tessa; Baoutina, Anna; Hamilton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses. Gene doping, the misuse of gene therapies for performance enhancement, is predicted to be the next phase of doping faced by horseracing. The risk of gene doping to human sports has been recognised for almost 15 years, and the introduction of the first gene doping detection tests for doping control in human athletes is imminent. Gene doping is also a threat to horseracing, but there are currently no methods to detect it. Efficient and accurate detection methods need to be developed to deter those looking to use gene doping in horses and to maintain the integrity of the sport. Methods developed for human athletes could offer an avenue for detection in racehorses. Development of an equine equivalent test will first require identification of equine genes that will likely be targeted by gene doping attempts. This review focuses on genes that have been linked to athletic performance in horses and, therefore, could be targeted for genetic manipulation. The risks associated with gene doping and approaches to detect gene doping are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the equine temporomandibular joint anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M J; Agut, A; Soler, M; López-Albors, O; Arredondo, J; Querol, M; Latorre, R

    2010-04-01

    In human medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the 'gold standard' imaging procedure to assess the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, there is no information regarding MRI evaluation of equine TMJ. To describe the normal sectional MRI anatomy of equine TMJ by using frozen and plastinated anatomical sections as reference; and determine the best imaging planes and sequences to visualise TMJ components. TMJs from 6 Spanish Purebred horse cadavers (4 immature and 2 mature) underwent MRI examination. Spin-echo T1-weighting (SE T1W), T2*W, fat-suppressed (FS) proton density-weighting (PDW) and fast spin-echo T2-weighting (FSE T2W) sequences were obtained in oblique sagittal, transverse and dorsal planes. Anatomical sections were procured on the same planes for a thorough interpretation. The oblique sagittal and transverse planes were the most informative anatomical planes. SE T1W images showed excellent spatial resolution and resulted in superior anatomic detail when comparing to other sequences. FSE T2W sequence provided an acceptable anatomical depiction but T2*W and fat-suppressed PDW demonstrated higher contrast in visualisation of the disc, synovial fluid, synovial pouches and articular cartilage. The SE T1W sequence in oblique sagittal and transverse plane should be the baseline to identify anatomy. The T2*W and fat-suppressed PDW sequences enhance the study of the articular cartilage and synovial pouches better than FSE T2W. The information provided in this paper should aid clinicians in the interpretation of MRI images of equine TMJ and assist in the early diagnosis of those problems that could not be diagnosed by other means.

  19. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G H; Turell, M J; Pagac, B B

    1997-04-01

    An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), Laurel, Maryland (USA), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if EEE immunization protected whooping cranes (Grus americana). Based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. As there were no deaths in these birds, the EEE vaccination program appeared to be efficacious in this whooping crane population.

  1. Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikogosyan, D.N.; Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (λ = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m 2 ) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 10 ns, I = 10 9 W/m 2 ) or picosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 23 ps, I = 10 12 W/m 2 ) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

  2. Fat opacities dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, A.E.; Rendano, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolucencies due to fat in the soft tissues dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint were studied in 12 necropsy specimens. In lateral-to-medial xeroradiographs of these 12 specimens, focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were in another. These radiolucencies were identified as fat in the antebrachiocarpal joint capsule. The fat was in two locations within this joint capsule. It was associated with the synovial membrane of the extensor carpi radialis tendon sheath and the synovial membrane of the antebrachiocarpal joint

  3. Prevalence and diagnosis of colic in equine field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.Y.; Hazeen, K.; Manzoor, S.; Mumtaz, N.

    2007-01-01

    This field study was conducted to diagnosis of equine colic. The physical findings of effected animals were increased. The blood values including TLC (10.5/cu.m), PCV (37%), Lymphocyte (41%), Monocytes (0.75%), Eosinophilis (3.50%) and Basophilis (0.0%) and serum electrolytes Sodium (138.85 mEq/L) and Potassium (4.48 mEq/L) values were recorded in affected animals. The disease was recorded more i.e. 53.33% in 10-15 years of age. This disease was found related to the heavy work with improper food and sudden changes in feed and environment. (author)

  4. Equine Risk Assessment for Insecticides Used in Adult Mosquito Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    are synergized with PBO. PBO has been shown to increase the toxicity of pyrethroids to trout , but there is no indication that PBO acts as a synergist...Nutrition and performance of racing thoroughbreds. Equine Vet J 15:31–6 Grace ND, Gee EK, Firth EC, et al. 2002. Digestible energy intake, dry matter... digestibility and mineral status of grazing New Zealand Thoroughbred yearlings. N Z Vet J 50:63– 9 Huhn GD, Sejvar JJ, Montgomery SP, et al. 2003

  5. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  6. Application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in equine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a procedure used to screen in vitroproduced embryos or embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine genetic traits by DNA testing prior to transfer into the uterus. Biopsy methods to obtain a sample of cells for genetic analysis before implantation have been successful in small embryos (morulae and blastocysts 300 µm diameter. The successful biopsy of expanded equine blastocysts via micromanipulation, with subsequent normal pregnancy rates, was first reported in 2010. Direct PCR may be performed when evaluating only one gene, such as for embryo sexing, while whole genome amplification is effective for subsequent multiplex PCR of multiple genes.

  7. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2013-01-01

    that the pathogenic larval stages of cyathostomins and large strongyles cannot be detected by any of the available diagnostics. With the lengthy prepatency periods characterizing these parasites, there is a huge need for developing such assays. The recent identification of a possible diagnostic marker for encysted...... for validated and useful assays in the relative near future....... the needs for reliable and practical diagnostic tools for detection of major parasites infecting equines. The current, widely used coprological techniques are important and useful, but they do have considerable limitations as they are incapable of diagnosing the pathogenic migrating stages. Species...

  9. Measurements of Dermal Uptake of Nicotine Directly from Air and Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare-skinne...

  10. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  11. DERMAL, ORAL, AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive, used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors has contaminated drinking water leading to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation ki...

  12. DERMAL, ORAL AND INHALATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhal...

  13. Harmonization of future needs for dermal exposure assessment and modeling : a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Maidment, S.; Mcclaflin, J.L.; Fehrenbacher, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Dermal exposure assessment and modeling is still in early phases of development. This article presents the results of a workshop organized to harmonize the future needs in this field. Methods for dermal exposure assessment either assess the mass of contaminant that is transferred to the skin, or the

  14. A dermal model for spray painters, part I : subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Semple, S.; Marquart, J.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a

  15. Liposome-containing Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract formulations with increased antioxidant activity, improved dermal penetration and reduced dermal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ungphaiboon, Suwipa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, or Roselle, is a medicinal plant used extensively in traditional Thai medicine since ancient times. The extracts of Roselle calyces possess antioxidant activity and have potential for development as active ingredients in cosmetic products. However the limitations of using Roselle extracts in cosmetics are its low skin permeation and dermal irritation. Liposome technology is an obvious approach that might overcome these problems. Liposome formulations of standardized Roselle extracts were developed with various lipid components. The formulation showing the highest entrapment efficiency was selected for stability, skin permeation and dermal irritability studies. The liposome formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (83%) and smalôlest particle size (332 mm) was formulated with phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SPC): Tween 80: deoxycholic acid (DA); 84:16:2.5 weight ratio, total lipid of 200 g/mL and 10% w/v Roselle extract in final liposomal preparation. This liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light, for 2 months. The in vitro skin permeation studies, using freshly excised pig skin and modified Franz-diffusion cells, showed that the liposome formulation was able to considerably increased the rate of permeation of active compounds in Roselle extracts compared to the Roselle extract solution. The in vivo dermal irritability testing on rabbit skin showed that the liposome formulation dramatically decreased skin irritability compared to the unformulated extract. These results showed that the liposomes containing Roselle extracts had good stability, high entrapment efficacy, increased skin permeation and low skin irritation.

  16. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  17. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  18. Dermal transfer quantification of nanoparticles from nano-enabled surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Mines, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The dermal transfer testing by wipe sampling and analytical approach used in this study demonstrates that wipe testing in combination with spICP-MS analysis can provide both qualitative data in terms of mass and number-based NP release, as well as particle characterization in terms of NP size distribution...... and characterize NP release from keyboard covers and freshly painted surfaces, in terms of mass and number concentration, as well as released particle size distribution through the use of spICP-MS. Three types of NPs were selected for method validation testing, Ag, TiO2, and CuO; and, the particle extraction from...... wipes was found to be efficient for Ag and CuO, but not for TiO2 particles. Thereafter, potential dermal transfer was tested by wipe sampling for two nanoAg-containing silicon keyboard covers, and wood painted with nanoCuO-containing paint. AgNP release was observed for one of the keyboard cover types...

  19. Radiological impact of the use of calcium hydroxylapatite dermal fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.N.; Fox, J.J.; Akhurst, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To report a case series in which the radiological features of the subcutaneous use of calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHa) dermal fillers are described for the first time. Materials and methods: Five patients with facial hyperattenuating hypermetabolic subcutaneous lesions were identified on 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), who gave a history of facial injections to augment physical appearance. Correlation with additional imaging studies was performed. Results: All cases had subcutaneous high attenuation material on CT (range 280-700 HU), which was FDG avid on PET, with a standardized uptake value (SUV) range of 2.9-13.4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity subcutaneous lesion with enhancement post-gadolinium in one case. Conclusions: CaHa dermal filler is hyperattenuating on CT, hypermetabolic on FDG-PET imaging, of intermediate signal intensity on MRI, and is a potential cause of a false-positive imaging study.

  20. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Risk Loci to Equine Recurrent Uveitis in German Warmblood Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbrock, Maike; Lehner, Stefanie; Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a common eye disease affecting up to 3–15% of the horse population. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina equine SNP50 bead chip was performed to identify loci conferring risk to ERU. The sample included a total of 144 German warmblood horses. A GWAS showed a significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on horse chromosome (ECA) 20 at 49.3 Mb, with IL-17A and IL-17F being the closest genes. This locus explained a fraction of 23% of the phenotypic variance for ERU. A GWAS taking into account the severity of ERU, revealed a SNP on ECA18 nearby to the crystalline gene cluster CRYGA-CRYGF. For both genomic regions on ECA18 and 20, significantly associated haplotypes containing the genome-wide significant SNPs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, our results are indicative for a genetic component regulating the possible critical role of IL-17A and IL-17F in the pathogenesis of ERU. The associated SNP on ECA18 may be indicative for cataract formation in the course of ERU. PMID:23977091

  2. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Fransman, W.; Vocht, F.D.; Joode, B.V.W.D.; Kromhout, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)].Methods: Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85

  3. Seroprevalence of Pythium insidiosum infection in equine in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Weiblen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An epidemiological survey was carried out by performing an Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test to determine the seroprevalence of Pythium insidiosum infection in equine in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Brazil. The serological study covered seven geographical regions of RS, classified according to the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. The samples were obtained from official veterinary service (Serviço Veterinário Oficial, SVO linked to the Secretaria da Agricultura, Pecuária e Agronegócio of RS (SEAPA-RS to proceed the investigation of equine infectious anemia in 2014. Samples were collected during the months of September and October of 2013, covering the seven geographical regions of RS, and totalized 1,002 serum samples. The seroprevalence for P. insidiosum in RS was 11.1% (CI95% 9.23 to 13.22. The relative risk (RR of the presence of antibodies anti-P. insidiosum was in the regions Southeast 11.17 (CI95%, 4.65 to 26.8, Porto Alegre 4.62 (CI95%, 1.70 to 12.55, Southwest 11.17 (CI95%, 4.65 to 26.8 and Northwestern 3.72 (CI95%, 1.52 to 9.09. The highest prevalence (69.1% was observed in females with RR of 1.59 (CI95%, 1.11 to 2.27. When the presence of dams was evaluated, the seropositivity was evident in 74.4%, presenting an association of 2.13 (CI95%, 1.16 to 3.91 compared to farms without dams. In properties with veterinary assistance, the frequency of 72.7% and RR of 3.04 (CI95%,, 1,85 to 4,98 of seropositivity were observed. Due to the importance of pythiosis in horse herds, this study highlights the presence of anti-P. insidiosum antibodies in horses in RS, Brazil.

  4. Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities of TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar and blood-derived equine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Brian D.; Balasuriya, Udeni B.R.; Watson, Johanna L.; Bosio, Catharine M.; MacKay, Robert J.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2003-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) infects endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages in horses, and many of the clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA) reflect vascular injury. To further evaluate the potential role of EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines in the pathogenesis of EVA, we infected cultured equine alveolar macrophages (AMphi), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMphi), and pulmonary artery ECs with either a virulent (KY84) or an avirulent (CA95) strain of EAV. EAV infection of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs resulted in their activation with increased transcription of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly higher levels of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines in infected AMphi and BMphi than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Treatment of equine ECs with the culture supernatants of EAV-infected AMphi and BMphi also resulted in EC activation with cell surface expression of E-selectin, whereas infection of ECs with purified EAV alone caused only minimal expression of E-selectin. The presence of TNF-α in the culture supernatants of EAV-infected equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs was confirmed by bioassay, and the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly more TNF-α in all cell types than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Thus, the data indicate that EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of EVA in horses, and that the magnitude of the cytokine response of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs to EAV infection reflects the virulence of the infecting virus strain

  5. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  6. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic alterations during training of Purebred Arabian Breed equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Andrey Galindo Orozco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to 12 purebred Arabian breed equines, two adult males and ten adult females, ranging from four to eleven years old. The animals were divided in two groups, with six equines each, thus making the GI and GII groups alike. They performed 3 weekly sessions of 45 minutes. On the first 45 days, the average speed was 13.9km/h and on the following 45 days, 15.7km/h. Each two weeks, an additional session was conducted, being this one in the GI with the same speed and duration as the others; in the GII, it was with a 4-hour duration, prevailing the walk gait. The animals performed three tests on a treadmill: before (non-trained and after 45 days (1st phase and 90 days (2nd phase of training. The glucose values increased during the Test and later returned to the basal values six hours after the end of the exercise for both groups, presenting statistical difference between these, reaching higher values in the T maximum peak (T3 and at the end of the warm down (T4. Concerning to the plasmatic insulin values, these diminished drastically in the T3 of the ET in the G1 and G2 during the progressive advance of the physical effort test for both training groups, presenting statistical difference for each group and between groups. Finally, the cortisol levels were higher in the T3 of Test.

  8. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M

    2015-09-01

    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonography of the equine shoulder: technique and normal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnibar, M A; Auer, J A; Bakkali, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was intended to document normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine shoulder and anatomic landmarks useful in clinical imaging. Both forelimbs of five equine cadavers and both forelimbs of six live adult horses were used. To facilitate understanding of the images, a zoning system assigned to the biceps brachii and to the infraspinatus tendon was developed. Ultrasonography was performed with a real-time B-mode semiportable sector scanner using 7.5- and 5-MHz transducers. On one cadaver limb, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a system at 1.5 Tesla, T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Ultrasonography images were compared to frozen specimens and MRI images to correlate the ultrasonographic findings to the gross anatomy of the shoulder. Ultrasonography allowed easy evaluation of the biceps brachii and the infraspinatus tendon and their bursae, the supraspinatus muscle and tendons, the superficial muscles of the shoulder, and the underlying humerus and scapula. Only the lateral and, partially, the caudal aspects of the humeral head could be visualized with ultrasound. Ultrasonographic appearance, orientation, and anatomic relationships of these structures are described. Ultrasonographic findings correlated well with MRI images and with gross anatomy in the cadavers' limbs.

  10. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue.

  11. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  12. A radioimmunoassay for equilin in equine pregnancy plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.K.; Rance, Th.A.; Dean, P.D.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that the pregnant mare produces large quantities of the ring B unsaturated steroid equilin in addition to classical oestrogens. However, the precise biogenesis of this unusual steroid remains a mystery. To facilitate a study of the interrelationship of the steroids present during equine pregnancy, a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of equilin in peripheral plasma was developed. As equilin is thought to be a product of the foeto-placental unit, such an assay may also be of use as an index of foetal well-being. Oestrone and equilin are present in similar concentrations in equine pregnancy plasma so it was important that an antiserum was produced which could differentiate between these two steroids. An antigen was synthesised in which equilin is linked to a protein carrier through the 17-position in order that the C 7 -C 8 double bond might be fully exposed for immune recognition. This stratagem proved successful as the antiserum obtained gave a cross-reaction of only 7.3% for oestrone. The use of a radioimmunoassay incorporating this antiserum is demonstrated by measuring equilin concentrations in plasma samples taken from a mare at weekly intervals from day 60 of pregnancy through to parturition. The corresponding oestrone concentrations are also recorded and demonstrate the validity of the equilin assay in this situation

  13. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  14. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  15. Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, C M; Townsend, N B; Barnett, T P; Barakzai, S Z

    Involvement of the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) is an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in cases of the equine sinus disease. The authors aimed to ascertain if the caudo-dorsal extension of the VCS, the ventral conchal bulla (VCB) is identifiable on plain radiographs of cadaver skulls without sinus disease. Bilateral frontonasal sinus flaps were made in 10 equine cadaver skulls. Plain lateral, lateral oblique and dorso-ventral radiographs were then obtained followed by the same views taken with stainless steel wire outlining the caudal border of the VCB. Plain radiographs were randomised and blindly evaluated by two observers who marked where they believed the VCB to be positioned. This was then correlated with the true position of the VCB using radiographs with wires in place. The ease of identification of the VCB was classified as 'easy' or 'difficult'. The VCB was correctly identified in 70 per cent of lateral radiographs, but only 45 per cent of lateral oblique radiographs and 17 per cent of dorso-ventral radiographs. If a clinician was confident that he or she could identify the VCB, they were usually correct. Conversely if the clinician judged VCB identification as 'difficult', they usually identified it incorrectly. In the authors' clinical experience, the VCB of horses with sinusitis involving this compartment is more radiologically evident than in clinically normal horses. Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of this structure should aid clinicians in identifying horses with sinusitis affecting the VCS.

  16. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea N Gardner

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  17. Multifocal Equine Influenza Outbreak with Vaccination Breakdown in Thoroughbred Racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gildea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza (EI outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected. Multivariable analysis demonstrated a significant association between clinical signs and age, vaccination status and number of vaccine doses received. Vaccine breakdown was identified in 31% of horses with up to date vaccination records. This included 27 horses in four different racing yards. Genetic and antigenic analysis identified causal viruses as belonging to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage (FCL2. At the time of this study, no commercially available EI vaccine in Ireland had been updated in line with World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE recommendations to include a FCL2 virus. The findings of this study highlight the potential ease with which EI can spread among partially immune equine populations.

  18. Mutation in WNT10A is associated with an autosomal recessive ectodermal dysplasia: the odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaimy, Lynn; Chouery, Eliane; Megarbane, Hala; Mroueh, Salman; Delague, Valerie; Nicolas, Elsa; Belguith, Hanen; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Megarbane, Andre

    2007-10-01

    Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned the disease locus to an ~9-cM region at chromosome 2q35-q36.2, located between markers rs16853834 and D2S353, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7. Screening of candidate genes in this region led us to identify the same c.697G-->T (p.Glu233X) homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the WNT10A gene in all patients. At the protein level, the mutation is predicted to result in a premature truncated protein of 232 aa instead of 417 aa. This is the first report to our knowledge of a human phenotype resulting from a mutation in WNT10A, and it is the first demonstration of an ectodermal dysplasia caused by an altered WNT signaling pathway, expanding the list of WNT-related diseases.

  19. An activation domain within the walleye dermal sarcoma virus retroviral cyclin protein is essential for inhibition of the viral promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovnak, Joel; Hronek, Brett W.; Ryan, Sean O.; Cai, Sumin; Quackenbush, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a complex retrovirus associated with seasonal dermal sarcomas. Developing tumors have low levels of accessory gene transcripts, A1 and B, and regressing tumors have high levels of full-length and spliced transcripts. Transcript A1 encodes a retroviral cyclin (rv-cyclin) with limited homology to host cyclins. The rv-cyclin is physically linked to components of the transcriptional co-activator complex, Mediator, and regulates transcription. In walleye fibroblasts, it inhibits the WDSV promoter independently of cis-acting DNA sequences. The rv-cyclin activates transcription from GAL4 promoters when fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. A 30 a.a. activation domain in the carboxy region can be inactivated by single point mutations, and these mutations diminish the ability of the rv-cyclin to inhibit the WDSV promoter. When fused to glutathione S-transferase, the rv-cyclin, its carboxy region, and the activation domain pull down components of transcription complexes from nuclear extracts, and pulldown is lost by mutation of the activation domain

  20. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch. Milne-Redh (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njateng Guy SS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml. Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v and gentamycin (reference drug eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides were significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.

  1. Arthrography of the equine shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.J.; Spencer, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and normal radiographic anatomy for positive and double contrast shoulder arthrography in horses were evaluated. General anaesthesia was used for most radiographic projections of the shoulder. The mediolateral projection provided the most information during arthrography, although the supinated mediolateral view occasionally allowed better definition of the cartilage surfaces on the medial aspects of the humeral head. The craniocaudal mediolateral oblique and caudocranial projections provided limited additional information. Water soluble non-ionic contrast agents, such as metrizamide and iohexol, were suitable for shoulder arthrography; iohexol resulted in less synovitis and lameness. Arthrography in cases of osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans allowed better evaluation of cartilage attachment to subchondral bone, better evaluation of the length and depth of cartilage lesions and more accurately defined the site and shape of osteocartilaginous free bodies. Cartilage thickening without detachment from the subchondral bone could only be determined by arthrography. Although these thick cartilage regions may later dissect from the subchondral bone, most cases where the cartilage was firmly adherent were not candidates for surgical debridement and carried a favourable prognosis. The determination of a free flap by arthrography indicated the need for surgery. Extensive humeral and glenoid cavity lesions were better defined by arthrography, allowing a rational decision between surgical debridement or euthanasia. Using arthrography, evaluation of the size and patency of the communicating canal to a subchondral cystic defect better separated cases with long, narrow and poorly patent canals for conservative rather than surgical therapy

  2. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  3. Simultaneous and multi-point measurement of ammonia emanating from human skin surface for the estimation of whole body dermal emission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shota; Sekine, Yoshika; Kimura, Keita; Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2017-05-15

    Ammonia is one of the members of odor gases and a possible source of odor in indoor environment. However, little has been known on the actual emission rate of ammonia from the human skin surface. Then, this study aimed to estimate the whole-body dermal emission rate of ammonia by simultaneous and multi-point measurement of emission fluxes of ammonia employing a passive flux sampler - ion chromatography system. Firstly, the emission fluxes of ammonia were non-invasively measured for ten volunteers at 13 sampling positions set in 13 anatomical regions classified by Kurazumi et al. The measured emission fluxes were then converted to partial emission rates using the surface body areas estimated by weights and heights of volunteers and partial rates of 13 body regions. Subsequent summation of the partial emission rates provided the whole body dermal emission rate of ammonia. The results ranged from 2.9 to 12mgh -1 with an average of 5.9±3.2mgh -1 per person for the ten healthy young volunteers. The values were much greater than those from human breath, and thus the dermal emission of ammonia was found more significant odor source than the breath exhalation in indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of high doses of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Key words: Equine chorionic gonadotrophin, follicular, ovulation, pregnancy, estrus synchronization, goat. ... This requires that the management practices take into account .... MOET, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer; PASW®, predictive analytics software; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

  5. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  6. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the normal equine carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Sartoretti-Schefer, S.; Weiss, R.

    1994-01-01

    A normal equine carpus was used for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The structures outlined were identified and described. The two techniques were compared. This anatomic description could be helpful as a basis for clinical exams

  7. Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L M; Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Salman, M D; Gentry-Weeks, C

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs. Longitudinal study and controlled trial. 246 equine colic patients. History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data. Salmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial.

  8. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF...

  9. Acinetobacter baumannii-Infected Vascular Catheters Collected from Horses in an Equine Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Devriese, Luc A.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lamote, Benedicte; Deprez, Piet; Verschraegen, Gerda; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2000-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from tips clipped from seven intravenous jugular catheters collected from horses in the Ghent University equine clinic. They originated from seven different horses. Three of the seven showed evidence of local infection.

  10. Keratinocytes express fibrillin and assemble microfibrils: implications for dermal matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, S L; Shuttleworth, C A; Kielty, C M

    1997-07-01

    Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are key architectural structures of the upper dermis and integral components of the dermal elastic fibre network. Microfibril bundles intercalate into the dermal-epithelial junction and provide an elastic connection between the dermal elastic fibre network and the epidermis. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that they are laid down both at the dermal-epithelial junction and in the deep dermis. While dermal fibroblasts are responsible for deposition of the elastin and microfibrillar components that comprise the elastic fibres of the deep dermis, the cellular origin of the microfibril bundles that extrude from the dermal-epithelial junction is not well defined. We have used fresh tissues, freshly isolated epidermis and primary human and porcine keratinocyte cultures to investigate the possibility that keratinocytes are responsible for deposition of these microfibrils. We have shown that keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro synthesize both fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2, and assemble beaded microfibrils concurrently with expression of basement membrane collagen. These observations suggest that keratinocytes co-ordinate the secretion, deposition and assembly of these distinct structural elements of the dermal matrix, and have important implications for skin remodelling.

  11. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M; Abadam, Charles F; Akaratovic, Karen I; Kiser, Jay P; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  12. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Rong-hui; Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen; Peng, Hui-zi; Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  13. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  14. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  15. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchessi, Marta; Chen, Yuwen; Durgam, Sushmitha; Pondenis, Holly; Stewart, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP) cells in equine synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assa...

  16. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  17. Evaluation of treatment of colostrum-deprived kittens with equine IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, P Cynda; Hanel, Rita M; Levy, Julie K

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate equine IgG as a treatment for kittens with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT). 13 specific pathogen-free queens and their 77 kittens. Kittens were randomized at birth into 9 treatment groups. One group contained colostrum-fed (nursing) kittens; the other groups contained colostrum-deprived kittens that were administered supplemental feline or equine IgG PO or SC during the first 12 hours after birth. Blood samples were collected at serial time points from birth to 56 days of age for determination of serum IgG concentrations. The capacity of equine IgG to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis by feline neutrophils was determined via flow cytometry. Kittens that received feline or equine IgG SC had significantly higher serum IgG concentrations than those of kittens that received the supplements PO. In kittens that were administered supplemental IgG SC, serum IgG concentrations were considered adequate for protection against infection. The half-life of IgG in kittens treated with equine IgG was shorter than that in kittens treated with feline IgG. Feline IgG significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by feline neutrophils, but equine IgG did not. Serum concentrations of equine IgG that are considered protective against infection are easily attained in kittens, but the failure of these antibodies to promote bacterial phagocytosis in vitro suggests that equine IgG may be an inappropriate treatment for FPT in kittens.

  18. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  19. Fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick

    OpenAIRE

    Fürst, Anton; Oswald, Susanne E; Jäggin, S; Piskoty, G; Michel, S; Auer, Jörg A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this postmortem study was to determine the fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick. Fracture configurations of 35 radii and 36 tibiae from 19 adult horses were evaluated after a simulated kick in an experimental exvivo study. The bones were dissected, the proximal and distal ends were embedded in resin, fixed horizontally and preloaded in compression, and a steel impactor, designed to simulate a shod equine hoof, was dropped from a height...

  20. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2?1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population?based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine inf...

  2. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  3. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  4. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  5. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal uptake directly from air is a potentially important yet largely overlooked pathway for human exposure to organic vapors indoors. We recently reported (Indoor Air 2012, 22, 356) that transdermal uptake directly from air could be comparable to or larger than intake via inhalation for many......, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal......-to-inhalation uptake; for such compounds, the estimates reported here require experimental verification. In accounting for total exposure to indoor organic pollutants and in assessing potential health consequences of such exposures, it is important to consider direct transdermal absorption from air....

  6. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  7. Equine infectious anemia prevalence in feral donkeys from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernanda G; Cook, R Frank; Naves, João H F; Oliveira, Cairo H S; Diniz, Rejane S; Freitas, Francisco J C; Lima, Joseney M; Sakamoto, Sidnei M; Leite, Rômulo C; Issel, Charles J; Reis, Jenner K P

    2017-05-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the virus infects all members of the Equidae the vast majority of studies have been conducted in horses (Equus caballus) with comparatively little information available for other equid species. Brazil has one of the most abundant donkey (E. asinus) populations of any nation although the economic importance of these animals is declining as transportation becomes increasingly mechanized. As a result, considerable numbers of donkeys especially in the Northeast of the country have been released and allowed pursue an almost feral existence. Consequently, this large and growing population constitutes a significant risk as a reservoir for the maintenance and transmission of important equine infectious diseases such as glanders and equine arteritis virus in addition to EIAV. This study examines the prevalence of EIA in a semi-wild donkey population from Mossoró city, in Northeast Brazil, using AGID followed by cELISA, rgp90 ELISA and immunoblot (IB). Serum samples were collected from 367 donkeys without obvious EIA clinical signs. Subsequent testing revealed seropositive rates of 1.6% (6/367) in officially approved AGID tests, 3.3% (12/367) in cELISA and 14.4% (53/367) in the rgp90 ELISA. However, 88.7% (47/53) of the rgp90 ELISA positive samples were almost certainly false reactions because they failed to react with two or more antigens in IB. Consequently, the rpg90 ELISA has a similar sensitivity to AGID with donkey serum samples. Such high false positive rates have not been observed previously with serum samples from horses. Another highly significant finding is that 56.9% (33/58) of the donkey serum samples tested in IB had reactivity to EIAV p26 only. Although this could result from recent infection with the virus, it has been found that in some equids p26 only reactivity persists for extensive periods of time suggesting exposure to antigens

  8. Microporous dermal-like electrospun scaffolds promote accelerated skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Bain, Jennifer L; Schultz, Matthew J; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (pores. Keratinocytes formed a stratified layer on the surface of fibroblast-remodeled scaffolds, and staining for cytokeratin 10 revealed terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the apical surface. When implanted, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds degraded within 3-4 weeks, an optimal time frame for degradation in vivo. Finally, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with or without 160 μm pores were implanted into full-thickness critical-sized skin defects. Relative to nonporous scaffolds or sham wounds, scaffolds with 160 μm pores induced accelerated wound closure, and stimulated regeneration of healthy dermal tissue, evidenced by a more normal-appearing matrix architecture, blood vessel in-growth, and hair follicle development. Collectively, these results suggest that microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration.

  9. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. Frank; Eberth, John; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Artiushin, Sergey; Timoney, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10–70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s) of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A) within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1) having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb) encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001) and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R) was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence) in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and Eq

  10. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine arteritis virus (EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA, a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16 that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1 having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001 and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and

  11. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part I: background and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.

  12. Quantification of dermal exposure to nanoparticles from solid nanocomposites by using single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    , optical or photocatalytical properties. There is a lot of research focusing on effects exerted by nanoparticles, but the knowledge concerning release and subsequential exposure to nanoparticles is very limited, and information regarding potential dermal exposure from nanomaterial containing solid articles...... and characterization. In this study, we have investigated the potential dermal exposure to three different types of nano-enabled consumer products: Ag-containing keyboard covers, TiO2 coated ceramic tiles, and wood painted with CuO containing paint. The potential for dermal transfer from the aforementioned surfaces...

  13. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  14. Development, application, and validation of a survey for infectious disease control practices at equine boarding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Alanna T; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Hill, Ashley E; Kogan, Lori R; Morley, Paul S; Heird, James C

    2010-11-15

    To develop a questionnaire for self-assessment of biosecurity practices at equine boarding facilities and to evaluate infectious disease control practices in these facilities in Colorado. Cross-sectional study. 64 equine boarding facilities in Colorado. Survey questions were rated according to importance for prevention and containment of equine infectious diseases. Point values (range, 0 to 20) were assigned for possible responses, with greater values given for optimal infection control methods. Questionnaires were mailed to equine boarding facilities in Colorado advertised on the World Wide Web. Survey responses were compared with assessments made by a member of the research team during visits to 30 randomly selected facilities. Agreement among results was analyzed via a kappa test and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect. Survey responses were received for 64 of 163 (39%) equine boarding facilities. Scores ranged from 106 to 402 points (maximum possible score, 418). Most facilities received better scores for movement and housing of equids than for other sections of the survey. Respondents at 24 of 48 (50%) facilities that routinely received new equids reported isolation of new arrivals. Agreement between self-assessment by survey respondents and evaluation by a member of the research team was determined to be fair to substantial. Most equine boarding facilities have opportunities to improve measures for prevention or containment of contagious diseases (eg, isolation of newly arrived equids and use of written health management protocols). Most self-assessments of infection control practices were accurate.

  15. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  16. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Complete Genomic Sequences of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Strains Used as Vaccine Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2018-03-22

    We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Nemoto et al.

  18. Auditive Discrimination of Equine Gaits by Parade Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Cruz-Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.

  19. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  20. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

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    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  1. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV.

  2. Anti-leptospirose agglutinins in equine sera, from São Paulo, Goias, and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine leptospirosis can present a non-symptomatic form, an acute clinical form, or even develop chronically, causing reproductive alterations, such as abortion and recurrent uveitis. Since the prevalence of leptospirosis in several countries and regions is widely reported, the objective of this study was to verify the prevailing equine leptospirosis in different regions of Brazil. Sera from 1402 blood samples from horses of different age, sex, breed, and purpose were examined. These samples came from southeastern and central west states of Brazil. The method utilized was the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT, with 12 different Leptospira serovars. From the sera tested, 754 (54% were positive for one (385 or more (372 serovars. These results were higher when compared to national and international levels. The most commonly found serovars were icterohaemorrhagiae (37.01%, suggesting exposure to rodents, castellonis (16.97%, and djasiman (15.19%. There were significant differences of reagents between sexes, and a tendency toward higher positivity with age. Distribution of sera-reagents related to aptitude showed a markedly higher value for work animals than for sporting ones. Higher rates were found for animals with undefined breed. There were no significant differences related to regional origin. As an indication of multiple exposure, significant associations were observed between the following serovars: castellonis and djasiman; castellonis and grippotyphosa; castellonis and copenhageni; castellonis and icterohaemorrhagiae; castellonis and pomona; canicola and pomona; canicola and djasiman; djasiman and copenhageni; icterohaemorrhagiae and djasiman; icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes; copenhageni and pomona. These results showed the necessity of further studies on the epidemiology of this disease in equines and its relationship to human illness.

  3. Allografts versus Equine Xenografts in Calcaneal Fracture Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Mehmet Mesut; Armagan, Raffi; Ugurlar, Meric; Eren, Tugrul

    Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are difficult to treat. We determined the functional results and complications of using allografts or equine xenografts in treating these fractures. We reviewed patients seen at our center from May 2011 to December 2014 with Sanders type III or IV unilateral calcaneal fractures treated with locking plates and an additional bone allograft or equine xenograft. A minimum of 1 year after surgery, a history of infection and functional outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical rating system. Changes in the Gissane angle (GA) and Böhler angle were assessed from radiographs. Of the 91 eligible patients, 15 were lost to follow-up, leaving a sample of 76 patients (42 males): 45 received allografts (19 for type III and 26 for type IV fractures) and 31 received xenografts (20 for type III and 11 for type IV fractures). The mean age was about 40 years in both groups. After ≥1 year of follow-up, the proportion of patients in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scoring categories did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (mean ankle score, 86.5 in the allograft group and 85.1 in the xenograft group), and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society functional outcomes were good or excellent in 69% and 68%, respectively (p = .986). The groups did not differ in the incidence of superficial or deep infection (p = 1.000). The Böhler angles were significantly decreased in the xenograft group. Xenografts might be preferred for repairing intra-articular calcaneal fractures because they can perform as well as allografts, avoid donor site morbidities, and are more available and less expensive than allografts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  5. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broeckx

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease (DJD is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1 PRP; 2 MSCs; 3 MSCs and PRP; or 4 chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1, 12 weeks (T2, 6 months (T3 and 12 months (T4 post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  6. A retrospective study of owner-requested testing as surveillance for equine infectious anemia in Canada (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Sara N; Howden, Krista J; James, Carolyn R; Epp, Tasha; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to estimate i) the surveillance coverage for equine infectious anemia (EIA) based on owner-requested testing, and ii) the incidence of case detection from this surveillance activity to inform a review of Canada's national disease control strategy. Based on sample submissions by accredited veterinarians to laboratories CFIA-approved for EIA testing between 2009 and 2012, the estimated national surveillance coverage was 14% for all years, and 72 cases of EIA were detected. The annual national incidence of EIA detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 cases/1000 horses. On average, a greater proportion of the horse population was tested in eastern Canada (32%) than in western Canada (6%, P Canada (0.25 cases/1000 horses) than in eastern Canada (0.02 cases/1000 horses, P < 0.0001). This study identified regional differences in owner-requested EIA testing and case detection resulting from this testing activity.

  7. Mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in Eastern Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayra G Navia-Gine

    Full Text Available Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology.

  8. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ferro, Cristina; Haddow, Andrew D; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging infectious disease in Latin America. Outbreaks have been recorded for decades in countries with enzootic circulation, and the recent implementation of surveillance systems has allowed the detection of additional human cases in countries and areas with previously unknown VEE activity. Clinically, VEE is indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases and confirmatory diagnosis requires the use of specialized laboratory tests that are difficult to afford in resource-limited regions. Thus, the disease burden of endemic VEE in developing countries remains largely unknown, but recent surveillance suggests that it may represent up to 10% of the dengue burden in neotropical cities, or tens-of-thousands of cases per year throughout Latin America. The potential emergence of epizootic viruses from enzootic progenitors further highlights the need to strengthen surveillance activities, identify mosquito vectors and reservoirs and develop effective strategies to control the disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the current status of endemic VEE that results from spillover of the enzootic cycles, and we discuss public health measures for disease control as well as future avenues for VEE research. PMID:21765860

  9. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-06-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  10. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William’s. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; ; sarcoid (; a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes.

  11. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. PMID:24689513

  12. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2012-01-13

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  14. Osteopathia striata: a characteristic X-ray finding in focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthels, W.; Boepple, D.; Petzel, H.

    1982-12-01

    Two cases of the very rare Goltz-Gorlin syndrome are presented. The relationship of osteopathia striata and focal dermal hypoplasia is discussed, and it is concluded that the osteopathia striata represents the characteristic picture of this ectopic mesodermal abnormality.

  15. In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., J.M. Sanders,...

  16. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  17. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.; Hall, Cameron L.; Maini, Philip K.; McCue, Scott W.; McElwain, D. L. Sean

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  18. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  19. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  20. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  1. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. Case presentation: A fou...

  2. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either s...

  3. Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144......Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144...

  4. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  5. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  6. Dermal changes in superficial basal cell carcinoma, melanoma in situ and actinic keratosis and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Malhotra, Saurabh; Navarro, Raquel; Wu, Karen Nguyen; Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Shengli, Chen; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has a characteristic stroma, but less is known about the dermal characteristics associated with melanoma in situ (MIS) and actinic keratosis (AK). Materials and methods Dermal changes were studied in 301 specimens of AK, BCC and MIS. Subsequently, blinded images of dermal changes from 90 randomly selected cases of those entities were used to assess the predictive value of the dermal changes. Agreement with the final diagnosis was calculated using kappa coefficient (κ). Results Fibromyxoid stroma was present in 82% of BCC cases; fibrous stroma was seen in 25% of BCC, 58% of MIS and 35.6% of AK specimens (p <0.05). A lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate was frequently associated with AK and a perifollicular infiltrate with periadnexal fibrosis with MIS. Blinded evaluation of images of the dermal changes associated with the tumors yielded the correct diagnosis in (54.4, 41.1 and 27.8%; average 41.2%) by the three appraisers. Coefficient of agreement in blinded imaged evaluation with the actual diagnosis was higher in the BCC and MIS compared with AK (κ = 0.37, p = 0.0001; κ = 0.2, p = 0.0005 and κ = −0.06, p = 0.84, respectively). Conclusion Dermal features may be helpful in predicting the correct diagnosis when tumor is not visible. PMID:24117926

  7. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Mingbo; She, Zhending; Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng; Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng; Shi, Shengjun; Tan, Rongwei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  9. MRSA carriage in the equine community: an investigation of horse-caretaker couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eede, A; Martens, A; Floré, K; Denis, O; Gasthuys, F; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Abeele, A; Hermans, K

    2013-05-03

    Equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage entails a risk of both equine and zoonotic transmission and infection. In Europe, CC398, the livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA is highly prevalent in horses and veterinary personnel at equine clinics. The extent of the MRSA reservoir created by healthy horses from the general population and associated health hazard for their daily caretakers is, however, unknown. This study aimed at screening healthy horse-caretaker couples from a broad range of home farms. At five equine gatherings, 166 couples were selected for MRSA screening in the anterior nares and participation in an epidemiologic survey. All MRSA isolates were subjected to genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Only 4 humans (2.4%) and 2 of their horses (1.2%) tested MRSA positive. Within the 2 couples where both partners were positive, man and horse carried isolates belonging to identical, livestock-associated spa types (t011 and t2330) and demonstrating equal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. For all LA-MRSA positive humans (n=3) and animals (n=2) regular (in)direct contact with the veterinary sector was reported. A significant association between the horses' carriage status and transportation to an event could not be demonstrated (P=1.00). In conclusion, outside equine clinics, the extent of the MRSA reservoir in horses and their caretakers was low. Travel to an equine gathering could not be withheld as a risk factor for equine MRSA carriage, whereas indications were found that contact with veterinary care may predispose both healthy horses and their handlers to carriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Katarzyna A; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro. Upon isolation from the semitendinosus muscle, equine satellite cells were cultured until the 2nd day of differentiation. Differentiating cells were incubated with HMB for 24 h. Total cellular RNA was isolated, amplified, labelled and hybridised to microarray slides. Microarray data validation was performed with real-time quantitative PCR. HMB induced differential expressions of 361 genes. Functional analysis revealed that the main biological processes influenced by HMB in equine satellite cells were related to muscle organ development, protein metabolism, energy homoeostasis and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that HMB has the potential to influence equine satellite cells by controlling global gene expression. Genes and biological processes targeted by HMB in equine satellite cells may support HMB utility in improving growth and regeneration of equine skeletal muscle; however, the overall role of HMB in horses remains equivocal and requires further proteomic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic studies.

  11. WNT10A missense mutation associated with a complete odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Sadia; Klar, Joakim; Wajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Schuster, Jens; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2009-12-01

    Wnt signalling is one of a few pathways that are crucial for controlling genetic programs during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. WNT10A is expressed in the skin and epidermis and it has shown to be critical for the development of ectodermal appendages. A nonsense mutation in WNT10A was recently identified in odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD; MIM 257980), a rare syndrome characterised by severe hypodontia, nail dystrophy, smooth tongue, dry skin, keratoderma and hyperhydrosis of palms and soles. We identified a large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree comprising six individuals affected by a complete OODD syndrome. Autozygosity mapping using SNP array analysis showed that the affected individuals are homozygous for the WNT10A gene region. Subsequent mutation screening showed a homozygous c.392C>T transition in exon 3 of WNT10A, which predicts a p.A131V substitution in a conserved alpha-helix domain. We report here on the first inherited missense mutation in WNT10A with associated ectodermal features.

  12. Economic consequences of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a rural Bangladeshi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P; Bern, Caryn

    2011-09-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90-284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71-150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16-95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals.

  13. Economic Consequences of Post–Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in a Rural Bangladeshi Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90–284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71–150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16–95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals. PMID:21896817

  14. Equine H7N7 influenza A viruses are highly pathogenic in mice without adaptation: potential use as an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaoka, Y

    1991-01-01

    Equine H7N7 influenza A viruses, representing a broad range of isolates, were lethal in mice without adaptation. After repeated passages, A/Equine/London/1416/73 acquired neurotropism upon intranasal infection. Thus, mice infected with equine influenza A viruses provide a model system for the study of highly virulent mammalian influenza viruses.

  15. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the Equine K+ channel KV11.1 (Ether à Go-Go-related/KCNH2 gene) and the regulatory subunit KCNE2 from equine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten Brolin; Olander, Emma Rie

    2015-01-01

    and conventional PCR on mRNA purified from equine myocardial tissue. Equine KV11.1 and KCNE2 cDNA had a high homology to human genes (93 and 88%, respectively). Equine and human KV11.1 and KV11.1/KCNE2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and investigated by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Equine KV11.1 currents...... were larger compared to human KV11.1, and the voltage dependence of activation was shifted to more negative values with V1/2 = -14.2±1.1 mV and -17.3±0.7, respectively. The onset of inactivation was slower for equine KV11.1 compared to the human homolog. These differences in kinetics may account...... for the larger amplitude of the equine current. Furthermore, the equine KV11.1 channel was susceptible to pharmacological block with terfenadine. The physiological importance of KV11.1 was investigated in equine right ventricular wedge preparations. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration and the effect...

  16. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

  17. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexon Ngim

    1999-01-01

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  18. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA levels in Huntington disease leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrak, Paulina; Krygier, Magdalena; Tońska, Katarzyna; Drozd, Małgorzata; Kaliszewska, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Sołtan, Witold; Sitek, Emilia J; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Limon, Janusz; Sławek, Jarosław; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Barańska, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the huntingtin gene. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in, and especially influence of the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on, development of this disease is unclear. Here, samples of blood from 84 HD patients and 79 controls, and dermal fibroblasts from 10 HD patients and 9 controls were analysed for mtDNA levels. Although the type of mitochondrial haplogroup had no influence on the mtDNA level, and there was no correlation between mtDNA level in leukocytes in HD patients and various parameters of HD severity, some considerable differences between HD patients and controls were identified. The average mtDNA/nDNA relative copy number was significantly higher in leukocytes, but lower in fibroblasts, of symptomatic HD patients relative to the control group. Moreover, HD women displayed higher mtDNA levels in leukocytes than HD men. Because this is the largest population analysed to date, these results might contribute to explanation of discrepancies between previously published studies concerning levels of mtDNA in cells of HD patients. We suggest that the size of the investigated population and type of cells from which DNA is isolated could significantly affect results of mtDNA copy number estimation in HD. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration in studies on mtDNA in HD, and perhaps also in other diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs.

  20. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  1. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S.; Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M.; Thormann, W.; Zielinski, J.; Leeb, T.; Mevissen, M.; Schmitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V max for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K m was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC 50 of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP enzyme involved in

  2. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  3. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  4. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  5. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  6. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  7. From collagen to tenocyte : How the equine superficial digital flexor tendon responds to physiologic challenges and physical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yi-Lo

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Injuries to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) play a prominent role in the orthopaedic disorders and form an important threat to both the equine athletic potential and welfare. Therefore this thesis aims at in-depth understanding the development of ECM composition in

  8. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of the Gambia: A study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the

  9. A novel murine model for evaluating bovine papillomavirus prophylactics/therapeutics for equine sarcoid-like tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Woodham, Andrew W; Da Silva, Diane M; Martens, Ann; Meyer, Evelyne; Kast, W Martin

    2015-09-01

    Equine sarcoids are highly recurrent bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-induced fibroblastic neoplasms that are the most common skin tumours in horses. In order to facilitate the study of potential equine sarcoid prophylactics or therapeutics, which can be a slow and costly process in equines, a murine model for BPV-1 protein-expressing equine sarcoid-like tumours was developed in mice through stable transfection of BPV-1 E5 and E6 in a murine fibroblast tumour cell line (K-BALB). Like equine sarcoids, these murine tumour cells (BPV-KB) were of fibroblast origin, were tumorigenic and expressed BPV-1 proteins. As an initial investigation of the preclinical potential of this tumour model for equine sarcoids prophylactics, mice were immunized with BPV-1 E5E6 Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles, prior to BPV-KB challenge, which resulted in an increased tumour-free period compared with controls, indicating that the BPV-KB murine model may be a valuable preclinical alternative to equine clinical trials.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of equine antibodies specific to Sarcocystis neurona surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Morrow, Jennifer K; Saville, William J; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2005-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM.

  11. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Equine Antibodies Specific to Sarcocystis neurona Surface Antigens†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S.; Morrow, Jennifer K.; Saville, William J.; Dubey, J. P.; Granstrom, David E.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM. PMID:16148170

  12. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  13. Chum salmon egg extracts induce upregulation of collagen type I and exert antioxidative effects on human dermal fibroblast cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Atsushi; Polouliakh, Natalia; Meguro, Akira; Takeuchi, Masaki; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Components of fish roe possess antioxidant and antiaging activities, making them potentially very beneficial natural resources. Here, we investigated chum salmon eggs (CSEs) as a source of active ingredients, including vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and proteins. We incubated human dermal fibroblast cultures for 48 hours with high and low concentrations of CSE extracts and analyzed changes in gene expression. Cells treated with CSE extract showed concentration-dependent upregulation of collagen type I genes and of multiple antioxidative genes, including OXR1, TXNRD1, and PRDX family genes. We further conducted in silico phylogenetic footprinting analysis of promoter regions. These results suggested that transcription factors such as acute myeloid leukemia-1a and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein may be involved in the observed upregulation of antioxidative genes. Our results support the idea that CSEs are strong candidate sources of antioxidant materials and cosmeceutically effective ingredients. PMID:27621603

  14. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, L; Sanchez, L C; Olsen, S N; Baptiste, K E; Merritt, A M

    2008-06-01

    Stall housing has been suggested as a risk factor for ulcer development in the equine stomach; however, the exact pathogenesis for this has not been established. To investigate the effect of 3 environmental situations (grass paddock, stall alone or stall with adjacent companion) on pH in the proximal and the ventral stomach. Six horses with permanently implanted gastric cannulae were used in a randomised, cross-over, block design. Each horse rotated through each of three 24 h environmental situations. Horses remained on their normal diet (grass hay ad libitum and grain b.i.d.) throughout the study. Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 72 h just inside the lower oesophageal sphincter (proximal stomach) and via a pH probe in the gastric cannula (ventral stomach). Neither proximal nor ventral 24 h gastric pH changed significantly between the 3 environmental situations. Mean hourly proximal gastric pH decreased significantly in the interval from 01.00-09.00 h compared to the interval from 13.00-20.00 h, regardless of environmental situation. Median hourly proximal pH only differed in the interval from 06.00-07.00 h compared to the interval 14.00-19.00 h. Neither mean nor median hourly ventral gastric pH varied significantly with the time of day. The change in housing status used in the current study did not affect acid exposure within either region of the equine stomach. The pH in the ventral stomach was uniformly stable throughout the study, while the proximal pH demonstrated a 24 h circadian pattern.

  15. Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of equine cartilage derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous condition sin humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint......RNA in articular cartilage and chondrocytes from horses with no signs of joint disease. The expression decreased as the cells dedifferentiated in monolayer culture. We also identified an equine CD-RAP/MIA splioce variant similar to that reported in humans. The CD_RAP/MIA protein was detected in equine synovial...... fluid, serum and culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. In conclusion, CD-RAP/MIA is expressed in equine cartilage and chondrocytes, and the protein can be detected in equine serum, synovial fluid and in culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. The equine gene and resulting protein share great...

  16. Disposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine by Fischer 344 rats dosed orally and dermally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Ritter, L.; Caron, J.; Somers, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dimethylamine salt of 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D was administered to Fischer 344 rats orally (1 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight) and dermally (10 mg/kg body weight). Absorption, distribution, and elimination were determined from 14C-labeled 2,4-D in blood, tissues, and excreta. Quantitatively, most of the orally administered dose (94-96%) became systemically available within 6 h. Following dermal administration 10% of the dose became systemically available over 72 h. However, peak concentrations in blood and kidneys were achieved within 30 min of dosing by either route. By 1.5 h after dosing, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys had decreased in both the orally dosed and dermally dosed animals. Between 2 and 8 h, the blood, muscle, liver and kidney concentrations in dermally dosed animals maintained a plateau while urinary excretion increased, presumably due to continued absorption of 2,4-D from the skin. The concentrations in orally dosed animals continued to decrease. Following 7 h of dermal exposure, skin cleansing removed about 63% of the applied dose; about 17% of the applied dose remained at the site of dermal dosing. At 8 h, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys of dermally dosed animals began to decrease, most likely a result of the removal of the reservoir on the skin. However, 2,4-D continued to be absorbed from skin site, resulting in a slower decline of the 2,4-D concentrations in these tissues over remainder of the 72-h study period. By comparison, in animals that had been orally dosed, the absorbed dose was almost completely excreted within 24 h

  17. Dermal bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene on lampblack: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroo, Hans F; Roy, Timothy A; Liban, Cris B; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2005-06-01

    Lampblack is the principal source of contamination in soils at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites where oil was used as the feedstock. Risks and cleanup criteria at these sites are determined primarily by the total carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, particularly the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Dermal contact with soils at oil-gas MGP sites is a significant component of the overall risks. Seven samples were collected from oil-gas MGP sites and the steady-state dermal fluxes were measured over 96 h in vitro. The standard dermal bioassay technique (in which 3H-BaP is added to the soil matrix) was modified to allow direct measurement of the dermal absorption of the native BaP in the samples. The experimentally derived dermal absorption factors for BaP were 14 to 107 times lower than the default assumption of 15% over 24 h (55-fold lower on average). The dermal fluxes were correlated positively to the total BaP and total carbon concentrations. The measured dermal absorption factors were compared to the default risk-assessment calculations for all seven samples. The calculated excess cancer risk was reduced as a result of using the measured absorption factors by 97% on average (with reductions ranging from 93 to 99%). This work indicates the risks at oil-gas MGP sites currently are overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude, and provides a protocol for the testing and data analysis needed to generate site-specific cleanup levels.

  18. SIRT-1 regulates TGF-β-induced dermal fibroblast migration via modulation of Cyr61 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyeran; Huh, Jung-Sik; Kim, Jinseok; Cho, Moonjae

    2018-05-01

    SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a SIRT1 agonist, or overexpression of SIRT1 also promoted the expression Cyr61 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 activity by nicotinamide or knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the level of Cyr61, as well as TGF-β or RSV-induced Cyr61 expression. Blocking of ERK signaling by PD98509 reduced the expression of Cyr61 induced by TGF-β or RSV. TGF-β, RSV, or SIRT1 overexpression enhanced β-catenin as well as Cyr61 expression. This stimulation was reduced by the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. RSV increased migration and nicotinamide attenuated RSV-induced migration of human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression promoted cell migration, whereas blocking Cyr61 attenuated SIRT1-stimulated migration of human dermal fibroblasts. SIRT1 increased cell migration by stimulating Cyr61 expression and the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. SIRT1-induced Cyr61 activity is very important for human dermal fibroblasts migration.

  19. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Andrew T.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and successfully crystallized. Native crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been identified. The C-terminal region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 is responsible for proteolytic processing of the VEEV polyprotein replication complex. This action regulates the activity of the replication complex and is essential for viral replication, thus making nsP2 a very attractive target for development of VEEV therapeutics. The 338-amino-acid C-terminal region of VEEV nsP2 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . Isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been obtained and work on building a complete structural model is under way

  20. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Andrew T.; Watowich, Stanley J., E-mail: watowich@xray.utmb.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and successfully crystallized. Native crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been identified. The C-terminal region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 is responsible for proteolytic processing of the VEEV polyprotein replication complex. This action regulates the activity of the replication complex and is essential for viral replication, thus making nsP2 a very attractive target for development of VEEV therapeutics. The 338-amino-acid C-terminal region of VEEV nsP2 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been obtained and work on building a complete structural model is under way.

  1. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Use of firocoxib for the treatment of equine osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnell JR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Josh R Donnell, David D Frisbie Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract: This review presents the pathogenesis and medical treatment of equine osteoarthritis (OA, focusing on firocoxib. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 remains a fundamental treatment for decreasing clinical symptoms (ie, pain and lameness associated with OA in horses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 from the arachidonic acid pathway, continue to be a mainstay for the clinical treatment of OA. Firocoxib is a cyclooxygenase (COX-2-preferential NSAID that has been shown to be safe and to have a 70% oral bioavailability in the horse. Three clinical reports identified symptom-modifying effects (reduction in pain and/or lameness in horses with OA administered the once-daily recommended dose (0.1 mg/kg of oral firocoxib following 7 days of administration. Other reports have suggested that a one-time loading dose (0.3 mg/kg of firocoxib provides an earlier (1–3 days onset of action compared to the recommended dose. It is noteworthy that OA disease-modifying effects have been reported in horses for other COX-2-preferential NSAIDs (meloxicam and carprofen, but have not been attributed to firocoxib due to a lack of investigation to date. Keywords: horse, osteoarthritis, firocoxib, COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID

  3. THE TRANSMISSION OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY AEDES AEGYPTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M H; Tenbroeck, C

    1935-10-31

    In confirming Kelser's work on the transmission of equine encephalomyelitis of the western type by Aëdes aegypti it has been learned that the mosquitoes must be fed virus of high titer if positive results are to be secured. A period of from 4 to 5 days after feeding either on infected guinea pigs or on brain containing virus must elapse before the disease is transmitted by biting, but after this time transmission regularly results for a period of about 2 months. By inoculation, virus can be demonstrated in the bodies of infected mosquitoes for the duration of life. Although virus multiplies in the mosquitoes and is generally distributed in their bodies, repeated attempts to demonstrate it in the eggs from females known to be infected as well as in larvae, pupae, and adults from such eggs have been uniformly negative. Larvae have not taken up virus added to the water in which they were living. Male mosquitoes have been infected with virus by feeding but they have not transmitted the virus to normal females, nor have males transmitted the virus from infected to normal females. When virus of the eastern instead of the western type is used transmission experiments with Aëdes aegypti are negative. Apparently this virus is incapable of penetrating the intestinal mucosa of the mosquito. If, however, it is inoculated into the body cavity by needle puncture it persists and transmission experiments are positive.

  4. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  5. Osteoprogenitor cell therapy in an equine fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffee, Laurie A; Pack, LeeAnn; Lores, Marcos; Wright, Glenda M; Esparza-Gonzalez, Blanca; Masaoud, Elmabrok

    2012-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of osteoprogenitors in fibrin glue to fibrin glue alone in bone healing of surgically induced ostectomies of the fourth metacarpal bones in an equine model. Experimental. Adult horses (n = 10). Segmental ostectomies of the 4th metacarpal bone (MC4) were performed bilaterally in 10 horses. There was 1 treatment and 1 control limb in each horse. Bone defects were randomly injected with either fibrin glue and osteoprogenitor cells or fibrin glue alone. Radiography was performed every week until the study endpoint at 12 weeks. After euthanasia, bone healing was evaluated using radiography and histology. Analysis of radiographic data was conducted using a linear-mixed model. Analysis of histologic data was conducted using a general linear model. Statistical significance was set at P bone healing revealed no significant difference between treatment and control limbs. Radiographic scoring results also showed that the treatment effect was not significant. Histologic analysis was consistent with radiographic analysis showing no significant difference between the area of bone present in treatment and control limbs. Injection of periosteal-derived osteoprogenitors in a fibrin glue carrier into surgically created ostectomies of MC4 does not accelerate bone healing when compared with fibrin glue alone. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa; Bartels, Else Marie

    2015-01-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reliably can be used to assess the condition of a horse’s muscles in connection with health assessment, injury and both training and re-training. mfBIA measurements was carried out on 10 ‘hobby’ horses and 5 selected cases with known anamnesis. Impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, centre frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e.g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively. (paper)

  7. Successful practice of electroacupuncture analgesia in equine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Eldessouky; Ragab, Safwat; Farghali, Haithem; El-Sherif, Asmaa

    2015-02-01

    Electroacupuncture analgesia was used for surgery in horses and donkeys. A KWD-808 electrical stimulator was used to incrementally induce a dense, dispersed wave output at frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, which was maintained at a frequency of 55 Hz, and to change the amplitude of the wave to the best grading number for the suggested operation in each animal. Induction of analgesia lasted for 20-30 minutes, and the effect of analgesia was maintained for 20-45 minutes depending on the type of surgery performed. The exhibited clinical signs, physical examination data, and the responses of all animals were used for evaluating the periods of analgesia. Although the majority of the cases (95%) had no response to strong surgical pain, they experienced significant increases in heart rates and respiratory rates during induction. The lack of pain, relaxed surgical procedures, reduced intraoperative bleeding, and improved healing without complications were all definite benefits of using electroacupuncture analgesia in surgery. Thus, this study has provided surgical evidence supporting the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia, as well as confirming its reliability, in the field of equine anesthesia and surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Equine ( Gene in Horse (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Duk Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of the horse vascular endothelial growth factor alpha gene (VEGFα by constructing a phylogenetic tree, and to investigate gene expression profiles in tissues and blood leukocytes after exercise for development of suitable biomarkers. Using published amino acid sequences of other vertebrate species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken and dog, we constructed a phylogenetic tree which showed that equine VEGFα belonged to the same clade of the pig VEGFα. Analysis for synonymous (Ks and non-synonymous substitution ratios (Ka revealed that the horse VEGFα underwent positive selection. RNA was extracted from blood samples before and after exercise and different tissue samples of three horses. Expression analyses using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR showed ubiquitous expression of VEGFα mRNA in skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, lung, appendix, colon, spinal cord, and heart tissues. Analysis of differential expression of VEGFα gene in blood leukocytes after exercise indicated a unimodal pattern. These results will be useful in developing biomarkers that can predict the recovery capacity of racing horses.

  9. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  10. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine 125 I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 x 10 -11 M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease

  11. Molecular characterization of different equine-like G3 rotavirus strains from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Corinna; Liebert, Uwe G

    2018-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of rotaviruses constitutes a substantial burden to human and animal health. Occasional interspecies transmissions can generate novel virus strains in the human population. We detected equine-like G3P[8] strains in feces sampled from three children in Germany in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Thereof two showed a DS-1-like backbone. In one strain the NSP2 gene segment was of distinct genotype (G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses of the German strains showed a relation to other equine-like G3 rotaviruses circulating in different countries. The reconstruction of reassortment events in the evolution of novel equine-like G3 rotaviruses suggests an independent introduction of the three strains into the local human rotavirus population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity of dermal denticle structure in sharks: Skin surface roughness and three-dimensional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankhelyi, Madeleine V; Wainwright, Dylan K; Lauder, George V

    2018-05-29

    Shark skin is covered with numerous placoid scales or dermal denticles. While previous research has used scanning electron microscopy and histology to demonstrate that denticles vary both around the body of a shark and among species, no previous study has quantified three-dimensional (3D) denticle structure and surface roughness to provide a quantitative analysis of skin surface texture. We quantified differences in denticle shape and size on the skin of three individual smooth dogfish sharks (Mustelus canis) using micro-CT scanning, gel-based surface profilometry, and histology. On each smooth dogfish, we imaged between 8 and 20 distinct areas on the body and fins, and obtained further comparative skin surface data from leopard, Atlantic sharpnose, shortfin mako, spiny dogfish, gulper, angel, and white sharks. We generated 3D images of individual denticles and measured denticle volume, surface area, and crown angle from the micro-CT scans. Surface profilometry was used to quantify metrology variables such as roughness, skew, kurtosis, and the height and spacing of surface features. These measurements confirmed that denticles on different body areas of smooth dogfish varied widely in size, shape, and spacing. Denticles near the snout are smooth, paver-like, and large relative to denticles on the body. Body denticles on smooth dogfish generally have between one and three distinct ridges, a diamond-like surface shape, and a dorsoventral gradient in spacing and roughness. Ridges were spaced on average 56 µm apart, and had a mean height of 6.5 µm, comparable to denticles from shortfin mako sharks, and with narrower spacing and lower heights than other species measured. We observed considerable variation in denticle structure among regions on the pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins, including a leading-to-trailing edge gradient in roughness for each region. Surface roughness in smooth dogfish varied around the body from 3 to 42 microns. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia with severe ptosis: periareolar incision and dermal double areolar pedicle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannistra, Claudio; Piedimonte, Andrea; Albonico, Fiorella

    2009-11-01

    Gynecomastia is a morphostructural impairment of the mammary region in men caused by parenchymal hypertrophy or a cutaneous distortion of breast skin covering or both. The clinical classification introduced by Simon et al. in 1973 ranks gynecomastia in three degrees. Each subtype can be treated with a specific technique. This article describes an alternative surgical procedure for treating gynecomastia with severe ptosis(type III and type IIIb of Simon's classification). Fifty-eight patients were treated for gynecomastia in our Plastic Surgery Unit from 1996 to 2004. The cutaneous excess of periareolar skin is evaluated by a pinching test. A circular periareolar mark is traced corresponding to the cutaneous excess that has to be removed.Initially, liposuction of adipous tissue on the periphery of the mammary region is performed through two cutaneous 3-mm incisions at the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions around the areola. After this, the liposuction incisions are enlarged from 10 o'clock to 8 o'clock and from 2 o'clockto 4 o'clock to create access for the mastectomy. This dissection creates a double dermal areolar pedicle. The new areolar position is fixed with a Benelli round block suture. A resolution of the morphologic deformity without evident scars after hair growth and a correction of the breast deformity has been observed in the 6-month follow-ups conducted for all the patients. We observed that the vascular-nervous net under the areola at 12 o'clock and 6 o'clock is very important, more so than the lateral pedicle, and the conservation of a double vascular-nervous pedicle reduces significantly the risk of areolar necrosis, especially in cases of gynecomastia type III and in cases where there is a high degree of breast malformation such as the tuberous breast.

  15. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  16. Parameter optimization toward optimal microneedle-based dermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaden, Koen; Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Yu, Huixin; Romeijn, Stefan; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-11-20

    Microneedle-based vaccination has several advantages over vaccination by using conventional hypodermic needles. Microneedles are used to deliver a drug into the skin in a minimally-invasive and potentially pain free manner. Besides, the skin is a potent immune organ that is highly suitable for vaccination. However, there are several factors that influence the penetration ability of the skin by microneedles and the immune responses upon microneedle-based immunization. In this study we assessed several different microneedle arrays for their ability to penetrate ex vivo human skin by using trypan blue and (fluorescently or radioactively labeled) ovalbumin. Next, these different microneedles and several factors, including the dose of ovalbumin, the effect of using an impact-insertion applicator, skin location of microneedle application, and the area of microneedle application, were tested in vivo in mice. The penetration ability and the dose of ovalbumin that is delivered into the skin were shown to be dependent on the use of an applicator and on the microneedle geometry and size of the array. Besides microneedle penetration, the above described factors influenced the immune responses upon microneedle-based vaccination in vivo. It was shown that the ovalbumin-specific antibody responses upon microneedle-based vaccination could be increased up to 12-fold when an impact-insertion applicator was used, up to 8-fold when microneedles were applied over a larger surface area, and up to 36-fold dependent on the location of microneedle application. Therefore, these influencing factors should be considered to optimize microneedle-based dermal immunization technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. A systematic review of acelluar dermal matrices in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Tufaro, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrices has been well described in the scientific literature since the early 1990 s and has been utilized for multiple applications in the head and neck for both aesthetic and reconstructive efforts. After systematically searching the PubMed database and following further refinement (based on the authors' inclusion and exclusion criteria), the authors identified 30 studies that provided information about patients who had undergone head and neck reconstruction with the use of acellular dermal matrix. Studies had to report quantifiable objective results in patients who were older than 1 year and younger than 90 years. The authors excluded single case reports, studies with fewer than 10 patients, and studies not published in English. The optimal material used as an implant for reconstruction possesses the following properties: facilitation of vascular ingrowth, decreased propensity to incite inflammation, biologic inertness, resistance to infection, and ease of handling. Acellular dermal matrix possesses many of these properties and is utilized in reconstructing nasal soft tissue and skeletal support, tympanic membrane, periorbital soft tissue, extraoral and intraoral defects, oropharyngeal defects, dura mater, and soft-tissue deficits from parotidectomy. Furthermore, it is used to assist in preventing Frey syndrome following parotidectomy and surgical treatment of facial paralysis. Use of acellular dermal matrix for head and neck reconstruction has expanded exponentially and is validated in many studies. Further prospective randomized control trials are warranted to further investigate the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix in head and neck reconstruction.

  19. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.

  20. A Bayesian statistical analysis of mouse dermal tumor promotion assay data for evaluating cigarette smoke condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Steven J; Potts, Ryan J; Ayres, Paul H; Harp, Paul R; Wilson, Cody L; Garner, Charles D

    2010-10-01

    The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method available to study the dermal tumor promoting potential of mainstream cigarette smoke. In the typical SENCAR mouse CSC bioassay, CSC is applied for 29 weeks following the application of a tumor initiator such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Several endpoints are considered for analysis including: the percentage of animals with at least one mass, latency, and number of masses per animal. In this paper, a relatively straightforward analytic model and procedure is presented for analyzing the time course of the incidence of masses. The procedure considered here takes advantage of Bayesian statistical techniques, which provide powerful methods for model fitting and simulation. Two datasets are analyzed to illustrate how the model fits the data, how well the model may perform in predicting data from such trials, and how the model may be used as a decision tool when comparing the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate from multiple cigarette types. The analysis presented here was developed as a statistical decision tool for differentiating between two or more prototype products based on the dermal tumorigenicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.