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Sample records for equine duodenum ileum

  1. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine.

  2. Evaluation of the myoelectrical activity of the equine ileum infected with Strongylus vulgaris larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C R; Merritt, A M; Burrows, C F; Campbell, M; Drudge, J H

    1986-01-01

    Five weanling ponies were subjected to an intensive 6-week deworming program after which 4 Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes were implanted surgically on the distal ileum. For 3 hours each day for 5 consecutive days, ileal myoelectrical activity was recorded from fed ponies under 3 sequential conditions: preinoculation, after oral administration of 1,000 killed Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (3 ponies), and after oral administration of 1,000 live S vulgaris infective larvae. Recordings were analyzed for slow wave frequency, percentage duration of phases I, II, and III of the migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC), and the frequency of distinct, rapidly migrating action-potential complexes within phase 2 of the MMC. After administration of live and killed infected 3rd-stage larvae, there was a marked increase in the number of disrupted phase III complexes, and a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in the number of migrating action-potential complexes. In addition, after inoculation of live 3rd-stage larvae, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in the percentage of time that the MMC was occupied by prolonged periods devoid of spike activity (phase I). The results indicate that S vulgaris larval mucosal penetration and submucosal migration can cause changes in ileal myoelectrical activity that could cause colic, and that larval antigen alone within the lumen may disrupt ileal motility.

  3. Hemogasometria de eqüinos submetidos à obstrução experimental do duodeno, íleo e cólon maior Blood gas analysis of horses submitted to experimental obstruction of duodenum, ileum and large colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alessandra Di Filippo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar os parâmetros do equilíbrio ácido-base de eqüinos submetidos a um modelo experimental de obstrução intestinal, 24 animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos, controle instrumentado (GI, obstrução do duodeno (GII, íleo (GIII e cólon maior (GIV. As amostras de sangue venoso foram coletadas antes das cirurgias (T0, durante as obstruções (T30ob-T180ob e após as desobstruções (T60des-T180des. Os eqüinos do GIV, no T30ob, e os eqüinos do GII, nos T60ob, T90ob e T120ob, apresentaram aumento do pH(v, da cHCO-3(vP e da cBase(v que, acrescidos do aumento da pCO2(v e da ctCO2(v, caracterizou a alcalose metabólica com compensação respiratória. Nos T90ob e T120ob, nos animais do GII, e no T180ob, nos animais do GIII, a pO2(v e a sO2(v tiveram comportamento semelhante. Os valores baixos apresentados pelos animais do GII foram associados à hipercapnia ou à hipoventilação, desencadeadas para a correção da alcalose metabólica. Entretanto, a hipoxemia apresentada pelos animais do GIII foi associada à hipovolemia presente neste período. As alterações ácido-base observadas constituem-se de alterações leves e temporárias, as quais não são capazes de predizer o diagnóstico das obstruções intestinais específicas em eqüinos com cólica. Entretanto, por relacionarem-se diretamente com a precocidade do distúrbio gastrintestinal, elas auxiliam o pesquisador no prognóstico.This study aimed to evaluate parameters of acid-base balance in horses submitted to an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. Twenty-four animals were divided in four groups: instrumented control (GI, duodenum obstruction (GII, ileum obstruction (GIII and large colon obstruction (GIV. Venous blood samples were collected before surgery (T0, during the obstruction (T30ob-T180ob and after unblocking procedures (T60des-T180des. Animals from GIV, at T30ob and animals from GII, at T60ob, T90ob and T120ob, presented higher values for pH(v, c

  4. [Injuries of the duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, M P; Urakcheev, Sh K; Shlosser, K V

    2012-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 69 patients with injuries of the duodenum were analyzed. The most frequent causes of the injury were stab-incised wound of the abdomen (43 patients), gunshot wounds (2 patients), closed injury of the abdomen. Postoperative complications developed in 18 (26%) cases. Lethality was 20.3% (14 patients died). Injuries caused by the closed trauma were considerably more severe than those caused by wounds of the duodenum; lethality was 37.5% and 11.1% respectively. The authors discuss questions of the special diagnostics and surgical strategy for open and closed injuries of the duodenum. Causes of the development of unfavorable outcomes were pyo-septic complications associated with progressing retroperitoneal phlegmons, peritonitis, development of traumatic pancreatitis, incompetent sutures of the duodenum with a formed duodenal fistula. Therefore, the effective prophylactics of incompetent sutures of the duodenum is its decompression with aspiration of the duodenal contents as well as decreased secretion by means of drainage of the bile excreting ducts and medicamental suppression of synthesis of the digestion enzymes of the pancreas and duodenum using Octreatid which allowed considerable decrease of the number of postoperative complications.

  5. The stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Symptoms of epigastric pain raise the possibility of peptic ulcer disease and lead to an examination of the stomach and duodenum. Hematemesis or melena is also a strong indication. The nausea-vomiting complex on a subacute or chronic basis raises the possibility of an obstructive lesion. A palpable mass in the upper abdomen may involve the stomach. Weight loss and anorexia are less specific symptoms but can occur with gastric cancer. Major changes in indications have occurred now that ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are available. No longer is the gut studied to detect extra-gut disease. Currently, the duodenal contour is not important in the search for pancreatic disease. All intra-abdominal structures can now be seen directly using CT or ultrasound

  6. Polypper i ventrikel og duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Fenger, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Polyps are reported in 3-5% of adults undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The most common types in the stomach are fundic gland polyps, followed by hyperplastic polyps and adenomas. Gastric metaplasia, adenomas and inflammatory polyps are the most common polyps in the duodenum. Treatment...

  7. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  8. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

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    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  9. Primary carcinoma of the duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidle, B.; Huetter, B.; Ziegler, F.

    1984-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the duodenum represents about 0.35% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas and is thus a rare disease. The radiological diagnosis of a duodenal origin is made more difficult by the close proximity of the pancreas, biliary system, right kidney and transverse colon. Histologically, duodenal malignant tumours are usually adenocarcinomas. Between 1973 and 1983, eight patients with primary duodenal carcinomas were diagnosed at the University of Tuebingen. Average age of the patients was 67 years. There was no sex difference. Average survival was 3.3 years. (orig.) [de

  10. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  11. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Equine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michau, Tammy Miller

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers. Therapy for glaucoma is aimed at decreasing aqueous humor production through medical and surgical means. Even with therapy, long-term prognosis for vision is poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural connections between antrum and duodenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, K; Schrøder, H D; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H

    1983-01-01

    Postprandial coordination of antroduodenal motility partly takes place via intrinsic mural pathways. The nature and origin of these nerve fibers have not yet been clarified. In this investigation using fluorochromic substances injected into the antrum and duodenum it was demonstrated that common ...... central neurons for the antroduodenal area exist in the vagal nucleus....

  14. Tumor like tuberculosis of the descending duodenum; One case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Wook; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-10-15

    Tuberculosis of the duodenum is a definite clinical entity, of which incidence is not common. One case of tuberculosis of the duodenum in 37 years old Korean housewife, which is experienced by writers recently, is reported.

  15. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may b...

  16. Radiology of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.H.; Sala, E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of imaging techniques, many of them complementary, are used in the investigation and treatment of disorders of the stomach and duodenum. Optimal patient treatment requires a thorough knowledge of the application of these techniques, as well as a sound understanding of pathology of the stomach and its presenting symptomatology. This well-illustrated book covers the various investigative methods in detail, discussing their advantages and disadvantages and explaining their role in specific settings. It will be of great value to both trainee and experienced radiologists, and should assist in promoting effective and judicious patient management. (orig.)

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma directly invading the duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Abdelrehman O.; Joshi, Sandhya; Czechowski, Janusz; Branicki, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the duodenum is very rare. We present a case of 50-year-old male who was admitted with a history of recurrent upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) bleeding, weight loss and anemia. The patient was known to have a chronic hepatitis C. Endoscopic examination showed grade-2 non-bleeding esophageal varices, and a large ulcerated duodenal mass partially obstructing the duodenal bulb outlet and causing recurrent UGIT bleeding. Pathological evaluation of the mass revealed HCC. (author)

  18. Bouveret syndrome: gallstone ileus of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Zachary P; Love, Katie; Marilley, Mark D; Bower, Curtis E

    2012-10-01

    This is a case of a 59-year-old woman with Bouveret syndrome. An initial endoscopic approach to management is described. Gallstone ileus occurs when a gallstone passes from a cholecystoduodenal fistula or a choledochoduodenal fistula into the gastrointestinal tract and causes obstruction, usually at the ileocecal valve. Bouveret syndrome is a variant of gallstone ileus where the gallstone lodges in the duodenum or pylorus causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The endoscopic and surgical management of this process are important to keep in mind and may be evolving as endoscopic therapies improve.

  19. Modified X-ray method of a study of duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Bugakov, V.M.; Shinkin, V.M.

    A modified X-ray examination of duodenum under hypotension conditions is described. In comparison with the existing method, the above-mentioned modification allows one to investigate the duodenum by using double contrast - the high-concentrated barium suspension and the gas, formed after the gasificated powder dose. 327 patients have been examined by the given method, 126 of them have been diagnosed to suffer from inflammatory diseases of the stomach and the duodenum, 22 of them suffering from the duodenum peptic ulcer, 107 of them - pancreatitis, 48-cholelithiasis, 24 - the tumor of the pancreatoduodenum zone. 65 patients have been operated on. Roentgenomorphologic comparisons have been carried out for 66 patients suffering from inflammatory deseases of the duodenum. Duodenum visualization of 283 patients is found to be good and satisfactory. The given method may be used under any conditions, including polyclinics, due to the sparing nature.

  20. Radiologic examination of duodenum in celia disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomei, E.; Diacinti, D.; Gentile, F.; Picarelli, A.; Francone, A.

    1988-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is the most common form of malabsorption in childhood when it presents with diarrhea and groeth failure, a jejunal biopsy is considered the first diagnostic investigation by some authors. In adulthood, clinical symptoms of CD may mimik several different disease, such as peptic ulcer and IBS, and the first diagnostic investigation is an upper GI series. Radiological features of duodenum and small bowel were evaluated in twenty patients with adult onset celiac disease. Sign of duodenitis such as thickened folds, mucosal nodules, dilatation of duodenum and erosions were observed in 19 out of 20 patients (95%); particulary, thickened folds in 71 (85%), nodularity in 16 (80%), duodenal dilatation in 12 (60%) and erosions in 4 (20%). In celiac disease the lesions are more severe in the upper part of small bowel, and duodenitis may be the unique sign of CD. Duodenitis may be part of a disease involving the entire small bowel; so, a duodenitis observed in the upper gastrointestinal tract requires the study of the entire small bowel - which seems to be very important in the case of celiac disease

  1. Diagnosis of the intramural haematoma of the duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapf, S.; Dueber, C.; Kuhn, F.P.; Lauff, V.

    1988-01-01

    Blunt trauma to the epigastrium is becoming an increasingly important cause of injury and may result in retroperitoneal haematoma invoving the head of the pancreas as well as the descending duodenum. Ultrasound seems to be of great advantage in the diagnosis of the effects and complications of blunt abdominal trauma such as obstruction of the bilary tree, the gastric outlet and the inferior vena cava. Direct involvement of the descending duodenum seems to be relatively uncommon, intramural haematoma of the duodenum is described only rarely in the literature. Three additional cases of intramural haematoma of the duodenum are reported with particular reference to the recent literature. (orig.) [de

  2. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2013-01-01

    and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...... equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers....

  3. Scintigraphy in equine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, I.C.; Anderson, B.

    2002-01-01

    The most common use for nuclear medicine in equine practice is bone imaging using technetium 99m as the radionuclide. This article will describe establishment of a facility to perform equine scintigraphy, the peculiarities associated with nuclear medicine and horses and describe a variety of the pathology we identify using scintigraphy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  5. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  6. Equine dental advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S K

    2001-08-01

    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  7. Marketing your equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  8. X-ray diagnosis of complications of duodenum ulcer diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    To standardize the methods of X-ray examination, improvement and systematization of X-ray semiotics of stenosing and penetrating duodenum ulcers 157 patients are examined. X-ray examination includes traditional composition, polyprojectional examination using double contrasting with differential application of pharmaceuticals. It is shown that application of complex methods X-ray examination and adequate interpretation of examination results facilitate early diagnosis of duodenum ulcer disease complications. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal....... Medical and surgical treatments are now directed towards elimination of fungal and bacterial infections, reduction and replacement of diseased corneal stroma, and suppression of iridocyclitis. If the abscess and anterior uveitis do not respond satisfactorily to medical therapy, full thickness or split...

  11. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  12. Total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Cesare; Di Marco, Carluccio; Loponte, Margherita; Savino, Grazia

    2014-05-11

    Complete transverse rupture of the duodenum as an isolated lesion in blunt trauma can be considered as exceptional. The aim of this report is to discuss diagnostic procedures and surgical options in such an infrequent presentation. We report on a 37 year old man who had a total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis was suspected after contrast enhanced CT scan and confirmed at laparotomy; duodenal rupture was repaired by an end to end duodenal-duodenal anastomosis, after Kocher maneuver. The patient had fast and complete recovery. A high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Multi detector contrast enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for that aim. Surgical management must be tailored on an individual basis, since many techniques are available for both reconstruction and duodenum decompression. Kocher maneuver is essential for complete inspection of the pancreatic duodenal block and for appropriate reconstruction. Management of isolated duodenal rupture can be difficult. Contrast enhanced TC scans is essential for timely diagnosis. Primary repair can be achieved by an end to end duodenum anastomosis after Kocher maneuver, although alternative techniques are available for tailored solutions. Complex duodenum decompression techniques are not mandatory.

  13. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  14. Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.; Applegate, K.E.; Buonomo, C.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.)

  15. Obstructing Gangliocytic Paraganglioma in the Third Portion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Nuño-Guzmán

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gangliocytic paragangliomas are infrequent tumors almost exclusively found in the second portion of the duodenum. An unusual case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma in the third portion of the duodenum with obstructive symptoms is herein reported. A 16-year-old male patient presented with epigastric pain, postprandial plenitude and reflux. A barium swallow failed to demonstrate abnormalities. Endoscopy showed a pedunculated submucosal tumor, originating at the third duodenal portion and causing partial obstruction. Biopsy was not performed due to the risk of bleeding. CT scan demonstrated a polypoid lesion. Through a transmesocolic approach and an anterior duodenotomy, resection of the tumor was performed. No lymph node or other organ affection was found. Histologic examination revealed a gangliocytic paraganglioma. Immunohistochemical examination was performed. Gangliocytic paragangliomas originating in the third or fourth portion of the duodenum, as in the present case, are extremely rare. Characteristic histologic features including epithelioid cells, spindle-shaped cells and ganglion-like cells were met. The majority of cases manifest with a similar benign behavior. Local resection of the tumor is recommended for these cases. An infrequent case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a less common clinical presentation, is herein reported.

  16. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  17. Ileum neovaginoplasty for Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review treatment modalities of Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome, and to present further evidence on the successful use of ileum segment as an additional procedure for the creation of a neovagina. Methods: Five women presented with primary amenorrhea, normal secondary female sexual ...

  18. Intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the ileum originated 40 years after ileosigmoidostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameshima Shinichi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs are rare carcinomas. They are asymptomatic and usually neither endoscopy nor contrast studies are performed for screening Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese male had a positive fecal occult blood test at a regular check-up in 2006. He suffered appendicitis and received an ileosigmoidostomy in 1966. A colonoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal lesion with an unclear margin at the ileum side of the anastomosis. A mucosal biopsy specimen showed adenocarcinoma histopathologically. Excision of the anastomosis was performed for this patient. The resected specimen showed a flat mucosal lesion with a slight depression at the ileum adjacent to the anastomosis. Histological examination revealed a well differentiated intramucosal adenocarcinoma (adenocarcinoma in situ. Immunohistological staining demonstrated the overexpression of p53 protein in the adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma of the ileum at such an early stage is a very rare event. In this case, there is a possibility that the ileosigmoidostomy resulted in a back flow of colonic stool to the ileum that caused the carcinogenesis of the small intestine.

  19. X-ray diagnostics. Stomach and duodenum. Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The standard deals with X-ray diagnostics of stomach and duodenum in patients on completion of the 14th year of life. It includes information on indications, contraindications, prerequisites and preparations as well as on application and appropriate dosage of contrast media. Parameters on focussing, imaging conditions and on the program of taking radiographies are outlined. The necessity of special examinations according to findings as well as measures concerning radiation protection and hygiene are presented

  20. Clinical application of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Songqiang

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the indications and therapeutic effect of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 17 patients who underwent DPPHR in Fujian Provincial Hospital from January 2013 to February 2017. Among these patients, 6 had chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic duct stones, 2 had chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst, 3 had solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreatic head, 3 had intraduc...

  1. Impaired acid neutralization in the duodenum in pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S K; Russell, R M; Iber, F L

    1979-10-01

    The influence of severe exocrine pancreatic disease on the acid-neutralizing capacity of the duodenum was studied in five patients with pancreatic insufficiency (PI) and six control subjects using duodenal perfusion-marker technique. Hydrochloric acid (0.1 N containing 1% PEG) was infused at constant rates (1.2, 4.5 and 7.0 ml/min) into the duodenum just distal to the duodenal bulb. Samples were aspirated from the tip of the duodenal perfusion tube located at the ligament of Treitz. All samples were analyzed for volume, pH, titrable acidity, PEG and [14C]PEG (gastric marker) determination. Patients with PI demonstrated significantly diminished ability to neutralize various acid loads as compared to controls who virtually completely neutralized acid loads in the range of maximal gastric acid secretion. Exogenous secretin did not significantly improve percent acid neutralized in PI. These data clearly indicate that patients with PI have significantly impaired ability to neutralize even small loads of acid in the duodenum.

  2. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their lives, therefore they should be properly managed. In therapy the most importanthing is to eliminate dustexposure, administration of corticosteroids and use bronchodilators to improve pulmonary function.

  3. Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia with Associated Submucosal Lipoma Presenting as a 7-cm Obstructive Tumor of the Ileum: Resection with Double Balloon Enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are rare clinical entities which have been identified throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Combined gastric and pancreatic heterotopias, although unusual, have been described in the duodenum and jejunum, and in other structures, including Meckel's diverticulum and the ampulla of Vater. We report a novel case of pancreatic and gastric heterotopia with an associated submucosal lipoma in a 38-year-old female with a recent history of rectal cancer and chronic crampy abdominal pain. On computed tomography, a 7-cm luminal polypoid mass extending into the distal ileum was discovered. The mass was successfully resected using retrograde double balloon enteroscopy. We believe this is the first report of all three histological entities co-existing in an obstructive ileal lesion in an adult. It highlights endoscopic resection trough double enteroscopy as a safe alternative to more invasive surgical approaches for this type of lesion.

  4. Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia with Associated Submucosal Lipoma Presenting as a 7-cm Obstructive Tumor of the Ileum: Resection with Double Balloon Enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Stephen, F Otis; Jeong, Daniel; Pimiento, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are rare clinical entities which have been identified throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Combined gastric and pancreatic heterotopias, although unusual, have been described in the duodenum and jejunum, and in other structures, including Meckel's diverticulum and the ampulla of Vater. We report a novel case of pancreatic and gastric heterotopia with an associated submucosal lipoma in a 38-year-old female with a recent history of rectal cancer and chronic crampy abdominal pain. On computed tomography, a 7-cm luminal polypoid mass extending into the distal ileum was discovered. The mass was successfully resected using retrograde double balloon enteroscopy. We believe this is the first report of all three histological entities co-existing in an obstructive ileal lesion in an adult. It highlights endoscopic resection trough double enteroscopy as a safe alternative to more invasive surgical approaches for this type of lesion.

  5. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The embryogenesis of the equine femorotibial joint : The equine interzone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; van Osch, G J V M; Weninger, W; Geyer, S; Stout, T; van Weeren, René; Brama, P; van Weeren, René

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Articular cartilage regeneration is the focus and goal of considerable research effort. Since articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in embryonic nascent joints (interzones), establishing the timing of equine interzone

  7. Immunolocalization of aquaporin-10 in tuberculous human ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, T.; Tahir, M.; Munir, B.; Lone, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of AQP-10 in the ileum of patients suffering from intestinal tuberculosis. Study Design: A cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, in year 2010. Methodology: Thirty seven paraffin embedded blocks of either surgically resected specimens or ileal biopsies with diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis were selected from records of the histopathology departments of local hospitals. These cases were subdivided into two groups: A-1 (with tuberculous granulomatous lesions with or without epithelium) and A-2 (without tuberculous lesion lying adjacent to the lesions and having an intact epithelium). Specimens of small intestine with malignancy, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoeal diseases caused by Rota virus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli were excluded. The variables studied were the presence/absence and location of AQP-10. The most common clinical symptoms found in tuberculous patients were abdominal pain followed by diarrhoea. A significant association was found between AQP-10 and site of granulomas and caseation necrosis (p=0.002 and p=0.006 respectively). Absence of AQP-10 was observed in tuberculous ileum at the site of lesion with ulceration. A strong positive staining of AQP-10 was found in the intact epithelium at sites adjacent to the tuberculous lesion indicating its localization near the epithelial lining of ileum. Conclusion: AQP-10 was present only on the epithelial cells occurring at the luminal side of the villi and was absent in tuberculous ileum where epithelium was absent. (author)

  8. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  9. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand

    2014-01-01

    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides....... The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic...

  10. Morphology and Function of the Lamb Ileum following Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Flores

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor infants born moderately/late preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, immaturity of the intestine has the potential to impact both short- and long-term gastrointestinal function. The aim of this study conducted in sheep was to compare the morphology and smooth muscle contractility of the ileum in term and late preterm lambs.Materials and methodsLambs delivered preterm (132 days gestation; n = 7 or term (147 days gestation; n = 9 were milk-fed after birth and euthanased at 2 days of age. A segment of distal ileum was collected for analysis of the length and cellular composition of the villi and crypts, smooth muscle width and contractility, and mRNA expression of the cell markers Ki67, lysozyme, mucin 2, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, olfactomedin 4, axis inhibition protein 2, and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5.ResultsThere was no difference in the proportion of inflammatory, proliferating, apoptotic, enterocyte, or goblet cells between groups, but preterm lambs exhibited a significant upregulation of the stem cell marker LGR5 (p = 0.01. Absolute villus height (term: 1,032 ± 147 µm, preterm: 651 ± 52 µm; p < 0.0001 and crypt depth (term: 153 ± 11 µm, preterm: 133 ± 17 µm; p = 0.01 were significantly shorter in the preterm ileums, with a trend (p = 0.06 for a reduction in muscularis externa width. There was no difference between groups in the contractile response to acetylcholine, but peak contractility in response to bradykinin (p = 0.02 and angiotensin II (p = 0.03 was significantly greater in the preterm lambs.ConclusionFindings demonstrate that the crypt-villus units are shorter in the ileum of late preterm offspring, but functionally mature with an equivalent cellular composition and normal contractile response to acetylcholine compared with term offspring. The exaggerated contractility to inflammatory mediators evident in the

  11. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  13. Roll seat belt induced injury of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1976-05-01

    A case of duodenal rupture with a roll three-point seatbelt is described. It is apparently the seventh reported case of duodenal rupture in safety belt users. A female driver fell asleep, and her car went off the road, rolling forward in a ditch, slowing slightly, and then came to a sudden stop. The rupture was unusual: on the first part of duodenum, intraperitoneal, and longitudinal. The rupture mechanism is discussed, and the deficiencies of the roll seatbelt pointed out in accidents like the one described.

  14. Does lead use the intestinal absorptive pathways of iron? Impact of iron status on murine 210Pb and 59Fe absorption in duodenum and ileum in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsenhans, Bernd; Janser, Heinz; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schuemann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Absorption of 210 Pb increases much less than that of 59 Fe in murine duodena. → 210 Pb-absorption is almost equally high in murine duodenal and ileal segments. → 59 Fe absorption is much lower in ileal than in duodenal segments. → There must be an additional DMT1-independet pathway for intestinal Pb absorption. -- Abstract: Background: Human isotope studies and epidemiological trials are controversial as to whether lead absorption shares the absorptive pathways of iron and whether body lead content can be reduced by iron supplementation. Aim: To compare the impact of iron-deficiency on 59 Fe- and 210 Pb-absorption rates in duodenal and ileal segments. Methods: 59 Fe- and 210 Pb-absorption was determined in ligated duodenal and ileal segments from juvenile and adult iron-deficient and iron-adequate C57Bl6 wild-type mice (n = 6) in vivo at luminal concentrations corresponding to human exposure (Fe: 1 and 100 μmol/L; Pb: 1 μmol/L). Results and discussion: 59 Fe-absorption increased 10-15-fold in iron-deficient duodena from adult and adolescent mice. Ileal 59 Fe-absorption was 4-6 times lower than in iron-adequate duodena showing no adaptation to iron-deficiency. This in accordance to expectation as the divalent metal transport 1 (DMT1) shows low ileal expression levels. Juvenile 59 Fe-absorption was about twice as high as in adult mice. In contrast, duodenal 210 Pb-absorption was increased only 1.5-1.8-fold in iron-deficiency in juvenile and adult mice and, again in contrast to 59 Fe, ileal 210 Pb-absorption was as high as in iron-adequate duodena. Conclusions: The findings suggest a DMT1-independent pathway to mediate lead absorption along the entire small intestine in addition to DMT1-mediated duodenal uptake. Ileal lead absorption appears substantial, due the much longer residence of ingesta in the distal small intestine. Differences in lead-solubility and -binding to luminal ligands can, thus, explain the conflicting findings regarding the impact of iron-status on lead absorption. They need to be considered in future studies.

  15. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  16. Large gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandra Gordillo; Lanuza, Eduardo Dominguez-Adame; Matias, Auxiliadora Cano; Huertas, Rosario Perez; Rodriguez, Katherine Maria Gallardo; Perez, Purificacion Gallinato; Mompean, Fernando Oliva

    2015-08-27

    Gangliocytic paragangliomas are rare tumors that almost exclusively occur within the second portion of the duodenum. Although these tumors generally have a benign clinical course, they have the potential to recur or metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The case report presented here describes a 57-year-old female patient with melena, progressive asthenia, anemia, and a mass in the second-third portion of the duodenum that was treated by local excision. The patient was diagnosed with a friable bleeding tumor. The histologic analysis showed that the tumor was a 4 cm gangliocytic paraganglioma without a malignant cell pattern. In the absence of local invasion or distant metastasis, endoscopic resection represents a feasible, curative therapy. Although endoscopic polypectomy is currently considered the treatment of choice, it is not recommended if the size of the tumor is > 3 cm and/or there is active or recent bleeding. Patients diagnosed with a gangliocytic paraganglioma should be closely followed-up for possible local recurrence.

  17. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  18. Transumbilical laparoscopic treatment of Congenital Infantile Fibrosarcoma of the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scirè

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital-Infantile Fibrosarcoma (CIF is a malignant mesenchymal tumor representing 10-20% of soft-tissue tumors. Complete surgical resection is generally the treatment of choice. The most recurrent cytogenetic abnormality was identified as the traslocation t(12;15(p13:q25, which bears the fusion of Tel gene EVT6 with TrkC gene. This study describes a case of infantile fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a female newborn examined for intestinal occlusion and its laparoscopic treatment.

  19. CYSTIC DEGENERATION OF THE DUODENUM ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kriger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cystic lesion of the descending part of the duodenum, mainly in the field of small duodenal papilla in chronic pancreatitis (CP is described as “duodenal dystrophy” (DD. The pathogenesis of this condition has not been studied and treatment strategy is not defined.Purpose. Investigation of cystic inflammatory transformation of duodenal wall pathogenesis in patients with CP, described as a DD, and evaluate the clinical ef ficiency of surgical treatment.Material and methods. Eighty two patients with DD were retrospectively included over 12 years. The diagnosis of DD was established by transabdominal ultrasound, CT, MRI and endosonography. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively. 74 patients required surgical treatment subsequently after conservative treatment with a median duration of 2 years. 34 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, 21 patients underwent duodenum resection, 15 – duodenum preserving pancreatic head resection of (DPPHR. 4 patients underwent palliative operations. Diagnosis of CP and DD was verified by histological study of surgical specimens. Not operated patients (8 are under observation. Long-term results of surgical treatment were evaluated in 47 patients with a median follow-up was 49.9 months.Results. Histological examination resulted that in 69.9% of DD was related with groove pancreatitis, with ectopic pancreatic tissue – in 30.1%. DD was associated with CP in 92.6% of cases. Clinical presentation of DD was not related with etiology and showed typical symptoms of CP: abdominal pain occurred in 98.8% of patients, body weight loss – 61.7%, duodenal obstruction – 35.8%, biliary hypertension – 34.1%. The overall morbidity was 35.1%. Overall postoperative mortality was 1.37% (1 patient. 66% of patients had no clinical symptoms postoperatively, a significantimprovement – 32%, no effect – 2%.Conclusion. The most cases of DD is related with groove pancreatitis, less

  20. Ektopiske varicer i den distale ileum som årsag til gastrointestinal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Tine Juhl; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Bruun, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum.......Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum....

  1. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  2. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  3. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and natriuretic peptides are routinely used in human medicine for the evaluation of myocardial damage and heart failure. Recently, these markers have also been introduced in veterinary medicine. Comparison between human and equine cardiac biomarker studies sho...

  4. Segmental dilatation of the ileum in a healthy adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Akash D.; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W.; Beneck, Debra; Spigland, Nitsana

    2009-01-01

    Segmental intestinal dilatation is a rare entity presenting overwhelmingly in infants and young children with congenital malformations, anemia, or history of gastrointestinal pathology, characterized by a focally distended segment of bowel with abrupt transition points without an obstructing barrier. We present a 16-year-old girl with no significant medical history who presented with bowel obstruction clinically. Segmental dilatation of the ileum was evident on a CT scan and small bowel series. Following surgical resection, pathologic examination of the segment revealed the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The girl's symptoms resolved after surgery. Awareness of the imaging presentation of this entity can inform the evaluation of older children with nonspecific symptoms mimicking bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  5. Biliary ileum: an uncommon complication of vesicular lithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sosa, Gabriel; Diaz Mesa, Julio; Collera Rodriguez, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    This the case of a female patient aged 80 with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart failure and a exogenous obesity urgently admitted due to abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distention of 3 days course. In abdominal simple radiograph radiological signs of intestinal occlusion were confirmed corroborated by abdominal echography and CAT. Hydroelectrolytic imbalance was corrected performing an exploration laparotomy observing the presence of large calculus located in terminal ileum. An enterolithotomy with enterorrhaphy and occlusive picture was resolved. At 16 from discharge, patient is re-admitted with a similar situation and at re-intervention presence of another calculus and a cholecystogastric fistula was verified involving the gall bladder and the gastric antrum repairing by gastrorrhaphy. At the end of transoperative period, patient had an episode of ventricular fibrillation with extreme bradycardia and an asystolic arrest. She was reanimated but there wasn't reversion and patient died. (author)

  6. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  7. Equine Assisted Couples Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Taylor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Equine assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an emerging experiential methodologythat has recently gained recognition as a method for addressing a range of presentingproblems for a wide variety of client populations. Couples therapy is one area that thepractice of equine assisted psychotherapy has recently gained traction. This studydescribes the practice of equine assisted couples therapy in terms of practitionercharacteristics, approach to treatment, therapeutic goals and outcomes. Mental healthp...

  8. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for complex injuries of the pancreas and duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krige, Jake E; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H

    2014-11-01

    This single-centre study evaluated the outcome of a pancreatoduodenectomy for Grade 5 injuries of the pancreas and duodenum. Prospectively recorded data of patients who underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy for trauma at a Level I Trauma Centre during a 22-year period were analysed. Nineteen (17 men and 2 women, median age 28 years, range 14-53 years) out of 426 patients with pancreatic injuries underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy (gunshot n = 12, blunt trauma n = 6 and stab wound n = 1). Nine patients had associated inferior vena cava (IVC) or portal vein (PV) injuries. Five patients had initial damage control procedures and underwent a definitive operation at a median of 15 h (range 11-92) later. Twelve had a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and 7 a standard Whipple. Three patients with APACHE II scores of 15, 18, 18 died post-operatively of multi-organ failure. All 16 survivors had Dindo-Clavien grade I (n = 1), grade II (n = 7), grade IIIa (n = 2), grade IVa (n = 6) post-operative complications. Factors complicating surgery were shock on admission, number of associated injuries, coagulopathy, hypothermia, gross bowel oedema and traumatic pancreatitis. A pancreatoduodenectomy is a life-saving procedure in a small cohort of stable patients with non-reconstructable pancreatic head injuries. Damage control before a pancreatoduodenectomy will salvage a proportion of the most severely injured patients who have multiple injuries. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  9. Angiodysplasia in gaint diverticulum of transverse duodenum causing massive gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Pil Yeob; Lee, Sang Wook; Kwon, Jae Soo; Sung, Young Soon; Rho, Myoung Ho; Hwon, Oh Joon [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    The incidence of duodenal diverticulum found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal roentgenographic examination varies between 2% and 5%. The majority of cases occur along the medial aspect of the second portion of the duodenum, within 2.5 cm of the ampulla of Vater. The majority of duodenal diverticual are asymptomatic, but in some cases, complications such as diverticulitis, hemorrhage, perforation, and fistula formation occur in the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. We describe a case of giant diverticulum of the transverse duodenum, revealed by UGI and angiography, massive gastrointestinal bleeding in a 80-year-old patient.=20.

  10. Comparison between narcotic 'receptors' in the guinea-pig ileum and the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terenius, L [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    The receptors, i.e., specific binding molecules, for narcotic analgesics in the guinea-pig ileum and rat brain have been compared. The relative affinities of a number of narcotics for the two receptors were very similar and discrimination between stereoisomeric agents was identical. The dissociation constants for dihydromorphine binding were 0.78 nM for the ileum and 1.4 nM for the brain receptor, respectively. There was a good correspondance between receptor affinities on the ileum preparation and the literature data on biologic activity on the isolated ileum. Codeine, diphenoxylate, difenoxine and loperamide, which are used clinically for the treatment of diarrhoea showed no selectivity against the ileum receptor. The two latter drugs had a very high receptor affinity and their lack of narcotic activity after oral administration is probably attributable to lack of penetration of the CNS. Receptor binding in both ileum and brain preparations was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, Triton X-100, trypsin and phospholipase C. There were small quantitative differences in sensitivity to these agents but it is difficult to assess whether this is because of real differences between the receptor molecules or attributable to secondary effects. As previously described for the brain receptor, the ileum receptor appeared to be present in a fraction enriched in plasma membranes.

  11. Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy for an obstructive adenocarcinoma of the duodenum

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, D; Croome, KP; Hernandez-Alejandro, R

    2012-01-01

    A duodenal adenocarcinoma arising from the junction of the second and third portion of the duodenum, which was resected by pancreas-sparing duodenectomy, is reported. The completely obstructing tumour was circumferential and measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm x 1.0 cm. There was no evidence of pancreas invasion, nor any lymph node metastasis. Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy was performed, with dissection of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes. The proximal duodenum was transected just distal to the ampula ...

  12. Clinical application of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Songqiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the indications and therapeutic effect of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 17 patients who underwent DPPHR in Fujian Provincial Hospital from January 2013 to February 2017. Among these patients, 6 had chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic duct stones, 2 had chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst, 3 had solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreatic head, 3 had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, 2 had serous cystadenoma of the pancreatic head, and 1 had mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreatic head. Results The time of operation was 200-360 minutes (mean 304.0±45.3 minutes, and the intraoperative blood loss was 50-500 ml (mean 267.5±116.1 ml. No patient died in the perioperative period. After surgery, 5 experienced biochemical leak, 2 experienced grade B pancreatic fistula, no patient experienced grade C pancreatic fistula, and 1 experienced gastroplegia; all these patients were cured and discharged after conservative treatment. The length of postoperative hospital stay was 17-78 days (mean 30.8±14.3 days. The 17 patients were followed up for 2 months to 4 years after surgery, and no patient experienced tumor recurrence, new-onset diabetes, dyspepsia, or common bile duct stenosis after surgery. Conclusion Besides ensuring the complete resection of tumor, DPPHR can reduce the incidence rate of surgical trauma and complications and shorten the time of operation and the length of hospital stay. Compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy, DPPHR can better preserve the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas and improve patients′ postoperative quality of life.

  13. Isolation and characterization of plasma membranes from guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A plasma membrane fraction from guinea pig ileum has been isolated by extraction of a crude microsomal fraction with a low ionic strength buffer containing ATP and Ca 2+ . The extracted microsomes were subjected to sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation in the presence of 0.6 M KCl. The plasma membranes were substantially free from contamination with contractile proteins, mitochondria and sarco-plasmic reticulum. The plasma membrane vesicles were enriched 30-to-40-fold in Na + -K + -ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities. The plasma membrane vesicles accumulated Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP. The addition of Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 to vesicles loaded with Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP removed Ca 2+ completely from the vesicles in one minute. The Km values for the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylated intermediates of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ uptake were approximately 0.8 μM indicating that the phosphorylated intermediates represent phosphorylation of Ca 2+ pump ATPase. The 3 H-nitrendipine binding to plasma membranes was characterized by high affinity with Kd of 185 pM and B/sub max/ 1280 fmol/mg protein. The plasma membrane vesicles prepared by these procedures can prove useful for the study of ion transport

  14. Rectal bladder-type: ileum-sigma-rectum pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajka, K.; Mikszewicz, A.; Stachurski, L.; Perkowski, D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a method of creating rectal bladder by using the proximal part of rectum, the distal part of sigma and a 40 cm long segment of detubularized ileum. Ureters were attached to the proximal end of ileal segment by Wallace-I technique. Initially the retrograde pyelonephritis was to be prevented by intussuscepting a 4 cm long part of the uretero-ilea anastomosis and by positioning isoperistaltically a 15-16 cm long part of the ileal segment. Because of the insufficiency of such a mechanism, in 4 latest cases the intussuscepted segment was increased to 8 cm. 8 patients suffering from stage T3a and T3b invasive carcinoma of the bladder were treated by this procedure. The ureteral stens were led out via the rectal tube. They were removed days after the operation. The whole post-operative period was uneventful. The patients were under close follow-up from 5 to 22 months. Three of them died due to a progression of the disease. All the patients had 3-4 watery stools a day and one at night. Check-ups performed three and six months after the operation revealed a proper out flow of contrast medium from kidneys and a reduction in the dilatation of ureters. In one case the kidney that failed to function before the procedure, restored its secretion afterwards. The contrast medium reached colon descendens only when more than 350 ml of it were infused into the rectal bladder. (author)

  15. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  16. The equine veterinarian : past, present and prospects of a profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited

  17. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... APHIS-2006-0168] RIN 0579-AC49 Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter AGENCY: Animal and... regarding the commercial transportation of equines to slaughter to add a definition of equine for slaughter... of equines in commercial transportation to slaughter are met. DATES: Effective Date: October 7, 2011...

  18. Temporal relationships exist between cecum, ileum and litter bacterial microbiomes in a commercial turkey flock, and subtherapeutic penicillin treatment impacts ileum bacterial community establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Danzeisen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is paramount for commercial poultry production, and improved methods to assess gut health are critically needed to better understand how the avian gastrointestinal tract matures over time. One important aspect of gut health is the totality of bacterial populations inhabiting different sites of the avian gastrointestinal tract, and associations of these populations with the poultry farm environment, since these bacteria are thought to drive metabolism and prime the developing host immune system. In this study, a single flock of commercial turkeys was followed over the course of twelve weeks to examine bacterial microbiome inhabiting the ceca, ileum, and corresponding poultry litter. Furthermore, the effects of low-dose, growth-promoting penicillin treatment (50 g/ton in feed on the ileum bacterial microbiome were also examined during the early brood period. The cecum and ileum bacterial communities of turkeys were distinct, yet shifted in parallel to one another over time during bird maturation. Corresponding poultry litter was also distinct yet more closely represented the ileal bacterial populations than cecal bacterial populations, and also changed parallel to ileum bacterial populations over time. Penicillin applied at low dose in feed significantly enhanced early weight gain in commercial poults, and this correlated with predictable shifts in the ileum bacterial populations in control versus treatment groups. Overall, this study identified the dynamics of the turkey gastrointestinal microbiome during development, correlations between bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract and the litter environment, and the impact of low-dose penicillin on modulation of bacterial communities in the ileum. Such modulations provide a target for alternatives to low-dose antibiotics.

  19. Ileum neovaginoplasty for Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser: Review and case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Al-Mehaisen

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Women with Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome who need vaginal reconstruction have the surgical option of a vascularized free ileum graft that provides a durable, lubricated neovagina without the scarring of skin grafts.

  20. Antispasmodic Effects of Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium L.) Extract in the Isolated Ileum of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically i...

  1. [Repeated plasty of the esophagus in children with the application of transplant from the ileum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A P; Nabokov, V V; Miroshnikov, B I; Galkina, N V

    2012-01-01

    The authors give topographic-anatomical substantiation of a possibility to employ the ileum for esophageal replacement and describe a technique of forming such transplant. Their clinical experience includes 9 operated children. Earlier they had endured from 1 to 4 attempts of esophageal replacements by different traditional methods. In all children operated upon good results were obtained. It allows the ileum to be included in the arsenal of possible methods of esophageal replacement and considering it as an alternate variant in nonstandard situations.

  2. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Hans G; Schwarz, Michael; Poch, Bertram

    2012-11-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are diagnosed frequently due to early use of abdominal imaging techniques. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, mucinous cystic neoplasm, and serous pseudopapillary neoplasia are considered pre-cancerous lesions because of frequent transformation to cancer. Complete surgical resection of the benign lesion is a pancreatic cancer preventive treatment. The application for a limited surgical resection for the benign lesions is increasingly used to reduce the surgical trauma with a short- and long-term benefit compared to major surgical procedures. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection introduced for inflammatory tumors in the pancreatic head transfers to the patient with a benign cystic lesion located in the pancreatic head, the advantages of a minimalized surgical treatment. Based on the experience of 17 patients treated for cystic neoplastic lesions with duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection, the surgical technique of total pancreatic head resection for adenoma, borderline tumors, and carcinoma in situ of cystic neoplasm is presented. A segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum is recommended in case of suspected tissue ischemia of the peripapillary duodenum. In 305 patients, collected from the literature by PubMed search, in about 40% of the patients a segmental resection of the duodenum and 60% a duodenum and common bile duct-preserving total pancreatic head resection has been performed. Hospital mortality of the 17 patients was 0%. In 305 patients collected, the hospital mortality was 0.65%, 13.2% experienced a delay of gastric emptying and a pancreatic fistula in 18.2%. Recurrence of the disease was 1.5%. Thirty-two of 175 patients had carcinoma in situ. Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection for benign cystic neoplastic lesions is a safe surgical procedure with low post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  3. Transgenic Expression of the Vitamin D Receptor Restricted to the Ileum, Cecum, and Colon of Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Mice Rescues Vitamin D Receptor-Dependent Rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Puneet; Veldurthy, Vaishali; Yehia, Ghassan; Hsaio, Connie; Porta, Angela; Kim, Ki-In; Patel, Nishant; Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Carmeliet, Geert; Christakos, Sylvia

    2017-11-01

    Although the intestine plays the major role in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] action on calcium homeostasis, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. The established model of 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated intestinal calcium absorption postulates a critical role for the duodenum. However, the distal intestine is where 70% to 80% of ingested calcium is absorbed. To test directly the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the distal intestine, three independent knockout (KO)/transgenic (TG) lines expressing VDR exclusively in the ileum, cecum, and colon were generated by breeding VDR KO mice with TG mice expressing human VDR (hVDR) under the control of the 9.5-kb caudal type homeobox 2 promoter. Mice from one TG line (KO/TG3) showed low VDR expression in the distal intestine (rickets, but less severely than VDR KO mice. These findings show that expression of VDR exclusively in the distal intestine can prevent abnormalities in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization associated with systemic VDR deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  5. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  6. Intraluminal erosion of laparoscopic gastric band tubing into duodenum with recurrent port-site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintolo, Jessica A; Levine, Marc S; Huang, Stephanie; Dumon, Kristoffel

    2012-01-01

    Intraluminal erosion of a laparoscopic gastric band into the stomach has been reported as a complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. To our knowledge, however, intraluminal erosion of the band tubing into the duodenum has not been described. We report a 46-year-old man in whom a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band tubing eroded into the duodenal lumen, causing recurrent port-site infections. This complication was diagnosed on upper endoscopy and also, in retrospect, on an upper gastrointestinal barium study and computed tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the band and tubing, with a primary duodenal repair, and made a complete recovery without complications. Erosion of laparoscopic band tubing into the duodenum should be included in the differential diagnosis for recurrent port-site infections after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Radiographic or endoscopic visualization of the intraluminal portion of the tubing may be required for confirmation. Definitive treatment of this complication entails surgical removal of the tubing from the duodenum.

  7. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  8. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  9. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach, V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum, and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum. The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2% presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3% complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973. For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach, 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb, 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb, and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum. Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%, 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%, 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%, and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%. There is a distinct correlation between

  10. Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging. Methods 253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation. Results Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial

  11. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of duodenum metastatic to lymph nodes and liver and extending into the retropancreatic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, S M; Albrechtsen, N Wewer; Forster, J

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is a rare benign neuroendocrine tumour found most often in the duodenum. To our knowledge, only a dozen cases of possibly malignant duodenal GP with local lymph node metastasis and only one case with liver metastasis have previously been published. Herein, we report...... an unusual case of GP of the duodenum spreading to the retropancreatic space and metastatic to the liver and lymph nodes. Additionally, the present tumour secreted pancreatic polypeptide (PP) which was detected in the serum during the follow-up period. We suggest that serum PP could be a valuable marker...

  12. Spontaneous fistulization of hepatic hydatid cyst into the duodenum: an exceptional complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldoul, S.; Moussi, A.; Zaouche, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis and is localized in the liver in most cases. Its complications are numerous and include those related to the compression of adjacent viscera, infection of the cyst's contents or perforation of the cyst. Spontaneous rupture of the hepatic hydatid cyst into the duodenum is an extremely rare complication. The communication is, typically, not discovered until surgery. We present two cases of perforation of a liver cyst into the duodenum. One of them was diagnosed pre-operatively by a barium study. The surgical treatment of the lesion and its complications was complex but successful in both cases. (author)

  13. Features of Clinical Course of Perforated Ulcers of Stomach and Duodenum in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Zaporozhchenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined 52 patients aged from 14 to 17 years with perforated ulcer of stomach and the duodenum, operated using laparoscopic and open ways. It is established, that perforated ulcer of stomach and the duodenum in children onset suddenly, the are characterized by absence of «ulcer anamnesis» and clinical picture of acute peritonitis in 77 % of children. Maximum efficiency of diagnosis of perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers is achieved by using a comprehensive diagnostic program that includes the use of phased diagnostic measures in accordance with their resolution in each case.

  14. Spasmolytic effect of Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) on rat's ileum at different calcium chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazedi, A A; Mirzaie, D N; Seyyednejad, S M; Zadkarami, M R; Amirzargar, A

    2007-11-15

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Petroselinum crispum on isolated adult male Wistar rat's ileum contraction by KCl 60 (mM). The extract was prepared from parsley seed with 80% ethanol. A portion of ileum was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 degrees C, pH = 7.4) bubbled with air. From a resting tension of 1 g, isotonic Transducer and Harvard Universal Oscillograph were used for recording contraction of ileum after administration of 60 mM KCl. Various concentration of extract were added to the bath. This experiment showed that, the extract in a dose-dependent manner decreased the induced-KCl ileums contraction (n = 7, p parsley seed on the contraction of ileum is performed by blocking of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  15. Identification of 5HT2-receptors on longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.; Hoyer, D.; Kalkman, H.O.; Wick, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    In binding experiments with the radioligands [ 3 H]Ketanserin (HKet) and [ 125 I]LSD (ILSD) 21 compounds were investigated using rat brain cortex membranes. The pK/sub D/-values of the compounds were virtually independent of the radioligand used and their rank order was consistent with classification of the binding sites as being of the 5-HT 2 -type. In contrast, in the longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum in the presence of 0.3 microM cinanserin, ILSD labelled sites which were quite different to those in the cortex. In a functional test antagonism of the 5HT induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum was measured in the presence of 1 microM atropine. The pharmacological inhibition constants (IC 50 -values) of 8 compounds correlated well with the dissociation constants for HKet binding in the cortex and did not correlate with the data from ILSD binding in the guinea pig ileum. It is concluded that the ileum contains postjunctional 5HT 2 -receptors which mediate contraction. The nature of the ILSD binding sites in the ileum remains to be elucidated

  16. Molecular Characteristics of the Equine Periodontal Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Pöschke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The equine periodontal ligament (PDL is a fibrous connective tissue that covers the intra-alveolar parts of the tooth and anchors it to the alveolar bone—it, therefore, provides a similar function to a tendinous structure. While several studies have considered the formation and structure of tendons, there is insufficient information particularly on the molecular composition of the PDL. Especially for the equine PDL, there is limited knowledge concerning the expression of genes commonly regarded as typical for tendon tissue. In this study, the gene expression of, e.g., collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1, collagen type 3 alpha 1 (COL3, scleraxis (SCX, and fibrocartilage markers was examined in the functional mature equine PDL compared with immature and mature equine tendon tissue. PDL samples were obtained from incisor, premolar, and molar teeth from seven adult horses. Additionally, tendon samples were collected from four adult horses and five foals at different sampling locations. Analyses of gene expression were performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Significantly higher expression levels of COL1 and 3 were found in the mature equine PDL in comparison with mature tendon, indicating higher rates of collagen production and turnover in the mature equine PDL. The expression levels of SCX, a specific marker for tenogenic-differentiated cells, were on a similar level in functional mature PDL and in mature tendon tissue. Evidence of chondrogenic metaplasia, often found in tendon entheses or in pressurized regions of tendons, was not found in the mature equine PDL. The obtained results justify further experiments focused on the possible use of equine PDL cells for cell-based regenerative therapies.

  17. A review of equine renal imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.K.; Toal, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiography has a limited role in the evaluation of the kidneys in foals and adult horses. Ultrasonography is the current method of choice for structural evaluation of the kidneys in horses as it provides additional information to standard serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluation. A variety of structural abnormalities have been identified in diseased equine kidneys with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound guided renal biopsy is the preferred method for performing renal biopsy in the horse. The use of Duplex Doppler ultrasound may allow for the characterization of regional hemodynamics of the equine kidney, but is currently an untapped method for evaluation of equine renal hemodynamics. Radionuclide methods including scintigraphy and quantitative renal function measurement can be used to provide further information about equine renal function. Scintigraphy can provide structural and possibly functional information. Quantitative methods using radiopharmaceuticals can provide precise measurement of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal blood flow. This method is especially helpful in identifying acute renal failure and in guiding response to treatment. All equine renal imaging techniques should be a supplement to the physical examination and standard laboratory tests. Additional diagnostic aids such as urinary tract endoscopy should also be considered in horses with hematuria, hydroureter, and suspected calculi. Taken together, all these modalities provide a thorough evaluation of the equine renal system and provide a basis for the clinician to select treatment options and provide prognostic information to the owner

  18. Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting with Bowel Obstruction of the Duodenum and Small Bowels: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Guen Ho; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Chang, Yun Woo; Choi, Duek Lin; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The occurrence of primary duodenal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare, and more so is the obstruction of the duodenum for the MALT lymphoma. We describe the small bowel follow through and CT findings in an uncommon case of MALT lymphoma presenting with bowel obstruction of the 2nd portion of the duodenum and small bowels.

  19. Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting with Bowel Obstruction of the Duodenum and Small Bowels: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Guen Ho; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Chang, Yun Woo; Choi, Duek Lin; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kwon, Kui Hyang

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of primary duodenal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is extremely rare, and more so is the obstruction of the duodenum for the MALT lymphoma. We describe the small bowel follow through and CT findings in an uncommon case of MALT lymphoma presenting with bowel obstruction of the 2nd portion of the duodenum and small bowels

  20. Equine Vaccines: How, When and Why? Report of the Vaccinology Session, French Equine Veterinarians Association, 2016, Reims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Paillot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF at Reims (France in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus, rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4, and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin. (1 Emergency vaccination: while it has been very successful to reduce the impact of equine influenza epizooties and it is also recommended for tetanus in case of surgery and accident, the benefit of emergency vaccination against equine herpes virus 1/4 remains arguable; (2 Compatibility of equine vaccines from different brands: despite being a frequent concerns for equine veterinarians, little information is available about the compatibility of equine vaccines from different commercial origins. The consequence of mixing different equine vaccines targeting the same disease is believed to be limited but scientific evidences are sparse; and, (3 Laps vaccination and vaccine shortage: they could have serious consequences in terms of protection and their impact should be evaluated on a case by case basis, taking into account the risk of contact with the pathogen and the effect on herd immunity.

  1. Global transcriptional response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in mouse liver and duodenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element whose absorption is usually tightly regulated in the duodenum. HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is characterized by abnormally low expression of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, which results in increased iron absorption. The liver is crucial for iron homeostasis as it is the main production site of hepcidin. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the genome-wide transcriptome response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in murine liver and duodenum. Illumina arrays containing over 47,000 probes were used to study global transcriptional changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. In the liver, the expression of 151 genes was altered in Hfe(-/- mice while dietary iron overload changed the expression of 218 genes. There were 173 and 108 differentially expressed genes in the duodenum of Hfe(-/- mice and mice with dietary iron overload, respectively. There was 93.5% concordance between the results obtained by microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR. Overexpression of genes for acute phase reactants in the liver and a strong induction of digestive enzyme genes in the duodenum were characteristic of the Hfe-deficient genotype. In contrast, dietary iron overload caused a more pronounced change of gene expression responsive to oxidative stress. In conclusion, Hfe deficiency caused a previously unrecognized increase in gene expression of hepatic acute phase proteins and duodenal digestive enzymes.

  2. Pre- and postynaptic effects of muscarinic antagonists in the isolated guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbinger, H.; Weiler, W.; Wessler, I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied in the guinea-pig ileum whether the presynaptic muscarinic receptors of he cholinergic nerves differ from the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors of tthe longitudinal muscle in their affinities for several muscarinic antagonists. The method of measuring the release of tritium-ACh from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation in tthe guinea-pig ileum in the absence of a chlinesterase inhibitor is described in which two longitudinal muscle strips were incubated in a 2 ml organ bath with tritium-choline are subsequently superfused with Tyrode solution

  3. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L S; Kraus, Virginia B

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:823-831, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  5. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  6. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial ...

  7. Relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum (Asteraceae) on isolated rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigovic, Dubravka; Brankovic, Suzana; Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zivanovic, Slavoljub

    2010-05-10

    Helichrysum plicatum (Turkish Helichrysum) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the relaxant activity of an extract of H. plicatum flowers on isolated rat ileum. Segments of ileum of rats were suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative concentrations of H. plicatum ethanol extract induced a relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. H. plicatum extract caused a mean contractile response of 81.68 +/- 6.17% (at a dose of 0.01 mg/mL) and 30.08 +/- 9.07% (at a dose of 1 mg/mL). A similar effect was observed with papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). H. plicatum extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxed high K+ (80 mM) precontractions, an effect similar to that caused by papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). The plant extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) also induced a significant depression of the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine (5-1500 nM) (p Helichrysum plicatum flowers on the isolated rat intestine Extract of H. plicatum can inhibit the spontaneous ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, barium and potassium ions.

  8. Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left

  9. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  10. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  11. Benzimidazoles Pharmacodynamics in Equine Strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to assess the effectiveness of four benzimidazoles: albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole against equine strongyles. The tests were performed between March 2015 and May 2016, on samples collected from 20 horses and 8 donkeys living in Harghita County. In vivo, Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was used to evaluate fenbendazole pharmacodynamics. In vitro, Egg hatch assay (EHA and Larval development assay (LDA were used to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole. The predominance of small strongyle species was observed, mostly Cyathostomum type A. In the horse group, before treatment, the average intensity was 1595.5 EPG, the maximum value being 4000, and extensivity 55%. Tested again at 14 days after treatment, all samples were negative. In the donkey group, before treatment, the total number was 6550 EPG, intensity of 935.7 and extensivity of 87.5%. 14 days after treatment, the average intensity was 150 and the extensivity 50%. In the horse group, EHA proved the efficacy of fenbendazole (0.0192%, albendazole (0.3740% and thiabendazole (11.62% and a major risk of inducing adaptive phenomena for mebendazole (Y parameter 1009.92. In the donkey group, all benzimidazoles had limited effectiveness: thiabendazole (73.93%, mebendazole (87.51%, fenbendazole (94.05%, albendazole (111.67%. All benzimidazoles inhibited larval development. For all tested benzimidazoles, the resistance induction predictive comparative risk analysis highlighted the benefit of their use, provided that the treatment protocol allows sufficient contact time.

  12. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  13. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, pacetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium.

  14. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  15. Perforated Duodenum – An Unusual Etiology of Fournier's Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chin Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's disease, a form of necrotizing fasciitis, is a rapidly progressing subcutaneous infection of the male genitalia. We report a case of Fournier's disease with the unusual etiology of a perforated duodenum. This patient suffered from progressive right scrotal swelling after percutaneous transhepatic cholangeal drainage. Scrotal exploration revealed a large abscess with muscle necrosis that had spread up to the right retroperitoneal space. Radiologic studies and second abdominal exploration documented the origin as a perforated duodenum. The pus distribution in this case suggested that the infection process differed from that in previous reports. In future cases of Fournier's disease involving previous abdominal events, we recommend that abdominal origins be carefully surveyed before scrotal exploration.

  16. Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy for an obstructive adenocarcinoma of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D; Croome, Kp; Hernandez-Alejandro, R

    2012-08-01

    A duodenal adenocarcinoma arising from the junction of the second and third portion of the duodenum, which was resected by pancreas-sparing duodenectomy, is reported. The completely obstructing tumour was circumferential and measured 6.5cm x 3.5cm x 1.0 cm. There was no evidence of pancreas invasion, nor any lymph node metastasis. Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy was performed, with dissection of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes. The proximal duodenum was transected just distal to the ampula of Vater and jejunum was transected just distal to the ligament of Treitz. A hand-sewn side-to-side anastomosis for the duodenojejunostomy was performed. There were no postoperative complications. Pathology reported a duodenal adenocarcinoma resected with negative margins. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the treatment of choice for a duodenal adenocarcinoma, however, pancreas-sparing duodenectomy may be a safe alternative for duodenal tumours not involving the 2(nd) portion, especially in elderly patients with multiple medical comorbidities. © JSCR.

  17. Stomach and duodenum ulcer: comparing the efficiency of three laser therapeutic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslovich, L. V.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of how effective various therapeutic techniques are in treating stomach and duodenum ulcers. The investigation was made on 105 patients (70 patients were affected by duodenum ulcer and 25 patients suffered from stomach ulcer). Three different complex laser therapeutic techniques were compared with each other and with a generally accepted drug treatment. It was found that the most pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in patients administered a complex laser technique that included drug therapy, the intravenous laser irradiation of blood, and the focal-segmental laser therapy. This complex laser therapy enabled ulcer scarring within 8 to 15 days after the beginning of the treatment (with the average scarring term of 9 days).

  18. Experiment on metoclopramide (reglan) application in the radiodiagnosis of diseases of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Petrushkin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested to use metoclopramide (reglan) which is introduced in a dose of 10 ml 10 min before the study intramuscularly at radio X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum. Peroral application of the drug is not effective. The authors' experience is based on the drug application in 19 healthy persons and 89 patients with the diseases of stomach and duodenum. In patients with gastric ulcer reglan helped in the detection of the niche symptom. The use of the drug facilitated visualization of the pylorus in the case of its organic stenosis. In patients with ulcer of the duodenal bulb after introduction of reglan a better contrasting of the intestine was observed which promoted to the niche detection. An antiemetic property of reglan which can be used in patients, who do not tolerate barium suspension is also pointed out

  19. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  20. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  1. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  2. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses.

  3. The Equine Business: The Spectacular Growth of a new Equine segment market in France

    OpenAIRE

    Grefe , Gwenaëlle; Pickel-Chevalier , Sylvine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A social revolution in riding has created incredible growth in the equine-product market. This new equine economy is, in fact, characterized by the range of activities available (32 riding styles are listed by the FFE 1), by riders' needs (equipment for both riders and their horses including fences, water troughs, horse-boxes etc.), by product ranges (from entry-level to luxury goods), but also by fashion which, thanks to the profile of today's horse-riders (predominan...

  4. Adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a man with CREST syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragulidis Georgios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREST (Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangiectasias syndrome has been rarely associated with other malignancies (lung, esophagus.This is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. Case presentation A 54-year-old male patient with CREST syndrome presented with colicky postprandial pain of the upper abdomen, diminished food uptake and a 6-Kg-body weight loss during the previous 2 months. An ulcerative lesion in the third portion of the duodenum was revealed during duodenoscopy, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on biopsy specimen histology. The patient underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy. No adjuvant therapy was instituted and follow-up is negative for local recurrence or metastases 21 months postoperatively. Conclusion CREST syndrome has been associated with colon cancer, gastric polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP syndrome and Crohn's disease; however, this is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. However, any etiologic relationship remains to be further investigated.

  5. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus it is necessary to maintain blood flow in the posterior pancreatoduodenal artery and to preserve the mesoduodenal vessels. Postoperative pancreatic functional tests reveal that DPTPHR is superior to PPPD, including PHSRD, because the entire duodenum and duodenal integrity is very important for postoperative pancreatic function.

  6. Benign submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum: Imaging characteristics with endoscopic and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Cho, Jin Han; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Choi, Sun Seob; Kwon, Hee Jin; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Su Jin

    2008-01-01

    Benign submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum are occasionally encountered during endoscopy. But endoscopy has its limitations in the diagnosis and differentiation of these lesions, because submucosal lesions are often difficult to visualize at endoscopy due to minimal change of the overlying mucosa. Furthermore, endoscopic biopsy may not always yield adequate tissue for diagnosis due to the submucosal location of the lesions. For this reason, the role of radiologic imaging is important in the diagnosis of submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum. Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) and sonographic technology are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis of gastroduodenal submucosal lesions. In contrast to endoscopy and barium studies, CT or ultrasonography (US) provides information about both the gastric wall and the extragastric extent of the disease. Arterial phase contrast enhanced CT enables us to discriminate a mass of submucosal from that of a mucosal origin in the differential diagnosis of gastric or duodenal lesions. Although endoscopic sonography has been considered the better modality in the diagnosis of gastroduodenal submucosal lesions, transabdominal sonography can still be an alternative method to endoscopic sonography in assessing of the origin and character of the submucosal lesions. Some gastroduodenal submucosal lesions have similar radiologic findings that make differentiation difficult. But despite overlaps in radiologic findings, some lesions have characteristic radiologic features that may suggest a specific diagnosis. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of benign submucosal lesions in the stomach and duodenum may promote correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment

  7. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  8. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  9. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  10. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  11. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  12. Differential effects of R-isovaline and the GABAB agonist, baclofen, in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Timothy; Asseri, Khalid A; Asiri, Yahya I; Wall, Richard A; Schwarz, Stephan K W; Puil, Ernest; MacLeod, Bernard A

    2016-11-15

    R-isovaline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which produces analgesia in a range of nociceptive assays. Mediation of this effect by metabotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, demonstrated by previous work, may depend on the type of tissue or receptor system. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of R-isovaline acting at GABA B and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in guinea pig ileum, which is known to exhibit well-defined responses to GABA B agonists such as baclofen. The effects of bath-applied R-isovaline and RS-baclofen were examined on electrically evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum and during GABA B antagonism by CGP52432. In separate experiments, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740 was applied to determine the functional presence of these receptors. R-isovaline (1-100mM) decreased the amplitude of ileal muscle contractions and increased tension. RS-baclofen reduced contraction amplitude, but decreased tension. CGP52432 did not prevent the effects of R-isovaline on contraction amplitude, but antagonized effects of RS-baclofen on contraction amplitude. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740, produced no detectable effects on evoked contractions. R-isovaline differed significantly from RS-baclofen in its actions in the guinea pig ileum, indicated in particular by the finding that CGP52432 blocked only the effects of RS-baclofen. The ileal tissue did not respond to a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, previously shown to co-mediate R-isovaline analgesia. These findings raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic target at unknown receptors for R-isovaline-like compounds in the guinea pig ileum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria on ileum broiler chicken fed by bran and bran fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniyah, Laelatul; Nur Jannah, Siti; Rukmi, Isworo; Sugiharto

    2018-05-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is a digestive tract microflora that have a positive role in poultry health. The number and diversity of LAB in the digestive tract affected by several factors, among them was the kind of feed. The purpose of this research was to know diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) ileum broiler’s after feeding with prebiotic bran and Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran which was added to commercial feed. As much as 15 broilers were used to determine the diversity of LAB. All broilers were fed using commercial feed. The control used commercial feed no addition of bran or fermented bran, and commercial feed with fermented bran and nonfermented bran were as a treatment. To determine the diversity of LAB, T-RFLP method was applied. The Hae III and Msp I were used as restriction enzymes. The number of phylotype, relative abundance, Shannon diversity index (H '), evenness (E), and Dominance (D) were examined. The results indicated that the addition of prebiotic bran on commercial feed showed a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria on broiler’s ileum, compared with control and addition of Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran. LAB group that dominates in the ileum is Lactobacillus sp. and L. delbruecii subs bulgaricus.

  14. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs

    2012-12-27

    There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  15. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  17. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such...

  19. Management of Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma with Invasion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Schlussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is rare but aggressive, with greater than 20% of patients presenting with stage III or IV, disease. Surgical resection of the primary tumor regardless of stage is the treatment of choice, and en bloc resection of involved organs provides the only potential chance for cure. This case report describes a patient with metastatic right-sided RCC with invasion of the inferior vena cava and duodenum managed by en block resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy. This report will review the workup and treatment of locally advanced RCC, as well as the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the setting of metastatic disease.

  20. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  1. [Traumatic rupture of the pancreas and duodenum in pre-existing penetrating duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, W; Krüger, I; Mönig, S P; Hölscher, A H

    2000-01-01

    Pancreatic injuries are rare complications after blunt abdominal trauma and usually the result of a direct force separating the pancreatic body in front of the vertebral column. This case report describes the uncommon event of a severe pancreatic and duodenal injury (stage IV b of Lukas) in which the combination of a direct force and the setting of a preexisting penetrating ulcer of the duodenum caused the extent of the pancreatic and duodenal injury [9]. Because of the preexisting lesion a Whipple procedure had to be performed. This case report demonstrates the influence of chronic abdominal diseases on the outcome of blunt abdominal trauma.

  2. X-ray diagnostic features of giant bleeding ulcers in the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbatenko, M.K.; elina, I.E.

    1997-01-01

    The study was based on the analysis of clinical, X-ray, and morphological examinations made in 64 patients with giant gastric and duodenal ulcers. The methods of X-ray examinations and the X-ray symptomatology of giant ulcers of the stomach and duodenum is given. Gastroscopic and X-ray examinations were comparative analyzed. The paper gives evidence that the X-ray examination has many advantages in estimating the size and ratio of ulcers to the adjacent organs and tissues. The paper outlines giant duodenal ulcers. 9 refs., 5 figs

  3. X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in patients with ulcer disease after vagotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskij, M.P.; Vdovichenko, V.I.; Matlam, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    A roentgenological and endoscopical study is presented of the stomach and duodenum in 66 patients during remission and in 22 patients during exacerbation of ulcer disease from 6 months up to 5 years after organsaving operations using vagotomy. In the majority of patients the stomach was characterized by a large gas bubble, cascade-like torsion, deformation of the antral portion and duodenal bulb. In some patients thickenings of the gastric antral mucosa were noted. An endoscopically confirmed ulcer was revealed roentgenologically only in 50% of patients

  4. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  5. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  6. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  7. Effect of chronic aspirin ingestion on epithelial proliferation in rat fundus, antrum, and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, G.L.; Quimby, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic aspirin ingestion on gastroduodenal epithelial proliferation by feeding rats aspirin in the drinking water. A control group of rats received plain water. At the end of 4 wk, [3H]-thymidine was given intravenously to label proliferating cells, and the rats were killed 1 h later. Sections of fundus, antrum, and proximal duodenum were processed for light autoradiography. We found that chronic aspirin ingestion stimulated epithelial proliferation in fundic mucosa but had no effect in the antrum. In the duodenum, aspirin increased proliferation in the lowest four crypt-cell positions, which most likely indicates an increase in stem-cell production. None of the tissues contained evidence of inflammation or ulceration. The proliferative effects of aspirin may help explain the previously observed phenomenon of mucosal adaptation in the rat after repeated exposure to aspirin. Further, if human gastroduodenal epithelium responds in a similar manner to chronic aspirin exposure, the effects on proliferation may explain in part the distribution of aspirin-associated ulcers

  8. [Effect of prokinetic agents on the electrical activity of stomach and duodenum in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fujun; Zou, Yiyou; Huang, Tianhui

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of prokinetic agents such as domperidone, mosapride, clarithromycin, and itopride on the electrical activity of the stomach and duodenum in SD rats,and also to explore the mechanism. The organism functional experiment system BL-420E was used to record the myoelectrical activity in the stomach and duodenum of SD rats in all groups using domperidone, mosapride, itopride, clarithromycin, and physiological saline on the interdigestive phase. The effect of the prokinetic agents on the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal electromyogram in the SD rats was compared. The antagonists such as atropine, phentolamine, and propranolol were added to investigate the mechanism of action with all prokinetic agents. All prokinetic agents increased the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats(Pitopride was the most obvious among the 3 groups (Pitopride, and physiological saline were inhibited by atropine(PItopride, mosapride, domperidone, and clarithromycin can increase the amplitude and frequency of gastric and duodenal fast waves in the SD rats. The mechanism may be related to cholinergic receptors, but not adrenergic receptors.

  9. Strain- and sex-dependent circadian changes in abcc2 transporter expression: implications for irinotecan chronotolerance in mouse ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Okyar

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette transporter abcc2 is involved in the cellular efflux of irinotecan. The drug is toxic for mouse ileum, where abcc2 is highly expressed. Here, we investigate whether circadian changes in local abcc2 expression participate in the circadian rhythm of irinotecan toxicity for ileum mucosa, and further assess whether genetic background or sex modify this relation.Ileum mucosa was obtained every 3-4 h for 24 h in male and female B6D2F(1 and B6CBAF(1 mice synchronized with light from Zeitgeber Time (ZT0 to ZT12 alternating with 12 h of darkness. Irinotecan (50 mg/kg i.v. daily for 4 days was administered at the sex- and strain-specific times corresponding to least (ZT11-15 or largest drug-induced body weight loss (ZT23-03-07. Abcc2 expression was determined with qRT-PCR for mRNA and with immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy for protein. Histopathologic lesions were graded in ileum tissues obtained 2, 4 or 6 days after treatment. Two- to six-fold circadian changes were demonstrated for mRNA and protein mean expressions of abcc2 in mouse ileum (p<0.05. ZT12 corresponded to high mRNA and protein expressions, with circadian waveforms differing according to genetic background and sex. The proportion of mice spared from ileum lesions varied three-fold according to irinotecan timing, with best tolerability at ZT11-15 (p = 0.00003. Irinotecan was also best tolerated in males (p = 0.05 and in B6CBAF(1 (p = 0.0006.Strain- and sex-dependent circadian patterns in abcc2 expressions displayed robust relations with the chronotolerance of ileum mucosa for irinotecan. This finding has strong potential implications for improving the intestinal tolerability of anticancer drugs through circadian delivery.

  10. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Vijver Rozemarijn J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. Results In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028. Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Conclusions Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  11. Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning in Occupational Therapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lynne; Wilson, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Equine-assisted occupational therapy (EAOT) employs horse and human cooperation in activities that facilitate social, emotional, and cognitive development. The potential benefits of equine-assisted activities for students may influence the development of these types of skills in professional occupational therapy practice. This study explored the…

  12. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  13. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine infectious diseases continue to be one of the most important threats to the overall health of domesticated horses and proper vaccination is one the most important preventive measure against such infectious diseases. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among horse ...

  15. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  16. Autism and Equine-Assisted Interventions: A Systematic Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel Peters, B. Caitlin; Wood, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies,…

  17. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  18. Effect of ionising radiation exposure on structure and permeability of epithelial junctions in rat ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrum, F.; Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Strup, C.; Griffiths, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of the digestive tract to ionising radiation results in both morphological and functional alterations of the small intestine. However little is known about the effect of irradiation on the junctions playing a major role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate, in rat ileum, the effect of radiation exposure on the permeability of the epithelial barrier in parallel with the localization of certain inter- and intra-cellular proteins of tight and adherent junctions

  19. Congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum: case report with molecular confirmation and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rizkalla, Hala

    2012-02-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare, soft tissue malignancy of infancy, most commonly involving the distal extremities. We report a case of congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a 5-day-old boy who presented with an acute abdomen due to ileal perforation. Partial ileal resection was carried out with successful anastomosis. Grossly, the resected small bowel showed focal luminal stenosis with a thickened, indurated wall. Histology showed a transmural primitive spindle cell proliferation with a morphology consistent with congenital fibrosarcoma. The associated hallmark chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(q13;q25) was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

  20. INFLUENCE OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE MECHANICAL RESPONSES OF GUINEA-PIG ILEUM TO ACETYLCHOLINE AND HISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of antibiotics have been extensively described during the last decades, however, their role on digestive motility must be better investigated. Following a line of research, the influence of penicillin, chloranfenicol tetracycline and gentamicine on longitudinal smooth muscle responses to acetylcholine and histamine were studied on guinea-pig ileum. There were no differences between the responses before and after the addition of each antibiotic. Further investigations must be performed in order to find a possible influence of antibiotics on digestive motility.

  1. Togetherness of the Multiple Diverticulosis of the First Part of the Duodenum with Neurofibromatosis Type I: A Case Report

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    Ozgur Turk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Duedonal diverticulosis is common in clinical practice. Most of duedonal diverticulosis is located at the second part of duodenum; incidence is reported as 67%, incidence of third and forth part is %20. Multiple diverticulosis of the first part of the duodenum is a rare case. There is not any knowledge togetherness of neurofibromatosis type 1 and duedonal diverticulosis. Here we reported incidentally diagnosed multiple diverticulosis of duodenum that is located in the first part in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient with multiple neurofibromatosis nodules. Neurofibromatosis could affect various organs. Along the digestive system carcinoid tumors and neuroendocrine tumors are more encountered diseases. Endoscopic examinations and abdominal imaging may be useful for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal coexisting disease in neurofibromatosis type 1 . In conclusion neurofibromatosis type 1 could affect multiple systems and it should evaluate carefully.

  2. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml

  3. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    . The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5o......Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low...

  4. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL CELERY LEAVES (APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. EXTRACTS ON THE CONTRACTION OF ISOLATED RAT ILEUM

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    Suzana Branković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, which has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts from celery leaves on intestinal contractility. Air-dried and powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and 96% ethanol, respectively. The activities of the extracts on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated rat ileum model. The isolated rat ileum was mounted in a 10ml tissue bath. The results suggest that the cumulative concentrations of the extracts of celery statistically significantly inhibited spontaneous rat ileum contractions (p<0.01. The extracts dose-dependently reduced the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the isolated ileum (p<0.05. Ethanol extract exhibited significantly greater relaxant activity than the aqueous extract (p<0.05. These results suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery leaves can produce the inhibition of the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine. These data indicate that celery extracts act as intestinal smooth muscle relaxants, which justifies their use in gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Restriction of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus by Equine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Marino, Daniela; Conrad, Elea; Perković, Mario; Battenberg, Marion; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian APOBEC3 (A3) proteins comprise a multigene family of cytidine deaminases that act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The A3 locus on the chromosome 28 of the horse genome contains multiple A3 genes: two copies of A3Z1, five copies of A3Z2, and a single copy of A3Z3, indicating a complex evolution of multiple gene duplications. We have cloned and analyzed for expression the different equine A3 genes and examined as well the subcellular distribution of the corresponding proteins. Additionally, we have tested the functional antiretroviral activity of the equine and of several of the human and nonprimate A3 proteins against the Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and the Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2). Hematopoietic cells of horses express at least five different A3s: A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2c-Z2d, A3Z2e, and A3Z3, whereas circulating macrophages, the natural target of EIAV, express only part of the A3 repertoire. The five A3Z2 tandem copies arose after three consecutive, recent duplication events in the horse lineage, after the split between Equidae and Carnivora. The duplicated genes show different antiviral activities against different viruses: equine A3Z3 and A3Z2c-Z2d are potent inhibitors of EIAV while equine A3Z1b, A3Z2a-Z2b, A3Z2e showed only weak anti-EIAV activity. Equine A3Z1b and A3Z3 restricted AAV and all equine A3s, except A3Z1b, inhibited SIV. We hypothesize that the horse A3 genes are undergoing a process of subfunctionalization in their respective viral specificities, which might provide the evolutionary advantage for keeping five copies of the original gene. PMID:19458006

  6. Increased Intraepithelial Vα24 Invariant NKT Cells in the Celiac Duodenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Bernardo, David; Martínez-Abad, Beatriz; Allegretti, Yessica; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Calvo, Carmen; Chirdo, Fernando G.; Garrote, José A.; Arranz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Celiac Disease (CD) is an interferon (IFN)γ-mediated duodenal hypersensitivity to wheat gluten occurring in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten-free diet (GFD) leads to a complete remission of the disease. Vα24-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are important to maintain immune homeostasis in the gut mucosa because of their unique capacity to rapidly produce large quantities of both T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation. We studied the presence of these cells in the CD duodenum. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from 45 untreated-CD patients (uCD), 15 Gluten Free Diet-CD patients (GFD-CD), 44 non-inflamed non-CD controls (C-controls) and 15 inflamed non-CD controls (I-controls). Two populations from Spain and Argentina were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Vα24-Jα18 (invariant TCRα chain of human iNKT cells), IFNγ and intracellular transcription factor Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3), and flow cytometry intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) profile were determined. Both uCD and GFD-CD patients had higher Vα24-Jα18 mRNA levels than non-CD controls (I and C-controls). The expression of Vα24-Jα18 correlated with Marsh score for the severity of mucosal lesion and also with increased mRNA IFNγ levels. uCD and GFD-CD patients had decreased mRNA expression of FoxP3 but increased expression of Vα24-Jα18, which revealed a CD-like molecular profile. Increased numbers of iNKT cells were confirmed by flow cytometry within the intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment of uCD and GFD-CD patients and correlated with Vα24-Jα18 mRNA expression. In conclusion, we have found an increased number of iNKT cells in the duodenum from both uCD and GFD-CD patients, irrespective of the mucosal status. A CD-like molecular profile, defined by an increased mRNA expression of Vα24-Jα18 together with a decreased expression of FoxP3, may represent a pro-inflammatory signature of the CD duodenum. PMID:26529008

  7. Functional and structural alterations of epithelial barrier properties of rat ileum following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Lebrun, F.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of the digestive system leads to alterations of the small intestine. We have characterized the disruption of the barrier integrity in rat ileum from 1 to 14 days following irradiation ranging from 6 to 12 Gy. The intestinal permeability to 14 C-mannitol and 3 H-dextran 70,000 was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. In parallel to these functional studies, immunohistochemical analyses of junctional proteins (ZO-1 and β-catenin) of ileal epithelium were performed by confocal microscopy. Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a marked decrease in epithelial tissue resistance at three days and a fivefold increase in mannitol permeability, without modifications of dextran permeability. A disorganization of the localization for ZO-1 and β-catenin was also observed. At 7 days after irradiation, we observed a recovery of the organization of junctional proteins in parallel to a return of intestinal permeability to control value. In addition to these time-dependent effects, a gradual effect on epithelial integrity of the radiation doses was observed 3 days after irradiation. This study shows a disruption of the integrity of the intestinal barrier in rat ileum following abdominal X-irradiation, depending on the time postirradiation and on the delivered dose. The loss of barrier integrity was characterized by a disorganization of proteins of tight and adherent junctions, leading to increased intestinal permeability to mannitol. (author)

  8. Influence of distal ileum exclusion on hepatic and renal functions in presence of extrahepatic cholestasis

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    Evandro Luis de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the ileal exclusion interferes with liver and kidney functional changes secondary to extrahepatic cholestasis.METHODS: We studied 24 rats, divided into three groups with eight individuals each: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (ligation of the hepatic duct combined with internal biliary drainage, and Group 3 (bile duct ligation combined with internal biliary drainage and exclusion of the terminal ileum. Animals in Group 1 (control underwent sham laparotomy. The animals of groups 2 and 3 underwent ligation and section of the hepatic duct and were kept in cholestasis for four weeks. Next, they underwent an internal biliary bypass. In Group 3, besides the biliary-enteric bypass, we associated the exclusion of the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum and carried out an ileocolic anastomosis. After four weeks of monitoring, blood was collected from all animals of the three groups for liver and kidney biochemical evaluation (albumin, ALT, AST, direct and indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cGT, creatinine and urea.RESULTS: there were increased values of ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, cGT, creatinine and urea in rats from Group 3 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: ileal exclusion worsened liver and kidney functions in the murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis, being disadvantageous as therapeutic procedure for cholestatic disorders.

  9. Meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation without peritoneal calcification: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Esther; Rodríguez, David; Vela, Antonio; Cabré, Sergi; Lailla, Josep Maria

    2010-08-31

    A case of giant meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation is presented. Conventional radiographic features of meconium peritonitis with secondary meconium pseudocyst formation are well described. Our case is unusual in comparison to other cases reported in the literature and needs to be reported because the meconium pseudocyst presented without the typical ultrasound features (calcifications, polyhydramnios and ascites) and was initially identified as an abdominal mass. We describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman in her third trimester of pregnancy, in which an abdominal mass was detected in the fetus. The newborn was diagnosed in the early neonatal period with meconium pseudocyst secondary to ileum volvulus perforation. The prenatal appearance of a meconium pseudocyst can be complemented by other signs of bowel obstruction (if present) such as polyhydramnios and fetal bowel dilatation. This is an original case report of interest to all clinicians in the perinatology and fetal ultrasound field. We consider that the utility of this case is the recognition that a meconium pseudocyst might appear without the typical ultrasound features and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when an echogenic intra-abdominal cyst is seen.

  10. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  11. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Fusobacterium massiliense sp. nov. isolated from human duodenum

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    M. Mailhe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain Marseille-P2749T (= CSUR P2749=DSM 103085 was isolated as part of culturomics study from a liquid duodenum sample from a French man. Bacterial cells were Gram-negative bacilli, fusiform shaped and non–spore forming, and they grew in microaerophilic and anaerobic atmosphere. Its genome is 1 809 169 bp long and contains 1646 protein-coding genes. The DNA G+C content was 27.33 mol%. This strain exhibited a 95.9% sequence similarity with Fusobacterium periodonticum, the phylogenetically closest species with standing in nomenclature. Strain Marseille-P2749T is suggested to be a novel species belonging to the genus Fusobacterium, for which the name Fusobacterium massiliense sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Pancreaticoduodenectomy versus duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenjiang; Xiang, Guangming; Tan, Chunlu; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Baowang; Gong, Jun; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xubao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The 123 patients with CP who underwent pancreatic head resection between January 2004 and June 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. The preoperative variables, operative data, postoperative complications, and follow-up information were examined. There were no significant differences in clinical and morphological characteristics, pain relief, and jaundice status between the PD and DPPHR groups. The duration of operation was shorter (251.8 [SD, 43.1] vs 324.5 [SD, 41.4] minutes, P endocrine insufficiency was higher in PD group as compared with DPPHR group. Both procedures are equally effective in pain relief, but DPPHR is superior to PD in operative data, postoperative morbidity, improving quality of life, and preservation of exocrine and endocrine function.

  13. Methanol as a cryoprotectant for equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L D; Denniston, D J; Maclellan, L J; McCue, P M; Seidel, G E; Squires, E L

    2004-09-15

    Equine embryos (n=43) were recovered nonsurgically 7-8 days after ovulation and randomly assigned to be cryopreserved in one of two cryoprotectants: 48% (15M) methanol (n=22) or 10% (136 M) glycerol (n=21). Embryos (300-1000 microm) were measured at five intervals after exposure to glycerol (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min) or methanol (0, 15, 35, 75 and 10 min) to determine changes (%) in diameter over time (+/-S.D.). Embryos were loaded into 0.25-ml plastic straws, sealed, placed in a programmable cell freezer and cooled from room temperature (22 degrees C) to -6 degrees C. Straws were then seeded, held at -6 degrees C for 10 min and then cooled to -33 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Two or three embryos within a treatment group were thawed and assigned to be either cultured for 12 h prior to transfer or immediately nonsurgically transferred to a single mare. Embryo diameter decreased in all embryos upon initial exposure to cryoprotectant. Embryos in methanol shrank and recovered slightly to 76+/-8 % of their original diameter; however, embryos in glycerol continued to shrink, reaching 57+/-6 % of their original diameter prior to cryopreservation. Survival rates of embryos through Day 16 of pregnancy were 38 and 23%, respectively (P>0.05) for embryos cryopreserved in the presence of glycerol or methanol. There was no difference in pregnancy rates of mares receiving embryos that were cultured prior to transfer or not cultured (P>0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated that 48% methanol was not toxic to fresh equine embryos but methanol provided no advantage over glycerol as a cryoprotectant for equine blastocysts.

  14. Microbial quality of equine frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Cherchi, R

    2009-10-01

    Bacteriological surveillance is little applied in management of equine frozen semen but it is quite important to verify the microbial contamination in order to find out the chance of transmission of pathology to the mare in AI. Authors describe a qualitative and quantitative analysis for bacterial contamination on long time (3-17 years) equine frozen semen stored in liquid nitrogen. The semen checked, produced in Italy and in another Europe country, was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen inside sealed plastic straws. One hundred and ten straws were checked out for pathogenic and no pathogenic bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes and fungi (moulds and yeasts). The Total Microbial Charge was quite variable with an average of about 1.4 x 10(5)CFU/ml. Mostly the microbial agents identified were fungi (17.5%), Enterobacter-coccus spp. (15%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.25%), Stenothophomonas maltophila (6.25%) and anaerobic bacteria like Propionibacterium granulosum (7.5%) and Clostridium spp. (3.75%). 3.75% were unidentified Gram-negative rod and cocci. Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, E. coli, Th. equigenitalis and Mycoplasma spp. were not detected. The most represented species were Enterobacter-coccus spp. (1.1 x 10(5)CFU/ml), St. maltophila (8 x 10(4)CFU/ml) and Pr. granulosum (7 x 10(4)CFU/ml) while yeast and even more moulds were little abundant (4.7 x 10(4) and 3.4 x 10(4)CFU/ml respectively). The knowledge of equine frozen semen microbial quality is essential to check out transmission of venereal disease and improve the quality of cryopreserved germplasm.

  15. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of neuroendocrine tumor in stomach and duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yao WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with neuroendocrine tumor in stomach and duodenum for early diagnosis. Methods  The clinical, endoscopic and pathological data of 20 patients admitted to the PLA General Hospital from Jan. 2012 to Jan. 2015 and diagnosed as gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumor were collected for retrospective analysis. The histopathological classification of the disease was made according to the WHO 2010 Classification of the Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Result  Ten male and 10 female patients aged between 35 and 77 (mean 55.5±10.6 years old were recruited in the present study. Tumor located in the stomach in 13 cases, and in duodenum in 7 cases. The maximum diameter of the tumor was 0.2-2.5cm. Endoscopic features included polypoid protrusion, hemispheric submucosal protrusion, and mucosal erosion. All the patients were treated endoscopically, among them, four patients were treated with electrocoagulation and electrosection, 10 by endoscopic resection (EMR, and 6 by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. In one patient, surgical excision was done after ESD. Biopsy under gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography were conducive to the diagnosis and treatment. According to the histopathological classification, 19 cases were classified as NET grade 1, and another one as NET grade 2. The follow-up study showed no metastasis and recurrence. Conclusions  The early diagnosis and treatment for gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumor can lead to satisfactory results. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.03.12

  16. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions.

  17. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    Red cell mass and blood volume of 16 thoroughbred horse, 11 healthy and 5 with naturally acquired equine infectious anemia, were determined by means of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes. The mean values obtained in healthy thoroughbred horses were as follows: red cell mass 40,64 and blood volume 102,32 ml/kg body weight. The mean red cell mass and blood volume in anemic horses were respectively 21,13 and 107,71 ml/Kg body weight. The difference in red cell mass value between the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  18. Radioisotopic studies on equine infectious anemia, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.

    1973-01-01

    The half-life of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes of 16 thoroughbred horses, 11 healthy and 5 naturally injected by equine infections anemia, was determined in Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL. The half-life of 51 Cr-tagged erythrocytes of healthy horses was 15,5 (S.D. +- -+ 2,08) days, and of anemic horses 8,98 (S.D. +- -+ 1,20) days. The difference between the mean values of the two groups was statistically significant (P [pt

  19. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Innate immune responses of equine monocytes cultured in equine platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Norton, Natalie A; Copland, Ian B; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-01-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. In a first experiment, equine monocytes were isolated and incubated with donor horse serum (DHS), FBS, six individual donors ePL or pooled ePL from all horses. In a second experiment, monocytes were stimulated with E. coli LPS in the presence of 1, 5 or 10% DHS and/or pooled ePL. After 6h of incubation, cell culture supernatants were assayed via ELISA for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) as well as for the anti-inflammatory Interleukin 10 (IL-10). Equine monocytes incubated with pooled ePL produced significantly less TNF-α and significantly more IL-10 than monocytes incubated in FBS. A statistically significant difference was not identified for the production of IL-1β. The second experiment showed that pooled ePL added to LPS-stimulated equine monocytes resulted in a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β production. IL-10 production was not significantly upregulated by the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes. Finally, the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes in the presence of various concentrations of DHS resulted to statistically significant decrease of TNF-α and IL-1β compared to the control groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that ePL suppresses

  1. The equine practitioner-farrier relationship: building a partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William; O'Grady, Stephen E; Werner, Harry W

    2012-04-01

    The importance of hoof care in maintaining the health and soundness of a horse cannot be overstated. The aphorism, “No foot, no horse” still holds true. For equine ambulatory practitioners, the time devoted to a thorough understanding of the equine digit and it’s care is well worth the investment. The effort devoted to developing good relationships with individuals who will likely be responsible for implementing the changes suggested as a result of that understanding will be rewarded many times over in the course of the equine ambulatory practitioner’s career.

  2. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  3. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of guinea pig ileum induced contractility by plasma albumin of hibernators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David S.; Ambler, Douglas L.; Henschel, Timothy M.; Oeltgen, Peter R.; Nilekani, Sita P.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that hibernation may be regulated by internal opioids and that the putative “hibernation induction trigger” (HIT) may itself be an opioid. This study examined the effect of plasma albumin (known to bind HIT) on induced contractility of the guinea pig ileum muscle strip. Morphine (400 nM) depressed contractility and 100 nM naloxone restored it. Ten milligrams of lyophilized plasma albumin fractions from hibernating ground squirrels, woodchucks, black bears, and polar bears produced similar inhibition, with partial reversal by naloxone. Five hundredths mg of d-Ala2-d-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) also inhibited contractility and naloxone reversed it. Conclusions are that hibernating individuals of these species contain an HIT substance that is opioid in nature and summer animals do not; an endogenous opioid similar to leu-enkephalin may be the HIT compound or give rise to it.

  5. Effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin on the smooth muscle preparation of guinea-pig ileum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Y.; Spiegelstein, M.Y.

    1974-01-01

    1 The effects of Gymnodinium breve neurotoxin (GT) on smooth muscles were studied using the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2 The toxin caused strong spasmogenic effects at 1-4 μg/ml, characterized by prolonged tonic contraction with superimposed pronounced pendular movements. Tachyphylaxis was observed upon administration of successive doses. 3 Atropine blocked the contractile response elicited by GT, whereas mepyramine and hexamethonium failed to do so. These findings tentatively suggested a cholinergic involvement at a post-ganglionic site of action. 4 In the presence of tetrodotoxin the effects of GT were abolished, excluding direct action of the toxin on the smooth muscle. 5 It is concluded that GT exerts its spasmogenic effects through stimulation of the post-ganglionic cholinergic nerve fibres. PMID:4155337

  6. Characterization of the infection of equine fibroblasts by equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevjer-Anderson, P.; Cheevers, W.P.; Crawford, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    Equine dermal fibroblasts persistently infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) show no alterations in cell morphology or growth kinetics when compared to uninfected cells. The percentage of cells immunofluorescent positive for viral proteins fluctuated, depending upon the stage of the cell cycle, while production of extracellular virus was uniform throughout the cell cycle, increasing only as the cell number increased. This was shown in log versus stationary phase cultures as well as in cultures synchronized by serum starvation. The establishment of productive infection did not require host cell DNA synthesis. Normal levels of progeny virus were produced in cultures pretreated with mitomycin C and placed in serum-containing medium. Serum-starved cultures, however, did not support EIAV replication as well as other cultures, presumably because synthesis of provirus was inhibited. (author)

  7. Contractile effects and binding properties of endothelins/sarafotoxins in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollberg, Z; Bdolah, A; Galron, R; Sokolovsky, M; Kochva, E

    1991-05-30

    Seven of the eight known isopeptides of the endothelin/sarafotoxin (ET/SRTX) family were tested on the isolated guinea pig ileum and found to cause a concentration-dependent increase in basal tone. The rate or the amplitude of the spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle were essentially not affected by any of the peptides. The maximum contraction elicited by vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC) was slightly stronger than that induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) or sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b), and significantly stronger than the maximal contractions elicited by sarafotoxin-a (SRTX-a), sarafotoxin-c (SRTX-c), or endothelin-3 (ET-3). Sarafotoxin-d (SRTX-d) caused, essentially, no contraction but a rather marked relaxation. The potencies of the various peptides to induce the increase in tension, in terms of EC50 values (cumulative effective concentrations that induce half-maximum response), ranged between 6 and 95 nM depending on the peptide. VIC, ET-1, SRTX-b and SRTX-a had similar potencies and were significantly more potent than SRTX-c and ET-3. A high concentration of SRTX-b elicited no additional response when applied to the organ bath after one of the other peptides had shown a maximal effect. Binding experiments with ileal membranes revealed similar binding properties for the various peptides. Competition with iodinated SRTX-b showed no meaningful differences between the various peptides. It is concluded that all the ET/SRTX peptides compete for the same receptor subtype in the ileum. In terms of efficacy, VIC can be considered as a full agonist of this receptor, SRTX-d is probably an antagonist, while all the other peptides behave as partial agonists.

  8. Molecular Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Ileum and Coecum Broiler Chicken Fed by Chrysonilia crassa Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Jannah, Siti; Khotimah, Husnul; Siti Ferniah, Rejeki; Sugiharto

    2018-05-01

    The Lactid Acid Bakteria (LAB) are microflora in the digestive tract which has positive roles in poultry’s health. One of the factors diversity of LAB in the gatrointestinal tract are influenced by feeding factor. The purpose of this study was to analyze the LAB diversity in ileum and coecum after being fed on fermented Chrysonilia crassa molecularly. LAB species diversity was analysed to provide a baseline profile of the microbial community database on the ileum and coecum digestive tract of broiler chicken of control (commercial feed) and treatment (feed with Chrysonilia crassa fermentation) by the method of Terminal Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism The calculated values werethe number of phylotypes, relative abundace, Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), evennes index (E’), and similarity. Group of LAB detected in the control group were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (180 bp), Lactobacillus sp. (187 bp), Lactobacillus plantarum (572 bp), uncultured bacterium (87 bp) and unidentified (50 bp, 582bp). The result of this study showed that by feeding on the fermented Chrysonilia crassa feed had resulted in the decreasing of LAB diversity, i.e. ileum (0.66), coecum (0.48) compared with commercial feed (control) that was ileum (0.84), coecum (1.05).

  9. Interleukin-1 beta activates specific populations of enteric neurons and enteric glia in the guinea pig ileum and colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjwa, ETTL; Bradley, JM; Keenan, CM; Kroese, ABA; Sharkey, KA

    2003-01-01

    Fos expression was used to assess whether the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) activated specific, chemically coded neuronal populations in isolated preparations of guinea pig ileum and colon. Whether the effects of IL-1beta were mediated through a prostaglandin pathway and

  10. A case of multiple metastatic malignant melanoma with the largest lesion in the ileum and no skin lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Suzuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with malignant melanoma and multiple metastases; the largest tumor was in the ileum. The patient experienced general fatigue and bloody feces for 1 month before consulting a nearby clinic. Blood tests revealed anemia, and fecal occult blood was positive, but no abnormalities were detected using gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy or the skin of the entire body. Computed tomography images of the chest, abdomen, and pelvic region, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography images of the entire body revealed multiple nodules in the ileum, left mammary gland, left thyroid, right inguinal lymph node, and on the fascia of the right thoracic area and right buttocks. The tumor in the left mammary gland was excised and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the excised tissue was positive for HMB45, melan-A, and MITF, but negative for S-100 protein. Diagnosed with melanoma with multiple metastases, the patient underwent four cycles of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV plus interferon beta chemotherapy and one cycle of dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and tamoxifen (DAC-Tam chemotherapy. Two series of embolizations of the artery feeding the ileum tumors, as well as a series of plasma and red blood cell transfusions, were performed for ileum tumor hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized eight times, for a total of 204 days during the 1-year survival period before her death from respiratory failure.

  11. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Yao, W.; Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA

  12. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) performed mandatory testing on all remaining equines at the stud (n=30), resulting in a further 4 positive animals. All positive animals were treated and subsequently tested negative for T. equigenitalis. Since this outbreak, over 2000 genital ...

  13. Essential oil from Xylopia frutescens Aubl. reduces cytosolic calcium levels on guinea pig ileum: mechanism underlying its spasmolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Iara Leão Luna de; Correia, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Araujo, Layanne Cabral da Cunha; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; Silva, Maria da Conceição Correia; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; Silva, Bagnólia Araújo da

    2015-09-16

    Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (embira, semente-de-embira or embira-vermelha), is used in folk medicine as antidiarrheal. The essential oil from its leaves (XF-EO) has been found to cause smooth muscle relaxation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the spasmolytic action by which XF-EO acts on guinea pig ileum. The components of the XF-EO were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Segments of guinea pig ileum were suspended in organ bath containing modified Krebs solution at 37 °C, bubbled with carbogen mixture under a resting tension of 1 g. Isotonic contractions were registered using kymographs and isometric contractions using force transducer coupled to an amplifier and computer. Fluorescence measurements were obtained with a microplate reader using Fluo-4. Forty-three constituents were identified in XF-EO, mostly mono- and sesquiterpenes. XF-EO has been found to cause relaxation on guinea pig ileum. The essential oil inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner both CCh- and histamine-induced phasic contractions, being more potent on histamine-induced contractions as well as antagonized histamine-induced cumulative contractions in a non-competitive antagonism profile. XF-EO relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the ileum pre-contracted with KCl and histamine. Since the potency was smaller in organ pre-contracted with KCl, it was hypothesized that XF-OE would be acting as a K(+) channel positive modulator. In the presence of CsCl (non-selective K(+) channel blocker), the relaxant potency of XF-OE was not altered, indicating a non-participation of these channels. Moreover, XF-EO inhibited CaCl2-induced cumulative contractions in a depolarizing medium nominally without Ca(2+) and relaxed the ileum pre-contracted with S-(-)-Bay K8644 in a concentration-dependent manner, thus, was confirmed the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx through Cav1 by XF-EO. In cellular experiments, the viability of longitudinal layer myocytes from guinea pig ileum was

  14. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  15. Western equine encephalitis with rapid onset of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G

    1977-11-01

    A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.

  16. Fundamentals of equine podiatry: balanced trimming and physiological shoeing

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of balanced trimming and physiological shoeing of the equine hoof as a way to prevent asymmetrical weight bearing and related orthopedic problems are discussed in this paper. Suggestions are given for the technical training of the personnel involved.  Considering the quantity and quality of the existing equine herd in Costa Rica, it is recommended to create a Farrier School as well as to coordinate the necessary efforts with other educational institutions related to the animal in...

  17. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai

    2015-01-01

    The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain impr...

  18. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  19. Advances in equine computed tomography and use of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in equine computed tomography have been made as a result of improvements in software and hardware and an increasing body of knowledge. Contrast media can be administered intravascularly or intrathecally. Contrast media is useful to differentiate between tissues of similar density. Equine computed tomography can be used for many different clinical conditions, including lameness diagnosis, fracture identification and characterization, preoperative planning, and characterization of skull diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  2. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-02

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Equine nasopharyngeal cryptococcoma due to Cryptococcus gattii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Sales da Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus gattii is often associated with pulmonary and systemic infections in humans and animals. In this research we report a case of nasopharyngeal cryptococoma caused by C. gatti in an equine. A 10-year-old mare presented a mass obstructing the oropharynx. Macroscopically the mass was asymmetric, and was attached to the ethmoidal sinuses and obstructed the oropharynx. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed multiple yeast cells ranging from spherical to oval, 4-8μm in diameter, with some of them showing narrow base polar budding. Cryptococcus gattii growth in mycological culture (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and was L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue Agar positive. The molecular identification confirmed the isolate as C. gattii by means of the amplification of universal primers. C. gattii is considered an emerging fungal agent, as it affects human and animals and does not respond efficiently to commonly established treatments.

  4. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  5. Radiographic examination of the equine stifle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denoix, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A radiographic technique is described for the equine stifle joint with the horse in the standing position or under general anaesthesia. The method with the animal anaesthetised in the dorsal recumbency and the leg extended was preferred because it gave greater flexibility with a better range of views and greatly reduced the safety hazards. In the standing position a useful practical tip for the lateral view was to raise and extent the limb caudally. This provides some flexion and ventral movement of the stifle allowing improved access for the cassette, a more accurate lateral view of the joint and a reduction in exposure. Some of the features of radiographic anatomy, from birth to adulthood, of this rather complex joint are described to form a basis for radiological interpretation in cases of suspected stifle lameness

  6. The diagnosis and therapeutic gain using US, CT and MRI. Submucosal tumors in stomach and duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Shinichi; Nawano, Shigeru; Tajiri, Hisao; Boku, Narikazu; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshida, Shigeaki [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-02-01

    The usefulness of the ultrasonography (US), the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was examined. The subjects were 19 patients with submucosal leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma in the stomach and duodenum which had surgery and were histologically diagnosed in the National Cancer Center Hospital. The detectability of the primary foci was 50% (8/16) in US, and 93% (13/14) in EUS (the endoscopic ultrasonography) which makes the structure of the stomach wall and the continuity of tumors clear. CT could detect the primary foci in 94% (16/17) and was excellent to know not only the presence of the remote metastases but also the exact size and expanse of the tumors. In all cases of leiomyoma, tumors were leiomyosarcoma when the internal structure was diagnosed to be heterogeneous by both EUS and CT, or either of them. The qualitative image diagnosis is not always easy in gastrointestinal submucosal tumors, but it is important to generally diagnose by the combination with several examinations in order to select the suitable therapeutic method. (K.H.)

  7. Endoscopic and histopathological study on the duodenum of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuto Kishimoto; Akira Hokama; Tetsuo Hirata; Yasushi Ihama; Manabu Nakamoto; Nagisa Kinjo; Fukunori Kinjo; Jiro Fujita

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endoscopic and histopathological findings in the duodenum of patients with Strongyloides stercoralis (5. stercoralis) hyperinfection.METHODS: Over a period of 23 years (1984-2006), we investigated 25 patients with 5. stercoralis hyperinfection who had had an esophagogastroduodenoscopy before undergoing treatment for strongyloidiasis. The clinical and endoscopic findings were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Twenty-four (96%) of the patients investigated were under immunocompromised condition which was mainly due to a human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The abnormal endoscopic findings, mainly edematous mucosa, white villi and erythematous mucosa, were observed in 23 (92%) patients. The degree of duodenitis including villous atrophy/destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration corresponded to the severity of the endoscopic findings. The histopathologic yield for identifying larvae was 71.4% by duodenal biopsy. The endoscopic findings of duodenitis were more severe in patients whose biopsies were positive for larvae than those whose biopsies were negative (Endoscopic severity score: 4.86 ± 2.47 vs 2.71 ± 1.38, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Our study clearly demonstrates that, in addition to stool analysis, endoscopic observation and biopsies are very important. We also emphasize that 5. stercoralis and HTLV-1 infections should be ruled out before immunosuppressive therapy is administered in endemic regions.

  8. Gene expression profiling reveals candidate genes related to residual feed intake in duodenum of laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Huang, L; Ren, J; Chen, L; Tian, Y; Huang, Y; Zhang, H; Du, J; Lu, L

    2017-12-01

    Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of poultry production, especially in developing countries. Improvement in feed efficiency would reduce the amount of feed required for production (growth or laying), the production cost, and the amount of nitrogenous waste. The most commonly used measures for feed efficiency are feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, RFI is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth or laying. However, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown. Identifying molecular mechanisms explaining divergence in RFI in laying ducks would lead to the development of early detection methods for the selection of more efficient breeding poultry. The objective of this study was to identify duodenum genes and pathways through transcriptional profiling in 2 extreme RFI phenotypes (HRFI and LRFI) of the duck population. Phenotypic aspects of feed efficiency showed that RFI was strongly positive with FCR and feed intake (FI). Transcriptomic analysis identified 35 differentially expressed genes between LRFI and HRFI ducks. These genes play an important role in metabolism, digestibility, secretion, and innate immunity including (), (), (), β (), and (). These results improve our knowledge of the biological basis underlying RFI, which would be useful for further investigations of key candidate genes for RFI and for the development of biomarkers.

  9. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  10. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  11. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center uses innovative lameness treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center is now offering an equine lameness therapy that prevents further degeneration of the affected joint and offers a longer-lasting benefit than traditional steroid treatment.

  12. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum and cecum of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and is directly related to gastrointestinal consequences of the disease. Myenteric neurons are affected in some pathological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy. The imbalance between cellular antioxidants and free radicals, leading to an increase in oxidative stress, is considered one of the main factors responsible for neuronal damages in diabetes. Drugs that reduce the oxidative stress may play a significant role in the treatment of neurological complications of diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of L-glutamine supplementation on the myenteric neurons from the cecum and duodenum of Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The animals were divided in four groups (n = 5: non-treated normoglycemics, normoglycemics treated with L-glutamine, non-treated diabetics and diabetics treated with L-glutamine from the 4th day of diabetes induction on. The amino acid L-glutamine was added to their diet at 1%. Giemsa's technique was employed to stain the myenteric neurons. We determined the cell body area of 500 neurons in each group studied. The quantitative analysis was performed by sampling in an area of 16.6 mm² in the cecum and 3.6 mm² in the duodenum of each animal. RESULTS: After the supplementation with L-glutamine in the duodenum, we observed a preservation of neuronal density in groups normoglycemic and diabetic (P<0.05. We also observed a preservation of the cell bodies area in diabetic animals (group treated with L-glutamine (P<0.05. In the cecum, that preservation was not evident. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with L-glutamine (1% promoted a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons from the duodenum of rats, both in terms of natural aging and of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Mechanism for enhanced absorption of a solid dispersion formulation of LY2300559 using the artificial stomach duodenum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C

    2015-04-06

    An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation.

  14. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the duodenum of big blue® rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Dinesdurage, Harshini; Suh, Mina; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2017-09-01

    A cancer bioassay on hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in drinking water reported increased incidences of duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice at exposures of 30-180ppm, and oral cavity tumors in F344 rats at 180ppm. A subsequent transgenic rodent (TGR) in vivo mutation assay in Big Blue® TgF344 rats found that exposure to 180ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28days did not increase cII transgene mutant frequency (MF) in the oral cavity (Thompson et al., 2015). Herein, we extend our analysis to the duodenum of these same TgF344 rats. At study termination, duodenum chromium levels were below either the limit of detection or quantification in control rats, but were 24.6±3.8μg/g in Cr(VI)-treated rats. The MF in control (23.2×10 -6 ) and Cr(VI)-treated rats (22.7×10 -6 ) were nearly identical. In contrast, the MF in the duodenum of rats exposed to 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea for six days (study days 1, 2, 3, 12, 19, 26) increased 24-fold to 557×10 -6 . These findings indicate that mutagenicity is unlikely an early initiating event in Cr(VI)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  16. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... regarding the importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by..., Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 36, Riverdale, MD...

  17. 78 FR 9577 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center...

  18. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... APHIS-2008-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries... with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the enforcement of all provisions of the interim... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports...

  19. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...-0112] RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY... contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for imported horses... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National...

  20. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine carcasses...

  1. Duodenum Histomorphology and Performance as Influenced by Dietary Suplementation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Garlic (Allium sativum) and its Combinations as a Feed Additives in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanti, Sri; -, Zuprizal; Yuwanta, Tri; -, Supadmo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on performance, and duodenum histomorphology. Affectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE) which were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were duodenum histomorphology (villi height, villi surfac...

  2. [ENDOSCOPIC ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE GASTRODUODENAL JUNCTION IN ULCER OF THE DUODENUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, E V; Dronova, O B; Kagan, Il; Tretjakov, A A; Kogan, E L

    2015-01-01

    To Improve the diagnosis of duodenal ulcer and preneoplastic changes of gastroduodenal transition. 112 patients with duodenal ulcer, 208 healthy pearsons of three age periods: second period of mature age, elderly and senile age were examined. Video endoscopy equipment company "OLYMPUS" (Japan), morphological methods and the determination of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) were used. The connecting line of gastric and duodenal mucous membrane can be located on the gastric side of the pylorus (13% in normal cases and 22.3% in cases of ulcer disease), on pylorus and go into the bulbus of duodenum (87% and 77.7 %, respectively), in cases of duodenal ulcer the connecting line more often has jagged and tongue-shaped form. Mucous membrane forms folds in prepyloric part of the stomach most often on the front wall in healthy pearsons in 14.4% of cases, in patients with duodenal ulcer--in 75.9%. The number of folds decreases with age. HP, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia of the mucous membrane is more often found in duodenal ulcer disease--76.8%, 69.7% and 62.5% comparing with healthy persons: 51.4%, 5.3% and 47.7% respectively. Frequency of preneoplastic changes increases with age. The individual differences of the mucous membrane of the gastroduodenal transition are identified. They are expressed in the particular location and shape of the connecting line of gastric and duodenal mucous membranes in normal cases and in cases of ulcer disease in different age groups. Some endoscopic changes requiring biopsy and morphological studies are revealed.

  3. Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters in duodenum, collecting ducts and choroid plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    Epithelia cover the internal and external surfaces of the organism and form barriers between the various compartments. Some of these epithelia are specialized for effective transmembrane or even transepithelial movement of acid-base equivalents. Certain epithelia with a high rate of HCO3- transport express a few potent Na+-coupled acid-base transporters to gain a net HCO3- movement across the epithelium. Examples of such epithelia are renal proximal tubules and pancreatic ducts. In contrast, multiple Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters are expressed in other HCO3- secreting epithelia, such as the duodenal mucosa or the choroid plexus, which maintain suitable intracellular pH despite a variable demand for secreting HCO3-. In the duodenum, the epithelial cells must secrete HCO3- for neutralization of the gastric acid, and at the same time prevent cellular acidification. During the neutralization, large quantities of CO2 are formed in the duodenal lumen, which enter the epithelial cells. This would tend to lower intracellular pH and require effective counteracting mechanisms to avoid cell death and to maintain HCO3- secretion. The choroid plexus secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and controls the pH of the otherwise poorly buffered CSF. The pCO2 of CSF fluctuates with plasma pCO2, and the choroid plexus must regulate the HCO3- secretion to minimize the effects of these fluctuations on CSF pH. This is done while maintaining pH neutrality in the epithelial cells. Thus, the Na+-HCO3- cotransporters appear to be involved in HCO3- import in more epithelia, where Na+/H+ exchangers were until recently thought to be sufficient for maintaining intracellular pH.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the duodenum in childhood: a rare case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarugi, Massimo; Galatioto, Christian; Lippolis, Piero; Zocco, Giuseppe; Seccia, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are uncommon primary mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract mostly observed in the adults. Duodenal GISTs are relatively rare in adults and it should be regarded as exceptional in childhood. In young patients duodenal GISTs may be a source of potentially lethal haemorrhage and this adds diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas to the concern about the long-term outcome. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital with severe anaemia due to recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Endoscopy, small bowel series, scintigraphy and video capsule endoscopy previously done elsewhere were negative. Shortly after the admission, the patient underwent emergency surgery for severe recurrence of the bleeding. At surgery, a 4 cm solid mass arising from the wall of the fourth portion of the duodenum was identified. The invasion and the erosion of the duodenal mucosa was confirmed by intra-operative pushed duodenoscopy. The mass was resected by a full-thickness duodenal wall excision with adequate grossly free margins. Immunohistochemical analysis of the specimen revealed to be positive for CD117 (c-KIT protein) consistent with a diagnosis of GIST. The number of mitoses was < 5/50 HPF. Mutational analysis for c-KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinase receptor genes resulted in a wildtype pattern. The patient had an uneventful course and he has remained disease-free during two years of follow-up. Duodenal GISTs in children are very rare and may present with massive bleeding. Cure can be achieved by complete surgical resection, but even in the low-aggressive tumours the long-term outcome may be unpredictable

  5. Radiosensitivity of ileum crypt cells in hibernating, arousing, and awake ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslow, B.N.; Michael Fry, R.J.; Suhrbier, K.M.; Sallese, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of ileal crypt cells, to 60 Co gamma radiation, was studied in ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) during hibernation, arousal, and the euthermic state. Survival of ileal crypt cells, assayed by the microcolony technique from stained transverse sections of ileum, was greater in animals irradiated in hibernation or 1 hr after initiation of arousal from hibernation. Crypt survival returned to the level of irradiated nonhibernating controls in animals irradiated 3 to 7 hr after initiation of arousal. Over the exposure range of 1500 to 2400 R, the survival of crypt cells for euthermic controls gave a D 0 = 133 +- 12 R and for animals irradiated in hibernation it gave a D 0 = 487 +- 92 R. In animals irradiated 1 hr after initiation of arousal, when core temperature is within the range of euthermic controls, crypt survival was almost as high as in the hibernators. These results suggest that the increased resistance of ileal crypt cells in hibernating animals could be due to hypoxia, although not direct evidence for hypoxia in hibernation was established. The changes in mitotic index of ileal crypt cells during hibernation and arousal indicate an alteration in the distribution of cells in the phases of the cycle. This change in distribution may also have contributed to the increased radioresistance of hibernators

  6. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices

  7. Right hemicolectomy and ileal resection with primary reanastomosis for irradiation injury of the terminal ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, W.J.; Burke, T.W.; Weiser, E.B.; Heller, P.B.; Grayson, J.; Park, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    Injury to the small intestine from pelvic irradiation increases in frequency when extended treatment fields are utilized and when radiation therapy follows a major abdominal operation. Recommended surgical correction of such injury has been intestinal bypass to avoid the excessive morbidity and mortality from anastamotic leaks associated with primary resection and anastomosis. Since 1980, eight patients with extensive ileal injury secondary to irradiation have been seen at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, Maryland. All patients had previously undergone an abdominal operation and three patients had irradiation utilizing extended fields. In all cases, right hemicolectomy and extended ileal resection were performed with primary anastamosis of the ileum to the ascending colon or the transverse colon. Operating time averaged 4 1/2 hr utilizing hand closure anastomoses and 2 1/2 hr with stapled anastomoses. All patients received postoperative hyperalimentation and six of eight patients received preoperative hyperalimentation. One operative death occurred in a patient with intestinal perforation who required multiple resections. The remaining seven patients experienced no serious complications and had rapid return of bowel function. Our experience indicates that wide ileal resection with right hemicolectomy and primary reanastomosis is an acceptable alternative to intestinal bypass for the treatment of severe irradiation injury, especially when performed with gastrointestinal stapling devices.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of venoms obtained from Mexican toxoglossate gastropods on isolated guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protein-containing extracts prepared from the venom ducts of Conus austini, Conus spurius and Polystira albida caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions in guinea pig ileum. The most potent extract was obtained from P. albida venom ducts (IC50 = 0.11 ± 0.02 µg protein/mL. The three extracts produced a moderate inhibition of contractions elicited by acetylcholine (ACh 1 µM, suggesting the presence of anticholinergic compounds. The contractile response elicited by nicotine (10 µM was significantly reduced by the extracts prepared from the ducts of C. austini and P. albida, which indicates that the venom produced by these species contains toxins that target neuronal nicotinic receptors. All three extracts significantly inhibited contractions evoked by histamine (0.5 µM, particularly those from C. spurius and P. albida. These findings reveal the presence of antihistaminergic compounds not previously described in any conoidean venom. Finally, we found that only the extract prepared from C. spurius ducts decreased KCl (60 mM-induced contractions, indicating that the venom of this snail contains compounds that block voltage-dependent Ca2+ or Na+ channels.

  9. Inhibitory effect of harmane on morphine-dependent Guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Utkan, Tijen

    2003-12-01

    Studies on the occurrence and properties of b-carbolines structurally related to harmala alkaloids have gained attention since it was hypothesized that some of these compounds play a role in processes of substance abuse and dependence. This study investigates the effects of harmane on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent guinea pig ileum. Segments of ilea from starved male guinea pigs were obtained and fixed at a resting tension of 1 g in an organ bath containing 10(-6) M morphine in Tyrode solution at 37 degrees C, which was bubbled with 95% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Tissues were incubated in 10(-6) M morphine containing Tyrode solution for 4 hours before harmane was added. Naloxone and harmane had no effect on naive ilea. Naloxone (10(-6) M) contracted morphine-dependent ilea. Harmane significantly inhibited the contractile response to naloxone in a dose-dependent manner (10(-7) M = 24%; 10(-6) M = 49.3%; 10(-5) = 70%). These results suggest that harmane may have beneficial effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  10. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    was abolished by infusion of hexamethonium (3x10(-5) M). Infusion of capsaicin (10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in the release of CGRP-LI to 485+/-82% of basal output (n=5). Our results suggest a dual origin of CGRP innervation of the porcine ileum (intrinsic and extrinsic). The intrinsic CGRP neurons...... extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... receive excitatory input by parasympathetic, possibly vagal, preganglionic fibres, via release of acetylcholine acting on nicotinic receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin suggests that CGRP is also released from extrinsic sensory neurons....

  11. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  12. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  13. Extrinsic control of the release of galanin and VIP from intrinsic nerves of isolated, perfused, porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messell, T; Harling, H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry galanin-like immunoreactivity and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity were found in nerve cell bodies mostly in the submucous plexus and in nerve fibres in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis including the myenteric plexus of the porcine ileum an...... was not influenced by atropine. Our results suggest that the galanin- and VIP-producing intrinsic neurons receive inhibitory signals by noradrenergic nerve fibers and stimulatory signals mediated by cholinergic nerves, possibly via a cholinergic interneuron....

  14. Marked Response in Microbial Community and Metabolism in the Ileum and Cecum of Suckling Piglets After Early Antibiotics Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host’s later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic or without (Control antibiotics from postnatal days 7–23 (n = 8. The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05 the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05 ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs. But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05 in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05. These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the

  15. Einfluss von Thujonen und Omeprazol auf die Aktivität der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Huhnstock, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Untersucht wurde der Einfluss von Thujonen (α Thujon, αβThujon, natürliches Mischthujon) und Omeprazol auf die Ruheaktivität, den Basaltonus, die pharmakologisch vorstimulierte glatte Muskulatur ,sowie die elektrisch induzierte Kontraktionen und die elektrisch induzierte Relaxation unter nicht-adrenergen nicht-cholinergen Bedingungen an der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum von Ratten. Auf die Ruheaktivität und den Basaltonus hatten die Substanzen keinen Einfluss. Thujone hatten einen signifikante...

  16. Does N-acetylcysteine have an effect on acetylcholine-induced contractions and histopathological changes on isolated rat ileum?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, E.; Yavuzer, Sema A.; Ocakcioglu, B.; Ergun, A.; Can, B.; Saran, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the action of N-acetyllcysteine (NAC) on rat isolated ileal contractility and to determine the effects of NAC on histopathological changes on ileal tissue. The study took place at the Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey, January 2003. Adult Wistar rats were used in all experiments. Two groups were designed. The experimental group, to which NAC 0.5 g/Kg/day was administered orally by adding to their water for 7 days, and the control group to which only saline was administered. At the end of experimental periods, one cm pieces of terminal ileum segments were removed for testing ileal contractility, and one cm pieces of ileum segments were removed for histopathological experiments. The acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction was recorded, and the ileal tissue examined using light and electron microscopic techniques for histopathological changes. The average peak amplitude of Ach-induced contraction recorded in standard tyrode solution of the experimental group was decreased significantly when compared to the control group in standard and calcium-free tyrode solution. On histopathological findings, there were swollen mitochondria with disturbed cristae in ileal muscle. Our data suggest that the NAC in the present experiment decreased the ACh-induced contractility on rat-isolated ileum. (author)

  17. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  18. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Engberg, R M; Leser, T D; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Pedersen, K

    2006-07-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed. In the ileum, the abundance of the different Lactobacillus species differed between the 2 broiler types. The culture-based and culture-independent techniques complemented each other well. Strengths and limitations of the different methods are discussed.

  19. Histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Oyamada, T; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Itakura, C

    1990-05-01

    The histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas was studied in 78 warts naturally occurring in 50 one to 3-year-old Thoroughbred or Arab horses and in 54 warts experimentally induced in three 2-year-old Thoroughbreds. Lesions in the natural cases were categorized into three phases, growth, development and regression. Main lesions of the growing phase were marked hyperplasia of the basal cells and mild to moderate acanthosis, hyper- and parakeratosis with a few intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIB) which were positive with anti-bovine papillomavirus serum. In the developing phase, there was prominent acanthosis with cellular swelling and fusion, and marked hyper- and parakeratosis. Many IIB were also present in swollen or degenerative prickle cells and granular cells, with a high degree of parakeratosis in keratinocytes. In the regressing phase, epidermal layers were almost normal with only slight hyperplastic change. However, there was rete peg proliferation downward into the dermis with moderate proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. In addition, in 10 spontaneous and one experimental wart, the lesions were fibropapillomas and this has never been described in horses previously. It was concluded that papillomas were initiated by basal cell hyperplasia without viral antigen production, with formation of acanthosis and hyper- and parakeratosis with IIB production. These findings were confirmed by examination of the experimental cases on the basis of the gross diameter of the warts.

  20. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  3. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  4. Myenteric neuronal plasticity induced by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III on the duodenum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Papazian-Cabanas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute and chronic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on duodenal myenteric neurons were analyzed. Eighteen rats were assigned into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5; and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. Rats from the AEG and CEG were inoculated orally with 105 genotype III (BTU-II strain tachyzoites of T. gondii isolated from a dog with neurological signs. Acute groups were killed after 24 hours after the inoculation and the chronic groups after 30 days. Whole-mount from the duodenum were stained with Giemsa. The population density of myenteric neurons, as well the body cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic area were analyzed. Both acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection did not provoke neuronal loss. On the other hand, plastic alterations were observed: decreasing of the nuclear and cytoplasmic area during the acute phase and neuronal hypertrophy during the chronic phase.Foram analisados os efeitos da infecção aguda e crônica provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno. Dezoito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Agudo (GCA, n= 4, Grupo Experimental Agudo (GEA, n=4, Grupo Controle Crônico (GCC, n=5 e Grupo Experimental Crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GEA e GEC receberam por via oral 10 5 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii da cepa BTUII (genótipo III isolada de um cão com sintomatologia neurológica. Os grupos agudos foram submetidos à eutanásia após 24 horas e os crônicos após 30 dias da inoculação. Preparados totais do duodeno foram corados com Giemsa. A densidade populacional dos neurônios mientéricos, bem como a área do corpo celular, núcleo e citoplasma foram analisados. Ambas, as infecções toxoplásmicas aguda e crônica não provocaram a perda neuronal. Por outro lado, alterações plásticas foram observadas: diminuição da área nuclear e citoplasmática durante a fase

  5. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%

  6. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments

  7. Determination of Villous Rigidity in the Distal Ileum of the Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yuen Feung; Lentle, Roger G.; Janssen, Patrick W. M.; Williams, Martin A. K.; de Loubens, Clément; Mansel, Bradley W.; Chambers, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the passive mechanical properties of villi in ex vivo preparations of sections of the wall of the distal ileum from the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) by using a flow cell to impose physiological and supra-physiological levels of shear stress on the tips of villi. We directly determined the stress applied from the magnitude of the local velocities in the stress inducing flow and additionally mapped the patterns of flow around isolated villi by tracking the trajectories of introduced 3 µm microbeads with bright field micro particle image velocimetry (mPIV). Ileal villi were relatively rigid along their entire length (mean 550 µm), and exhibited no noticeable bending even at flow rates that exceeded calculated normal physiological shear stress (>0.5 mPa). However, movement of villus tips indicated that the whole rigid structure of a villus could pivot about the base, likely from laxity at the point of union of the villous shaft with the underlying mucosa. Flow moved upward toward the tip on the upper portions of isolated villi on the surface facing the flow and downward toward the base on the downstream surface. The fluid in sites at distances greater than 150 µm below the villous tips was virtually stagnant indicating that significant convective mixing in the lower intervillous spaces was unlikely. Together the findings indicate that mixing and absorption is likely to be confined to the tips of villi under conditions where the villi and intestinal wall are immobile and is unlikely to be greatly augmented by passive bending of the shafts of villi. PMID:24956476

  8. Gastro-oesophageal reflux associated with duodenum inversum: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhiren; Agarwal, Roshani; Powell, William; Al-Ansari, Namir

    2017-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a very common paediatric disorder and the majority of patients are treated successfully by primary care physicians. Two infants aged 2 months with GORD which did not respond to conventional medical management are reported; they were diagnosed with duodenum inversum. The first infant failed medical management and required Nissen's fundoplication to control his symptoms. The second infant improved on maximizing medical management without the need for a surgical procedure. These two cases highlight the need for further work-up in patients who do not respond to conventional GORD therapy and/or present with atypical clinical symptoms.

  9. [A case of recurrent transverse colon cancer invading the pancreas and duodenum successfully treated with biliary and duodenal stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Toru; Yoshioka, Shigeru; Shiobara, Masayuki; Wakatsuki, Kazuo; Kataoka, Masaaki; Arai, Shuka; Miyazawa, Kotaro; Nakada, Shinichiro; Kita, Kazuhiko; Saito, Hirofumi; Nomoto, Hiromasa; Usui, Masatoshi; Yabiki, Masashi; Ota, Yuki; Oeda, Yoshio

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of recurrent transverse colon cancer invading the pancreas and duodenum that was successfully treated with biliary and duodenal stenting. A 46-year-old man underwent ascending colostomy for the treatment of obstructive transverse colon cancer with hepatic metastasis. Chemotherapy achieved a partial response, but the levels of tumor markers later began to rise again. He then underwent right hemicolectomy and partial hepatectomy. Post-operative chemotherapy was administered, but the recurrent tumor caused obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. These were successfully treated with biliary and duodenal stenting, and the patient was able to remain at home and maintain his quality of life.

  10. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  11. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) : A scale-construction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C

    2015-01-01

    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for

  12. Pigment retinopathy in warmblood horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and equine motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Kaese, Heather J; Miller, Andrew D; Gianino, Giuliana; Divers, Thomas; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    A pigment retinopathy has been reported in adult horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) arising from chronic α-tocopherol (α-TP) deficiency. A pigment retinopathy has not been identified in horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) that affects genetically susceptible young horses with α-TP deficiency. The objective of this report is to describe, for the first time, a pigment retinopathy in a family of α-TP-deficient Warmbloods (WB) with clinically apparent NAD/EDM or EMND. Twenty-five WB horses from one farm underwent complete neurologic and ophthalmic examinations and serum α-TP concentrations were assessed. Two of the most severely ataxic horses were euthanized and postmortem examinations performed. Alpha-TP deficiency was widespread on this farm (22 of 25 horses). Eleven of 25 horses were clinically normal (age range 2-12 years), one had signs of EMND (6 years of age), 10 had signs of ataxia consistent with NAD/EDM (1-10 years), and two of these were postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND. A pigment retinopathy characterized by varying amounts of granular dark pigment in the tapetal retina was observed in four clinically apparent NAD/EDM horses (two postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND) and one horse with clinical signs of EMND. A pigment retinopathy can be present in young α-TP-deficient Warmblood horses with clinical signs of EMND as well as those with signs of NAD/EDM. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  15. Application of an Artificial Stomach-Duodenum Reduced Gastric pH Dog Model for Formulation Principle Assessment and Mechanistic Performance Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Ming; Luner, Paul E; Locke, Karen; Briggs, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well-controlled duodenum pH, 5 formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated. Excellent correlations were obtained between dog area under the curve (AUC) and ASD AUC of 5 formulations evaluated with simulated intestinal fluid (r 2  = 0.987) and fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (r 2  = 0.989) as the duodenum dissolution medium, indicating that the approach of infusing NaOH into duodenum compartment to maintain duodenum pH of an ASD worked properly in simulating gastric pH-reduced dog. Raman spectroscopy was used to study drug dissolution kinetics associated with different solubilization principles and the results suggested that the solubilization principles performed as designed. Spectroscopic results also identified that the compound formed a gel during dissolution and hypromellose maintained the drug-gelled state to avoid further solid form conversion. The implication of the compound physical gelation to drug dissolution kinetics and in vivo exposure are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, R.; Lappin, D.F.; Dixon, P.M.; Buijs, M.J.; Zaura, E.; Crielaard, W.; O'Donnell, L.; Bennett, D.; Brandt, B.W.; Riggio, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative

  17. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  18. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  19. Magnetic resonance microscopy atlas of equine embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; Närväinen, J; de Ruijter-Villani, M; Stout, T A E; van Weeren, P R; Brama, P

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine embryogenesis post implantation is not well studied, and only two-dimensional illustrations are available. A thorough appreciation of the complex three-dimensional relationship between tissues and organs and their development is, however, crucial for

  20. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  1. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  2. Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western Algeria in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Hue, E; Fortier, C; Morilland, E; Legrand, L; Hans, A; Pronost, S

    2017-08-01

    An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of annular pancreas with Wirsung's duct encircling the duodenum: embryological hypothesis based on cholangiopancreatographic and immunohistochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Manami; Kamisawa, Terumi; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichirou; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Koizumi, Satomi; Tabata, Taku; Nagao, Sayaka; Kikuyama, Masataka; Honda, Goro; Kurata, Masanao

    2017-06-01

    We present a resected case of annular pancreas in which Wirsung's duct encircled the duodenum and continued directly to the main pancreatic duct in the body and tail. Furthermore, Wirsung's duct coursed along the right side of the lower bile duct near the major duodenal papilla. Histologically, the islets of Langerhans in the annular pancreas were irregular in shape and were characterized by a striking abundance of pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-positive cells. The PP-rich area that encircled the duodenum was fused with the PP-poor area in the head of the pancreas. The following embryological hypothesis is proposed. The tip of the ventral pancreatic anlage adhered to the duodenal wall and stretched to form a ring during clockwise rotation. The rotation was incomplete, and the pancreatic duct did not cross over the lower bile duct. Since there was adequate ventral anlage in the lower part of the head of the pancreas, fusion between the ducts of the ventral and dorsal anlagen did not occur. The tip of the ventral anlage overgrew and adhered to the dorsal anlage, and the annular duct fused with the main duct of the dorsal anlage.

  4. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  5. Compartment-specific immunity in the human gut: properties and functions of dendritic cells in the colon versus the ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Bernardo, David; English, Nicholas R; Landy, Jon; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Peake, Simon T C; Man, Ripple; Elliott, Timothy R; Spranger, Henning; Lee, Gui Han; Parian, Alyssa; Brant, Steven R; Lazarev, Mark; Hart, Ailsa L; Li, Xuhang; Knight, Stella C

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) mediate intestinal immune tolerance. Despite striking differences between the colon and the ileum both in function and bacterial load, few studies distinguish between properties of immune cells in these compartments. Furthermore, information of gut DC in humans is scarce. We aimed to characterise human colonic versus ileal DC. Human DC from paired colonic and ileal samples were characterised by flow cytometry, electron microscopy or used to stimulate T cell responses in a mixed leucocyte reaction. A lower proportion of colonic DC produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β) compared with their ileal counterparts and exhibited an enhanced ability to generate CD4(+)FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) (regulatory) T cells. There were enhanced proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(-) DC in the colon, with increased proportions of CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC in the ileum. A greater proportion of colonic DC subsets analysed expressed the lymph-node-homing marker CCR7, alongside enhanced endocytic capacity, which was most striking in CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. Expression of the inhibitory receptor ILT3 was enhanced on colonic DC. Interestingly, endocytic capacity was associated with CD103(+) DC, in particular CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DC. However, expression of ILT3 was associated with CD103(-) DC. Colonic and ileal DC differentially expressed skin-homing marker CCR4 and small-bowel-homing marker CCR9, respectively, and this corresponded to their ability to imprint these homing markers on T cells. The regulatory properties of colonic DC may represent an evolutionary adaptation to the greater bacterial load in the colon. The colon and the ileum should be regarded as separate entities, each comprising DC with distinct roles in mucosal immunity and imprinting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The Role of GABAA Receptor in Antispasmodic Activity of Hydroalcholic Extract of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley Seed in Rat Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Savary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Parsley is one of the medicinal herbs used for gastrointestinal disorders. However, spasmolytic activity of Petroselinum crispum (parsley extract has been reported, there is a lack of information to support the mechanism of this antispasmodic activity. Taking this into account, the purpose of the present work was to investigate the role of GABAA receptor on antispasmodic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of parsley seed in isolated rat ileum. Materials and Methods: In this study, terminal portion of ileum (2 cm was dissected out and mounted in an organ bath containing air bubbled Tyrode solution (37οC, pH=7.4. Under 1gr resting tension, ileal contraction was induced by KCl (60 mM and recorded isotonically. The effects of non-cumulative (0.1-0.5 mg/ml concentrations of extract on KCl-induced contractions were examined. After evaluating the effect of agonist and antagonist GABAA receptor, the effect of parsley extract was assessed in the presence of muscimol (25 µM and bicuculline (10 µM as agonist and antagonist of GABAA, respectively. Results: Parsley seed extract reduced the KCl-induced ileal contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (n=7, p<0.001. Both muscimol and bicuculline exerted relaxant effect on ileal contraction (n=7, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively. Surprisingly, agonist and antagonist of GABAA both potentiated the spasmolytic effect of extract (0.2 mg/ml. Altogether, spasmolytic effect of extract was not attenuated in the presence of GABAA antagonist. Conclusion: It seems that GABAA receptor is not involved in the antispasmodic effect of parsley seeds extract in rat ileum.

  7. High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Retain a Pericyte-Like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Cristina L; Sheldrake, Tara A; Dawson, Lucy; Menghini, Timothy; Rink, Burgunde Elisabeth; Amilon, Karin; Khan, Nusrat; Péault, Bruno; Donadeu, Francesc Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in human and equine regenerative medicine, and interest in exploiting their potential has increased dramatically over the years. Despite significant effort to characterize equine MSCs, the actual origin of these cells and how much of their native phenotype is maintained in culture have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MSCs, derived from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM), and pericytes in the horse. Both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and αSMA) and MSC (CD29, CD90, and CD73) markers were detected in equine AT and colocalized around blood vessels. Importantly, as assessed by flow cytometry, both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and αSMA) and MSC (CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105) markers were present in a majority (≥90%) of cells in cultures of AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs; however, levels of pericyte markers were variable within each of those populations. Moreover, the expression of pericyte markers was maintained for at least eight passages in both AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Hematopoietic (CD45) and endothelial (CD144) markers were also detected at low levels in MSCs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, in coculture experiments, AT-MSCs closely associated with networks produced by endothelial cells, resembling the natural perivascular location of pericytes in vivo. Our results indicate that equine MSCs originate from perivascular cells and moreover maintain a pericyte-like phenotype in culture. Therefore, we suggest that, in addition to classical MSC markers, pericyte markers such as CD146 could be used when assessing and characterizing equine MSCs.

  9. Biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of equine cervical facet joint cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, S A; White, J L; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2018-04-15

    The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of this tissue. Descriptive cadaver studies. A total of 132 facet joint surfaces were harvested from the cervical spines of six skeletally mature horses (11 surfaces per animal) for compiling biomechanical and biochemical properties of hyaline cartilage of the equine cervical facet joints. Gross morphometric measurements and histological staining were performed on facet joint cartilage. Creep indentation and uniaxial strain-to-failure testing were used to determine the biomechanical compressive and tensile properties. Biochemical assays included quantification of total collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA content. The facet joint surfaces were ovoid in shape with a flat articular surface. Histological analyses highlighted structures akin to articular cartilage of other synovial joints. In general, biomechanical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between the inferior and superior joint surfaces as well as among spinal levels. Interestingly, compressive and tensile properties of cervical facet articular cartilage were lower than those of articular cartilage from other previously characterised equine joints. Removal of the superficial zone reduced the tissue's tensile strength, suggesting that this zone is important for the tensile integrity of the tissue. Facet surfaces were sampled at a single, central location and do not capture the potential topographic variation in cartilage properties. This

  10. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  11. Sigma receptor ligand N,N'-di-(ortho-tolyl)guanidine inhibits release of acetylcholine in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, B G; Keana, J F; Weber, E

    1991-11-26

    The inhibition of stimulated contractions of the guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation by sigma receptor ligands has been previously described. In this study, the stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve terminals in this same preparation was monitored in the presence and absence of sigma receptor ligands. N,N'-Di-(orthotolyl)guanidine (DTG) and other compounds selective for the sigma receptor inhibited stimulated [3H]acetylcholine release. These results suggest that their inhibition of stimulated contractions in this preparation was mediated by inhibition of acetylcholine release.

  12. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...

  13. Quality of equine veterinary care. Part 2: Client satisfaction in equine top sports medicine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.; Waaijer, P.G.; Maree, J.T.M.; Weeren, van P.R.; Barneveld, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the quality of equine veterinary top sports medicine in The Netherlands and the degree to which the expectations in the field are met. Focus was on structure, process and outcome of care. The structure of care is generally satisfactory but there

  14. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current understanding and recommendations from the Australian and New Zealand Equine Endocrine Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Bailey, S R; de Laat, M A; Hughes, K J; Stewart, A S; Sonis, J M; Tan, Rhh

    2018-06-03

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current knowledge and opinions about the epidemiology, clinical findings (including sequelae), diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, particularly in the Australian context. This information and the recommendations provided will assist practitioners in making informed decisions regarding the diagnosis and management of this disorder. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Equine keratomycosis in the Netherlands from 2007 to 2017 28 cases : Voorjaarsdagen 2017 - Equine short communications (BEVA and Xcellent Horse Insurance Award)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.; Spoormakers, T.J.P.; Ensink, J.M.; Boevé, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    EQUINE KERATOMYCOSIS IN THE NETHERLANDS FROM 2007 TO 2017 (28 CASES) Equine keratomycosis or fungal keratitis is a relatively common sight-threatening corneal disease in horses, particularly in warm, humid climates. Clinical manifestation includes corneal ulceration with or without corneal melting,

  16. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  17. Induction of metallothionein(s) in organ-cultured duodenum: relationship to 1α,25-(OH)2-D3-induced CaBP synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.; Fullmer, C.S.; Frelier, E.; Maxwell, S.

    1979-01-01

    The embryonic chick duodenum contains no vitamin D-induced, calcium-binding protein (CaBP). However, when maintained in organ culture, the duodenum responds to 1α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 in the culture medium by de novo synthesis of CaBP. Studies with this system have provided evidence that CaBP is directly involved in calcium transport at least at the mucosal surface. The present paper extends previous observations on the effects of the extremely toxic environmental pollutant, cadmium. Cadmium was found to inhibit 1α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 -mediated responses in the organ-cultured duodenum, i.e., CaBP biosynthesis and 45 Ca uptake at the mucosal surface. Cadmium also stimulated concomitent production of a specific metallothionein (MT). Zinc had similar actions in inhibiting CaBP and stimulating Mt biosynthesis

  18. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology

  19. [Influence of the comorbidity diseases and risk factors on development of the combined peptic ulcer of the stomach and the duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanishcheva, L A; Sarsenbaeva, A S; Fattakhova, N V

    2013-01-01

    To define influence of the comorbidity diseases and risk factors of development of the combined peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum. As a result of carried-out poll and inspection 250 patients with an exacerbation of a peptic ulcer were surveyed. Patients were distributed in 3 groups of observation depending on localization of ulcerative process. At all surveyed questioning was carried out, data on hereditary load, smoking, alcohol intake, existence of somatopathies were specified, clinic-morphological implications of a peptic ulcer were studied. The peptic ulcer of a stomach is characteristic for women (72.1%) and develops mainly aged from 45 till 59 years (60.3%). Peptic ulcer of duodenum men (76.3%) suffer mainly, the debut is the share in most cases of age from 18 to 44 years (79.1%). The combined canker of a stomach and duodenum meets at males (61.2%) more often, is initially involved in process ulcerogenesis by duodenum generally aged from 30 till 44 years (64.2%), accession of a canker of a stomach happens is delayed (at 38.8% within 16 and more years). In the analysis of risk factors at patients with the combined peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum depending on existence or absence specific to this category of patients of a background from such comorbidity diseases as IBS, HOBL and widespread osteochondrosis taped that larger prevalence of smoking (100%) and as the use (50%) and the excessive use (50%), alcohol are characteristic for the patients having a high comorbidity (a combination of three above nosologies). The greatest interest in respect of possible communication with formation of the combined peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum is represented by IBS, HOBL and osteochondrosis. And major factors of risk were smoking, the excessive alcohol intake, the burdened heredity.

  20. TU-AB-BRA-11: Indications for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy Based On Dosimetric Consequences of Interfractional Pancreas-To-Duodenum Motion in MRI-Guided Pancreatic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittauer, K; Rosenberg, S; Geurts, M; Bassetti, M; Wojcieszynski, A; Harari, P; Labby, Z; Hill, P; Paliwal, B; Bayouth, J; Chen, I; Henke, L; Kashani, R; Parikh, P; Olsen, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dose limiting structures, such as the duodenum, render the treatment of pancreatic cancer challenging. In this multi-institutional study, we assess dosimetric differences caused by interfraction pancreas-to-duodenum motion using MR-IGRT to determine the potential impact of adaptive replanning. Methods: Ten patients from two institutions undergoing MRI-guided radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (n=5) or SBRT (n=5) for pancreatic cancer were included. Initial plans were limited by duodenal dose constraints of 50 Gy (0.5 cc)/31 Gy (0.1 cc) for conventional/SBRT with prescriptions of 30 Gy/5 fractions (SBRT) and 40–50 Gy/25 fractions (conventional). Daily volumetric MR images were acquired under treatment conditions on a clinical MR-IGRT system. The correlation was assessed between interfractional GTV-to-duodenum positional variation and daily recalculations of duodenal dose metrics. Positional variation was quantified as the interfraction difference in Hausdorff distance from simulation baseline (ΔHD) between the GTV and proximal duodenal surface, or volume overlap between GTV and duodenum for cases with HD_0=0 (GTV abutting duodenum). Adaptation was considered indicated when daily positional variations enabled dose escalation to the target while maintaining duodenal constraints. Results: For fractions with ΔHD>0 (n=14, SBRT only), the mean interfraction duodenum dose decrease from simulation to treatment was 44±53 cGy (maximum 136 cGy). A correlation was found between ΔHD and dosimetric difference (R"2=0.82). No correlation was found between volume of overlap and dosimetric difference (R"2=0.31). For 89% of fractions, the duodenum remained overlapped with the target and the duodenal dose difference was negligible. The maximum observed indication for adaptation was for interfraction ΔHD=11.6 mm with potential for adaptive dose escalation of 136 cGy. Conclusion: This assessment showed that Hausdorff distance was a reasonable metric to use to

  1. TU-AB-BRA-11: Indications for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy Based On Dosimetric Consequences of Interfractional Pancreas-To-Duodenum Motion in MRI-Guided Pancreatic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittauer, K; Rosenberg, S; Geurts, M; Bassetti, M; Wojcieszynski, A; Harari, P; Labby, Z; Hill, P; Paliwal, B; Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Chen, I; Henke, L; Kashani, R; Parikh, P [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Olsen, J [University of Colorado- Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dose limiting structures, such as the duodenum, render the treatment of pancreatic cancer challenging. In this multi-institutional study, we assess dosimetric differences caused by interfraction pancreas-to-duodenum motion using MR-IGRT to determine the potential impact of adaptive replanning. Methods: Ten patients from two institutions undergoing MRI-guided radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (n=5) or SBRT (n=5) for pancreatic cancer were included. Initial plans were limited by duodenal dose constraints of 50 Gy (0.5 cc)/31 Gy (0.1 cc) for conventional/SBRT with prescriptions of 30 Gy/5 fractions (SBRT) and 40–50 Gy/25 fractions (conventional). Daily volumetric MR images were acquired under treatment conditions on a clinical MR-IGRT system. The correlation was assessed between interfractional GTV-to-duodenum positional variation and daily recalculations of duodenal dose metrics. Positional variation was quantified as the interfraction difference in Hausdorff distance from simulation baseline (ΔHD) between the GTV and proximal duodenal surface, or volume overlap between GTV and duodenum for cases with HD{sub 0}=0 (GTV abutting duodenum). Adaptation was considered indicated when daily positional variations enabled dose escalation to the target while maintaining duodenal constraints. Results: For fractions with ΔHD>0 (n=14, SBRT only), the mean interfraction duodenum dose decrease from simulation to treatment was 44±53 cGy (maximum 136 cGy). A correlation was found between ΔHD and dosimetric difference (R{sup 2}=0.82). No correlation was found between volume of overlap and dosimetric difference (R{sup 2}=0.31). For 89% of fractions, the duodenum remained overlapped with the target and the duodenal dose difference was negligible. The maximum observed indication for adaptation was for interfraction ΔHD=11.6 mm with potential for adaptive dose escalation of 136 cGy. Conclusion: This assessment showed that Hausdorff distance was a reasonable

  2. [A Case of Performed Right Colectomy with Pancreato-Duodenectomy for Transverse Colon Cancer Invased to Duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Ryutaro; Enomoto, Masanobu; Tsurui, Kazushige; Kuboyama, Yuu; Kuwabara, Hiroshi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Ishizaki, Tetsuo; Katsumata, Kenji; Obikane, Hiyo; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    There is a clear consensus regarding the combined resection of organs with cancer invasion, patients with colon cancer. However, there are very few reports to our knowledge regarding the use of pancreato-duodenectomy(PD)for colon cancer patients with cancer invasion in the duodenum. We here report a colon cancer patient in whom we performed PD and right hemicolectomy, who showed favorable results with no recurrence. The patient was a 69-year-old woman. Her chief complaint was hypogastric pain. Her previous doctor performed colonoscopy and a colonoscopic biopsy, and detected a type 2 lesion, throughout the entire circumference of the transverse colon near the liver, and she was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. From further imaging analyses, she was diagnosed as having transverse colon cancer with invasion into the superior mesenteric vein(SMV), duodenum, and pancreatic head, and No. 223 lymph node metastasis. The patient's cancer was concluded to be unresectable, and she underwent chemotherapy, namely mFOLFOX6 with cetuxiumab(Cmab). One course of mFOLFOX with Cmab, the patient decided to consult our hospital for a second opinion. We concluded that her cancer was resectable, so we performed PD, right hemicolectomy, and resection and reconstruction of a part of the SMV. The operation time was 5 hours 17 minutes, and total blood loss was 190 mL. The histopathological diagnosis was tub2, T4b(duodenum and, tissue surrounding the SMV), int, INF b, ly1, v2, PN1b, EX(+)/ND(PN+, v+), PM0(25 cm), DM0(14.3 cm), N1(1/ 20), H0, P0, M0, pStage III a. She was discharged 15 days after surgery with no complications, and thereafter received ajduvant chemotherapy(capecitabine with oxaliplatin)as an outpatient. After 3 courses, capecitabine with oxaliplatin was changed to capecitabine because she developed a nervous system disorder, and she was further treated for approximately about 6 months. She is doing well at the time of writing, with no recurrences for 2 years. We suggest that PD

  3. Blockade by phenoxybenzamine of the contractor response produced by agonists in the isolated ileum of the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D A

    1971-09-01

    1. The effects of various concentrations of phenoxybenzamine (dibenzyline) on the contractor response of the isolated ileum of the guinea-pig were investigated. The agonists tested were histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetycholine and potassium chloride.2. In addition, uptake of (14)C-phenoxybenzamine into the ileum was determined as a function of antagonist concentration. The uptake increases sharply at concentrations above 10(-6) g/ml, (3x10(-6)M) and was not saturable at any concentration tested.3. In the presence of low concentrations of phenoxybenzamine, the dose-response curve for histamine undergoes a parallel shift of about 0.5 log units. At higher concentrations of phenoxybenzamine the maximum response is depressed. In the case of the other agonists, the maximum response is depressed as soon as any blockade becomes apparent.4. The ease of blockade with phenoxybenzamine is 5-HT >/= histamine> acetylcholine >/= potassium chloride.5. These results do not lend support to the ;spare-receptor' hypothesis and may be better explained by the ;two-site' hypothesis of Moran & Triggle (1970).6. It may further be concluded that the successful antagonism of potassium-induced contractions in this preparation lies in the ability of phenoxybenzamine to prevent the action of released acetylcholine. In the case of the contraction induced by 5-HT, phenoxybenzamine probably interferes with the 5-HT receptor responsible for neuronal release of acetycholine.

  4. Compound double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception caused by lipoma of the ileum in an adult patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicaj Besnik X

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The initial diagnosis of intussusception in adults very often can be missed and cause delayed treatment and possible serious complications. We report the case of an adult patient with complicated double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from the gastroenterology service to the abdominal surgery service with severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasound, barium enema, and abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an intraluminal obstruction of his ascending colon. Plain abdominal X-rays showed diffuse air-fluid levels in his small intestine. A double ileoileal and ileocecocolic intussusception was found during an emergent laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy, including resection of a long segment of his ileum, was performed. The postoperative period was complicated by acute renal failure, shock liver, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Our patient was discharged from the hospital after 30 days. An anatomical pathology examination revealed a lipoma of his ileum. Conclusions Intussusception in adults requires early surgical resection regardless of the nature of the initial cause. Delayed treatment can cause very serious complications.

  5. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocortisone and Vitamin D3 stimulation of 32Psub(i)-phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured chick embryo duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Either vitamin D 3 (or 1 α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 ) or hydrocortisone (HC) stimulated phosphate accumulation by organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum. In combination, these two steroids stimulated phosphate uptake synergistically. Phosphate accumulation appeared to be independent of other vitamin D 3 -stimulated processes: CaBP concentration, cAMP concentration, or alkaline phosphataseactivity. L-phenylalanine, a reported alkaline phosphate inhibitor, when added to the culture medium progressively inhibited either D 3 - or HC-stimulated phosphate uptake subsequent to culture, but did not inhibit the synergistic action under these conditions L-phenylalanine had no consistent effect on alkaline phosphotase activity but unexpectedly, greatly inhibited vitamin D 3 - stimulated CaBP concentration, but only in the absence of HC. Some limited suggestion of an intestinal phosphoprotein sensitve to either vitamin D 3 or HC was observed. (orig.) [de

  7. Digestion of isolated legume cells in a stomach-duodenum model: three mechanisms limit starch and protein hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rewati R; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-07-19

    Retention of intact plant cells to the end of the small intestine leads to transport of entrapped macronutrients such as starch and protein for colonic microbial fermentation, and is a promising mechanism to increase the content of resistant starch in diets. However, the effect of gastro-intestinal bio-mechanical processing on the intactness of plant cells and the subsequent resistance to enzymatic digestion of intracellular starch and protein are not well understood. In this study, intact cells isolated from legume cotyledons are digested in a laboratory model which mimics the mechanical and biochemical conditions of the rat stomach and duodenum. The resulting digesta are characterised in terms of cell (wall) integrity as well as intracellular starch and protein hydrolysis. The cells remained essentially intact in the model with negligible (ca. 2-3%) starch or protein digestion; however when the cells were mechanically broken and digested in the model, the hydrolysis was increased to 45-50% suggesting that intact cellular structures could survive the mixing regimes in the model stomach and duodenum sufficiently to prevent digestive enzyme access. Apart from intact cell walls providing effective barrier properties, they also limit digestibility by restricting starch gelatinisation during cooking, and significant non-specific binding of α-amylase is observed to both intact and broken cell wall components, providing a third mechanism hindering starch hydrolysis. The study suggests that the preservation of intactness of plant cells, such as from legumes, could be a viable approach to achieve the targeted delivery of resistant starch to the colon.

  8. Optimizing the villi visualization by tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for comprehensive imaging of human duodenum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Queneherve, Lucille H.; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Fasano, Alessio; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) affects around 1% of the global population and can cause serious long-term symptoms including malnutrition, fatigue, and diarrhea, amongst others. Despite this, it is often left undiagnosed. Currently, a tissue diagnosis of CD is made by random endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum to confirm the existence of microscopic morphologic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. However, duodenal endoscopic biopsy is problematic because the morphological changes can be focal and endoscopic biopsy is plagued by sampling error. Additionally, tissue artifacts can also an issue because cuts in the transverse plane can make duodenal villi appear artifactually shortened and can bias the assessment of intraepithelial inflammation. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy is costly and poorly tolerated as the patient needs to be sedated to perform the procedure. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. TCE involves swallowing an optomechanically-engineered pill that generates 3D images of the GI tract as it traverses the lumen of the organ via peristalsis, assisted by gravity. In several patients we have demonstrated TCE imaging of duodenal villi, however the current TCE device design is not optimal for CD diagnosis as the villi compress when in contact with the smooth capsule's wall. In this work, we present methods for structuring the outer surface of the capsule to improve the visualization of the villi height and crypt depth. Preliminary results in humans suggest that new TCE capsule enables better visualization of villous architecture, making it possibly to comprehensively scan the entire duodenum to obtain a more accurate tissue diagnosis of CD.

  9. Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS Linfoma de Burkitt do duodeno em um paciente com AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma, among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system. We report a case of primary lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed pseudopolypoid masses found in the second portion of the duodenum. A complete diagnostic study including histological, immunohistochemical and virological analyses showed high-grade B-cell Burkitt's lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus genome was detected in biopsies by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization.O linfoma não-Hodgkin de células B é a segunda neoplasia mais comum em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana depois do sarcoma de Kaposi. A maioria dos casos de linfoma não-Hodgkin associados com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida envolve locais extraganglionares, especialmente o trato digestivo e o sistema nervoso central. Nós relatamos um caso de linfoma primário do duodeno em um paciente com AIDS. Uma endoscopia digestiva alta mostrou massas pseudopolipóides encontradas na segunda porção do duodeno. Um estudo diagnóstico completo incluindo exames histológicos, imunohistoquímicos e virológicos mostrou um linfoma de células B tipo Burkitt. Detectou-se genoma do vírus Epstein-Barr em biópsias por hibridização in situ e imuno-histoquímica.

  10. New Approaches in Accountancy of the Romanian Equine Growth Sector

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    Violeta Isai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of equine growth puts many problems regarding the way of recognition, registration and valuation of equines as biological assets, but also regarding the way of calculation for the auction prices. Taking into consideration the ascendant trend of this sector, and also the diversification of its activities, accountancy faces new situations, which require to be solved in the conditions of the existent International Accounting Standards. In this respect, Romania came with certain improvements, which allow the separate registration of biological assets, their valuation at the fair value and the separate registration of the economic benefits brought by the biological assets to the entity. This paper presents a part of these aspects, in the context of the new settlements adopted in accounting by the Romanian legislation.

  11. Babesiosis in equines in Pakistan: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Rashid

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.

  12. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  13. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  14. Conjugated equine estrogen enhances rats' cognitive, anxiety, and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The ovarian hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the body and brain, and can influence cognitive, affective, and social behavior. However, functional effects of commonly prescribed E2-based hormone therapies are less known. The effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on middle-aged female rats for cognitive (object recognition), anxiety (open field, plus maze), and social (social interaction, lordosis) behavior were compared-with vehicle. Our hypothesis that CEE would enha...

  15. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, C.A.; Jaramillo, C.; Loaiza, M.J.; Blanco, R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses) have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adi...

  16. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G; Love, Richard J; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W M

    2013-06-06

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10(-8) m² s(-1)). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids 'in situ' and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios.

  17. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G.; Love, Richard J.; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W. M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10−8 m² s−1). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids ‘in situ’ and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios. PMID:23536539

  18. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy (whipple procedure) for massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigos, Panagiotis; Kouskos, Efstratios; Kouroglou, Maria; Chrisafis, Ioannis; Fois, Lucia; Mavrogiorgis, Anastasios; Axiotis, Efthimios; Zamtrakis, Sotirios

    2007-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of a massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, caused by high-grade diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum, secondary to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and treated with an emergency partial pancreatoduodenectomy. A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of hematemesis. Upper GI endoscopy was unrevealing because of the copious bleeding. Initially, the patient underwent conservative treatment, thus resulting in the temporary cessation of the bleeding. Later, the hemorrhage massively relapsed. An urgent abdominal ultrasound raised the suspicion of a large, possibly bleeding, neoplasm of the duodenum, which was finally confirmed by abdominal computed tomography. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, during which a partial pancreatoduodenectomy was performed (Whipple procedure). Histologically, the tumor was a high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the duodenum. The nearby small intestinal mucosa was suggestive of IPSID. A massive upper GI hemorrhage from a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the duodenum, which develops secondary to IPSID, is a very rare clinical demonstration of this disease. Our case is one of the few reports in the English literature, for which the Whipple procedure has been performed as a curative treatment.

  19. Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria L C R; Galiza, Glauco J N; Dantas, Antônio F M; Oliveira, Rafael N; Iamamoto, Keila; Achkar, Samira M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster. © 2011 The Author(s)

  20. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  1. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, M.; Lischer, C.; Ohlerth, S.; Vargas, J.; Auer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PXTM, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually

  2. Utility of an Equine Clinical Skills Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bruce W; Danielson, Jared A

    Recent publications have revealed inadequacies in the veterinary training of future equine practitioners. To help address this problem, a 2-week Equine Clinical Skills course was designed and implemented to provide fourth-year veterinary students with opportunities to have hands-on experience with common equine clinical skills using live animals and cadavers. Alumni and employers of alumni were surveyed to determine whether or not students participating in the course were more competent performing clinical skills during their first year post-graduation than those who had not participated in the course. Students who participated in the course were also surveyed before and after completing the course to determine whether or not their self-assessed skills improved during the course. Alumni who had taken the course rated their ability to perform the clinical skills more highly than alumni who had not taken the course. Similarly, students participating in the course indicated that they were significantly more able to perform the clinical skills after the course than when it began. Employers did not indicate a difference between the clinical skills of those who had taken the course and those who had not. Because this study involved a limited number of respondents from one institution, further studies should be conducted to replicate these findings and determine their generalizability.

  3. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  4. Equine-Facilitated Therapy and Trauma: Current Knowledge, Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlys Staudt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Equine-facilitated therapy (EFT is a relatively new treatment for trauma and PTSD. EFT as well as animal assisted interventions in general have been introduced and implemented in mental health treatment for children and adults, though the research in support of these interventions has not kept up with practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of EFT for clients suffering from trauma/PTSD. Studies were included if PTSD/trauma was assessed and/or was measured as an outcome. A search of relevant databases resulted in nine peer-reviewed studies that met criteria. Studies are summarized and implications for future research are discussed. In general, findings suggest that EFT is a promising intervention for trauma/PTSD. Recommendations include a call for more research that includes veterans as well as for research that explicates the mechanisms by which EFT may be effective.      Key words: trauma, PTSD, equine, equine therapy

  5. Localization of Bovine Papillomavirus Nucleic Acid in Equine Sarcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A M; Zhu, K W; Dela Cruz, F N; Affolter, V K; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV1/BPV2) have long been associated with equine sarcoids; deciphering their contribution has been difficult due to their ubiquitous presence on skin and in the environment, as well as the lack of decent techniques to interrogate their role in pathogenesis. We have developed and characterized an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that uses a pool of probes complementary to portions of the E5, E6, and E7 genes. This assay is highly sensitive for direct visualization of viral transcript and nucleic acid in routinely processed histopathologic samples. We demonstrate here the visualization of BPV nucleic acid in 18 of 18 equine sarcoids, whereas no detectable viral DNA was present in 15 of 15 nonsarcoid controls by this technique. In nearly 90% (16/18) of the sarcoids, 50% or more of the fibroblastic cell nuclei distributed throughout the neoplasm had detectable hybridization. In the remaining 2 cases, fewer than half of the fibroblastic cells contained detectable hybridization, but viral nucleic acid was also detected in epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and epidermis. A sensitive ISH assay is an indispensable addition to the molecular methods used to detect viral nucleic acid in tissue. We have used this technique to determine the specific cellular localization and distribution of BPV in a subset of equine sarcoids. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  7. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  8. Immediate x-radiation induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig terminal ileum: the localization of the effect by drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruegel, W; Schubert, E; Mitznegg, P; Heim, F [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.; Hasl, G; Pauly, H [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1977-04-01

    Tone and motility of the isolated guinea pig ileum were increased by irradiation with a dose of 10 krad. The maximal effect corresponds to that induced by 0.001 ..mu..g/ml acetylcholine or 0.3 ..mu..g/ml nicotine. The pharmacological analysis of this effect performed with acetylcholine and nicotine and several blocking agents including hexamethonium, atropine, tetrodotoxin, diphenhydramine, and verapamil suggests that radiation acts on the postganglionic parasympathetic neuron and the neuromuscular synapse. The mechanism of radiation is likely to consist of both an increased release of acetylcholine from the postganglionic neuron and a sensibilization of the cholinergic receptor site at the smooth muscle cell. The latter effect is thought to result from an increased contractile action induced by acetylcholine or nicotine in the irradiated ileal smooth muscle.

  9. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  11. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  12. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  13. Testing the Sarcocystis neurona vaccine using an equine protozoal myeloencephalitis challenge model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important equine neurologic disorder, and treatments for the disease are often unrewarding. Prevention of the disease is the most important aspect for EPM, and a killed vaccine was developed for just that purpose. Evaluation of the vaccine has been hamp...

  14. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center offers new treatment for lameness

    OpenAIRE

    Musick, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center has begun offering a new therapy for treating lameness associated with osteoarthritis and cartilage damage in horses, a problem that affects all segments of the equine industry.

  15. Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J; Neira, V; Mena, J; Brito, B; Garcia, A; Gutierrez, C; Sandoval, D; Ortega, R

    2017-12-01

    A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  17. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR, and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers were allotted into three groups (n = 100 and each divided into five replications (n = 20. Control group (Ctr birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  18. Taurocholate transport by brush-border membrane vesicles from the developing rabbit ileum: Structure/function relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.M.; Watkins, J.B.; Ling, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the ontogenesis of bile acid transport in the rabbit ileum, brush-border membrane vesicles (12- to 20-fold purified) were prepared from 14- to 49-day-old animals. Taurocholate uptake was characterized by the emergence of secondary active, Na(+)-dependent transport at the start of weaning (21 days). Transient intravesicular accumulation (overshoot) of taurocholate occurred at 5-10 s of incubation, and the overshoot maximum increased significantly from 21 days (349.2 +/- 22.4 nmol/mg protein) to 35 days (569.0 +/- 84.3 nmol/mg protein; p less than 0.001), without further increase at maturity (49 days, not equal to 607.6 +/- 136.7 nmol/mg protein). No significant taurocholate active uptake component was noted at 14 days; however, ileal vesicles from sucklings showed carrier-mediated, Na+ D-glucose cotransport. In greater than or equal to 35-day-old rabbits, osmolarity studies at 20 s of incubation showed that only approximately 12% of [14C]taurocholate uptake was secondary to bile acid-to-membrane binding. Conversely, at 20 min, greater than 95% of radiolabel incorporation represented solute bound to the external and/or internal membrane surface. Arrhenius plots establish brush-border membrane taurocholate uptake as an intrinsic, lipid-dependent process, with a slope discontinuity between 24 and 28 degrees C, similar to the membrane lipid thermotropic transition region. Steady-state fluorescence polarization studies (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) demonstrate a temporal association between the maturation of taurocholate uptake and age-related decreases in ileal brush-border membrane fluidity. These data indicate that maturation of bile acid secondary active transport in the rabbit ileum may be regulated, at least in part, by changes in brush-border membrane lipid dynamics

  19. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Imran Rashid; Ying, Huang; Yajing, Sun; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Weifen, Li; Ping, Li; Bloch, Dost Muhammad; Wenhua, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  20. Effect of lead on cholinergic contractile function in the forestomach, ileum and colon of the male Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, including colic, are signs of lead poisoning in man, but the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated. In order to understand the effects of lead on acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated responses, studies were undertaken to determine the isometric contractile response to methacholine, KCl and electric field stimulation in rat forestomach, ileum and colon under conditions of in vitro and in vivo treatment with lead acetate. Rats were dosed with 4% lead acetate in their diet, NIH-07, for 7 weeks, which resulted in renal and hematologic toxicity and blood lead levels of 180-389 ug/dl (1.2 x 10 -5 M). Tissues from in vivo treated rats were exposed to 1.2 x 10 -5 M lead acetate during in vitro contractile studies. E/sub max/ or ED 50 methacholine was not affected by 1.2 x 10 -5 M lead acetate, administered in vitro to control tissue. In the forestomach, a 10-fold higher concentration of lead (16 x 10 -5 M), administered in vitro, increased baseline tension and inhibition response to methacholine. However, in vivo lead treatment potentiated response to methacholine in the forestomach and increased baseline tension in the presence of physostigmine. The EFS response, attributable to ACh release, was not affected in the forestomach or ileum by 1.2 x 10 -5 M in vitro lead treatment. These data indicate that lead, administered in vivo in concentrations which cause renal and hematologic toxicity, does not impair cholinergic contractile response in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Instead, the response to methacholine may be potentiated in the forestomach. Possible mechanisms of lead-induced potentiation of baseline or evoked tension include increased levels of non-elicited ACh release, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase or sensitization of muscarinic receptors

  1. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  2. [Relaxant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nym. ex A. W Hill, Apiaceae) on isolated ileum of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branković, Suzana; Kitić, Dusanka; Radenković, Mirjana; Ivetić, Vesna; Veljković, Slavimir; Nesić, Milkica

    2010-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is used in the traditional herbal medicine to treat intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley on spontaneous and acetylcholine induced contractions on isolated rat ileum. Wistar albino rats (250-300 g) were used in this study. The ileum portions were isolated out and cleaned off mesenteries. Preparations 2 cm long were mounted in 20 ml tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution maintained at 37 degrees C and aerated with a mixture of 5% carbon dioxide in oxygen. In the first part of experiments, contractile responses to the aqueous (ethanol) extracts of parsley were recorded. In the second part, increasing concentrations of acetylcholine were added to the organ bath for a full concentration response curve and then concentration response curves were obtained after adding the aqueous (ethanol) extracts of parsley. Our results showed that aqueous (62.22 +/- 7.15%) and ethanol (79.16 +/- 9.34%) extracts of parsley in dose dependent manner decreased the tonus of spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The aqueous (32.16 +/- 2.75%) and ethanol (53.96 +/- 4.86%) extracts of parsley reduced the acetylcholine induced contraction, the reduction was greater with ethanol extract than with the aqueous one. It can be concluded that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley exert antispasmodic activity on rat ileum. The relaxant effect of ethanol extract was better comparing to aqueous extract of parsley.

  3. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of porcine intestinal mucosa infected with Salmonella Typhimurium revealed a massive inflammatory response and disruption of bile acid absorption in ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uribe, Juber Herrera; Collado-Romero, Melania; Zaldívar-López, Sara

    2016-01-01

    -regulated genes of the FXR pathway (e.g., NR1H4, FABP6, APOA1, SLC10A2), indicating disruption of the bile acid absorption in ileum. This result was confirmed by decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum of infected pigs. Ileal inflammatory gene expression changes peaked at 2 dpi and tended...

  5. Critical incidence reporting systems - an option in equine anaesthesia? Results from a panel meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Driessen, Bernd; Pang, Daniel; Wohlfender, Franziska

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief introduction into Critical Incident Reporting Systems (CIRS) as used in human medicine, and to report the discussion from a recent panel meeting discussion with 23 equine anaesthetists in preparation for a new CEPEF-4 (Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities) study. Moderated group discussions, and review of literature. The first group discussion focused on the definition of 'preventable critical incidents' and/or 'near misses' in the context of equine anaesthesia. The second group discussion focused on categorizing critical incidents according to an established framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical medicine. While critical incidents do occur in equine anaesthesia, no critical incident reporting system including systematic collection and analysis of critical incidents is in place. Critical incident reporting systems could be used to improve safety in equine anaesthesia - in addition to other study types such as mortality studies. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Adipose tissue as mesenchymal stem cells source in equine tendinitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Mattos Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendinitis is an important high-relapse-rate disease, which compromises equine performance and may result in early athletic life end to affected animals. Many therapies have been set to treat equine tendinitis; however, just few result in improved relapse rates, quality of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased biomechanical resistance of the treated tissue. Due to advances in the regenerative medicine, promising results were initially obtained through the implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC derived from the bone marrow in the equine tendon injury. Since then, many studies have been using MSCs from different sources for therapeutic means in equine. The adipose tissue has appeared as feasible MSC source. There are promising results involving equine tendinitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AdMSCs.

  7. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors on spasmolytic Activity of Hydroalcohlic Extract of Parsley(petroselinum crispumSeed in Adult Male Rat's Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raede Tavalaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: because of the side effects of chemical drugs, using plant drugs was considered during recent decades. Based on previous studies, various concentrations of plant extracts can reduce ileum contraction caused by KCl and carbachol. Therefore, in this study, the role of muscarinic receptors in anti-spasmolytic activity of hydroalcohlic extract of parsley(petroselinum crispumseed in adult male rat's ileum was investigated. Materials and Methods: The distal part of Wistar rat’s ileum was separated and its contractions were recorded under 1 gr stretching and 37oC temperature in the bathroom containing the solution of Tyrode by Isotonic method. The ileum tissue was inserted in separately in first group affected by KCl and parsley seed, in the second group affected by KCl and carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and after that parsley seed, the third group affected by carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and then the extraction of parsley seed and the fourth group affected by scopolamine with concentration 10-3 M and after that KCl and then the extraction of parsley seed. Results: Non-cumulative concentrations of extract reduced the ileum contraction caused by KCl (60mM in a concentration-dependent form (p<0.001. There was a significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol and extract concentration 0.2 mg/ml (p<0.01. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol without stimulating tissue by KCl (60mM with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of scopolamine with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml(p<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the hydroalcholic of parsley seed extract has a relaxatory effect on rat’s ileum. Carbachol with KCl has a synergistic effect on smooth muscle contraction of the ileum wall and muscarinic receptors do not involve in the

  8. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  9. Protective effect of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk on ileum microstructure and inflmmation in rat-CFAinduced rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rista Nikmatu Rohmah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of goat milk alpha (S2-casein (CSN1S2 protein on ileum microstructure and inflammation in rat-complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis model. Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of two models. The body weight, food intake and albumin level of all subjects were calculated. The ileum microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological analysis was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and the level expressions of immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17, interleukin-10, Ki-67 and caspase-9 were measured by using western blotting. Results: CSN1S2 protein of milk or yogurt could repair the ileum villi of rat arthritis group similar to the normal. The level expressions showed the immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17 and caspase-9 decreased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. The level expression of interleukin-10 was increased, and also Ki- 67 was significantly increased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. CSN1S2 protein of milk and yogurt could increase the body weight and albumin significantly, meanwhile food intake increased but not significantly. Conclusions: CSN1S2 protein of goat milk and yogurt could repair the ileum microstructure, suppress inflammatory process and also increase the body weight, food intake and albumin level. This result indicates that goat CSN1S2 protein may protect the ileum disorder in rheumatoid arthritis disease.

  10. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Dowd, Scot E; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E

    2012-01-01

    Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7) or severe IBD (n = 7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, pmicrobial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  11. Equine performance genes and the future of doping in horseracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Tessa; Baoutina, Anna; Hamilton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses. Gene doping, the misuse of gene therapies for performance enhancement, is predicted to be the next phase of doping faced by horseracing. The risk of gene doping to human sports has been recognised for almost 15 years, and the introduction of the first gene doping detection tests for doping control in human athletes is imminent. Gene doping is also a threat to horseracing, but there are currently no methods to detect it. Efficient and accurate detection methods need to be developed to deter those looking to use gene doping in horses and to maintain the integrity of the sport. Methods developed for human athletes could offer an avenue for detection in racehorses. Development of an equine equivalent test will first require identification of equine genes that will likely be targeted by gene doping attempts. This review focuses on genes that have been linked to athletic performance in horses and, therefore, could be targeted for genetic manipulation. The risks associated with gene doping and approaches to detect gene doping are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the equine temporomandibular joint anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M J; Agut, A; Soler, M; López-Albors, O; Arredondo, J; Querol, M; Latorre, R

    2010-04-01

    In human medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the 'gold standard' imaging procedure to assess the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, there is no information regarding MRI evaluation of equine TMJ. To describe the normal sectional MRI anatomy of equine TMJ by using frozen and plastinated anatomical sections as reference; and determine the best imaging planes and sequences to visualise TMJ components. TMJs from 6 Spanish Purebred horse cadavers (4 immature and 2 mature) underwent MRI examination. Spin-echo T1-weighting (SE T1W), T2*W, fat-suppressed (FS) proton density-weighting (PDW) and fast spin-echo T2-weighting (FSE T2W) sequences were obtained in oblique sagittal, transverse and dorsal planes. Anatomical sections were procured on the same planes for a thorough interpretation. The oblique sagittal and transverse planes were the most informative anatomical planes. SE T1W images showed excellent spatial resolution and resulted in superior anatomic detail when comparing to other sequences. FSE T2W sequence provided an acceptable anatomical depiction but T2*W and fat-suppressed PDW demonstrated higher contrast in visualisation of the disc, synovial fluid, synovial pouches and articular cartilage. The SE T1W sequence in oblique sagittal and transverse plane should be the baseline to identify anatomy. The T2*W and fat-suppressed PDW sequences enhance the study of the articular cartilage and synovial pouches better than FSE T2W. The information provided in this paper should aid clinicians in the interpretation of MRI images of equine TMJ and assist in the early diagnosis of those problems that could not be diagnosed by other means.

  14. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G H; Turell, M J; Pagac, B B

    1997-04-01

    An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC), Laurel, Maryland (USA), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if EEE immunization protected whooping cranes (Grus americana). Based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. As there were no deaths in these birds, the EEE vaccination program appeared to be efficacious in this whooping crane population.

  16. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  17. Effects of ultraviolet laser radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikogosyan, D.N.; Kapituletz, S.P.; Smirnov, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of usual low-intensity continuous (λ = 254 nm,I = 10 W/m 2 ) UV radiation and high-intensity laser nanosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 10 ns, I = 10 9 W/m 2 ) or picosecond (λ = 266 nm, τ p = 23 ps, I = 10 12 W/m 2 ) UV radiation on Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (a member of the Togaviridae family) were compared. The quantum yields of infectivity inactivation, pyrimidine dimer formation and RNA-protein crosslinking were determined. (author)

  18. Fat opacities dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, A.E.; Rendano, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolucencies due to fat in the soft tissues dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint were studied in 12 necropsy specimens. In lateral-to-medial xeroradiographs of these 12 specimens, focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were in another. These radiolucencies were identified as fat in the antebrachiocarpal joint capsule. The fat was in two locations within this joint capsule. It was associated with the synovial membrane of the extensor carpi radialis tendon sheath and the synovial membrane of the antebrachiocarpal joint

  19. Prevalence and diagnosis of colic in equine field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.Y.; Hazeen, K.; Manzoor, S.; Mumtaz, N.

    2007-01-01

    This field study was conducted to diagnosis of equine colic. The physical findings of effected animals were increased. The blood values including TLC (10.5/cu.m), PCV (37%), Lymphocyte (41%), Monocytes (0.75%), Eosinophilis (3.50%) and Basophilis (0.0%) and serum electrolytes Sodium (138.85 mEq/L) and Potassium (4.48 mEq/L) values were recorded in affected animals. The disease was recorded more i.e. 53.33% in 10-15 years of age. This disease was found related to the heavy work with improper food and sudden changes in feed and environment. (author)

  20. Equine Risk Assessment for Insecticides Used in Adult Mosquito Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    are synergized with PBO. PBO has been shown to increase the toxicity of pyrethroids to trout , but there is no indication that PBO acts as a synergist...Nutrition and performance of racing thoroughbreds. Equine Vet J 15:31–6 Grace ND, Gee EK, Firth EC, et al. 2002. Digestible energy intake, dry matter... digestibility and mineral status of grazing New Zealand Thoroughbred yearlings. N Z Vet J 50:63– 9 Huhn GD, Sejvar JJ, Montgomery SP, et al. 2003

  1. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  2. Application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in equine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a procedure used to screen in vitroproduced embryos or embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine genetic traits by DNA testing prior to transfer into the uterus. Biopsy methods to obtain a sample of cells for genetic analysis before implantation have been successful in small embryos (morulae and blastocysts 300 µm diameter. The successful biopsy of expanded equine blastocysts via micromanipulation, with subsequent normal pregnancy rates, was first reported in 2010. Direct PCR may be performed when evaluating only one gene, such as for embryo sexing, while whole genome amplification is effective for subsequent multiplex PCR of multiple genes.

  3. MRI findings in eastern equine encephalitis: the "parenthesis" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Joshua P; Kannabiran, Suma; Burbank, Heather N

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) presented to a tertiary referral center. Both subjects' brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T2/FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintensities including linear areas of hyperintensity in the external and internal capsules with sparing of the lentiform nuclei. Single case reports of imaging findings in EEE exist with nonspecific patterns of abnormality. We propose that this "( ) parentheses sign" on T2 or FLAIR imaging may distinguish EEE from other processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2013-01-01

    that the pathogenic larval stages of cyathostomins and large strongyles cannot be detected by any of the available diagnostics. With the lengthy prepatency periods characterizing these parasites, there is a huge need for developing such assays. The recent identification of a possible diagnostic marker for encysted...... for validated and useful assays in the relative near future....... the needs for reliable and practical diagnostic tools for detection of major parasites infecting equines. The current, widely used coprological techniques are important and useful, but they do have considerable limitations as they are incapable of diagnosing the pathogenic migrating stages. Species...

  5. Development and application of a quantitative PCR assay to study equine herpesvirus 5 invasion and replication in equine tissues in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, Lila M; High, Emily A; Nelli, Rahul K; Bolin, Steven R; Williams, Kurt J; Hussey, Gisela

    2017-10-01

    Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on EHV-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to measure EHV-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. Furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study EHV-5 pathogenesis at the respiratory tract. PCR primers and a probe were designed to target gene E11 of the EHV-5 genome. Sensitivity and repeatability were established, and specificity was verified by testing multiple isolates of EHV-5, as well as DNA from other equine herpesviruses. Four-week old fully differentiated (mature), newly seeded (immature) primary equine respiratory epithelial cell (ERECs), and equine dermal cell cultures were inoculated with EHV-5 and the cells and supernatants collected daily for 14days. Blood lymphocytes and nasal swabs were collected from horses experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). The qPCR assay detected EHV-5 at stable concentrations throughout 14days in inoculated mature EREC and equine dermal cell cultures (peaking at 202 and 5861 viral genomes per 10 6 cellular β actin, respectively). EHV-5 copies detected in the immature EREC cultures increased over 14days and reached levels greater than 10,000 viral genomes per 10 6 cellular β actin. Moreover, EHV-5 was detected in the lymphocytes of 76% of horses and in the nasal swabs of 84% of horses experimentally infected with EHV-1 pre-inoculation with EHV-1. Post-inoculation with EHV-1, EHV-5 was detected in lymphocytes of 52% of horses while EHV-5 levels in nasal swabs were not significantly different from pre-inoculation levels. In conclusion, qPCR was a reliable technique to investigate viral load in in vivo and in vitro samples, and EHV-5 replication in equine epithelial cells

  6. Age-related structural changes in the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion along the anterior wall of the proximal human duodenum: A morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aging is one of the most complex biological processes which probably affect structure and function of the enteric nerve system. However, there is not much available information on this topic, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the structure of the myenteric ganglia in the anterior wall of the human proximal duodenum. Methods. We examined the myenteric ganglia in the proximal duodenal anterior wall specimens obtained from 30 cadaver persons aged from 20 to 84 years. Tissue samples were classified into three age groups: 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 years. After standard histological preparation, specimens were stained with HE, Cresyl Violet and AgNO3. Morphometric analysis of all the specimens, using a multipurpose test system M42, was performed. The data were subjected to the ttest. Results. The myenteric ganglia of very old humans contains an empty space, i.e. the respective parts of ganglia show a decreased number of neuron as compared to younger population. The average number of neuron per cm2 of the duodenum in the youngest people (20-44 years was 69,370 ± 1,750.00, in the people aged 45-64 years 69,211 ± 1,573.33, and in the oldest persons (65-84 years 57,951 ± 1,291.52. The loss of neurons in the oldest persons was 16.46%. The applied statistic test demonstrated a significant difference between the observed groups (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. Aging does not induce changes in size and surface of neurons in the ganglia, but it decreases the number of neurons. The nerve structures in the elderly are partly emptied of bodies of nerve cells (“empty ganglions”, which indicates the existence of changed myenteric ganglia in the duodenum. These changes could be related to the duodenum motility disorder associated with aging.

  7. Activation of neural cholecystokinin-1 receptors induces relaxation of the isolated rat duodenum which is reduced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Martins

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK influences gastrointestinal motility, by acting on central and peripheral receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CCK has any effect on isolated duodenum longitudinal muscle activity and to characterize the mechanisms involved. Isolated segments of the rat proximal duodenum were mounted for the recording of isometric contractions of longitudinal muscle in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. CCK-8S (EC50: 39; 95% CI: 4.1-152 nM and cerulein (EC50: 58; 95% CI: 18-281 nM induced a concentration-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive relaxation. Nomeganitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG reduced CCK-8S- and cerulein-induced relaxation (IC50: 5.2; 95% CI: 2.5-18 µM in a concentration-dependent manner. The magnitude of 300 nM CCK-8S-induced relaxation was reduced by 100 µM L-NOARG from 73 ± 5.1 to 19 ± 3.5% in an L-arginine but not D-arginine preventable manner. The CCK-1 receptor antagonists proglumide, lorglumide and devazepide, but not the CCK-2 receptor antagonist L-365,260, antagonized CCK-8S-induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that CCK-8S and cerulein activate intrinsic nitrergic nerves acting on CCK-1 receptors in order to cause relaxation of the rat duodenum longitudinal muscle.

  8. Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities of TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolar and blood-derived equine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Brian D.; Balasuriya, Udeni B.R.; Watson, Johanna L.; Bosio, Catharine M.; MacKay, Robert J.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2003-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) infects endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages in horses, and many of the clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA) reflect vascular injury. To further evaluate the potential role of EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines in the pathogenesis of EVA, we infected cultured equine alveolar macrophages (AMphi), blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMphi), and pulmonary artery ECs with either a virulent (KY84) or an avirulent (CA95) strain of EAV. EAV infection of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs resulted in their activation with increased transcription of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Furthermore, the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly higher levels of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines in infected AMphi and BMphi than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Treatment of equine ECs with the culture supernatants of EAV-infected AMphi and BMphi also resulted in EC activation with cell surface expression of E-selectin, whereas infection of ECs with purified EAV alone caused only minimal expression of E-selectin. The presence of TNF-α in the culture supernatants of EAV-infected equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs was confirmed by bioassay, and the virulent KY84 strain of EAV induced significantly more TNF-α in all cell types than did the avirulent CA95 strain. Thus, the data indicate that EAV-induced, macrophage-derived cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of EVA in horses, and that the magnitude of the cytokine response of equine AMphi, BMphi, and ECs to EAV infection reflects the virulence of the infecting virus strain

  9. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  10. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic alterations during training of Purebred Arabian Breed equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Andrey Galindo Orozco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to 12 purebred Arabian breed equines, two adult males and ten adult females, ranging from four to eleven years old. The animals were divided in two groups, with six equines each, thus making the GI and GII groups alike. They performed 3 weekly sessions of 45 minutes. On the first 45 days, the average speed was 13.9km/h and on the following 45 days, 15.7km/h. Each two weeks, an additional session was conducted, being this one in the GI with the same speed and duration as the others; in the GII, it was with a 4-hour duration, prevailing the walk gait. The animals performed three tests on a treadmill: before (non-trained and after 45 days (1st phase and 90 days (2nd phase of training. The glucose values increased during the Test and later returned to the basal values six hours after the end of the exercise for both groups, presenting statistical difference between these, reaching higher values in the T maximum peak (T3 and at the end of the warm down (T4. Concerning to the plasmatic insulin values, these diminished drastically in the T3 of the ET in the G1 and G2 during the progressive advance of the physical effort test for both training groups, presenting statistical difference for each group and between groups. Finally, the cortisol levels were higher in the T3 of Test.

  12. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M

    2015-09-01

    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonography of the equine shoulder: technique and normal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnibar, M A; Auer, J A; Bakkali, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was intended to document normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine shoulder and anatomic landmarks useful in clinical imaging. Both forelimbs of five equine cadavers and both forelimbs of six live adult horses were used. To facilitate understanding of the images, a zoning system assigned to the biceps brachii and to the infraspinatus tendon was developed. Ultrasonography was performed with a real-time B-mode semiportable sector scanner using 7.5- and 5-MHz transducers. On one cadaver limb, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a system at 1.5 Tesla, T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Ultrasonography images were compared to frozen specimens and MRI images to correlate the ultrasonographic findings to the gross anatomy of the shoulder. Ultrasonography allowed easy evaluation of the biceps brachii and the infraspinatus tendon and their bursae, the supraspinatus muscle and tendons, the superficial muscles of the shoulder, and the underlying humerus and scapula. Only the lateral and, partially, the caudal aspects of the humeral head could be visualized with ultrasound. Ultrasonographic appearance, orientation, and anatomic relationships of these structures are described. Ultrasonographic findings correlated well with MRI images and with gross anatomy in the cadavers' limbs.

  14. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue.

  15. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  16. A radioimmunoassay for equilin in equine pregnancy plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.K.; Rance, Th.A.; Dean, P.D.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that the pregnant mare produces large quantities of the ring B unsaturated steroid equilin in addition to classical oestrogens. However, the precise biogenesis of this unusual steroid remains a mystery. To facilitate a study of the interrelationship of the steroids present during equine pregnancy, a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of equilin in peripheral plasma was developed. As equilin is thought to be a product of the foeto-placental unit, such an assay may also be of use as an index of foetal well-being. Oestrone and equilin are present in similar concentrations in equine pregnancy plasma so it was important that an antiserum was produced which could differentiate between these two steroids. An antigen was synthesised in which equilin is linked to a protein carrier through the 17-position in order that the C 7 -C 8 double bond might be fully exposed for immune recognition. This stratagem proved successful as the antiserum obtained gave a cross-reaction of only 7.3% for oestrone. The use of a radioimmunoassay incorporating this antiserum is demonstrated by measuring equilin concentrations in plasma samples taken from a mare at weekly intervals from day 60 of pregnancy through to parturition. The corresponding oestrone concentrations are also recorded and demonstrate the validity of the equilin assay in this situation

  17. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  18. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  19. Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, C M; Townsend, N B; Barnett, T P; Barakzai, S Z

    Involvement of the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) is an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in cases of the equine sinus disease. The authors aimed to ascertain if the caudo-dorsal extension of the VCS, the ventral conchal bulla (VCB) is identifiable on plain radiographs of cadaver skulls without sinus disease. Bilateral frontonasal sinus flaps were made in 10 equine cadaver skulls. Plain lateral, lateral oblique and dorso-ventral radiographs were then obtained followed by the same views taken with stainless steel wire outlining the caudal border of the VCB. Plain radiographs were randomised and blindly evaluated by two observers who marked where they believed the VCB to be positioned. This was then correlated with the true position of the VCB using radiographs with wires in place. The ease of identification of the VCB was classified as 'easy' or 'difficult'. The VCB was correctly identified in 70 per cent of lateral radiographs, but only 45 per cent of lateral oblique radiographs and 17 per cent of dorso-ventral radiographs. If a clinician was confident that he or she could identify the VCB, they were usually correct. Conversely if the clinician judged VCB identification as 'difficult', they usually identified it incorrectly. In the authors' clinical experience, the VCB of horses with sinusitis involving this compartment is more radiologically evident than in clinically normal horses. Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of this structure should aid clinicians in identifying horses with sinusitis affecting the VCS.

  20. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea N Gardner

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  1. Multifocal Equine Influenza Outbreak with Vaccination Breakdown in Thoroughbred Racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gildea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza (EI outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected. Multivariable analysis demonstrated a significant association between clinical signs and age, vaccination status and number of vaccine doses received. Vaccine breakdown was identified in 31% of horses with up to date vaccination records. This included 27 horses in four different racing yards. Genetic and antigenic analysis identified causal viruses as belonging to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage (FCL2. At the time of this study, no commercially available EI vaccine in Ireland had been updated in line with World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE recommendations to include a FCL2 virus. The findings of this study highlight the potential ease with which EI can spread among partially immune equine populations.

  2. CARCINOID TUMOR OF THE DUODENUM: a rare tumor at an unusual site. Case series from a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques WAISBERG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Duodenal carcinoids are extremely rare, and their characteristics and biological behavior have not been fully elucidated. Objective To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with resected duodenal carcinoids. Methods Twenty patients (12 females and 8 males were investigated. Their average age was 66.4 ± 5.8 years old (43 to 88 years old. The data corresponding to the clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with duodenal carcinoid tumors subjected to resection over a period of 18 years (1993-2011 were analyzed. Results The most common symptoms were dyspepsia (50% and epigastric pain (45% followed by weight loss (10% and vomiting (5%. Carcinoid syndrome was not observed in any patient. The lesion was located on the first part of the duodenum in 15 (75% patients, the second part in 4 (20% patients, and the third part in 1 (5% patient. The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor was established through an endoscopic excision biopsy in 19 (95% patients and an histopathological examination of the surgical specimen in 1 (5% patient. The average tumor size was 1.1 cm ± 0.4 cm (0.3 cm to 6.0 cm. Nineteen (95% patients were initially treated by endoscopic resection of the duodenal lesion. One patient (5%, whose tumor was on the third part of the duodenum underwent a duodenectomy of the third and fourth duodenal parts and duodenojejunal anastomosis. The duodenal carcinoid resection margin was involved in four (20% patients. Four (20% patients were subjected to a partial gastrectomy to fully remove the lesion. The tumor was restricted to the submucosal layer in 16 (80% cases, and it penetrated into the muscular layer in 4 (20% cases. All patients exhibited positive chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and/or synaptophysin immunostaining. The average duration of the follow-up period was 39.6 months (3 to 96 months. Twelve (60% of the 20 cases in this series are alive without any evidence of active

  3. [The main nutrients digestibility of genetically modified rice and parental rice in the terminal ileum of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Hu, Yi-chun; Piao, Jian-hua; Yang, Xiao-guang

    2010-10-01

    To compare the digestibility of main nutrients in genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene and parental rice. Seven Wuzhishan healthy adult barrows were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum. After surgery, seven pigs were randomly divided into two groups, and fed genetically modified rice and parental rice by a crossover model. Ileal digesta were collected for analysis of main nutrient digestibility. The apparent digestibility levels of protein in genetically modified rice and parental rice were 69.50% ± 4.50%, 69.61% ± 8.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); true digestibility levels of protein were 87.55% ± 4.95%, 87.64% ± 9.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); fat digestibility levels were 72.86% ± 0.34%, 77.89% ± 13.09%, respectively (t = 0.95, P = 0.378); carbohydrate digestibility levels were 72.92% ± 7.43%, 92.35% ± 5.88%, respectively (t = 4.27, P = 0.005). The apparent and true digestibility of 17 amino acids had no significant difference in the two rice. Carbohydrate digestibility in genetically modified rice was significantly lower than that in non-genetically modified rice, other main nutrients digestibility in the two rice have substantial equivalence.

  4. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  5. Localization of substance P binding sites in submucous plexus of guinea pig ileum, using whole-mount autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcher, E.; Bornstein, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Whole mounts of guinea pig ileum submucosa were incubated with radiolabeled tachykinins, and binding sites were visualized using autoradiography. Very dense specific binding for [ 125 I]-Bolton-Hunter substance P (BHSP) was observed over ganglia of the submucous plexus, with weaker binding over internodal strands. Dense specific binding was also seen over occasional strands of circular muscle, with weak binding over clumps of mucosa. Although very weak binding was seen over some large blood vessels, no binding was associated with smaller blood vessels. Localization of binding was absent in whole-mounts coincubated with 1 microM substance P, used to define nonspecific binding. Localization of BHSP-specific binding was also abolished in whole-mounts coincubated with 1 nM substance P, but not with 1 nM neurokinin B, suggesting that binding was probably to an NK-1 tachykinin receptor. In whole-mounts incubated in [ 125 I]-iodohistidyl neurokinin A (INKA) or [ 125 I]-Bolton-Hunter neurokinin B (BHNKB), no specific binding over ganglia was observed. These binding sites for BHSP are probably identical with the neuronal substance P receptors mediating mucosal ion transport

  6. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W. Zuercher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA plus cholera toxin (CT by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase or after sensitization (management phase. Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and CCL17 (TARC in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.

  7. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; Peixoto-Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença; da Costa-Silva, João Henrique; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000  µ g/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500  µ g/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H 1 -antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250  µ M), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H 1 ).

  8. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  9. Host genes related to paneth cells and xenobiotic metabolism are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to integrate human clinical, genotype, mRNA microarray and 16 S rRNA sequence data collected on 84 subjects with ileal Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases in order to interrogate how host-microbial interactions are perturbed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Ex-vivo ileal mucosal biopsies were collected from the disease unaffected proximal margin of the ileum resected from patients who were undergoing initial intestinal surgery. Both RNA and DNA were extracted from the mucosal biopsy samples. Patients were genotyped for the three major NOD2 variants (Leufs1007, R702W, and G908R and the ATG16L1T300A variant. Whole human genome mRNA expression profiles were generated using Agilent microarrays. Microbial composition profiles were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene. The results of permutation based multivariate analysis of variance and covariance (MANCOVA support the hypothesis that host mucosal Paneth cell and xenobiotic metabolism genes play an important role in host microbial interactions.

  10. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6 and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7 or severe IBD (n = 7 as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001. Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010, Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015, Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022, and Clostridiales (p = 0.019 were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044 and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040, were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  11. Penetrating injuries to the duodenum: An analysis of 879 patients from the National Trauma Data Bank, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bradley; Turco, Lauren; McDonald, Dan; Mause, Alison; Walters, Ryan W

    2017-11-01

    Despite wide belief that the duodenal Organ Injury Scale has been validated, this has not been reported in the published literature. Based on clinical experience, we hypothesize that the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) for duodenal injuries can independently predict mortality. Our objectives were threefold: (1) describe the national profile of penetrating duodenal injuries, (2) identify predictors of morbidity and mortality, and (3) validate the duodenum AAST-OIS as a statistically significant predictor of mortality. Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 and International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) E-codes, we identified 879 penetrating duodenal trauma patients from the National Trauma Data Bank between 2010 and 2014. We controlled patient-level covariates of age, biological sex, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, pulse, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grade. We estimated multivariable generalized linear mixed models to account for the nesting of patients within trauma centers. Our results indicated an overall mortality rate of 14.4%. Approximately 10% of patients died within 24 hours of admission, of whom 76% died in the first 6 hours. Patients averaged approximately five associated injuries, 45% of which involved the liver and colon. Statistically significant independent predictors of mortality were firearm mechanism, SBP, GCS, pulse, ISS, and AAST-OIS grade. Specifically, odds of death were decreased with 10 mm Hg higher admission SBP (13% decreased odds), one point higher GCS (14.4%), 10-beat lower pulse (8.2%), and 10-point lower ISS (51.0%). This study is the first to report the national profile of penetrating duodenal injuries. Using the National Trauma Data Bank, we identified patterns of injury, predictors of outcome, and validated the AAST-OIS for duodenal injuries as a statistically significant predictor of morbidity

  12. Duodenum preserving pancreatectomy in chronic pancreatitis: Design of a randomized controlled trial comparing two surgical techniques [ISRCTN50638764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidel Margot A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease which is characterized by an irreversible conversion of pancreatic parenchyma to fibrous tissue. Beside obstructive jaundice and pseudocyst formation, about half of the patients need surgical intervention due to untreatable chronic pain during the course of the disease. In most of the patients with chronic pancreatitis, the head of the pancreas is the trigger of the chronic inflammatory process. Therefore, resection of pancreatic head tissue must be the central part of any surgical intervention. However, it is unclear to which extent the surgical procedure must be radical in order to obtain a favourable outcome for the patients. Design A single centre randomized controlled, superiority trial to compare two techniques of duodenum preserving pancreatic head resection. Sample size: 65 patients will be included and randomized intraoperatively. Eligibility criteria: All patients with chronic pancreatitis and indication for surgical resection and signed informed consent. Cumulative primary endpoint (hierarchical model: duration of surgical procedure, quality of life after one year, duration of intensive care unit stay, duration of hospital stay. Reference treatment: Resection of the pancreatic head with dissection of the pancreas from the portal vein and transsection of the gland (Beger procedure. Intervention: Partial Resection of the pancreatic head without transsection of the organ and visualization of the portal vein (Berne procedure. Duration: September 2003-October 2007. Organisation/responsibility The trial is conducted in compliance with the protocol and in accordance with the moral, ethical, regulatory and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989 and the Good Clinical Practice guideline (GCP. The Center for Clinical Studies of the Department of Surgery Heidelberg is responsible for planning, conducting and final

  13. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  14. Effects of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata SCHERFF treated with enzyme on histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum and on histamine release from mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Horiuchi, Masako; Kamata, Katsuo; Seyama, Yoshiyuki

    2009-06-01

    The medical mechanism against type I allergies is to block the release or production of chemical mediators from mast cells or to block the H(1)-receptor signaling. We previously reported that the anti-allergic action of the dry powder from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata SCHERFF treated with the enzyme cellulosine (eMMBP) was dependent on the inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. Here, we investigate that the effect of fractions in eMMBP on the histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum and on the release of histamine in rat peritoneal mast cells. The histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum is dose-dependently inhibited by ketotifen, an antagonist of H(1)-receptor. Fractions contained caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acid and fractions contained flavonoids such as hyperin and isoquercitrin in eMMBP inhibit histamine release from mast cells, but only flavonoids such as hyperin, isoquercitrin and rutin suppress the histamine-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the histamine-induced contraction was not affected by caffeic acid, however, such contraction was significantly inhibited by rutin. These results suggest that the primary antagonists of H(1)- receptor are different from the components in eMMBP that inhibit histamine release, and that these components participate in the anti-allergic activity of eMMBP.

  15. Effect of high doses of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Key words: Equine chorionic gonadotrophin, follicular, ovulation, pregnancy, estrus synchronization, goat. ... This requires that the management practices take into account .... MOET, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer; PASW®, predictive analytics software; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin.

  16. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  17. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the normal equine carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Sartoretti-Schefer, S.; Weiss, R.

    1994-01-01

    A normal equine carpus was used for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The structures outlined were identified and described. The two techniques were compared. This anatomic description could be helpful as a basis for clinical exams

  18. Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L M; Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Salman, M D; Gentry-Weeks, C

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs. Longitudinal study and controlled trial. 246 equine colic patients. History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data. Salmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial.

  19. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF...

  20. Acinetobacter baumannii-Infected Vascular Catheters Collected from Horses in an Equine Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Devriese, Luc A.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lamote, Benedicte; Deprez, Piet; Verschraegen, Gerda; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2000-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from tips clipped from seven intravenous jugular catheters collected from horses in the Ghent University equine clinic. They originated from seven different horses. Three of the seven showed evidence of local infection.

  1. Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Equine Synovial Fluid Chondroprogenitor Expansion and Chondrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchessi, Marta; Chen, Yuwen; Durgam, Sushmitha; Pondenis, Holly; Stewart, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been identified in the synovial fluid of several species. This study was conducted to characterize chondroprogenitor (CP) cells in equine synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) on SF-CP monolayer proliferation and subsequent chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that FGF-2 would stimulate SF-CP proliferation and postexpansion chondrogenesis. SF aspirates were collected from adult equine joints. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assa...

  2. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  3. Evaluation of treatment of colostrum-deprived kittens with equine IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, P Cynda; Hanel, Rita M; Levy, Julie K

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate equine IgG as a treatment for kittens with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT). 13 specific pathogen-free queens and their 77 kittens. Kittens were randomized at birth into 9 treatment groups. One group contained colostrum-fed (nursing) kittens; the other groups contained colostrum-deprived kittens that were administered supplemental feline or equine IgG PO or SC during the first 12 hours after birth. Blood samples were collected at serial time points from birth to 56 days of age for determination of serum IgG concentrations. The capacity of equine IgG to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis by feline neutrophils was determined via flow cytometry. Kittens that received feline or equine IgG SC had significantly higher serum IgG concentrations than those of kittens that received the supplements PO. In kittens that were administered supplemental IgG SC, serum IgG concentrations were considered adequate for protection against infection. The half-life of IgG in kittens treated with equine IgG was shorter than that in kittens treated with feline IgG. Feline IgG significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by feline neutrophils, but equine IgG did not. Serum concentrations of equine IgG that are considered protective against infection are easily attained in kittens, but the failure of these antibodies to promote bacterial phagocytosis in vitro suggests that equine IgG may be an inappropriate treatment for FPT in kittens.

  4. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  5. Fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick

    OpenAIRE

    Fürst, Anton; Oswald, Susanne E; Jäggin, S; Piskoty, G; Michel, S; Auer, Jörg A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this postmortem study was to determine the fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick. Fracture configurations of 35 radii and 36 tibiae from 19 adult horses were evaluated after a simulated kick in an experimental exvivo study. The bones were dissected, the proximal and distal ends were embedded in resin, fixed horizontally and preloaded in compression, and a steel impactor, designed to simulate a shod equine hoof, was dropped from a height...

  6. Characterization and Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    provides greater amounts of test material for research than traditional rodent models. 72 The ease of breeding in captivity coupled with the fact that...A., Guevara, 528 C., Rios, Z., Tesh, R.B., Watts, D.M., Olson, J., Weaver, S.C. 2007. Endemic eastern equine 529 encephalitis in the Amazon region...of Peru . Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76, 293-298. 530 Arechiga-Ceballos, N., Aguilar-Setien, A. 2015. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, 531

  7. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2?1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population?based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine inf...

  9. Equine infectious anemia prevalence in feral donkeys from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernanda G; Cook, R Frank; Naves, João H F; Oliveira, Cairo H S; Diniz, Rejane S; Freitas, Francisco J C; Lima, Joseney M; Sakamoto, Sidnei M; Leite, Rômulo C; Issel, Charles J; Reis, Jenner K P

    2017-05-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the virus infects all members of the Equidae the vast majority of studies have been conducted in horses (Equus caballus) with comparatively little information available for other equid species. Brazil has one of the most abundant donkey (E. asinus) populations of any nation although the economic importance of these animals is declining as transportation becomes increasingly mechanized. As a result, considerable numbers of donkeys especially in the Northeast of the country have been released and allowed pursue an almost feral existence. Consequently, this large and growing population constitutes a significant risk as a reservoir for the maintenance and transmission of important equine infectious diseases such as glanders and equine arteritis virus in addition to EIAV. This study examines the prevalence of EIA in a semi-wild donkey population from Mossoró city, in Northeast Brazil, using AGID followed by cELISA, rgp90 ELISA and immunoblot (IB). Serum samples were collected from 367 donkeys without obvious EIA clinical signs. Subsequent testing revealed seropositive rates of 1.6% (6/367) in officially approved AGID tests, 3.3% (12/367) in cELISA and 14.4% (53/367) in the rgp90 ELISA. However, 88.7% (47/53) of the rgp90 ELISA positive samples were almost certainly false reactions because they failed to react with two or more antigens in IB. Consequently, the rpg90 ELISA has a similar sensitivity to AGID with donkey serum samples. Such high false positive rates have not been observed previously with serum samples from horses. Another highly significant finding is that 56.9% (33/58) of the donkey serum samples tested in IB had reactivity to EIAV p26 only. Although this could result from recent infection with the virus, it has been found that in some equids p26 only reactivity persists for extensive periods of time suggesting exposure to antigens

  10. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  11. Development, application, and validation of a survey for infectious disease control practices at equine boarding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Alanna T; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Hill, Ashley E; Kogan, Lori R; Morley, Paul S; Heird, James C

    2010-11-15

    To develop a questionnaire for self-assessment of biosecurity practices at equine boarding facilities and to evaluate infectious disease control practices in these facilities in Colorado. Cross-sectional study. 64 equine boarding facilities in Colorado. Survey questions were rated according to importance for prevention and containment of equine infectious diseases. Point values (range, 0 to 20) were assigned for possible responses, with greater values given for optimal infection control methods. Questionnaires were mailed to equine boarding facilities in Colorado advertised on the World Wide Web. Survey responses were compared with assessments made by a member of the research team during visits to 30 randomly selected facilities. Agreement among results was analyzed via a kappa test and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect. Survey responses were received for 64 of 163 (39%) equine boarding facilities. Scores ranged from 106 to 402 points (maximum possible score, 418). Most facilities received better scores for movement and housing of equids than for other sections of the survey. Respondents at 24 of 48 (50%) facilities that routinely received new equids reported isolation of new arrivals. Agreement between self-assessment by survey respondents and evaluation by a member of the research team was determined to be fair to substantial. Most equine boarding facilities have opportunities to improve measures for prevention or containment of contagious diseases (eg, isolation of newly arrived equids and use of written health management protocols). Most self-assessments of infection control practices were accurate.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

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    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  13. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Complete Genomic Sequences of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Strains Used as Vaccine Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2018-03-22

    We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Nemoto et al.

  15. Auditive Discrimination of Equine Gaits by Parade Horses

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    Duilio Cruz-Becerra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.

  16. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

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    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  17. Equine metabolic syndrome in Colombian creole horse: case report

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    C.A. Castillo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The equine metabolic syndrome is a condition that can be recognized because of obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. Genetic factors could play a role in the occurrence of this syndrome. Certain breeds such as ponies (including the South American creole horses have a lower sensibility to insulin and a higher prevalence of hyperinsulinemia. The environment and management conditions, such as overfeeding and lack of exercise are factors that bring a propensity for obesity. The adipose tissue works as an endocrine organ producing hormones (adipokines or adipocytokines that affect the horse´s metabolism. The objective of this report is to describe the first case report of a Colombian creole mare with a metabolic syndrome, diagnosed by means of the combined test of glucose-insulin and clinical signs. Early diagnosis of this entity and an adequate treatment are useful for improving the life and the zootechnical conditions of the patient.

  18. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV.

  19. The short-circuit current of the ileum, but not the colon, is altered in the streptozotocin diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Abigail; Makwana, Rajesh; Parsons, Mike

    2006-02-01

    Ion transport in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rat colon and ileum was studied using the Ussing chamber technique. No differences were observed between control and diabetic colonic mucosal short-circuit current under either basal or carbachol (100 nmol/L-1 micromol/L)-stimulated or prostaglandin E2 (100 nmol/L-1 micromol/L)-stimulated conditions. Similarly to colonic tissues, no differences in the short circuit current in either carbachol-stimulated or prostaglandin E2-stimulated tissues were observed between control and diabetic ileal mucosa. The basal diabetic ileal short circuit current (99.58 +/- 22.67 microA) was significantly greater than that of control ileal tissues (29.67 +/- 4.45 microA). This difference was abolished by the sodium-glucose-cotransporter inhibitor, phloridzin (50 micromol/L) (118.00 +/- 28.09 microA vs. 25.60 +/- 4.59 microA) and was also prevented by the replacement of glucose with mannitol in the buffer bathing the apical side of the tissue (control: 17.05 +/- 5.85 microA vs. 17.90 +/- 3.10 microA). Acetazolamide (450 micromol/L; a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), amiloride, and bumetanide (100 micromol/L each; Na+-channel blockers), piroxicam (50 micromol/L; a COX1 cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and ouabain (1 mmol/L; a K+ transport inhibitor) had no effect on the basal short circuit current of either control or diabetic ileal tissues. This indicated that the alteration in the basal short circuit current of diabetic ileal tissues was due to a change in cellular glucose transport, whereas the evoked changes in short circuit current were unaffected by the diabetic state.

  20. Surgical treatment of pancreas divisum causing chronic pancreatitis: the outcome benefits of duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, W; Rau, B M; Poch, B; Beger, H G

    2005-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) represents a duct anomaly in the pancreatic head ducts, leading frequently leading to recurrent acute pancreatitis (rAP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP). Based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, pancreas divisum can be found in 1% to 6% of patients with pancreatitis. The correlation of this abnormality with pancreatic disease is an issue of continuing controversy. Because of the underlying duct anomalies and major pathomorphological changes in the pancreatic head, duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) offers an option for causal treatment. Thirty-six patients with pancreatitis caused by PD were treated surgically. Thirty patients suffered from CP, 6 from rAP. The mean duration of the disease was 47.5 and 49.8 months, respectively. The age at the time of surgery was 39.2 years in the CP group, and 27.6 years in the rAP group. Median hospitalization since diagnosis was 18.8 weeks for CP patients and 24.6 weeks for rAP patients. Previous procedures performed in these patients included endoscopic papillotomy (30%), duct stenting (14%), and surgical treatment (17%). The median preoperative pain score was 8 on a visual analog scale. According to the classification of pancreas divisum, 10 patients demonstrated a complete PD, 25 had a functionally incomplete PD, and 1 had a dorsal duct type. The pain status as well as the endocrine (oral glucose tolerance test) and exocrine (pancreolauryl test) function were evaluated preoperatively and early and late postoperatively with a median follow-up time of 39.3 months. There was no operative-related mortality. The follow-up was 100%; 4 patients died (1 from suicide, 1 from cardiac arrest, and 2 from cancer of the esophagus). Fifty percent of the patients were completely pain-free, 31% had a significant reduction of pain with a median pain score of 2 (P pancreatitis with a need for hospitalization. DPPHR reduced pain and preserved the endocrine function in the majority of patients

  1. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

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    Stefano Capomaccio

    Full Text Available The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases, as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise

  2. Allografts versus Equine Xenografts in Calcaneal Fracture Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Mehmet Mesut; Armagan, Raffi; Ugurlar, Meric; Eren, Tugrul

    Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are difficult to treat. We determined the functional results and complications of using allografts or equine xenografts in treating these fractures. We reviewed patients seen at our center from May 2011 to December 2014 with Sanders type III or IV unilateral calcaneal fractures treated with locking plates and an additional bone allograft or equine xenograft. A minimum of 1 year after surgery, a history of infection and functional outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical rating system. Changes in the Gissane angle (GA) and Böhler angle were assessed from radiographs. Of the 91 eligible patients, 15 were lost to follow-up, leaving a sample of 76 patients (42 males): 45 received allografts (19 for type III and 26 for type IV fractures) and 31 received xenografts (20 for type III and 11 for type IV fractures). The mean age was about 40 years in both groups. After ≥1 year of follow-up, the proportion of patients in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scoring categories did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (mean ankle score, 86.5 in the allograft group and 85.1 in the xenograft group), and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society functional outcomes were good or excellent in 69% and 68%, respectively (p = .986). The groups did not differ in the incidence of superficial or deep infection (p = 1.000). The Böhler angles were significantly decreased in the xenograft group. Xenografts might be preferred for repairing intra-articular calcaneal fractures because they can perform as well as allografts, avoid donor site morbidities, and are more available and less expensive than allografts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  4. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broeckx

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease (DJD is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1 PRP; 2 MSCs; 3 MSCs and PRP; or 4 chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1, 12 weeks (T2, 6 months (T3 and 12 months (T4 post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  5. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  6. MRSA carriage in the equine community: an investigation of horse-caretaker couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eede, A; Martens, A; Floré, K; Denis, O; Gasthuys, F; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Abeele, A; Hermans, K

    2013-05-03

    Equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage entails a risk of both equine and zoonotic transmission and infection. In Europe, CC398, the livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA is highly prevalent in horses and veterinary personnel at equine clinics. The extent of the MRSA reservoir created by healthy horses from the general population and associated health hazard for their daily caretakers is, however, unknown. This study aimed at screening healthy horse-caretaker couples from a broad range of home farms. At five equine gatherings, 166 couples were selected for MRSA screening in the anterior nares and participation in an epidemiologic survey. All MRSA isolates were subjected to genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Only 4 humans (2.4%) and 2 of their horses (1.2%) tested MRSA positive. Within the 2 couples where both partners were positive, man and horse carried isolates belonging to identical, livestock-associated spa types (t011 and t2330) and demonstrating equal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. For all LA-MRSA positive humans (n=3) and animals (n=2) regular (in)direct contact with the veterinary sector was reported. A significant association between the horses' carriage status and transportation to an event could not be demonstrated (P=1.00). In conclusion, outside equine clinics, the extent of the MRSA reservoir in horses and their caretakers was low. Travel to an equine gathering could not be withheld as a risk factor for equine MRSA carriage, whereas indications were found that contact with veterinary care may predispose both healthy horses and their handlers to carriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Characterisation of equine satellite cell transcriptomic profile response to β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Katarzyna A; Ciecierska, Anna; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro. Upon isolation from the semitendinosus muscle, equine satellite cells were cultured until the 2nd day of differentiation. Differentiating cells were incubated with HMB for 24 h. Total cellular RNA was isolated, amplified, labelled and hybridised to microarray slides. Microarray data validation was performed with real-time quantitative PCR. HMB induced differential expressions of 361 genes. Functional analysis revealed that the main biological processes influenced by HMB in equine satellite cells were related to muscle organ development, protein metabolism, energy homoeostasis and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that HMB has the potential to influence equine satellite cells by controlling global gene expression. Genes and biological processes targeted by HMB in equine satellite cells may support HMB utility in improving growth and regeneration of equine skeletal muscle; however, the overall role of HMB in horses remains equivocal and requires further proteomic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic studies.

  8. Equine H7N7 influenza A viruses are highly pathogenic in mice without adaptation: potential use as an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaoka, Y

    1991-01-01

    Equine H7N7 influenza A viruses, representing a broad range of isolates, were lethal in mice without adaptation. After repeated passages, A/Equine/London/1416/73 acquired neurotropism upon intranasal infection. Thus, mice infected with equine influenza A viruses provide a model system for the study of highly virulent mammalian influenza viruses.

  9. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the Equine K+ channel KV11.1 (Ether à Go-Go-related/KCNH2 gene) and the regulatory subunit KCNE2 from equine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten Brolin; Olander, Emma Rie

    2015-01-01

    and conventional PCR on mRNA purified from equine myocardial tissue. Equine KV11.1 and KCNE2 cDNA had a high homology to human genes (93 and 88%, respectively). Equine and human KV11.1 and KV11.1/KCNE2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and investigated by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Equine KV11.1 currents...... were larger compared to human KV11.1, and the voltage dependence of activation was shifted to more negative values with V1/2 = -14.2±1.1 mV and -17.3±0.7, respectively. The onset of inactivation was slower for equine KV11.1 compared to the human homolog. These differences in kinetics may account...... for the larger amplitude of the equine current. Furthermore, the equine KV11.1 channel was susceptible to pharmacological block with terfenadine. The physiological importance of KV11.1 was investigated in equine right ventricular wedge preparations. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration and the effect...

  10. Inflammatory bowel diseases phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 genotype are associated with shifts in human ileum associated microbial composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Li

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that Crohn's disease (CD-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1-V3 and V3-V5, were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A. The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤ 0.05 with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides--E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These

  11. Inflammatory bowel diseases phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 genotype are associated with shifts in human ileum associated microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ellen; Hamm, Christina M; Gulati, Ajay S; Sartor, R Balfour; Chen, Hongyan; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Tianyi; Rohlf, F James; Zhu, Wei; Gu, Chi; Robertson, Charles E; Pace, Norman R; Boedeker, Edgar C; Harpaz, Noam; Yuan, Jeffrey; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Frank, Daniel N

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Crohn's disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1-V3 and V3-V5), were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R) and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A). The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤ 0.05) with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides--E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These results indicate

  12. The Relaxant Effect of Seed's Essential Oil and Oleo-Gum-Resin of Ferula Assa-Foetida on Isolated Rat's Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Sm; Hejazian, Sh; Dashti-R, Mh

    2014-03-01

    In Iranian folk medicine, several plants are used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea and spasm. One of these herbal medications are the essential oil yielded from seeds of Ferula assa-foetida L. and an oleo-gum-resin known as asafetida, which is exudated from its root. F. assa-foetida grows wildly in south and central mountains of Iran. In this study, relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses. A total of 5 cm of ileum was removed and sets for recording its isotonic contractions. The amplitude of contractions induced by different doses of asafoetida and essential oil before and after exposing the specimens with cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach) was evaluated. The relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses (0.1 0.2 and 0.3%). All statistical analysis was by GraphPad Prism 5 (San Diego, California) and comparisons were made by means of the analysis of variances followed by Tukey's test. The statistical significance was considered as P essential oil has significant antispasmodic action against cumulative concentrations of 10(-12) up to 10(-2) M Ach. In spasmolytic evaluation, our findings showed that the essential oil derived from F. assa-foetida seed in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.3% significantly reduced Ach (10(-4) M) induced contractions. Exposure to the 0.2% and 0.3% asafoetida, reduced the percentage of maximum contraction induced by 10(-4) M Ach to 43% and 12% respectively, which this reduction was statistically significant. The results of the present study, supports the traditional claim of asafoetida as an antispasmodic therapeutic.

  13. Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in HumansSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaum S. Booth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]. Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum–lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. Methods: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi–specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry. Results: No differences were observed in cell yields and phenotypes in LPMC CD8+-TM subsets following Ty21a immunization. However, Ty21a immunization elicited LPMC CD8+ T cells exhibiting significant S Typhi–specific responses (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17A, and/or CD107a in all major TM subsets (T-effector/memory [TEM], T-central/memory, and TEM-CD45RA+, although each TM subset exhibited unique characteristics. We also investigated whether Ty21a immunization elicited S Typhi–specific multifunctional effectors in LPMC CD8+ TEM. We observed that LPMC CD8+ TEM responses were mostly multifunctional, except for those cells exhibiting the characteristics associated with cytotoxic responses. Finally, we compared mucosal with systemic responses and made the important observation that LPMC CD8+ S Typhi–specific responses were unique and distinct from their systemic counterparts. Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of S Typhi–specific responses in the human terminal ileum mucosa and provides novel insights into the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a immunization. Keywords: Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells, Multifunctional T Cells, CD8+-T Memory Cells, Typhoid, Vaccines

  14. Effects of dietary symbiotic supplementation on growth performance and duodenum histology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica reared in different flooring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Coskun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary symbiotic supplementation on the growth performance and duodenum histological parameters of quail reared in different flooring systems. A total of 160 mixed-sex healthy quail (47±0.32 g aged 14 days were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design with four replicates, each including five males and five females. Two flooring systems (wire floor as control and wood shavings bedding and two dietary treatments (symbiotic supplementation and no supplementation were tested. Birds were transferred to four-tier cages for the trial. Each kilogram of the commercial diet included 224 g crude protein and 3,080 kcal metabolizable energy. The experiment lasted 21 days. Daily weight gain and gastrointestinal tract weight were statistically higher in the wood shavings and wood shavings + symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control group. Villi length was higher in the wood shavings + symbiotic and symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control and wood shavings groups. The wood shavings groups had longer villi than control group. Villi width was higher in wood shaving + symbiotic-supplemented groups compared with the other treatment groups. The litter system of wood shavings and symbiotic supplementation provide better growth performance to quail by developing their duodenum histomorphological parameters and digestive tract.

  15. ChroPac-Trial: Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. Trial protocol of a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlitt Hans

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recently published systematic review indicated superiority of duodenum-preserving techniques when compared with pancreatoduodenectomy, for the treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis in the head of the gland. A multicentre randomised trial to confirm these results is needed. Methods/Design ChroPac aims to investigate differences in quality of life, mortality and morbidity during 24 months after surgery (duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy in patients with chronic pancreatitis of the pancreatic head. ChroPac is a randomised, controlled, observer and patient blinded multicentre surgical trial with two parallel comparison groups. The primary outcome measure will be the average quality of life during 24 months after surgery. Statistical analysis is based on the intention-to-treat population. Analysis of covariance will be applied for the intervention group comparison adjusting for age, centre and quality of life before surgery. Level of significance is set at 5% (two-sided and sample size (n = 100 per group is determined to assure a power of 90%. Discussion The ChroPac trial will explore important outcomes from different perspectives (e.g. surgeon, patient, health care system. Its pragmatic approach promises high external validity allowing a comprehensive evaluation of the surgical strategy for treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Trial registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN38973832

  16. Dynamics of COX-2 Content in Mucosa of the Stomach and Duodenum on the Background of Medical Correction of NSAID Gastropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of immune histochemical study of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 level in 120 patients with inflammatory and erosive lesions of the stomach and duodenum on the background of long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs before and after treatment of damages of gastroduodenal zone are presented. Average level of COX-2 in patients with gastroduodenal lesions, caused by NSAIDs, decreased by 1.5 times and made up (2.02 ± 0.11 c.u. before treatment and (1.27 ± 0.09 c.u after treatment by the regimen № 1; it decreased by 2 times and made up (2.00 ± 0.16 c.u and (0.95 ± 0.09 c.u. relatively before and after the treatment by regimen № 2. Findings indicate the decrease of protective properties of the stomach and duodenum mucosa in case of a long-term use of NSAIDs.

  17. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S.; Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M.; Thormann, W.; Zielinski, J.; Leeb, T.; Mevissen, M.; Schmitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V max for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K m was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC 50 of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP enzyme involved in

  18. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: andrea.schmitz@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  19. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  20. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  1. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  2. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  3. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  4. From collagen to tenocyte : How the equine superficial digital flexor tendon responds to physiologic challenges and physical therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yi-Lo

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Injuries to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) play a prominent role in the orthopaedic disorders and form an important threat to both the equine athletic potential and welfare. Therefore this thesis aims at in-depth understanding the development of ECM composition in

  5. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of the Gambia: A study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the

  6. A novel murine model for evaluating bovine papillomavirus prophylactics/therapeutics for equine sarcoid-like tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Woodham, Andrew W; Da Silva, Diane M; Martens, Ann; Meyer, Evelyne; Kast, W Martin

    2015-09-01

    Equine sarcoids are highly recurrent bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-induced fibroblastic neoplasms that are the most common skin tumours in horses. In order to facilitate the study of potential equine sarcoid prophylactics or therapeutics, which can be a slow and costly process in equines, a murine model for BPV-1 protein-expressing equine sarcoid-like tumours was developed in mice through stable transfection of BPV-1 E5 and E6 in a murine fibroblast tumour cell line (K-BALB). Like equine sarcoids, these murine tumour cells (BPV-KB) were of fibroblast origin, were tumorigenic and expressed BPV-1 proteins. As an initial investigation of the preclinical potential of this tumour model for equine sarcoids prophylactics, mice were immunized with BPV-1 E5E6 Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles, prior to BPV-KB challenge, which resulted in an increased tumour-free period compared with controls, indicating that the BPV-KB murine model may be a valuable preclinical alternative to equine clinical trials.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of equine antibodies specific to Sarcocystis neurona surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Morrow, Jennifer K; Saville, William J; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2005-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM.

  9. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Equine Antibodies Specific to Sarcocystis neurona Surface Antigens†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S.; Morrow, Jennifer K.; Saville, William J.; Dubey, J. P.; Granstrom, David E.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas. We have developed a set of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the four major surface antigens of S. neurona (SnSAGs) to analyze the equine antibody response to S. neurona. The SnSAG ELISAs were optimized and standardized with a sample set of 36 equine sera that had been characterized by Western blotting against total S. neurona parasite antigen, the current gold standard for S. neurona serology. The recombinant SnSAG2 (rSnSAG2) ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity at 95.5% and 92.9%, respectively. In contrast, only 68.2% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity were achieved with the rSnSAG1 ELISA, indicating that this antigen may not be a reliable serological marker for analyzing antibodies against S. neurona in horses. Importantly, the ELISA antigens did not show cross-reactivity with antisera to Sarcocystis fayeri or Neospora hughesi, two other equine parasites. The accuracy and reliability exhibited by the SnSAG ELISAs suggest that these assays will be valuable tools for examining the equine immune response against S. neurona infection, which may help in understanding the pathobiology of this accidental parasite-host interaction. Moreover, with modification and further investigation, the SnSAG ELISAs have potential for use as immunodiagnostic tests to aid in the identification of horses affected by EPM. PMID:16148170

  10. Evaluation of a positioning method for equine lateral stifle scintigrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Marion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current lack of a standardized protocol for positioning of the gamma camera relative to the horse limb in a lateral stifle scintigram, and thus the reliance on subjective positioning, may be a cause of diagnostic error and inter-operator variability due to variations of the view angle. The aims of this study were to develop a reliable method to obtain a lateral scintigram of the equine stifle based on fixed anatomical landmarks and measure the resulting foot to gamma camera angle on sequential measurements of the same horse and of different horses Methods Technetium filled capsules were glued on the skin on sites adjacent to the origin of the medial and lateral femorotibial collateral ligaments in 22 horses using ultrasound guidance. A lateral view of the stifle was defined as the image where the two radioactive point sources were aligned vertically (point sources guided method. Five sequential lateral acquisitions (one to five of the stifle with the point sources vertically aligned were acquired in each horse, and the angle between the mid-sagittal foot-axis and the vertical axis of the gamma camera (FC angle was measured for each of these acquisitions Results For acquisition group one to five, the mean of the means FC angle was 91.6 ± 2° (2SD and the coefficient of variation (COV was 1.1%. In the 22 horses the 95% CI for the mean FC angles was 91.6° ± 12.1° (2SD and the COV was 6.6%. Conclusions The use of point sources to guide gamma camera position results in less variation in the lateral scintigram than if the distal limb is used as guidance due to a difference in FC angle between horses. The point source guided positioning method is considered suitable as a reference standard method to obtain lateral scintigrams of the equine stifle, and it will be of value in clinical scintigraphy and research. The use of alignment of specifically located point sources may also be applied in other regions to

  11. Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of equine cartilage derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous condition sin humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint......RNA in articular cartilage and chondrocytes from horses with no signs of joint disease. The expression decreased as the cells dedifferentiated in monolayer culture. We also identified an equine CD-RAP/MIA splioce variant similar to that reported in humans. The CD_RAP/MIA protein was detected in equine synovial...... fluid, serum and culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. In conclusion, CD-RAP/MIA is expressed in equine cartilage and chondrocytes, and the protein can be detected in equine serum, synovial fluid and in culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. The equine gene and resulting protein share great...

  12. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Use of firocoxib for the treatment of equine osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnell JR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Josh R Donnell, David D Frisbie Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA Abstract: This review presents the pathogenesis and medical treatment of equine osteoarthritis (OA, focusing on firocoxib. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 remains a fundamental treatment for decreasing clinical symptoms (ie, pain and lameness associated with OA in horses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, which inhibit the production of prostaglandin E2 from the arachidonic acid pathway, continue to be a mainstay for the clinical treatment of OA. Firocoxib is a cyclooxygenase (COX-2-preferential NSAID that has been shown to be safe and to have a 70% oral bioavailability in the horse. Three clinical reports identified symptom-modifying effects (reduction in pain and/or lameness in horses with OA administered the once-daily recommended dose (0.1 mg/kg of oral firocoxib following 7 days of administration. Other reports have suggested that a one-time loading dose (0.3 mg/kg of firocoxib provides an earlier (1–3 days onset of action compared to the recommended dose. It is noteworthy that OA disease-modifying effects have been reported in horses for other COX-2-preferential NSAIDs (meloxicam and carprofen, but have not been attributed to firocoxib due to a lack of investigation to date. Keywords: horse, osteoarthritis, firocoxib, COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID

  14. Equine dermatopathies in southern Brazil: a study of 710 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Dode de Assis-Brasil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of equine skin diseases diagnosed in the Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas was conducted between 1978 and 2013. The necropsy and biopsy protocols for horses received for diagnosis were reviewed to determine the prevalence of dermatopathies in southern Brazil. The most prevalent skin diseases in decreasing order were: sarcoid [234/710 (32.9%], exuberant granulation tissue [81/710 (11.4%], pythiosis [67/710 (9.4%], squamous cell carcinoma [55/710 (7.7%], papillomatosis [33/710 (4.6%] and habronemiasis [30/710 (4.2%]. Other skin lesions accounted for 25.3% of all cases studied. The Crioulo breed was the most prevalent [310/710 (43.6%]. Horses aged between 2-5 years old [230/710 (32.3%] were the most frequently affected. The data obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of skin diseases that affect horses in southern Brazil. The most of the dermatopathies observed in horses, although not resulting in death could cause aesthetic damage resulting in animal rejection, the inability to participate in collective sports activities and economic losses due to treatment and surgery costs

  15. THE TRANSMISSION OF EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY AEDES AEGYPTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M H; Tenbroeck, C

    1935-10-31

    In confirming Kelser's work on the transmission of equine encephalomyelitis of the western type by Aëdes aegypti it has been learned that the mosquitoes must be fed virus of high titer if positive results are to be secured. A period of from 4 to 5 days after feeding either on infected guinea pigs or on brain containing virus must elapse before the disease is transmitted by biting, but after this time transmission regularly results for a period of about 2 months. By inoculation, virus can be demonstrated in the bodies of infected mosquitoes for the duration of life. Although virus multiplies in the mosquitoes and is generally distributed in their bodies, repeated attempts to demonstrate it in the eggs from females known to be infected as well as in larvae, pupae, and adults from such eggs have been uniformly negative. Larvae have not taken up virus added to the water in which they were living. Male mosquitoes have been infected with virus by feeding but they have not transmitted the virus to normal females, nor have males transmitted the virus from infected to normal females. When virus of the eastern instead of the western type is used transmission experiments with Aëdes aegypti are negative. Apparently this virus is incapable of penetrating the intestinal mucosa of the mosquito. If, however, it is inoculated into the body cavity by needle puncture it persists and transmission experiments are positive.

  16. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  17. Osteoprogenitor cell therapy in an equine fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffee, Laurie A; Pack, LeeAnn; Lores, Marcos; Wright, Glenda M; Esparza-Gonzalez, Blanca; Masaoud, Elmabrok

    2012-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of osteoprogenitors in fibrin glue to fibrin glue alone in bone healing of surgically induced ostectomies of the fourth metacarpal bones in an equine model. Experimental. Adult horses (n = 10). Segmental ostectomies of the 4th metacarpal bone (MC4) were performed bilaterally in 10 horses. There was 1 treatment and 1 control limb in each horse. Bone defects were randomly injected with either fibrin glue and osteoprogenitor cells or fibrin glue alone. Radiography was performed every week until the study endpoint at 12 weeks. After euthanasia, bone healing was evaluated using radiography and histology. Analysis of radiographic data was conducted using a linear-mixed model. Analysis of histologic data was conducted using a general linear model. Statistical significance was set at P bone healing revealed no significant difference between treatment and control limbs. Radiographic scoring results also showed that the treatment effect was not significant. Histologic analysis was consistent with radiographic analysis showing no significant difference between the area of bone present in treatment and control limbs. Injection of periosteal-derived osteoprogenitors in a fibrin glue carrier into surgically created ostectomies of MC4 does not accelerate bone healing when compared with fibrin glue alone. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa; Bartels, Else Marie

    2015-01-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reliably can be used to assess the condition of a horse’s muscles in connection with health assessment, injury and both training and re-training. mfBIA measurements was carried out on 10 ‘hobby’ horses and 5 selected cases with known anamnesis. Impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, centre frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e.g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively. (paper)

  19. Successful practice of electroacupuncture analgesia in equine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Eldessouky; Ragab, Safwat; Farghali, Haithem; El-Sherif, Asmaa

    2015-02-01

    Electroacupuncture analgesia was used for surgery in horses and donkeys. A KWD-808 electrical stimulator was used to incrementally induce a dense, dispersed wave output at frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, which was maintained at a frequency of 55 Hz, and to change the amplitude of the wave to the best grading number for the suggested operation in each animal. Induction of analgesia lasted for 20-30 minutes, and the effect of analgesia was maintained for 20-45 minutes depending on the type of surgery performed. The exhibited clinical signs, physical examination data, and the responses of all animals were used for evaluating the periods of analgesia. Although the majority of the cases (95%) had no response to strong surgical pain, they experienced significant increases in heart rates and respiratory rates during induction. The lack of pain, relaxed surgical procedures, reduced intraoperative bleeding, and improved healing without complications were all definite benefits of using electroacupuncture analgesia in surgery. Thus, this study has provided surgical evidence supporting the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia, as well as confirming its reliability, in the field of equine anesthesia and surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Equine ( Gene in Horse (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Duk Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of the horse vascular endothelial growth factor alpha gene (VEGFα by constructing a phylogenetic tree, and to investigate gene expression profiles in tissues and blood leukocytes after exercise for development of suitable biomarkers. Using published amino acid sequences of other vertebrate species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken and dog, we constructed a phylogenetic tree which showed that equine VEGFα belonged to the same clade of the pig VEGFα. Analysis for synonymous (Ks and non-synonymous substitution ratios (Ka revealed that the horse VEGFα underwent positive selection. RNA was extracted from blood samples before and after exercise and different tissue samples of three horses. Expression analyses using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR showed ubiquitous expression of VEGFα mRNA in skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, lung, appendix, colon, spinal cord, and heart tissues. Analysis of differential expression of VEGFα gene in blood leukocytes after exercise indicated a unimodal pattern. These results will be useful in developing biomarkers that can predict the recovery capacity of racing horses.

  1. Serological survey for equine viral arteritis in several municipalities in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Góngora O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of the Equine Arteritis virus (EAV in horse populations in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Materials and methods. A transversal study was conducted by serological survey of equine (n=100 from 11 municipalities of the Colombian Orinoquia region. Serum samples were tested by virus seroneutralization assay according to the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health. Results. After testing was carried out no positives samples to EAV were found in the population analyzed. Conclusions. Although the sample size of the population screened in this study does not represent the total equine population size for the region or the country, data obtained has shown the absence of EAV infection in these animals. However, a wider study area including other regions of the country, with a feasible statistical design, would determine if this infection continues to be an exotic disease for Colombia.

  2. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  4. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine 125 I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 x 10 -11 M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease

  5. Molecular characterization of different equine-like G3 rotavirus strains from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Corinna; Liebert, Uwe G

    2018-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of rotaviruses constitutes a substantial burden to human and animal health. Occasional interspecies transmissions can generate novel virus strains in the human population. We detected equine-like G3P[8] strains in feces sampled from three children in Germany in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Thereof two showed a DS-1-like backbone. In one strain the NSP2 gene segment was of distinct genotype (G3-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2). Phylogenetic analyses of the German strains showed a relation to other equine-like G3 rotaviruses circulating in different countries. The reconstruction of reassortment events in the evolution of novel equine-like G3 rotaviruses suggests an independent introduction of the three strains into the local human rotavirus population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. Polymorphism at Expressed DQ and DR Loci in Five Common Equine MHC Haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Binns, Matthew; Zhu, Baoli; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Ahmed, Ayeda; Brooks, Samantha A.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common Equine Leukocyte Antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse. PMID:27889800

  9. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    experimental and empirical commercial use. A better understanding of equine stem cell biology and concepts is needed in order to develop and evaluate rational clinical applications in the horse. Controlled, well-designed studies of the basic biologic characteristics and properties of these cells are needed......Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread...

  10. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components

  11. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  12. Evidence Supporting Intralesional Stem Cell Therapy to Improve Equine Flexor Tendon Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha Durgam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical bottom lineCurrent experimental evidence suggests that intralesional stem cell administration improves the histological characteristics and matrix organisation of healing equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT; however, the clinical relevance of these findings are not clear. Current case-based evidence suggests that cell-based therapies improve the quality of tendon healing and reduce the recurrence rates of SDFT injuries but the lack of any randomised, controlled prospective studies with function-based outcomes is still concerning, given the widespread advocacy for and use of ‘stem cell’ therapies for the treatment of equine tendon injuries. 

  13. Microencapsulated equine mesenchymal stromal cells promote cutaneous wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussche, Leen; Harman, Rebecca M; Syracuse, Bethany A; Plante, Eric L; Lu, Yen-Chun; Curtis, Theresa M; Ma, Minglin; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2015-04-11

    The prevalence of impaired cutaneous wound healing is high and treatment is difficult and often ineffective, leading to negative social and economic impacts for our society. Innovative treatments to improve cutaneous wound healing by promoting complete tissue regeneration are therefore urgently needed. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been reported to provide paracrine signals that promote wound healing, but (i) how they exert their effects on target cells is unclear and (ii) a suitable delivery system to supply these MSC-derived secreted factors in a controlled and safe way is unavailable. The present study was designed to provide answers to these questions by using the horse as a translational model. Specifically, we aimed to (i) evaluate the in vitro effects of equine MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM), containing all factors secreted by MSCs, on equine dermal fibroblasts, a cell type critical for successful wound healing, and (ii) explore the potential of microencapsulated equine MSCs to deliver CM to wounded cells in vitro. MSCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy horses. Equine dermal fibroblasts from the NBL-6 (horse dermal fibroblast cell) line were wounded in vitro, and cell migration and expression levels of genes involved in wound healing were evaluated after treatment with MSC-CM or NBL-6-CM. These assays were repeated by using the CM collected from MSCs encapsulated in core-shell hydrogel microcapsules. Our salient findings were that equine MSC-derived CM stimulated the migration of equine dermal fibroblasts and increased their expression level of genes that positively contribute to wound healing. In addition, we found that equine MSCs packaged in core-shell hydrogel microcapsules had similar effects on equine dermal fibroblast migration and gene expression, indicating that microencapsulation of MSCs does not interfere with the release of bioactive factors. Our results demonstrate that the use of CM from MSCs might be a promising

  14. Risk factors for equine fractures in Thoroughbred flat racing in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopoulos, Stamatis Panagiotis; Parkin, Tim D.H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with equine fractures in flat horse racing of Thoroughbreds in North America. Equine fractures were defined as any fracture sustained by a horse during a race. This was a cohort study that made use of all starts from the racecourses reporting injuries. The analysis was based on 2,201,152 racing starts that represent 91% of all official racing starts in the USA and Canada from 1 st January 2009–31 st December 2014. Approximately 3,99...

  15. Sparse evidence for equine or avian influenza virus infections among Mongolian adults with animal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, Mongolia has experienced recurrent epizootics of equine influenza virus (EIV) among its 2·1 million horses and multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus via migrating birds. No human EIV or HPAI infections have been reported. In 2009, 439 adults in Mongolia were enrolled in a population-based study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of infection with nine avian, three human, and one equine influenza virus strains. Seroreactivity was sparse among participants suggesting little human risk of zoonotic influenza infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pancreatic Polypeptide Cell Proliferation in the Pancreas and Duodenum Coexisting in a Patient With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Treated With a GLP-1 Analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmon, Geoffrey A; Wren, J David; Nguyen, Christophe L; Pour, Parviz M

    2017-07-01

    A partial pancreaticogastrodudenectomy was performed on a 66-year old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus because of an invasive, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in the head of the pancreas. In the adjacent grossly normal tissue of the uncinate process, there was a massive proliferation of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells confined to this region and showed invasive pattern. Strikingly, in the heaped area of his duodenum, there was a strikingly large number of PP, glucagon, a few insulin cells in a mini-islet-like patterns composed of glucagon and insulin cells. Among the etiological factors, the possible long-lasting effects of the GLP-1 analog, with which the patient was treated, are discussed. This is the first report in the literature of both the coexistence of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma and invasive PPoma and the occurrence of PP and insulin cells in human duodenal mucosa.

  17. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  18. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  19. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Kelen Patrick T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN. The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  20. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kelen, Patrick T; Downs, Joni A; Stark, Lillian M; Loraamm, Rebecca W; Anderson, James H; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-11-05

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005-2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida.

  1. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  2. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Structural protein relationships among eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1994-11-01

    We have re-evaluated the relationships among the polypeptides of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses using SDS-PAGE and peptide mapping of individual virion proteins. Four to five distinct polypeptide bands were detected upon SDS-PAGE analysis of viruses: the E1, E2 and C proteins normally associated with alphavirus virions, as well as an additional more rapidly-migrating E2-associated protein and a high M(r) (HMW) protein. In contrast with previous findings by others, the electrophoretic profiles of the virion proteins of EEE viruses displayed a marked correlation with serotype. The protein profiles of the 33 North American (NA)-serotype viruses examined were remarkably homogeneous, with variation detected only in the E1 protein of two isolates. In contrast, considerable heterogeneity was observed in the migration profiles of both the E1 and E2 glycoproteins of the 13 South American (SA)-type viruses examined. Peptide mapping of individual virion proteins using limited proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease confirmed that, in addition to the homogeneity evident among NA-type viruses and relative heterogeneity among SA-type viruses, the E1 and E2 proteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses exhibited serotype-specific structural variation. The C protein was highly conserved among isolates of both virus serotypes. Endoglycosidase analyses of intact virions did not reveal substantial glycosylation differences between the glycoproteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses. Both the HMW protein and the E2 protein (doublet) of EEE virus appeared to contain, at least in part, high-mannose type N-linked oligosaccharides. No evidence of O-linked glycans was found on either the E1 or the E2 glycoprotein. Despite the observed structural differences between proteins of NA- and SA-type viruses, Western blot analyses utilizing polyclonal antibodies indicated that immunoreactive epitopes appeared to be conserved.

  4. The effects of multiple anaesthetic episodes on equine recovery quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J P; Simon, B T; Coleman, M; Martinez, E A; Lepiz, M A; Watts, A E

    2018-01-01

    Although rare, 70% of equine fatalities during recovery from general anaesthesia (GA) are due to catastrophic fractures from poor recovery quality. To determine the effect of repeated GA recovery on GA recovery quality. Experimental blinded trial. Eight adult horses underwent six GA events on sevoflurane for distal limb MRI examination over a 14-week period. Prior to GA recovery, xylazine was administered. Randomly ordered video-recorded GA recoveries were scored by three blinded board certified veterinary anaesthesiologists, unaware of patient identity or GA event number, for nine parameters using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) where 0 = worst and 100 = best. The number of attempts to stand, duration of lateral and sternal recumbency, total recovery duration and physiologic parameters during each GA event were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences. Agreement between observer VAS scores was determined via inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation. With GA recovery experience, VAS scores for balance and coordination, knuckling, and overall quality of recovery were improved and the duration of lateral recumbency was increased. There were no differences in total recovery duration, number of attempts to stand, physiologic parameters other than heart rate during GA, or VAS scores for activity in lateral recumbency, move to sternal, move to stand, or strength. Each GA event was relatively short and there was no surgical stimulation. The same results may not occur if there was surgical stimulation and pain during each GA event. Recovery from GA improves with multiple anaesthetic episodes in horses. Clinicians can advise clients that horses are likely to have better GA recovery on repeated GA recovery due to improved balance and coordination and reduced knuckling. Additionally, there is no change in anaesthetic morbidity with six repeated GA events over a 14-week period. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

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    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  6. Horseplay: Equine performance and creaturely acts in cinema

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    Stella Hockenhull

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Béla Tarr’s latest and reputedly final film The Turin Horse (2011, the horse (Ricsi, as the title of the film indicates, leaves the spectator in no doubt that she is an important, if not the most important, individual within the narrative. However, unlike most films which feature animals as central protagonists, at no juncture is the horse’s behaviour articulated in humandriven semantics. Furthermore, she is never presented with what Emmanuel Gouabault, Annik Dubied, and Claudine Burton-Jeangros describe as a superindividual status. This stated, neither does the director devalue the role of the animal. Instead, Ricsi’s performance can be analysed in what Brenda Austin- Smith argues is ‘memorable film characterization’, whereby animal performance is valid and ‘counts for something’. While it cannot be suggested that Ricsi deliberately acts as a character her performance is equally valuable for analysis both within and outside the context of the narrative. Applying performance theory and film theory to a study of the role and performance of the horses in two films, The Turin Horse and Of Horses and Men (Benedikt Erlingsson 2013, this essay proposes an alternative and more fitting approach to the study of animals in film. The contention here is that neither film humanises or ‘starifies’ the horses, yet all of the equine presentations are significant, as well as examples of what Michael Kirby terms simple acting. This essay begins by examining the ways in which animal erformance has predominantly been represented and discussed in media and film before proposing Kirby’s notion of simple acting as a mode of analysis.

  7. Equine platelet lysate as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in equine mesenchymal stromal cell culture - too much of a good thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K A; Koch, T G

    2016-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are often culture-expanded in vitro. Presently, expansion medium (EM) for MSC is supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, increasing cost, variable composition and potential risks associated with bovine antigens call for alternatives. Platelet lysate (PL) has shown promise as an alternative supplement. To determine how equine umbilical cord blood (CB) MSC proliferate in EM enriched with PL or FBS at various concentrations. Randomised dose escalation study. Platelet concentrate was generated from 5 equine whole blood samples through a double centrifugation method and standardised to 1 × 10(12) platelets/l prior to a freeze/thaw cycle to produce PL. Pooled PL or pooled FBS was added to EM at concentrations of 5% to 60%. Proliferation of 4 equine CB-MSC cultures was determined after 4 days using a resazurin semiquantitative assay. Cord blood-MSC proliferated with a dose-dependent response with no significant difference found between PL and FBS up to a 30% concentration. Beyond 30%, proliferation fell in the PL-cultured cells, while continued dose-dependent proliferation was noted in the FBS-cultured cells. Despite reduced cell numbers in high PL concentrations, live/dead staining revealed that adherent cells remained viable. Expansion medium enriched with PL can support short-term equine CB-MSC proliferation at conventional culture concentrations. Based on the unexpected suppression of CB-MSC at higher PL concentrations, an in vivo dose study is indicated to investigate if combinational therapies of CB-MSC and platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic or antagonistic effect on CB-MSC function. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  8. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  9. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Ven der Kolk, H. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Goode, J.A. [Agricultural Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Animal Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J.; Ven der Kolk, H.; Goode, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs

  11. Effect of equine-assisted therapy on the postural balance of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Thais B; Silva, Nélida A; Costa, Juliana N; Pereira, Marcio M; Safons, Marisete P

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether equine-assisted therapy (hippotherapy) produces alterations in the balance of the elderly. The sample included 17 older adults who were divided into experimental (7 subjects) and control (10 subjects) groups. Stabilometry data were acquired with a force platform. The Timed Up and Go test (TUG) was used for clinical analysis of seated balance, transfer from a seated to a standing position, walking stability and changes in gait. Sixteen equine-assisted therapy sessions were carried out. Mann-Witney was used to compare the means between groups and no significant differences were found in the analyzed stabilometric parameters. In intragroup comparison with the Wilcoxon test, a significant increase in the variables COPy and Area (p=0.02) was observed. Equine-assisted therapy significantly affected (p=0.04) TUG test means between the experimental and control groups (Mann-Witney). Intragroup TUG test means were also significantly affected (p=0.04) according to the Wilcoxon test. Because senescence tends to normalize stabilometric measures, the number of equine-assisted therapy sessions was insufficient to determine any differences. Nevertheless, the significant improvement in TUG test scores demonstrates that this treatment frequency was a predictor of reduced fall risk in the elderly. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under number ACTRN12610000534088.

  12. The Efficacy of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies on Improving Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, B Rhett; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the physical benefits of therapeutic horseback riding and hippotherapy and suggest directions for future research. Review of databases for peer-reviewed articles related to equine-assisted activities and therapies. Databases included MEDLINE via EBSCO, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Academic Search Complete. Articles were limited to those with full-text access published in English since 1987. Acute and residual improvements in physical benefits, such as gross motor function (e.g., walking, running, jumping), spasticity, muscle symmetry, posture, balance, and gait occur in adults and children with varying disabilities. The benefits appear to be greatest following multiweek interventions with one or more sessions per week. Modest acute cardiovascular responses are observed during equine-assisted activities and therapies with little or no evidence for training improvements in heart rate or blood pressure at rest or during riding. The present body of literature provides evidence that equine-assisted activities and therapies are an effective means of improving many measures of physical health. However, more controlled trials are urgently needed to strengthen the current knowledge base, establish dose-response characteristics of equine-assisted activities and therapies, and explore the physiologic basis for the promising results suggested from the literature.

  13. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ENDOPARASITES OF EQUINES IN ALBANIA

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    Rezart Postoli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of parasites in equines in Albania, where there is still a considerable number of working equines, particularly the donkeys. A total of 336 (68 horses, 190 donkeys and 78 mules faecal samples were tested using standard coprological methods. The results showed that an average of about 47.8% of animals used to obtain faecal samples, were infected with one or more parasitic elements. In particular, amongst the examined equines, 60.3% of the horses, 44.2% of the donkeys and 46.2% of the mules were infected. Strongylus spp. was found in 47.3%, Anoplocephala spp. in 3.8%, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi in 7.6% and Parascaris equorum in 1.9% of the animals. Strongyles were significantly more prevalent between October and December compared to the rest of the year. Examination of larval cultures according to geographical distribution, showed that 41%, 43% and 44% of individuals were found positive for small strongyles. A total of 11 (8.9, 15 (16.9 and 19 (15.3 individuals according to above geographical distribution were found infected with Strongylus vulgaris.Key words: equine, epidemiology, strongyles, blood parasites, serology

  15. Equine viral arteritis in breeding and sport horses in central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Lopez, Fatima; Newton, Richard; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ana; Ireland, Joanne; Mughini-Gras, Lapo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Moreno, Miguel A; Fores, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA) may have a high economic impact on breeding stud farms due to the occurrence of EVA-associated abortion outbreaks and the ability of the virus to persist in carrier stallions. While the consequences of EVA in premises with sport horses are usually less severe, the first

  16. Effect of cytokines and ovarian steroids on equine endometrial function: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvao, A.; Valente, L.; Skarzynski, D.J.; Szostek, A.; Piotrowska-Tomala, K.; Rebordao, M.R.; Mateus, L.; Ferreira-Dias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of immune-endocrine interactions in the equine endometrium is not fully understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate the presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), Fas ligand (FASLG) and their receptors in the mare endometrium throughout

  17. Induction of Pluripotency in Adult Equine Fibroblasts without c-MYC

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    Khodadad Khodadadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts on isolation of pluripotent equine embryonic stem (ES cells, to date there are few reports about successful isolation of ESCs and no report of in vivo differentiation of this important companion species. We report the induction of pluripotency in adult equine fibroblasts via retroviral transduction with three transcription factors using OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 in the absence of c-MYC. The cell lines were maintained beyond 27 passages (more than 11 months and characterized. The equine iPS (EiPS cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase by histochemical staining and expressed OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, and SSEA4. Gene expression analysis of the cells showed the expression of OCT4, SOX2 NANOG, and STAT3. The cell lines retained a euploid chromosome count of 64 after long-term culture cryopreservation. The EiPS demonstrated differentiation capacity for the three embryonic germ layers both in vitro by embryoid bodies (EBs formation and in vivo by teratoma formation. In conclusion, we report the derivation of iPS cells from equine adult fibroblasts and long-term maintenance using either of the three reprogramming factors.

  18. Risk of equine infectious disease transmission by non-race horse movements in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Yoko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    For determining surveillance programs or infectious disease countermeasures, risk evaluation approaches have been recently undertaken in the field of animal health. In the present study, to help establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases, we evaluated the potential risk of equine infectious disease transmission in non-race horses from the viewpoints of horse movements and health management practices by conducting a survey of non-race horse holdings. From the survey, the non-race horse population was classified into the following five sectors based on their purposes: the equestrian sector, private owner sector, exhibition sector, fattening sector and others. Our survey results showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had the largest population sizes, and movements between and within these sectors occurred quite frequently, while there was little movement in the other sectors. Qualitative evaluation showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had relatively high risks of equine infectious disease transmission through horse movements. Therefore, it would be effective to concentrate on these two sectors when implementing surveillance or preventative measures. Special priority should be given to the private owner sector because this sector has not implemented inspection and vaccination well compared with the equestrian sector, which possesses a high compliance rate for these practices. This qualitative risk evaluation focused on horse movements and health management practices could provide a basis for further risk evaluation to establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases.

  19. Clinical nutrition counselling service in the veterinary hospital: retrospective analysis of equine patients and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (equine population. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Hold your horses: A comparison of human laryngomalacia with analogous equine airway pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachael J; Butterell, Matthew J; Constable, James D; Daniel, Matija

    2018-02-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in infants. Dynamic airway collapse is also a well-recognised entity in horses and an important cause of surgical veterinary intervention. We compare the aetiology, clinical features and management of human laryngomalacia with equine dynamic airway collapse. A structured review of the PubMed, the Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews). There are numerous equine conditions that cause dynamic airway collapse defined specifically by the anatomical structures involved. Axial Deviation of the Aryepiglottic Folds (ADAF) is the condition most clinically analogous to laryngomalacia in humans, and is likewise most prevalent in the immature equine airway. Both conditions are managed either conservatively, or if symptoms require it, with surgical intervention. The operative procedures performed for ADAF and laryngomalacia are technically comparable. Dynamic collapse of the equine larynx, especially ADAF, is clinically similar to human laryngomalacia, and both are treated in a similar fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  2. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Student Oriented Learning Outlines (SOLOs) in an Equine Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogan, Kathleen S.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined if the use of the student oriented learning outline (SOLO) in a University of Arkansas equine production classroom had a positive influence in three areas: mastery of material taught, retention of material taught and voluntary positive student behaviors related to the use of course material. Thirty-one students who were…

  4. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. Recently, S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especi...

  5. Assessment of equine waste as a biomass resource in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine operations may generate excessive quantities of biomass (manure and used bedding) that could either become a waste or a resource, especially when the biomass is developed as an alternative energy source. Using the generated biomass as a resource can involve a variety of approaches such as la...

  6. Comparative molecular analysis substantiates zoonotic potential of equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Monecke, Stefan; Ruscher, Claudia; Friedrich, Alexander W; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Soba, Alexandra; Wleklinski, Claus-G; Wieler, Lothar H; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    Despite the increasing importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medicine, knowledge about the epidemiology of the pathogen in horses is still poor. The phylogenetic relationship of strains of human and equine origins has been addressed before, usually by

  7. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), a debilitating neurologic disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma...

  8. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  9. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaoglu, Cetin R.; Sengul, G.; Aydin, Ismail H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple schwannomas in the absence of neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in the literature. We present a 56-year-old female with a history of severe leg and back pain on the left side for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 4 schwannomas located in the cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease. (author)

  10. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  11. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  12. Equine Education Programs and Related Studies as Found in Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, Carol L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and scope of equine education programs being offered in the colleges and universities throughout the country and the attitudes of specialists toward these programs. The paper is organized into five major categories: (1) introduction, statement of purpose, design and scope of the study, and…

  13. Equine-Assisted Learning in Youths At-Risk for School or Social Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, New Fei; Zhou, Jonathan; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Kua, Phek Hui Jade

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether a three-month equine-assisted learning program improved measures of character skills in two independent cohorts of Year 1 youths, in a specialized secondary school for youths with difficulties coping with mainstream curriculum. In 2013, 75 students underwent intervention while 82 students did not. In 2014, 58 students…

  14. Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

    2002-09-28

    Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors for infection with equine coronavirus in healthy horses in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, L.J.; James, K.; Mapes, S.M.; Theelen, M.J.P.; Pusterla, N.

    2017-01-01

    Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered an enteric pathogen of foals and has only recently been associated with infections in adult horses. Seroprevalence data is needed to better understand the epidemiology of ECoV in adult horses, evaluate diagnostic modalities and develop preventive measures. The

  16. Parent Perceptions of Psychosocial Outcomes of Equine-Assisted Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vanessa Xue-Ling; Simmonds, Janette Graetz

    2018-01-01

    This research explored parents' perceptions of the psychosocial outcomes of their children's experience of receiving equine-assisted interventions (EAI). Participants were the parents of six children (aged 3-14) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted and the transcript data was analysed using…

  17. An improved vitrification protocol for equine immature oocytes, resulting in a first live foal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Escribano, N.; Bogado Pascottini, O.; Woelders, H.; Vandenberghe, L.; Schauwer, De C.; Govaere, J.; Abbeel, Van den E.; Vullers, T.; Ververs, C.; Roels, K.; De Velde, Van M.; Soom, van A.; Smits, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The success rate for vitrification of immature equine oocytes is low. Although vitrified-warmed oocytes are able to mature, further embryonic development appears to be compromised. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare two vitrification protocols, and to examine the effect of

  18. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from equine bone marrow and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Orthopaedic injury is the most common cause of lost training days or premature retirement in the equine athlete. Cell-based therapies are a potential new treatment option in musculo-skeletal diseases. Mesenthymal stromal cells (MSC) have been derived from multiple sources in the horse...

  19. Embryo-maternal communication during the first 4 weeks of equine pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stout, Tom A E

    2016-01-01

    The first month of equine pregnancy covers a period of rapid growth and development, during which the single-cell zygote metamorphoses into an embryo with a functional circulation and precursors of many important organs, enclosed within extraembryonic membranes responsible for nutrient uptake and

  20. serologic evidence of equine h7 influenza virus in polo horses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    disease signs in horses, the infection produced by equine-2 viruses is typically ... 1992; FAOSTAT, 2008) and majority are use for playing the game of polo. Polo is a ... Seven samples. (17.5%) had antibodies levels of 5,120-20,480 and only one .... Adeyefa, C. A. O., McCauley, J. W., Danefi, A. I., Kalejaiye, O.A.,. Bakare, A.