Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naqvi, Farzana
1997-01-01
In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)
Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu
2016-01-01
To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guohua Fang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.
Srisamran, Supree
This dissertation examines the potential impacts of three electricity policies on the economy of Thailand in terms of macroeconomic performance, income distribution, and unemployment rate. The three considered policies feature responses to potential disruption of imported natural gas used in electricity generation, alternative combinations (portfolios) of fuel feedstock for electricity generation, and increases in investment and local electricity consumption. The evaluation employs Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) approach with the extension of electricity generation and transmission module to simulate the counterfactual scenario for each policy. The dissertation consists of five chapters. Chapter one begins with a discussion of Thailand's economic condition and is followed by a discussion of the current state of electricity generation and consumption and current issues in power generation. The security of imported natural gas in power generation is then briefly discussed. The persistence of imported natural gas disruption has always caused trouble to the country, however, the economic consequences of this disruption have not yet been evaluated. The current portfolio of power generation and the concerns it raises are then presented. The current portfolio of power generation is heavily reliant upon natural gas and so needs to be diversified. Lastly, the anticipated increase in investment and electricity consumption as a consequence of regional integration is discussed. Chapter two introduces the CGE model, its background and limitations. Chapter three reviews relevant literature of the CGE method and its application in electricity policies. In addition, the submodule characterizing the network of electricity generation and distribution and the method of its integration with the CGE model are explained. Chapter four presents the findings of the policy simulations. The first simulation illustrates the consequences of responses to disruptions in natural gas imports
Structural Adjustment Policy Experiments: The Use of Philippine CGE Models
Cororaton, Caesar B.
1994-01-01
This paper reviews the general structure of the following general computable general equilibrium (CGE): the APEX model, Habito’s second version of the PhilCGE model, Cororaton’s CGE model and Bautista’s first CGE model. These models are chosen as they represent the range of recently constructed CGE models of the Philippine economy. They also represent two schools of thought in CGE modeling: the well defined neoclassical, Walrasian, general equilibrium school where the market-clearing variable...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Na Li
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper develops an integrated modeling approach combined with a top-down dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model and a bottom-up bio-economic model (BEM to study the economic impact of a total water use control policy in the Heihe river basin, northwestern China. The integrated CGE-BEM model is regionally disaggregated with a variety of crops and livestock, and includes the responses of farmers and consequent feedback effects in the regional economic system. The results show that under the total water use control scenario, the water use structure is changed and water use efficiency is improved. The total water use control policy has limited negative impact on the regional economic growth with only a slightly lower growth rate of 13.38% compared with a growth rate of 14% by 2020 under a business as usual water use scenario. However, the total water use control policy has significant negative impacts on several sectors, especially agriculture and food processing. It is expected cropping systems will change through a replacement of water-intensive crops with water-efficient crops. Farmers’ incomes will decrease by 3.14%. In order to alleviate farmers’ income loss and deal with water use conflicts across different sectors and regions, the promotion of migration of surplus labor from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors and the improvement of water use efficiency in agriculture are needed.
Review of CGE models of water issues
Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Roson, Roberto; Sartori, Martina; Tol, Richard S.J.
2016-01-01
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models offer a method of studying the role of water resources and water scarcity in the context of international trade. This chapter reviews the literature on water-related CGE modeling by providing a survey that focuses on the implications of different modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-08-07
Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Van Heerden
2016-12-01
South Africa’s National Treasury released its Carbon Tax Policy Paper in May 2013. The paper proposed a R120/tCO2-equiv. levy on coal, gas and petroleum fuels. Here, we model the possible impacts of such a tax on the South African economy using the computable general equilibrium (CGE 53-sector model of the University of Pretoria’s Department of Economics. The model shows that the carbon tax has the capacity to decrease South Africa’s greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by between 1 900MtCO2-equiv. and 2 300MtCO2-equiv. between 2016 and 2035. The extent of emissions reductions is most sensitive to the rate at which tax exemptions are removed. Recycling of carbon tax revenue reduces the extent of emissions reductions due to the fact that economic growth is supported. The manner in which carbon tax revenue is recycled back into the economy is therefore important in terms of the extent of emissions reductions achieved, but not as significant as the influence of different exemption schedules. The model shows the carbon tax to have a net negative impact on South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP relative to the baseline under all exemption regimes and all revenue recycling options assessed. The negative impact of the carbon tax on GDP is, however, greatly reduced by the manner in which the tax revenue is recycled. Recycling in the form of a production subsidy for all industries results in the lowest negative impact on GDP.
Environmental climate instruments in Romania: A comparative approach using dynamic CGE modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loisel, Rodica
2009-01-01
This study simulates a CO 2 permit market in Romania using a dynamic general equilibrium model. The carbon constraint is set at 20.7% below the reference emissions level for sectors eligible according to the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS). Free permit distribution enhances growth despite a severe emissions cap, because environmental regulation stimulates structural changes [Porter, M., 1991. American's green strategy. Scientific American 264, 168]. That is, grandfathering allows sectors additional resources to invest in developing technologies, but it also raises the CO 2 abatement costs because of energy rebound effects from enhanced growth. Results under endogenous growth [Romer, P.M., 1990. Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy 98 (5), 71-102] are very similar to those obtained under an exogenous growth scenario [Ramsey, Y.F., 1928. A mathematical theory of saving. Economic Journal 38, 543-559], as the substitution effects are responsible for the majority of variations; in addition, Romanian research activities are too modest to significantly impact this system. The abatement cost per unit of GDP is higher under endogenous growth, as spillover effects reduce incentives to invest. Technological diffusion continues to have a positive impact on economic growth, which counterbalances the free-riding attitude adopted by some energy-intensive sectors, such as glass and cement.
Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach
Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda
2009-01-01
This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...
Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach
Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2001-01-01
In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates
Quantum dynamical semigroups and approach to equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frigerio, A.
1977-01-01
For a quantum dynamical semigroup possessing a faithful normal stationary state, some conditions are discussed, which ensure the uniqueness of the equilibrium state and/or the approach to equilibrium for arbitrary initial condition. (Auth.)
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
2002-01-01
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of non-linear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Parameter Estimation for a Computable General Equilibrium Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. First, it imposes all general equilibrium constraints...
Approach to transverse equilibrium in axial channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearick, R.W.
2000-01-01
Analytical treatments of channeling rely on the assumption of equilibrium on the transverse energy shell. The approach to equilibrium, and the nature of the equilibrium achieved, is examined using solutions of the equations of motion in the continuum multi-string model. The results show that the motion is chaotic in the absence of dissipative processes, and a complicated structure develops in phase space which prevent the development of the simple equilibrium usually assumed. The role of multiple scattering in smoothing out the equilibrium distribution is investigated
Equilibrium theory : A salient approach
Schalk, S.
1999-01-01
Whereas the neoclassical models in General Equilibrium Theory focus on the existence of separate commodities, this thesis regards 'bundles of trade' as the unit objects of exchange. Apart from commodities and commodity bundles in the neoclassical sense, the term `bundle of trade' includes, for
A new robustness analysis for climate policy evaluations: A CGE application for the EU 2020 targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermeling, Claudia; Löschel, Andreas; Mennel, Tim
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a new method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for computable general equilibrium (CGE) model based on Gauss Quadrature and applies it to check the robustness of a large-scale climate policy evaluation. The revised version of the Gauss-quadrature approach to sensitivity analysis reduces computations considerably vis-à-vis the commonly applied Monte-Carlo methods; this allows for a stochastic sensitivity analysis also for large scale models and multi-dimensional changes of parameters. In the application, an impact assessment of EU2020 climate policy, we focus on sectoral elasticities that are part of the basic parameters of the model and have been recently determined by econometric estimation, alongside with standard errors. The impact assessment is based on the large scale CGE model PACE. We show the applicability of the Gauss-quadrature approach and confirm the robustness of the impact assessment with the PACE model. The variance of the central model outcomes is smaller than their mean by order four to eight, depending on the aggregation level (i.e. aggregate variables such as GDP show a smaller variance than sectoral output). - Highlights: ► New, simplified method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for CGE analysis. ► Gauss quadrature with orthogonal polynomials. ► Application to climate policy—the case of the EU 2020 targets
Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J
2015-04-01
We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.
The Conceptual Change Approach to Teaching Chemical Equilibrium
Canpolat, Nurtac; Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Bayrakceken, Samih; Geban, Omer
2006-01-01
This study investigates the effect of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts (e.g. dynamic nature of equilibrium, definition of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, qualitative interpreting of equilibrium constant, changing the reaction conditions). This…
Statistical approach to partial equilibrium analysis
Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. E.
2009-04-01
A statistical approach to market equilibrium and efficiency analysis is proposed in this paper. One factor that governs the exchange decisions of traders in a market, named willingness price, is highlighted and constitutes the whole theory. The supply and demand functions are formulated as the distributions of corresponding willing exchange over the willingness price. The laws of supply and demand can be derived directly from these distributions. The characteristics of excess demand function are analyzed and the necessary conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the market are specified. The rationing rates of buyers and sellers are introduced to describe the ratio of realized exchange to willing exchange, and their dependence on the market price is studied in the cases of shortage and surplus. The realized market surplus, which is the criterion of market efficiency, can be written as a function of the distributions of willing exchange and the rationing rates. With this approach we can strictly prove that a market is efficient in the state of equilibrium.
Can Migrants Save Greece From Ageing? A Computable General Equilibrium Approach Using G-AMOS.
Nikos Pappas
2008-01-01
The population of Greece is projected to age in the course of the next three decades. This paper combines demographic projections with a multi-period economic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling framework to assess the macroeconomic impact of these future demographic trends. The simulation strategy adopted in Lisenkova et. al. (2008) is also employed here. The size and age composition of the population in the future depends on current and future values of demographic parameters suc...
A climate treaty and the Norwegian economy: A CGE assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brendemoen, A.; Vennemo, H.
1994-01-01
This paper examines the impact of an international climate treaty on a single country-Norway. A disaggregate computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. We discuss the treaty's effects on main macroeconomic indicators, economic growth, distributional impacts, the impact on pollutant emissions other than CO 2 , and the secondary benefits of this reduction. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions will decrease compared to the current level. The distributional impacts are modest. Increases in secondary benefits recoup almost one half of the loss in private consumption. We characterize the uncertainty of this estimate. 21 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs
Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models
Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.
2016-01-01
A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of
Quasi-random Monte Carlo application in CGE systematic sensitivity analysis
Chatzivasileiadis, T.
2017-01-01
The uncertainty and robustness of Computable General Equilibrium models can be assessed by conducting a Systematic Sensitivity Analysis. Different methods have been used in the literature for SSA of CGE models such as Gaussian Quadrature and Monte Carlo methods. This paper explores the use of
Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)
1999-07-01
This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.
Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S.; Rodriguez, A.G.
1999-01-01
This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs
Approach to chemical equilibrium in thermal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boal, D.H.
1984-01-01
The experimentally measured (μ - , charged particle)/(μ - ,n) and (p,n/p,p') ratios for the emission of energetic nucleons are used to estimate the time evolution of a system of secondary nucleons produced in a direct interaction of a projectile or captured muon. The values of these ratios indicate that chemical equilibrium is not achieved among the secondary nucleons in noncomposite induced reactions, and this restricts the time scale for the emission of energetic nucleons to be about 0.7 x 10 -23 sec. It is shown that the reason why thermal equilibrium can be reached so rapidly for a particular nucleon species is that the sum of the particle spectra produced in multiple direct reactions looks surprisingly thermal. The rate equations used to estimate the reaction times for muon and nucleon induced reactions are then applied to heavy ion collisions, and it is shown that chemical equilibrium can be reached more rapidly, as one would expect
Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-08-07
The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.
Trade Liberalisation, Growth and Poverty in Senegal: a Dynamic Microsimulation CGE Model Analysis
Nabil Annabi; Fatou Cissé; John Cockburn; Bernard Decaluwé
2005-01-01
Much current debate focuses on the role of growth in alleviating poverty. However, the majority of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models used in poverty and inequality analysis are static in nature. The inability of this kind of model to account for growth (accumulation) effects makes them inadequate for long run analysis of the poverty and inequality impacts of economic policies. They exclude accumulation effects and do not allow the study of the transition path of the economy where sh...
Approaching equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolschin, G.
1981-01-01
The aim of this paper is to obtain a consistent and precise understanding of the available data and the development of a model with few parameters and considerable predictive power. In the following section the nonequilibrium statistical treatment of the relative motion is outlined. The time scales which determine the validity of the approach are mentioned, and the moment equations are discussed. A classical model to evaluate the mean energy and angular-momentum loss as well as the interaction time is described in sect. 3. The nucleon exchange occurring during nuclear contact can also be treated as a transport process. In sect. 4 we discuss calculated element distributions and compare with experimental results. An observed retardation of the charge drift requires special attention. In sect. 5 we treat the shape relaxation as a dissipative process and present a model calculation. The angular-momentum transport is reconsidered in sect. 6, with emphasis on the statistical fluctuations of the dissipated angular momentum. Calculated multidifferential cross-sections are compared with experiment in sect. 7. Finally we discuss in sect. 8 how nuclear shell structure can possibly affect the nucleon diffusion process, and draw the conclusions in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)
Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.
The Approach to Equilibrium: Detailed Balance and the Master Equation
Alexander, Millard H.; Hall, Gregory E.; Dagdigian, Paul J.
2011-01-01
The approach to the equilibrium (Boltzmann) distribution of populations of internal states of a molecule is governed by inelastic collisions in the gas phase and with surfaces. The set of differential equations governing the time evolution of the internal state populations is commonly called the master equation. An analytic solution to the master…
Approach to equilibrium calculations for the dragon HTR design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansen, U
1971-06-10
The calculational methods and the model used in representing the core and the fuel management operations are described. Different layouts of the first core and approach to equilibrium schemes for the Dragon HTR design are investigated. A simple fuelling modus is found and the tchnological and economical implications are discussed in detail.
Metabolic pathway analysis using a nash equilibrium approach
Lucia, Angelo; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Alonso-Martinez, Diego
2018-01-01
A novel approach to metabolic network analysis using a Nash Equilibrium (NE) formulation is proposed in which enzymes are considered players in a multi-player game. Each player has its own payoff function with the objective of minimizing the Gibbs free energy associated with the biochemical
Approach to equilibrium in high energy heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimanyi, J.
1981-01-01
With the aim to clarify somewhat the question of equilibration in the following we investigate the approach to equilibrium of particle composition and momentum distribution of the particles within the firecloud formed in the central collision of energetic heavy ions. (orig.)
Measuring welfare loss caused by air pollution in Europe: A CGE analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Kyung-Min; Selin, Noelle E.; Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey
2010-01-01
To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to 18 western European countries shows that even there, where air quality is relatively high compared with other parts of the world, health-related damages caused by air pollution may be substantial. We estimate that as of 2005, Europe experienced an annual loss in consumption of about 220 billion Euro in year 2000 prices (about 3% of total consumption) with a range based on 95% high and low epidemiological response functions of 107-335 billion Euro and a total welfare loss of about 370 billion Euro (range of 209-550) including both consumption and broader welfare losses (around 2% of welfare level) due to the accumulated effects of three decades of air pollution in Europe. In addition, we estimate that a set of air quality improvement policy scenarios as proposed in the 2005 CAFE program would bring 18 European countries as a whole a welfare gain of 37-49 billion Euro (year 2000 prices) in year 2020 alone.
Measuring welfare loss caused by air pollution in Europe. A CGE analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Kyung-Min [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Selin, Noelle E. [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Engineering Systems Division and Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Reilly, John M.; Paltsev, Sergey [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)
2010-09-15
To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to 18 western European countries shows that even there, where air quality is relatively high compared with other parts of the world, health-related damages caused by air pollution may be substantial. We estimate that as of 2005, Europe experienced an annual loss in consumption of about 220 billion Euro in year 2000 prices (about 3% of total consumption) with a range based on 95% high and low epidemiological response functions of 107-335 billion Euro and a total welfare loss of about 370 billion Euro (range of 209-550) including both consumption and broader welfare losses (around 2% of welfare level) due to the accumulated effects of three decades of air pollution in Europe. In addition, we estimate that a set of air quality improvement policy scenarios as proposed in the 2005 CAFE program would bring 18 European countries as a whole a welfare gain of 37-49 billion Euro (year 2000 prices) in year 2020 alone. (author)
Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior
Täuber, Uwe C
2014-01-01
Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...
Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.
2013-11-01
Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.
A new approach of equilibrium reconstruction for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imazawa, R.; Kawano, Y.; Kusama, Y.
2011-01-01
We have proposed a new approach for equilibrium reconstruction that can be applied to ITER-like burning plasmas. In this study, we have focused on carrying out equilibrium reconstruction using polarimetry, which is feasible for ITER-like burning plasmas. Polarimetry in burning plasmas is different from that in the existing tokamaks in two regards: (1) increased importance of the relativistic effects and (2) significant coupling with the Faraday and Cotton–Mouton effects. We found that when polarimetric data (orientation angle, θ, and ellipticity angle, ε, of a polarization state) are used as the constraints in the equilibrium reconstruction, the optimum weighting factors for θ and ε depend on the magnetic surfaces through which the viewing chord of polarimetry passes. We applied our approach to the operation scenarios II (S2) and IV (S4) in ITER. In the case where the viewing chords are via both the equatorial and upper ports, the measurement requirements for the accuracy of the q-profile in ITER (±10%) were satisfied in S2 and S4 when the measuring errors of θ and ε were less than 0.5° and 3°, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ian Sue Wing
2006-04-18
The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal
Approach to equilibrium in high energy heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epelbaum, Thomas
2014-01-01
This thesis deals with the theory of the early stages of a heavy ion collision. Just after such a collision, the matter produced - called the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) - has been shown to be far out of thermal equilibrium. One would like to know whether the QGP thermalizes, and what is the typical time scale for this. Proving that the QGP thermalizes would also justify from first principles the hydrodynamical treatment of the subsequent evolution of a heavy ion collision. After having recalled some essential theoretical concepts, the manuscript addresses these questions in two different theories. In a first part, we study a scalar field theory. Starting from an out of equilibrium initial condition, one studies the approach to equilibrium in a fixed volume or in a one-dimensional expanding system. In both cases, clear signs of thermalization are obtained: an equation of state is formed, the pressure tensor becomes isotropic and the occupation number approaches a classical thermal distribution. These results are obtained thanks to the classical statistical approximation (CSA), that includes contributions beyond the Leading Order perturbative calculation. In a second part, the Color Glass Condensate - a quantum chromodynamics (QCD) effective theory well suited to describe the early life of the QGP - is used to treat more realistically the approach to thermalization in heavy ion collisions. After having derived some analytical prerequisites for the application of the CSA, the numerical simulations performed with the Yang-Mills equations show evidences of an early onset of hydrodynamical behavior of the QGP: the system becomes isotropic on short time scales, while the shear viscosity over entropy ratio is very small, which is characteristic of a quasi perfect fluid. (author) [fr
Active Brownian particles at interfaces: An effective equilibrium approach
Wittmann, René; Brader, Joseph M.
2016-06-01
A simple theoretical approach is used to investigate active colloids at the free interface and near repulsive substrates. We employ dynamical density functional theory to determine the steady-state density profiles in an effective equilibrium system (Farage T. F. F. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 91 (2015) 042310). In addition to the known accumulation at surfaces, we predict wetting and drying transitions at a flat repulsive wall and capillary condensation and evaporation in a slit pore. These new phenomena are closely related to the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) in the bulk.
Nagarajan, Ramanathan
2015-07-01
Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to
Non-equilibrium dilepton production in hadronic transport approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudenmaier, Jan; Weil, Janus; Petersen, Hannah
2017-01-01
In this work the non-equilibrium dilepton production from a hadronic transport approach (SMASH) is presented. The dilepton emission from the hadronic stage is of interest for current HADES results measured at GSI in the beam energy range from 1.25 - 3.5 GeV. Also at high collision energies (RHIC/LHC) the later dilute stages of the reaction are dominated by hadronic dynamics. The newly developed hadronic transport approach called SMASH (=Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons) is introduced first. After explaining the basic interaction mechanisms, a comparison of elementary cross sections for pion production to experimental data is shown. The dilepton production within SMASH is explained in detail. The main contribution to the dilepton spectra in the low energy regime of GSI/FAIR/RHIC-BES originates from resonance decays. Results of the dilepton production with SMASH such as invariant mass spectra are shown. (paper)
Thailand's Low-Carbon Scenario 2050: The AIM/CGE analyses of CO2 mitigation measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thepkhun, Panida; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Shrestha, Ram M.
2013-01-01
Climate change and CO 2 mitigation have become increasingly important environmental issues. Recently Thailand has proposed policies on GHG mitigation such as Thailand’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), which aims at GHG mitigation in the energy sector. This study used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, called “AIM/CGE” model, to analyse GHG mitigation measures under emission trading and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Thailand. Results show that the international free emission trading policy can drive more GHG reduction by decreasing energy supply and demand, and increasing prices of emissions. The CCS technologies would balance emission reduction but they would reduce energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization. In the energy security aspect, the policy options in this study would improve energy security, energy import dependency, and co-benefits of GHG mitigation in forms of improving local air quality. Results are also helpful to GHG mitigation policy in developing countries. -- Highlights: •A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was used to analyze GHG mitigation policies in Thailand. •The CCS and emission trading will increase GHG mitigation in Thailand. •The 30% GHG mitigation target with 50% emission trading will give the best result in GDP. •The share of biomass resource and energy efficiency will decrease with CCS. •The emission trading will play an important role in decreasing fossil consumption and increasing renewable energy utilization
Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko
2005-01-01
At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.
A numerical approach to weak Pareto solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Červinka, Michal
2006-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 7 (2006), s. 14-17 ISSN 1335-3632. [ISCAM 2006. International Conference in Applied Mathematics for undergraduate and graduate students. Bratislava, 07.04.2006-08.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints * multiobjective optimization * variational analysis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hameed Metghalchi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order reduction that was originally developed in the framework of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. A generalized mathematical formulation is presented here that allows including nonlinear constraints in non-local equilibrium systems characterized by the existence of a non-increasing Lyapunov functional under the system’s internal dynamics. The generalized formulation of RCCE enables to clarify the essentials of the method and the built-in general feature of thermodynamic consistency in the chemical kinetics context. In this paper, we work out the details of the method in a generalized mathematical-physics framework, but for definiteness we detail its well-known implementation in the traditional chemical kinetics framework. We detail proofs and spell out explicit functional dependences so as to bring out and clarify each underlying assumption of the method. In the standard context of chemical kinetics of ideal gas mixtures, we discuss the relations between the validity of the detailed balance condition off-equilibrium and the thermodynamic consistency of the method. We also discuss two examples of RCCE gas-phase combustion calculations to emphasize the constraint-dependent performance of the RCCE method.
Equilibrium approach in the derivation of differential equations for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the differential equations of Mindlin plates are derived from basic principles by simultaneous satisfaction of the differential equations of equilibrium, the stress-strain laws and the strain-displacement relations for isotropic, homogenous linear elastic materials. Equilibrium method was adopted in the derivation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ke; Wang Can; Chen Jining
2009-01-01
Abatement cost is the main concern for climate change mitigation and the key factor for mitigation cost is technological change. This study established an integrated economic, energy, environmental, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model representing endogenous technological change for China's climate change policy analysis. This study analyzed and compared the economic impact of different approaches to mitigation commitments as well as the potential role of technological change in the formulation of mitigation targets and commitments, taking into account China's climate policy-making needs based on the current international climate negotiation process. The results show that, absolute emission limits similar to the Kyoto Protocol will seriously impede the future economic development of China, while the impact of an 80% reduction in carbon intensity, forecast for 2050 based on the 2005 level, is relatively small. Technological change can promote economic growth, improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon intensity per unit of output through the substitution of production factors. Consequently it can reduce marginal abatement cost and related GDP loss by mitigation. At the same time it can increase mitigation potentials and extend the emission reduction amount, showing that consideration of the impact of technological change when deciding the emission reduction targets is necessary.
Formation of nitric acid hydrates - A chemical equilibrium approach
Smith, Roland H.
1990-01-01
Published data are used to calculate equilibrium constants for reactions of the formation of nitric acid hydrates over the temperature range 190 to 205 K. Standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies are calculated for the tri- and mono-hydrates. These are shown to be in reasonable agreement with earlier calorimetric measurements. The formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar stratosphere is discussed in terms of these equilibrium constants.
A bank-fund projection framework with CGE features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a SAM-based methodology for integrating standard CGE features with a macroeconomic World Bank–International Monetary Fund (IMF) modelling framework. The resulting macro–micro framework is based on optimising agents, but it retains key features from the macroeconomic model...
A Standard Bank-Fund Projection Framework with CGE Features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a SAM-based methodology for integrating standard CGE features with a macroeconomic World Bank–International Monetary Fund (IMF) modelling framework. The resulting macro–micro framework is based on optimising agents, but it retains key features from the macroeconomic model...
Evidence-Based Approaches to Improving Chemical Equilibrium Instruction
Davenport, Jodi L.; Leinhardt, Gaea; Greeno, James; Koedinger, Kenneth; Klahr, David; Karabinos, Michael; Yaron, David J.
2014-01-01
Two suggestions for instruction in chemical equilibrium are presented, along with the evidence that supports these suggestions. The first is to use diagrams to connect chemical reactions to the effects of reactions on concentrations. The second is the use of the majority and minority species (M&M) strategy to analyze chemical equilibrium…
On the stability of the Cournot equilibrium: An evolutionary approach
Hommes, C.H.; Ochea, M.I.; Tuinstra, J.
2011-01-01
We construct an evolutionary version of Theocharis (1960)'s seminal work on the stability of equilibrium in multi-player quantity-setting oligopolies. Two sets of behavioral heuristics are investigated under fixed and endogenously evolving fractions: (myopic) Cournot firms vs. Nash firms and Cournot
Groundwater flux estimation in streams: A thermal equilibrium approach
Zhou, Yan; Fox, Garey A.; Miller, Ron B.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon
2018-06-01
Stream and groundwater interactions play an essential role in regulating flow, temperature, and water quality for stream ecosystems. Temperature gradients have been used to quantify vertical water movement in the streambed since the 1960s, but advancements in thermal methods are still possible. Seepage runs are a method commonly used to quantify exchange rates through a series of streamflow measurements but can be labor and time intensive. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a thermal equilibrium method as a technique for quantifying groundwater flux using monitored stream water temperature at a single point and readily available hydrological and atmospheric data. Our primary assumption was that stream water temperature at the monitored point was at thermal equilibrium with the combination of all heat transfer processes, including mixing with groundwater. By expanding the monitored stream point into a hypothetical, horizontal one-dimensional thermal modeling domain, we were able to simulate the thermal equilibrium achieved with known atmospheric variables at the point and quantify unknown groundwater flux by calibrating the model to the resulting temperature signature. Stream water temperatures were monitored at single points at nine streams in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and five reaches of the Kiamichi River to estimate groundwater fluxes using the thermal equilibrium method. When validated by comparison with seepage runs performed at the same time and reach, estimates from the two methods agreed with each other with an R2 of 0.94, a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.08 (m/d) and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.93. In conclusion, the thermal equilibrium method was a suitable technique for quantifying groundwater flux with minimal cost and simple field installation given that suitable atmospheric and hydrological data were readily available.
Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…
Description of the approach to equilibrium in the Boltzmann equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrachina, R.O.; Fujii, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.
1985-06-01
An integral transform of the Boltzmann equation with a clear physical interpretation is introduced. It is applied to different interaction models and initial conditions, relevant information about the way the equilibrium is reached. This method leads quite naturally to the introduction of an N-pole approximant of the distribution function which seems to be a rather useful technique not only in view of its simplicity but also because of its capability to keep track of the temporal evolution features of the chosen interaction model. 6 references.
Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd Zorick
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.
Organic production in a dynamic CGE model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Lars Bo
2004-01-01
for conventional production into land for organic production, a period of two years must pass before the land being transformed can be used for organic production. During that time, the land is counted as land of the organic industry, but it can only produce the conventional product. To handle this rule, we make......Concerns about the impact of modern agriculture on the environment have in recent years led to an interest in supporting the development of organic farming. In addition to environmental benefits, the aim is to encourage the provision of other “multifunctional” properties of organic farming...... such as rural amenities and rural development that are spillover benefit additional to the supply of food. In this paper we further develop an existing dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy to specifically incorporate organic farming. In the model and input-output data each primary...
Restraining approach for the spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium element
Parrinello, F.
2013-10-01
The present paper proposes a rigorous approach for the elimination of spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium elements, for three well known mesh patches. The approach is based on the identification of the dependent equations in the set of inter-element and boundary equilibrium equations of the sides involved in the spurious kinematic mode. Then the kinematic variables related to the dependent equations are reciprocally constrained and, by application of master slave elimination method, the set of inter-element equilibrium equations is reduced to full rank. The elastic solutions produced by means of the proposed approach verify the homogeneous, the inter-element and the boundary equilibrium equations. Hybrid stress formulation is developed in a rigorous mathematical setting. The results of linear elastic analysis obtained by the proposed approach and by classical displacement based method are compared for some structural examples.
An integrated Biophysical CGE model to provide Sustainable Development Goal insights
Sanchez, Marko; Cicowiez, Martin; Howells, Mark; Zepeda, Eduardo
2016-04-01
Future projected changes in the energy system will inevitably result in changes to the level of appropriation of environmental resources, particularly land and water, and this will have wider implications for environmental sustainability, and may affect other sectors of the economy. An integrated climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) system will provide useful insights, particularly with regard to the environmental sustainability. However, it will require adequate integration with other tools to detect economic impacts and broaden the scope for policy analysis. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a well suited tool to channel impacts, as detected in a CLEW analysis, onto all sectors of the economy, and evaluate trade-offs and synergies, including those of possible policy responses. This paper will show an application of such integration in a single-country CGE model with the following key characteristics. Climate is partly exogenous (as proxied by temperature and rainfall) and partly endogenous (as proxied by emissions generated by different sectors) and has an impact on endogenous variables such as land productivity and labor productivity. Land is a factor of production used in agricultural and forestry activities which can be of various types if land use alternatives (e.g., deforestation) are to be considered. Energy is an input to the production process of all economic sectors and a consumption good for households. Because it is possible to allow for substitution among different energy sources (e.g. renewable vs non-renewable) in the generation of electricity, the production process of energy products can consider the use of natural resources such as oil and water. Water, data permitting, can be considered as an input into the production process of agricultural sectors, which is particularly relevant in case of irrigation. It can also be considered as a determinant of total factor productivity in hydro-power generation. The integration of a CLEW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of
Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doumax, Virginie; Philip, Jean-Marc; Sarasa, Cristina
2014-01-01
The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scrieciu, S. Serban
2007-01-01
The search for methods of assessment that best evaluate and integrate the trade-offs and interactions between the economic, environmental and social components of development has been receiving a new impetus due to the requirement that sustainability concerns be incorporated into the policy formulation process. A paper forthcoming in Ecological Economics (Boehringer, C., Loeschel, A., in press. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: status quo and prospects, Ecological Economics.) claims that Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models may potentially represent the much needed 'back-bone' tool to carry out reliable integrated quantitative Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs). While acknowledging the usefulness of CGE models for some dimensions of SIA, this commentary questions the legitimacy of employing this particular economic modelling tool as a single integrating modelling framework for a comprehensive evaluation of the multi-dimensional, dynamic and complex interactions between policy and sustainability. It discusses several inherent dangers associated with the advocated prospects for the CGE modelling approach to contribute to comprehensive and reliable sustainability impact assessments. The paper warns that this reductionist viewpoint may seriously infringe upon the basic values underpinning the SIA process, namely a transparent, heterogeneous, balanced, inter-disciplinary, consultative and participatory take to policy evaluation and building of the evidence-base. (author)
An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model
Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko
2010-05-01
to derive the constraints for each gas over the 21st century. The main results provided to AVOID were carbon prices and GDP for each scenario case. About the carbon prices, the results show that the higher the emissions reduction rate and the earlier the peak, the higher the carbon prices will be, and the prices tend to be higher over time (536/tCO2 in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). These trends are quite different from those of the E3MG model which assumes constant carbon tax for each scenario (232/tCO2 in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). In addition, the higher carbon prices are necessary in the AIM/CGE model than the E3MG model, especially in the latter half of the century. About the GDP trends, the results indicate that negative GDP changes occur for all scenarios cases, and higher GDP damage is observed as the reduction rate becomes higher and the peak comes earlier (-7.04% in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). These trends are extremely different from those of the E3MG model which shows positive GDP effects (+4.89% in 2100 for 2016.R5.L). The differences of the results among the two models are caused by (1) technological change assumptions, (2) revenue recycling methodology, (3) timing of emissions cuts, and (4) modeling approaches. We expect to have a more detailed discussion at the session.
The Matrix model, a driven state variables approach to non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jongschaap, R.J.J.
2001-01-01
One of the new approaches in non-equilibrium thermodynamics is the so-called matrix model of Jongschaap. In this paper some features of this model are discussed. We indicate the differences with the more common approach based upon internal variables and the more sophisticated Hamiltonian and GENERIC
Systematic Approach to Calculate the Concentration of Chemical Species in Multi-Equilibrium Problems
Baeza-Baeza, Juan Jose; Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Maria Celia
2011-01-01
A general systematic approach is proposed for the numerical calculation of multi-equilibrium problems. The approach involves several steps: (i) the establishment of balances involving the chemical species in solution (e.g., mass balances, charge balance, and stoichiometric balance for the reaction products), (ii) the selection of the unknowns (the…
Approach for determining the equilibrium point in the energy sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tashev, At.; Ugrinov, M.
2001-01-01
The efficient and result-orientated management of Power engineering systems and companies requires the estimating and forecasting of the Break-even Point (BEP), where the generated revenues fully cover the costs made, with taking into account the specific natural, technical, technological and economic conditions. The BEP is not shown in the corporate financial statements but plays an important role within the financial-economic, technological and power analyses of the business activities in the Power engineering sector and allows the managers to take well focused and competent decisions. In that respect an approach for estimating the BEP in Toploficazia Plovdiv Ltd. Has been presented. It has been calculated on the basis of the 'zero' profit result of the company
Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Outrata, Jiří; Červinka, Michal
2009-01-01
Roč. 38, 4B (2009), s. 1557-1574 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : mathematical problem with equilibrium constraint * state constraints * implicit programming * calmness * exact penalization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-on the implicit programming approach in a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barquin, J.; Centeno, E.; Reneses, J.
2004-01-01
The paper proposes a model to represent medium-term hydro-thermal operation of electrical power systems in deregulated frameworks. The model objective is to compute the oligopolistic market equilibrium point in which each utility maximises its profit, based on other firms' behaviour. This problem is not an optimisation one. The main contribution of the paper is to demonstrate that, nevertheless, under some reasonable assumptions, it can be formulated as an equivalent minimisation problem. A computer program has been coded by using the proposed approach. It is used to compute the market equilibrium of a real-size system. (author)
On a class of quantum Langevin equations and the question of approach to equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maassen, J.D.M.
1982-01-01
This thesis is concerned with a very simple 'open' quantum system, i.e. being in contact with the outer world. It is asked whether the motion of this system shows frictional behaviour in that it tends to thermal equilibrium. A partial positive answer is given to this question, more precisely, to the question if the solution of the quantum mechanical Langevin equation that describes the Lamb-model (a harmonic oscillator damped by coupling with a string), approaches an equilibrium state. In two sections, the classical and quantum Langevin equations are treated analogously. (Auth.)
IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.
1999-01-01
An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours
Global equity allocation with index of economic freedom—A Black-Litterman equilibrium approach
Mohanty, Subhransu Sekhar
2006-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to examine the impact of Index of Economic Freedom (IEF) in strategic equity allocation process, in ternis of riskreturn efficiency, across 49 countries using the Black-Litterman's Absolute View approach. We have attempted to carry an ex-post comparative risk-return performance analysis of traditional CAPM, the Black-Litterman Equilibrium model and our view based strategy based on Black-Litterman's Absolute View approach to analyse whether our view-based st...
The Impacts of East Asia FTA: A CGE Model Simulation Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuyo Ando
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In light of the on-going discussions of the possibility of an East Asia FTA, this paper attempts to estimate the impacts of an East Asia FTA using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. Although most previous simulation studies on the impacts of FTAs focus only on the liberalization of trade in goods, our paper attempts to take into account other aspects of FTAs such as capital accumulation and trade and investment facilitation measures. Our simulation analysis finds that an ASEAN+3 FTA is the most desirable FTA of eight hypothetical FTAs in East Asia to all member countries at the macro level. At the same time, our results demonstrate the significant impacts of capital accumulation and various trade and investment facilitation and coordination programs. At the sectoral level, many sectors gain in terms of output and trade. Although some sectors in certain countries indeed lose in terms of output as a result of an ASEAN+3, most of them experience increases in both exports and imports, even if output declines. These results indicate that the larger the coverage in terms of membership as well as contents such as trade and FDI liberalization and facilitation, and economic cooperation is, the greater benefits can be accrued to the members.
The Impacts of Environmental Tax in China: A Dynamic Recursive Multi-Sector CGE Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bowen Xiao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the accumulated environmental problems resulting from excessive usage of fossil fuels have gradually loomed. Thus, an environmental tax, as an important policy tool, has been put on the agenda in China. In this paper, a dynamic recursive multi-sector Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is applied to explore the impacts of the environmental tax on China’s economy. To comprehensively analyze the impacts, we introduce four kinds of typical contaminants and set two kinds of scenarios: different tax rates and different tax refunds. The results show that the environmental tax is conducive to environmental improvement, but the economic variables are adversely affected, for example, the loss of GDP at the low level tax rate is 0.46%. In order to offset the negative impacts, we presume the government refunds the tax. The results show that this can indeed relieve the negative effects. When the government refunds the production tax and corporate income tax, 0.49% and 0.34% of GDP is relieved by respectively. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the environmental tax in China and lays a solid foundation for the introduction of the environmental tax.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, L.
1992-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite- mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena
Equilibrium exchange rate assessment in Serbia using the IMF external sustainability approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pažun Brankica
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The exchange rate has always been a topical issue, particularly in the last two decades, at the time of strong world economy globalisation, as well as liberalization of international flows of goods, services and factors of production, which has resulted in stronger trade and financial integration. There has been a rise in the share of trade in world GDP. Growing developing countries contribute significantly to this growth, which is evident from the data that show increase of their share in world trade , as well as their importance in international capital flows. One of the most important concepts in open macroeconomics is the equilibrium real exchange rate - ERER. Deviations of the real exchange rate are considered to be the cause of the loss of competitiveness and economic slowdown, as well as possible currency crisis (overvaluation and undervaluation. Disadvantages of traditional concepts in exchange rate assessment which are very often reflected in unsuccessful empirical results, motivate experts to seek alternative models to assist in equilibrium exchange rate analysis. This paper aims to present one of three complementary methodologies used by the International Monetary Fund, for the equilibrium real exchange rate assessment in Serbia, as well as the deviation of the real exchange rate from its (estimated equilibrium, that is external sustainability approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, F.
1997-01-01
This paper contains viewgraphs on unusual dileptons at Brookhaven RHIC. A field theory approach is used based on a non-equilibrium chiral phase transformation utilizing the schroedinger and Heisenberg picture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, F. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States)
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on unusual dileptons at Brookhaven RHIC. A field theory approach is used based on a non-equilibrium chiral phase transformation utilizing the schroedinger and Heisenberg picture.
Cosolutes effects on aqueous two-phase systems equilibrium formation studied by physical approaches.
Bertoluzzo, M Guadalupe; Rigatuso, Rubén; Farruggia, Beatriz; Nerli, Bibiana; Picó, Guillermo
2007-10-01
The effect of urea and sodium salts of monovalent halides on the aqueous polyethyleneglycol solution and binodal diagrams of polyethyleneglycol-potassium phosphate (polyethyleneglycol of molecular mass 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000) were studied using different physical approaches. The effect of these solutes on the binodal diagram for polyethyleneglycol-potassium phosphate was also investigated. The cosolutes affected in a significant manner the water structured around the ethylene chain of polyethyleneglycol inducing a lost of this. The equilibrium curves for the aqueous two-phase systems were fitting very well by a sigmoidal function with two parameters, which are closely related with the cosolute structure making or breaking capacity on the water ordered.
Random variables in forest policy: A systematic sensitivity analysis using CGE models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alavalapati, J.R.R.
1999-01-01
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are extensively used to simulate economic impacts of forest policies. Parameter values used in these models often play a central role in their outcome. Since econometric studies and best guesses are the main sources of these parameters, some randomness exists about the 'true' values of these parameters. Failure to incorporate this randomness into these models may limit the degree of confidence in the validity of the results. In this study, we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) to assess the economic impacts of: 1) a 1 % increase in tax on Canadian lumber and wood products exports to the United States (US), and 2) a 1% decrease in technical change in the lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors of the US and Canada. We achieve this task by using an aggregated version of global trade model developed by Hertel (1997) and the automated SSA procedure developed by Arndt and Pearson (1996). The estimated means and standard deviations suggest that certain impacts are more likely than others. For example, an increase in export tax is likely to cause a decrease in Canadian income, while an increase in US income is unlikely. On the other hand, a decrease in US welfare is likely, while an increase in Canadian welfare is unlikely, in response to an increase in tax. It is likely that income and welfare both fall in Canada and the US in response to a decrease in the technical change in lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors 21 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tingle, C.P.; Bonin, H.W.
1999-01-01
The analysis of alternate CANDU fuels along with natural uranium-based fuel was carried out from the view point of optimal in-core fuel management at approach to refuelling equilibrium. The alternate fuels considered in the present work include thorium containing oxide mixtures (MOX), plutonium-based MOX, and Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel recycled in CANDU reactors (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU (DUPIC)); these are compared with the usual natural UO 2 fuel. The focus of the study is on the 'Approach to Refuelling Equilibrium' period which immediately follows the initial commissioning of the reactor. The in-core fuel management problem for this period is treated as an optimization problem in which the objective function is the refuelling frequency to be minimized by adjusting the following decision variables: the channel to be refuelled next, the time of the refuelling and the number of fresh fuel bundles to be inserted in the channel. Several constraints are also included in the optimisation problem which is solved using Perturbation Theory. Both the present 37-rod CANDU fuel bundle and the proposed CANFLEX bundle designs are part of this study. The results include the time to reach refuelling equilibrium from initial start-up of the reactor, the average discharge burnup, the average refuelling frequency and the average channel and bundle powers relative to natural UO 2 . The model was initially tested and the average discharge burnup for natural UO 2 came within 2% of the industry accepted 199 MWh/kgHE. For this type of fuel, the optimization exercise predicted the savings of 43 bundles per full power year. In addition to producing average discharge burnups and other parameters for the advanced fuels investigated, the optimisation model also evidenced some problem areas like high power densities for fuels such as the DUPIC. Perturbation Theory has proven itself to be an accurate and valuable optimization tool in predicting the time between
Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin
2008-01-01
"This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...
A porous flow approach to model thermal non-equilibrium applicable to melt migration
Schmeling, Harro; Marquart, Gabriele; Grebe, Michael
2018-01-01
We develop an approach for heat exchange between a fluid and a solid phase of a porous medium where the temperatures of the fluid and matrix are not in thermal equilibrium. The formulation considers moving of the fluid within a resting or deforming porous matrix in an Eulerian coordinate system. The approach can be applied, for example, to partially molten systems or to brine transport in porous rocks. We start from an existing theory for heat exchange where the energy conservation equations for the fluid and the solid phases are separated and coupled by a heat exchange term. This term is extended to account for the full history of heat exchange. It depends on the microscopic geometry of the fluid phase. For the case of solid containing hot, fluid-filled channels, we derive an expression based on a time-dependent Fourier approach for periodic half-waves. On the macroscopic scale, the temporal evolution of the heat exchange leads to a convolution integral along the flow path of the solid, which simplifies considerably in case of a resting matrix. The evolution of the temperature in both phases with time is derived by inserting the heat exchange term into the energy equations. We explore the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between fluid and solid by considering simple cases with sudden temperature differences between fluid and solid as initial or boundary conditions, and by varying the fluid velocity with respect to the resting porous solid. Our results agree well with an analytical solution for non-moving fluid and solid. The temperature difference between solid and fluid depends on the Peclet number based on the Darcy velocity. For Peclet numbers larger than 1, the temperature difference after one diffusion time reaches 5 per cent of \\tilde{T} or more (\\tilde{T} is a scaling temperature, e.g. the initial temperature difference). Thus, our results imply that thermal non-equilibrium can play an important role for melt migration through partially molten systems
Thermodynamic description of the C-Ge and C-Mg systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu B.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The thermodynamic modeling for the C-Ge and C-Mg systems is performed by the CALPHAD method. The enthalpy of formation for Mg2C3, the experimental value of which is not available in the literature, is obtained via first-principles calculation to refine the thermodynamic modeling of the C-Mg system. A comparison of the thermodynamic calculations with the available literature data shows that the presently obtained two sets of thermodynamic parameters for the C-Ge and C-Mg systems can well describe the these two systems.
Tang, Yifeng; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2014-11-01
A nested-LES wall-modeling approach for high Reynolds number, wall-bounded turbulence is presented. In this approach, a coarse-grained LES is performed in the full-domain, along with a nested, fine-resolution LES in a minimal flow unit. The coupling between the two domains is achieved by renormalizing the instantaneous LES velocity fields to match the profiles of kinetic energies of components of the mean velocity and velocity fluctuations in both domains to those of the minimal flow unit in the near-wall region, and to those of the full-domain in the outer region. The method is of fixed computational cost, independent of Reτ , in homogenous flows, and is O (Reτ) in strongly non-homogenous flows. The method has been applied to equilibrium turbulent channel flows at 1000 shear-driven, 3D turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 2000 . In equilibrium channel flow, the friction coefficient and the one-point turbulence statistics are predicted in agreement with Dean's correlation and available DNS and experimental data. In shear-driven, 3D channel flow, the evolution of turbulence statistics is predicted in agreement with experimental data of Driver & Hebbar (1991) in shear-driven, 3D boundary layer flow.
Approach to equilibrium in a pure superconductor. The relaxation of the Cooper pair density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schid, A
1968-01-01
Electron-phonon and electron-electron collisions are the processes which determine the relaxation time r/sub R/ of the Cooper pair density. The case is considered for which the deviation of the pair density from equilibrium is small and where the equilibrium state is homogeneous. Starting from the Eliashberg equation one is able to reduce the problem to a quadrature once the equilibrium Green functions are known.
Observing Impact of SAFTA on Pakistan’s Economy by Using CGE Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.M.Shaikh (Corresponding Author
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify and analyze the relative impact of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA over the global economic welfare. This research analyzes the potential economic costs and benefits of Pak-India trade in exporting various consumer goods. The first scenario is when normal trading relation with India will berestored, it means that both countries will give the MFN (Most Favored Nations status to each other. In the second scenario, the SAFTA will be operative and there will be free trade between India and Pakistan and both countries will remove all tariffs and customduties from each others’ imports. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations reveals that current demand for Pakistani dates and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The drop in the domestic prices of dates will increase the production of many downstream industries, which will have pleasantmultiplier effects on the economy of Pakistan. The government may reduce MFN tariffs on industrial dates before implementing the FTA. A key rule of multilateral trade system is that the reduction in trade barriers should be applied on a most-favored nation basis (MFN to all WTO members. The only exception to the MFN principle built into the GATT legal framework is the provision for reciprocal free trade within customs unions and free trade areas (GATT article XXIV. The objectives of the present study are to analyze and quantify the potential economic cost and benefits of the prospective tradebetween India and Pakistan to consumers, producers and government of the two countries. The export of Dried dates, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i
Equilibrium sampling of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments: challenges and new approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaefer, S.; Mayer, Philipp; Becker, B.
2015-01-01
) are considered to be the effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning, and they can be measured by equilibrium sampling. We have thus applied glass jars with multiple coating thicknesses for equilibrium sampling of HOCs in sediment samples from various sites in different German rivers...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanying Chi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Jiang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model, we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nine watershed regions. Our results indicate that urbanization and industrial transformation in China will raise the opportunity cost of water use and increase the competition for water between non-agricultural users and irrigation water users. The growth in water demand for domestic and industrial uses reduces the amount of water allocated to agriculture, particularly lower-value and water-intensive field crops. As a response, farmers have the incentive to shift their agricultural operations from traditional field crop production to higher-value livestock or intensive crop production. In addition, our results suggest that growing water demand due to urbanization and industrial transformation will raise the shadow price of water in all nine river basins. Finally, we find that national economic growth is largely attributable to urbanization and non-agricultural productivity growth.
Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2016-05-11
This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer
2006-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…
Ismail, M.S.
2014-01-01
We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N 2 flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kustova, Elena V., E-mail: e.kustova@spbu.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr. 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M., E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)
2014-12-05
Highlights: • State-to-state approach for coupled vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions. • Self-consistent model for rates of non-equilibrium reactions and energy transitions. • In viscous flows mass action law is violated. • Cross coupling between reaction rates and non-equilibrium pressure in viscous flow. • Results allow implementing the state-to-state approach for viscous flow simulations. - Abstract: Viscous gas flows with vibrational relaxation and chemical reactions in the state-to-state approach are analyzed. A modified Chapman–Enskog method is used for the determination of chemical reaction and vibrational transition rates and non-equilibrium pressure. Constitutive equations depend on the thermodynamic forces: velocity divergence and chemical reaction/transition affinity. As an application, N{sub 2} flow with vibrational relaxation across a shock wave is investigated. Two distinct processes occur behind the shock: for small values of the distance the affinity is large and vibrational relaxation is in its initial stage; for large distances the affinity is small and the chemical reaction is in its final stage. The affinity contributes more to the transition rate than the velocity divergence and the effect of these two contributions are more important for small distances from the shock front. For the non-equilibrium pressure, the term associated with the bulk viscosity increases by a small amount the hydrostatic pressure.
Strong-coupling Bose polarons out of equilibrium: Dynamical renormalization-group approach
Grusdt, Fabian; Seetharam, Kushal; Shchadilova, Yulia; Demler, Eugene
2018-03-01
When a mobile impurity interacts with a surrounding bath of bosons, it forms a polaron. Numerous methods have been developed to calculate how the energy and the effective mass of the polaron are renormalized by the medium for equilibrium situations. Here, we address the much less studied nonequilibrium regime and investigate how polarons form dynamically in time. To this end, we develop a time-dependent renormalization-group approach which allows calculations of all dynamical properties of the system and takes into account the effects of quantum fluctuations in the polaron cloud. We apply this method to calculate trajectories of polarons following a sudden quench of the impurity-boson interaction strength, revealing how the polaronic cloud around the impurity forms in time. Such trajectories provide additional information about the polaron's properties which are challenging to extract directly from the spectral function measured experimentally using ultracold atoms. At strong couplings, our calculations predict the appearance of trajectories where the impurity wavers back at intermediate times as a result of quantum fluctuations. Our method is applicable to a broader class of nonequilibrium problems. As a check, we also apply it to calculate the spectral function and find good agreement with experimental results. At very strong couplings, we predict that quantum fluctuations lead to the appearance of a dark continuum with strongly suppressed spectral weight at low energies. While our calculations start from an effective Fröhlich Hamiltonian describing impurities in a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate, we also calculate the effects of additional terms in the Hamiltonian beyond the Fröhlich paradigm. We demonstrate that the main effect of these additional terms on the attractive side of a Feshbach resonance is to renormalize the coupling strength of the effective Fröhlich model.
An experiment on radioactive equilibrium and its modelling using the ‘radioactive dice’ approach
Santostasi, Davide; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Montagna, Paolo; Vitulo, Paolo
2017-07-01
In this article we describe an educational activity on radioactive equilibrium we performed with secondary school students (17-18 years old) in the context of a vocational guidance stage for talented students at the Department of Physics of the University of Pavia. Radioactive equilibrium is investigated experimentally by having students measure the activity of 214Bi from two different samples, obtained using different preparation procedures from an uraniferous rock. Students are guided in understanding the mathematical structure of radioactive equilibrium through a modelling activity in two parts. Before the lab measurements, a dice game, which extends the traditional ‘radioactive dice’ activity to the case of a chain of two decaying nuclides, is performed by students divided into small groups. At the end of the laboratory work, students design and run a simple spreadsheet simulation modelling the same basic radioactive chain with user defined decay constants. By setting the constants to realistic values corresponding to nuclides of the uranium decay chain, students can deepen their understanding of the meaning of the experimental data, and also explore the difference between cases of non-equilibrium, transient and secular equilibrium.
Thermal non-equilibrium in porous medium adjacent to vertical plate: ANN approach
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Ahamed, K. S. Nazim; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Athani, Abdulgaphur
2018-05-01
Thermal non-equilibrium in porous medium is a condition that refers to temperature discrepancy in solid matrix and fluid of porous medium. This type of flow is complex flow requiring complex set of partial differential equations that govern the flow behavior. The current work is undertaken to predict the thermal non-equilibrium behavior of porous medium adjacent to vertical plate using artificial neural network. A set of neurons in 3 layers are trained to predict the heat transfer characteristics. It is found that the thermal non-equilibrium heat transfer behavior in terms of Nusselt number of fluid as well as solid phase can be predicted accurately by using well-trained neural network.
A Bio-Inspired Approach to Traffic Network Equilibrium Assignment Problem.
Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2018-04-01
Finding an equilibrium state of the traffic assignment plays a significant role in the design of transportation networks. We adapt the path finding mathematical model of slime mold Physarum polycephalum to solve the traffic equilibrium assignment problem. We make three contributions in this paper. First, we propose a generalized Physarum model to solve the shortest path problem in directed and asymmetric graphs. Second, we extend it further to resolve the network design problem with multiple source nodes and sink nodes. At last, we demonstrate that the Physarum solver converges to the user-optimized (Wardrop) equilibrium by dynamically updating the costs of links in the network. In addition, convergence of the developed algorithm is proved. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The superiority of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated in comparison with several other algorithms, including the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, conjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, biconjugate Frank-Wolfe algorithm, and gradient projection algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Reichenberg, Fredrik
2011-01-01
with respect to equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids (Clipid,partitioning): (i) Solid phase microextraction in the headspace above the sample (HS-SPME) required optimization for its application to PCBs, and it was calibrated above external partitioning standards in olive oil. (ii) Equilibrium...
Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu
2016-08-01
The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.
Kahsay, T.N.; Kuik, O.J.; Brouwer, R.; van der Zaag, P.
2015-01-01
Employing a multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling framework, this study estimates the direct and indirect economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Eastern Nile economies. The study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sousa, Tania; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2006-06-10
The relation between Thermodynamics and Economics is a paramount issue in Ecological Economics. Two different levels can be distinguished when discussing it: formal and substantive. At the formal level, a mathematical framework is used to describe both thermodynamic and economic systems. At the substantive level, thermodynamic laws are applied to economic processes. In Ecological Economics, there is a widespread claim that neoclassical economics has the same mathematical formulation as classical mechanics and is therefore fundamentally flawed because: (1) utility does not obey a conservation law as energy does; (2) an equilibrium theory cannot be used to study irreversible processes. Here, we show that neoclassical economics is based on a wrong formulation of classical mechanics, being in fact formally analogous to equilibrium thermodynamics. The similarity between both formalisms, namely that they are both cases of constrained optimisation, is easily perceived when thermodynamics is looked upon using the Tisza-Callen axiomatisation. In this paper, we take the formal analogy between equilibrium thermodynamics and economic systems far enough to answer the formal criticisms, proving that the formalism of neoclassical economics has irreversibility embedded in it. However, the formal similarity between equilibrium thermodynamics and neoclassical microeconomics does not mean that economic models are in accordance with mass, energy and entropy balance equations. In fact, neoclassical theory suffers from flaws in the substantive integration with thermodynamic laws as has already been fully demonstrated by valuable work done by ecological economists in this field. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbehausen, Camilla; Paiva, Raphael E.F. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Formiga, Andre L.B., E-mail: formiga@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corbi, Pedro P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)
2012-10-26
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tautomeric equilibrium in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic and theoretical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-Vis theoretical and experimental spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 1}H NMR theoretical and experimental spectra. -- Abstract: The tautomeric equilibrium of the thione/thiol forms of 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Density functional theory was used to support the experimental data and indicates the predominance of the thione tautomer in the solid state, being in agreement with previously reported crystallographic data. In solution, the tautomeric equilibrium was evaluated using {sup 1}H NMR at different temperatures in four deuterated solvents acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, chloroform and methanol. The equilibrium constants, K = (thiol)/(thione), and free Gibbs energies were obtained by integration of N bonded hydrogen signals at each temperature for each solvent, excluding methanol. The endothermic tautomerization is entropy-driven and the combined effect of solvent and temperature can be used to achieve almost 50% thiol concentrations in solution. The nature of the electronic transitions was investigated theoretically and the assignment of the bands was made using time-dependent DFT as well as the influence of solvent on the energy of the most important bands of the spectra.
Out-of-equilibrium self-assembly approaches for new soft materials
Hendriksen, W.E.
2015-01-01
Living creatures exists for an important part out of soft material, such as skin, organs and cells, that are out-of-equilibrium formed by the self-assembly of molecular building blocks. Natural materials are continuously active with dynamic processes occurring, such as growth, shrinkage and
Comparing two non-equilibrium approaches to modelling of a free-burning arc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeva, M; Uhrlandt, D; Benilov, M S; Cunha, M D
2013-01-01
Two models of high-pressure arc discharges are compared with each other and with experimental data for an atmospheric-pressure free-burning arc in argon for arc currents of 20–200 A. The models account for space-charge effects and thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in somewhat different ways. One model considers space-charge effects, thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the near-cathode region and thermal non-equilibrium in the bulk plasma. The other model considers thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the entire arc plasma and space-charge effects in the near-cathode region. Both models are capable of predicting the arc voltage in fair agreement with experimental data. Differences are observed in the arc attachment to the cathode, which do not strongly affect the near-cathode voltage drop and the total arc voltage for arc currents exceeding 75 A. For lower arc currents the difference is significant but the arc column structure is quite similar and the predicted bulk plasma characteristics are relatively close to each other. (paper)
R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth
Verbic, M.; Majcen, B.; Ivanova, O.; Cok, M.
2011-01-01
In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of
The control of equilibrium in bimanual, whole-body lifting tasks : a biomechanical approach
Commissaris, D.A.C.M.
1997-01-01
The issues addressed in this thesis concern the control of equilibrium in a bimanual, wholebody lifting task. This task comprises the forward bending of the trunk and the lowering of the whole body to grasp an object with two hands, followed by the lifting of the object to waist or chest level.
Westerhoff, Hans V.; Lolkema, Juke S.; Otto, Roel; Hellingwerf, K
1982-01-01
Microbial growth is analyzed in terms of mosaic and phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It turns out that already existing parameters devised to measure bacterial growth, such as YATP, µ, and Qsubstrate, have as thermodynamic equivalents flow ratio, output flow and input flow. With this
Ginsburg criterion for an equilibrium superradiant model in the dynamic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trache, M.
1991-10-01
Some critical properties of an equilibrium superradiant model are discussed, taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the field variables. The critical region is calculated using the Ginsburg criterion, underlining the role of the atomic concentration as a control parameter of the phase transition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig
Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael P. BARRY
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.
Du, Xinzhong; Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Ficklin, Darren L.; Wang, Junye
2018-04-01
Stream temperature is an important indicator for biodiversity and sustainability in aquatic ecosystems. The stream temperature model currently in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) only considers the impact of air temperature on stream temperature, while the hydroclimatological stream temperature model developed within the SWAT model considers hydrology and the impact of air temperature in simulating the water-air heat transfer process. In this study, we modified the hydroclimatological model by including the equilibrium temperature approach to model heat transfer processes at the water-air interface, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The thermal capacity of the streamflow is modeled by the variation of the stream water depth. An advantage of this equilibrium temperature model is the simple parameterization, with only two parameters added to model the heat transfer processes. The equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study is applied and tested in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) in Alberta, Canada. The model is calibrated and validated at five stations throughout different parts of the ARB, where close to monthly samplings of stream temperatures are available. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study provided better and more consistent performances for the different regions of the ARB with the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) greater than those of the original SWAT model and the hydroclimatological model. To test the model performance for different hydrological and environmental conditions, the equilibrium temperature model was also applied to the North Fork Tolt River Watershed in Washington, United States. The results indicate a reasonable simulation of stream temperature using the model proposed in this study, with minimum relative error values compared to the other two models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellonzi, Nicole; Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2016-01-01
We study several recent mean-field semiclassical dynamics methods, focusing on the ability to recover detailed balance for long time (equilibrium) populations. We focus especially on Miller and Cotton’s [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7190 (2013)] suggestion to include both zero point electronic energy and windowing on top of Ehrenfest dynamics. We investigate three regimes: harmonic surfaces with weak electronic coupling, harmonic surfaces with strong electronic coupling, and anharmonic surfaces with weak electronic coupling. In most cases, recent additions to Ehrenfest dynamics are a strong improvement upon mean-field theory. However, for methods that include zero point electronic energy, we show that anharmonic potential energy surfaces often lead to numerical instabilities, as caused by negative populations and forces. We also show that, though the effect of negative forces can appear hidden in harmonic systems, the resulting equilibrium limits do remain dependent on any windowing and zero point energy parameters.
Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi
2015-02-01
With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.
A field-theoretic approach to non-equilibrium work identities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallick, Kirone; Orland, Henri; Moshe, Moshe
2011-01-01
We study non-equilibrium work relations for a space-dependent field with stochastic dynamics (model A). Jarzynski's equality is obtained through symmetries of the dynamical action in the path-integral representation. We derive a set of exact identities that generalize the fluctuation-dissipation relations to non-stationary and far-from-equilibrium situations. These identities are prone to experimental verification. Furthermore, we show that a well-studied invariance of the Langevin equation under supersymmetry, which is known to be broken when the external potential is time dependent, can be partially restored by adding to the action a term which is precisely Jarzynski's work. The work identities can then be retrieved as consequences of the associated Ward-Takahashi identities.
Oil Subsidies and Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia: A General Equilibrium Approach
Blazquez, J; Hunt, Lester; Manzano, B
2017-01-01
In 2016, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) announced its Vision 2030 strategic plan incorporating major changes to the economic structure of the country, including an intention to deploy 9.5 GW of renewable energy in an effort to reduce the penetration of oil in the electricity generation system. This paper assesses the macroeconomic impact of such changes in the KSA, coupled with reductions in implicit energy subsidies. Based on a dynamic general equilibrium model, our analysis suggests that...
Analyzing the Effects of Technological Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach
1988-09-01
present important simplifying assumptions about the nature of consumer preferences and production possibility sets. If a general equilibrium model...important assumptions are in such areas as consumer preferences , the actions of the government, and the financial structure of the model. Each of these is...back in the future. 4.3.2 Consumer demand Consumer preferences are a second important modeling assumption affecting the results of the study. The PILOT
Time-dependent non-equilibrium dielectric response in QM/continuum approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Feizhi; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mennucci, Benedetta, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)
2015-01-21
The Polarizable Continuum Models (PCMs) are some of the most inexpensive yet successful methods for including the effects of solvation in quantum-mechanical calculations of molecular systems. However, when applied to the electronic excitation process, these methods are restricted to dichotomously assuming either that the solvent has completely equilibrated with the excited solute charge density (infinite-time limit), or that it retains the configuration that was in equilibrium with the solute prior to excitation (zero-time limit). This renders the traditional PCMs inappropriate for resolving time-dependent solvent effects on non-equilibrium solute electron dynamics like those implicated in the instants following photoexcitation of a solvated molecular species. To extend the existing methods to this non-equilibrium regime, we herein derive and apply a new formalism for a general time-dependent continuum embedding method designed to be propagated alongside the solute’s electronic degrees of freedom in the time domain. Given the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the solvent, an equation of motion for the dielectric polarization is derived within the PCM framework and numerically integrated simultaneously with the time-dependent Hartree fock/density functional theory equations. Results for small molecular systems show the anticipated dipole quenching and electronic state dephasing/relaxation resulting from out-of-phase charge fluctuations in the dielectric and embedded quantum system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doroodian, K.; Boyd, Roy
2003-01-01
This study examines whether oil price shocks are inflationary in the US. We increase the price of oil in the year 2000 in a manner consistent with the oil price shock of 1973-74 and let the economy experience a Hicksian technological change. Then using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we conduct our analyses under two separate cases: (1) regular economic growth, and (2) low economic growth. We also run three technological scenarios: (1) no technology change, (2) technological advances in the manufacturing and refining sectors, and (3) technological advances in the manufacturing, refining, chemical, and service sectors. The effects of these changes are analyzed over the next 20 years until the year 2020. Our results suggest that while a shock of the magnitude experienced in the 1970s will have a fairly severe effect on such things as gasoline and refinery prices, the aggregate price changes will be largely dissipated over time at the aggregate level. Furthermore, the aggregate level of prices (CPI and PPI) will fall over time as the level of technological advances rise under both growth scenarios. There are several reasons why we would obtain such results. First of all, the structure of the US economy has changed remarkably since the early 1970s. Rather than being a manufacturing based economy, the US is largely a service based economy today and hence it is more protected form raw materials shortages. Second, the economy has had a steady history of strong growth and the faster an economy grows the quicker disruptions to that economy are dissipated. Finally, our economy is experiencing rapid technological advances in information systems which have served to reduce costs and maintain output in a wide number of economic sectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doroodian, K.; Boyd, R.
2003-01-01
This study examines whether oil price shocks are inflationary in the US. We increase the price of oil in the year 2000 in a manner consistent with the oil price shock of 1973-74 and let the economy experience a Hicksian technological change. Then using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we conduct our analyses under two separate cases: (1) regular economic growth, and (2) low economic growth. We also run three technological scenarios: (1) no technology change, (2) technological advances in the manufacturing and refining sectors, and (3) technological advances in the manufacturing, refining, chemical, and service sectors. The effects of these changes are analyzed over the next 20 years until the year 2020. Our results suggest that while a shock of the magnitude experienced in the 1970s will have a fairly severe effect on such things as gasoline and refinery prices, the aggregate price changes will be largely dissipated over time at the aggregate level. Furthermore, the aggregate level of prices (CPI and PPI) will fall over time as the level of technological advances rise under both growth scenarios. There are several reasons why we would obtain such results. First of all, the structure of the US economy has changed remarkably since the early 1970s. Rather than being a manufacturing based economy, the US is largely a service based economy today and hence it is more protected from raw materials shortages. Second, the economy has had a steady history of strong growth and the faster an economy grows the quicker disruptions to that economy are dissipated. Finally, our economy is experiencing rapid technological advances in information systems which have served to reduce costs and maintain output in a wide number of economic sectors.(author)
Estimating the implied cost of carbon in future scenarios using a CGE model: The Case of Colorado
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hannum, Christopher; Cutler, Harvey; Iverson, Terrence; Keyser, David
2017-01-01
Using Colorado as a case study, we develop a state-level computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that reflects the roles of coal, natural gas, wind, solar, and hydroelectricity in supplying electricity. We focus on the economic impact of implementing Colorado's existing Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated in 2013. This requires that 25% of state generation come from qualifying renewable sources by 2020. We evaluate the policy under a variety of assumptions regarding wind integration costs and assumptions on the persistence of federal subsidies for wind. Specifically, we estimate the implied price of carbon as the carbon price at which a state-level policy would pass a state-level cost-benefit analysis, taking account of estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions and ancillary benefits from corresponding reductions in criteria pollutants. Our findings suggest that without the Production Tax Credit (federal aid), the state policy of mandating renewable power generation (RPS) is costly to state actors, with an implied cost of carbon of about $17 per ton of CO2 with a 3% discount rate. Federal aid makes the decision between natural gas and wind nearly cost neutral for Colorado. - Highlights: • If variability cost is low and renewables are federally subsidized, RPS is beneficial. • With no PTC or high variability cost, drop in real consumption less than 0.1%. • With PTC phaseout and high variability cost ICP is low, between $7.16 and $11.45. • With no PTC and high variability cost ICP is between $12.66 and $17.34 per ton.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan
2007-01-01
We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains
Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.
2014-04-01
Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.
Identify too big to fail banks and capital insurance: An equilibrium approach
Katerina Ivanov
2017-01-01
The objective of this paper is develop a rational expectation equilibrium model of capital insurance to identify too big to fail banks. The main results of this model include (1) too big to fail banks can be identified explicitly by a systemic risk measure, loss betas, of all banks in the entire financial sector; (2) the too big to fail feature can be largely justified by a high level of loss beta; (3) the capital insurance proposal benefits market participants and reduces the systemic risk; ...
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter.
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.
2016-01-01
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter
A general nonlinear evolution equation for irreversible conservative approach to stable equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beretta, G.P.
1986-01-01
This paper addresses a mathematical problem relevant to the question of nonequilibrium and irreversibility, namely, that of ''designing'' a general evolution equation capable of describing irreversible but conservative relaxtion towards equilibrium. The objective is to present an interesting mathematical solution to this design problem, namely, a new nonlinear evolution equation that satisfies a set of very stringent relevant requirements. Three different frameworks are defined from which the new equation could be adopted, with entirely different interpretations. Some useful well-known mathematics involving Gram determinants are presented and a nonlinear evolution equation is given which meets the stringent design specifications
A CGE analysis for quantitative evaluation of electricity market changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Won-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Dong
2015-01-01
Risk and uncertainty entailed by electricity industry privatization impose a heavy burden on the political determination. In this sense, ex ante analyses are important in order to investigate the economic effects of privatization or liberalization in the electricity industry. For the purpose of fulfilling these quantitative analyses, a novel approach is developed, incorporating a top-down and bottom-up model that takes into account economic effects and technological constraints simultaneously. This study also examines various counterfactual scenarios after Korean electricity industry reform through the integrated framework. Simulation results imply that authorities should prepare an improved regulatory system and policy measures such as forward contracts for industry reform, in order to promote competition in the distribution sector as well as the generation sector. -- Highlights: •A novel approach is proposed for incorporating a top-down and bottom-up model. •This study examines various counterfactual scenarios after Korean electricity industry reform. •An improved regulatory system and policy measures are required before the reform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.
2011-01-01
Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may
Identify too big to fail banks and capital insurance: An equilibrium approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katerina Ivanov
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is develop a rational expectation equilibrium model of capital insurance to identify too big to fail banks. The main results of this model include (1 too big to fail banks can be identified explicitly by a systemic risk measure, loss betas, of all banks in the entire financial sector; (2 the too big to fail feature can be largely justified by a high level of loss beta; (3 the capital insurance proposal benefits market participants and reduces the systemic risk; (4 the implicit guarantee subsidy can be estimated endogenously; and lastly, (5 the capital insurance proposal can be used to resolve the moral hazard issue. We implement this model and document that the too big to fail issue has been considerably reduced in the pro-crisis period. As a result, the capital insurance proposal could be a useful macro-regulation innovation policy tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gizem Biçer
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, the effects of adsorption parameters such as initial pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and adsorbent dosage on the colour removal from aqueous solution containing Telon Blue AGLF(TB AGLF textile dye were investigated by NiO based nanomaterials and then the compliance of the equilibrium data with the different isotherm models in the literature was evaluated. In the next step, the adsorption sytem was analyzed in terms of kinetics and thermodynamics. At the end of the study, XRD, SEM and FTIR analysis methods were used for the particle characterization. As a result of the experimental studies, it was detected the successful use of NiO based nanomaterials synthesized by aqueous solution method rarely seen in literature for colour removal. Through this study, it is believed that the additional contributions are provided to the scientific investigations about the recovery of the water resources.
R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verbič Miroslav
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of government spending on R&D turned out to be the most effective suggested policy measures. While the former policy measure is still followed in part by an undesired transfer of the tax relief to dividends, a moderate increase of government spending on R&D boosts long-run productivity in the economy, thus increasing the future value of firms, which is reflected in a desired dividend increase. The households that would gain more utility from such policy scenarios are those with more skilled and highly skilled labour, but not the very top earners in the economy.
An optically controlled SiC lateral power transistor based on SiC/SiCGe super junction structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pu Hongbin; Cao Lin; Ren Jie; Chen Zhiming; Nan Yagong
2010-01-01
An optically controlled SiC/SiCGe lateral power transistor based on superjunction structure has been proposed, in which n-SiCGe/p-SiC superjunction structure is employed to improve device figure of merit. Performance of the novel optically controlled power transistor was simulated using Silvaco Atlas tools, which has shown that the device has a very good response to the visible light and the near infrared light. The optoelectronic responsivities of the device at 0.5 μm and 0.7 μm are 330 mA/W and 76.2 mA/W at 2 V based voltage, respectively. (semiconductor devices)
An optically controlled SiC lateral power transistor based on SiC/SiCGe super junction structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pu Hongbin; Cao Lin; Ren Jie; Chen Zhiming; Nan Yagong, E-mail: puhongbin@xaut.edu.c [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)
2010-04-15
An optically controlled SiC/SiCGe lateral power transistor based on superjunction structure has been proposed, in which n-SiCGe/p-SiC superjunction structure is employed to improve device figure of merit. Performance of the novel optically controlled power transistor was simulated using Silvaco Atlas tools, which has shown that the device has a very good response to the visible light and the near infrared light. The optoelectronic responsivities of the device at 0.5 {mu}m and 0.7 {mu}m are 330 mA/W and 76.2 mA/W at 2 V based voltage, respectively. (semiconductor devices)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.
2006-01-01
Multi-year monitoring data for PCBs in abiotic media and biota collected from the Baltic region were compiled into a database and analyzed using the equilibrium lipid partitioning (ELP) approach to study temporal trends as well as to investigate food web biomagnification. Statistically significant reductions in ELP concentrations between 1987 and 2001 were observed in guillemots, air, and some fish species and a general, but not always statistically significant decline in concentrations was observed throughout the Baltic ecosystem. Estimated clearance half-lives ranged from 2.7-10.7 years. The database contained concentrations for a range of different Baltic species, which comprise a well-known Baltic food web. It was possible to derive the trophic position of the species in this food web and relate them to ELP concentrations. A significant positive correlation between ELP concentrations and trophic position was obtained. Estimated food web magnification factors ranged between 1.9 and 5.1 for selected congeners. - The equilibrium lipid partitioning approach is applied to a large Baltic database of PCB concentrations in abiotic and biota media to investigate time trends and biomagnification
Rutten, M.M.; Reed, G.
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by applying the Rybczynski theorem, and empirically, using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK with a detailed health
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.
2010-01-01
A method for approximately solving magnetic differential equations is described. The approach is to include a small diffusion term to the equation, which regularizes the linear operator to be inverted. The extra term allows a 'source-correction' term to be defined, which is generally required in order to satisfy the solvability conditions. The approach is described in the context of computing the pressure and parallel currents in the iterative approach for computing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria.
An Analytic Approach to Modeling Land-Atmosphere Interaction: 1. Construct and Equilibrium Behavior
Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara
1995-03-01
A four-variable land-atmosphere model is developed to investigate the coupled exchanges of water and energy between the land surface and atmosphere and the role of these exchanges in the statistical behavior of continental climates. The land-atmosphere system is substantially simplified and formulated as a set of ordinary differential equations that, with the addition of random noise, are suitable for analysis in the form of the multivariate Îto equation. The model treats the soil layer and the near-surface atmosphere as reservoirs with storage capacities for heat and water. The transfers between these reservoirs are regulated by four states: soil saturation, soil temperature, air specific humidity, and air potential temperature. The atmospheric reservoir is treated as a turbulently mixed boundary layer of fixed depth. Heat and moisture advection, precipitation, and layer-top air entrainment are parameterized. The system is forced externally by solar radiation and the lateral advection of air and water mass. The remaining energy and water mass exchanges are expressed in terms of the state variables. The model development and equilibrium solutions are presented. Although comparisons between observed data and steady state model results re inexact, the model appears to do a reasonable job of partitioning net radiation into sensible and latent heat flux in appropriate proportions for bare-soil midlatitude summer conditions. Subsequent work will introduce randomness into the forcing terms to investigate the effect of water-energy coupling and land-atmosphere interaction on variability and persistence in the climatic system.
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO: an improved state to state approach
Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasma kinetics of reacting CO for conditions typically met in microwave discharges have been developed based on the coupling of excited state kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Particular attention is given to the insertion in the vibrational kinetics of a complete set of electron molecule resonant processes linking the whole vibrational ladder of the CO molecule, as well as to the role of Boudouard reaction, i.e. the process of forming CO2 by two vibrationally excited CO molecules, in shaping the vibrational distribution of CO and promoting reaction channels assisted by vibrational excitation (pure vibrational mechanisms, PVM). PVM mechanisms can become competitive with electron impact dissociation processes (DEM) in the activation of CO. A case study reproducing the conditions of a microwave discharge has been considered following the coupled kinetics also in the post discharge conditions. Results include the evolution of EEDF in discharge and post discharge conditions highlighting the role of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in shaping the EEDF. Moreover, PVM rate coefficients and DEM ones are studied as a function of gas temperature, showing a non-Arrhenius behavior, i.e. the rate coefficients increase with decreasing gas temperature as a result of a vibrational-vibrational (V-V) pumping up mechanism able to form plateaux in the vibrational distribution function. The accuracy of the results is discussed in particular in connection to the present knowledge of the activation energy of the Boudouard process.
Far-from-equilibrium attractors and nonlinear dynamical systems approach to the Gubser flow
Behtash, Alireza; Cruz-Camacho, C. N.; Martinez, M.
2018-02-01
The nonequilibrium attractors of systems undergoing Gubser flow within relativistic kinetic theory are studied. In doing so we employ well-established methods of nonlinear dynamical systems which rely on finding the fixed points, investigating the structure of the flow diagrams of the evolution equations, and characterizing the basin of attraction using a Lyapunov function near the stable fixed points. We obtain the attractors of anisotropic hydrodynamics, Israel-Stewart (IS) and transient fluid (DNMR) theories and show that they are indeed nonplanar and the basin of attraction is essentially three dimensional. The attractors of each hydrodynamical model are compared with the one obtained from the exact Gubser solution of the Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation. We observe that the anisotropic hydrodynamics is able to match up to high numerical accuracy the attractor of the exact solution while the second-order hydrodynamical theories fail to describe it. We show that the IS and DNMR asymptotic series expansions diverge and use resurgence techniques to perform the resummation of these divergences. We also comment on a possible link between the manifold of steepest descent paths in path integrals and the basin of attraction for the attractors via Lyapunov functions that opens a new horizon toward an effective field theory description of hydrodynamics. Our findings indicate that the reorganization of the expansion series carried out by anisotropic hydrodynamics resums the Knudsen and inverse Reynolds numbers to all orders and thus, it can be understood as an effective theory for the far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. G. Dyke
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.
Equilibrium Eulerian approach for predicting the thermal field of a dispersion of small particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferry, J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets; Balachandar, S. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
2005-02-01
The equilibrium Eulerian method [J. Ferry, S. Balachandar, A fast Eulerian method for disperse two-phase flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 27 (7) (2001) 1199-1226] provides an accurate approximation to the velocity field of sufficiently small dispersed particles in a turbulent fluid. In particular, it captures the important physics of particle response to turbulent flow, such as preferential concentration and turbophoresis. It is therefore employed as an efficient alternative to solving a PDE to determine the particle velocity field. Here we explore two possible extensions of this method to determine the particle temperature field accurately and efficiently, as functions of the underlying fluid velocity and temperature fields. Both extensions are theoretically shown to be highly accurate for asymptotically small particles. Their behavior for finite-size particles is assessed in a DNS of turbulent channel flow (Re{sub {tau}} = 150) with a passive temperature field (Pr = 1). Here it is found that although the order of accuracy of the two extensions is the same, the constant factor by which one is superior to the other can be quite large, so the less accurate extension is appropriate only in the case of a very small mechanical-to-thermal response time ratio. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth
2005-03-22
This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.
Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, M.
2001-01-01
This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework
Why Enforcing its UNCAC Commitments Would be Good for Russia: A Computable General Equilibrium Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael P. BARRY
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Russia has ratified the UN Convention Against Corruption but has not successfully enforced it. This paper uses updated GTAP data to reconstruct a computable general equilibrium (CGE model to quantify the macroeconomic effects of corruption in Russia. Corruption is found to cost the Russian economy billions of dollars a year. A conclusion of the paper is that implementing and enforcing the UNCAC would be of significant economic benefit to Russia and its people.
Impacts of climate change for Swiss winter and summer tourism: a general equilibrium analysis
Thurm, Boris; Vielle, Marc; Vöhringer, Frank
2017-01-01
Tourism could be greatly affected by climate change due to its strong dependence on weather. In Switzerland, the sector represents an appreciable share of the economy. Thus, studying climate effects on tourism is necessary for developing adequate adaptation strategies. While most of the studies focused on winter tourism, we investigate the climate change impacts on both winter and summer tourism in Switzerland. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the impacts of tem...
Test particle propagation in magnetostatic turbulence. 3: the approach to equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimas, A.J.; Sandri, G.; Scudder, J.D.; Howell, D.R.
1977-05-01
The asymptotic behavior, for large time, of the quasi-linear diabatic solutions and their local approximations is considered. A time averaging procedure is introduced which yields the averages of these solutions over time intervals which contain only large time values. A discussion of the quasi-linear diabatic solutions which is limited to those solutions that are bounded from below as functions of time is given. It is shown that as the upper limit of the time averaging interval is allowed to approach infinity the time averaged quasi-linear diabatic solutions must approach isotropy (mu-independence). The first derivative with respect to mu of these solutions is also considered. This discussion is limited to first derivatives which are bounded functions of time. It is shown that as the upper limit of the time averaging interval is allowed to approach infinity, the time averaged first derivative must approach zero everywhere in mu except at mu = 0 where it must approach a large value which is calculated. The impact of this large derivative on the quasi-linear expansion scheme is discussed. An H-theorem for the first local approximation to the quasi-linear diabatic solutions is constructed. Without time averaging, the H-theorem is used to determine sufficient conditions for the first local approximate solutions to asymptote, with increasing time, to exactly the same final state which the time averaged quasi-linear diabatic solutions must approach as discussed above
Balseiro, C A; Usaj, G; Sánchez, M J
2010-10-27
We study non-equilibrium electron transport through a quantum impurity coupled to metallic leads using the equation of motion technique at finite temperature T. Assuming that the interactions are taking place solely in the impurity and focusing on the infinite Hubbard limit, we compute the out of equilibrium density of states and the differential conductance G(2)(T, V) in order to test several scaling laws. We find that G(2)(T, V)/G(2)(T, 0) is a universal function of both eV/T(K) and T/T(K), T(K) being the Kondo temperature. The effect of an in-plane magnetic field on the splitting of the zero bias anomaly in the differential conductance is also analyzed. For a Zeeman splitting Δ, the computed differential conductance peak splitting depends only on Δ/T(K), and for large fields approaches the value of 2Δ. Besides studying the traditional two leads setup, we also consider other configurations that mimic recent experiments, namely, an impurity embedded in a mesoscopic wire and the presence of a third weakly coupled lead. In these cases, a double peak structure of the Kondo resonance is clearly obtained in the differential conductance while the amplitude of the highest peak is shown to decrease as ln(eV/T(K)). Several features of these results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental observations reported on quantum dots.
The quench action approach to out-of-equilibrium quantum integrable models
Wouters, B.M.
2015-01-01
In this PhD thesis quantum quenches to 1D quantum integrable models are studied by means of the quench action approach. Using the large-system-size scaling of overlaps between the initial state and Bethe states as basic input, this method gives an exact description in the thermodynamic limit of the
Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris
2018-05-09
The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach to drugs. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). The analysis draws on 3 years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature. The reframing of the NPS issue from one of drug control to the need for stricter market regulation was achieved by the efforts of strategic policy entrepreneurs, including the legal high industry, drug law reform advocates, influential politicians and an independent legal advisory institution. This reframing was aided by the perceived saliency of the NPS problem and ineffectiveness of previous prohibition-based responses. In the absence of any political opposition to the regulatory approach, the Psychoactive Substances Act rapidly progressed through the Parliament. However, once the interim legal market was established, portrayal of the issues shifted away from experts and lobbyists to critique from local communities, local government, animal rights activists and the media, who viewed the new regime as a source of social and health problems. The mobilization of criticism ('Schattschneider mobilization') drew on ideas of animal welfare and community safety. With a looming national election, the government responded by ending the interim market with the urgent passage of amendment legislation. Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) helps explain how New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) policy first emerged on the political agenda and how the initial positive tone of expert support for reform shifted to a tide of popular criticism during the interim regime. However, with its emphasis on explaining agenda-setting, PET does not account for the legislative design shortcomings of the PSA. © 2018 Society for
Computational Approaches to the Chemical Equilibrium Constant in Protein-ligand Binding.
Montalvo-Acosta, Joel José; Cecchini, Marco
2016-12-01
The physiological role played by protein-ligand recognition has motivated the development of several computational approaches to the ligand binding affinity. Some of them, termed rigorous, have a strong theoretical foundation but involve too much computation to be generally useful. Some others alleviate the computational burden by introducing strong approximations and/or empirical calibrations, which also limit their general use. Most importantly, there is no straightforward correlation between the predictive power and the level of approximation introduced. Here, we present a general framework for the quantitative interpretation of protein-ligand binding based on statistical mechanics. Within this framework, we re-derive self-consistently the fundamental equations of some popular approaches to the binding constant and pinpoint the inherent approximations. Our analysis represents a first step towards the development of variants with optimum accuracy/efficiency ratio for each stage of the drug discovery pipeline. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Jaafar, Abdul Hamid; Siwar, Chamhuri
2008-01-01
Environmental pollution is now a serious problem in many developing countries. One approach to mitigate the problem is to implement various pollution control policies. However, due to a lack of adequate quantitative models, the economic impacts and effectiveness of many pollution control policies are still unknown. Therefore, there is a greater need to know whether economic liberalization, trade, environment and social welfare can be joined in one direction under environmental taxation and po...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sancho, Ferran
2010-01-01
There is a considerable body of literature that has studied whether or not an adequately designed tax swap, whereby an ecotax is levied and some other tax is reduced while keeping government income constant, may achieve a so-called double dividend, that is, an increase in environmental quality and an increase in overall efficiency. Arguments in favor and against are abundant. Our position is that the issue should be empirically studied starting from an actual, non-optimal tax system structure and by way of checking the responsiveness of equilibria to revenue neutral tax regimes under alternate scenarios regarding technological substitution. With the use of a CGE model, we find that the most critical elasticity for achieving a double dividend is the substitution elasticity between labor and capital whereas the elasticity that would generate the highest reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is the substitution elasticity among energy goods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sancho, Ferran [Departament d' Economia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain)
2010-06-15
There is a considerable body of literature that has studied whether or not an adequately designed tax swap, whereby an ecotax is levied and some other tax is reduced while keeping government income constant, may achieve a so-called double dividend, that is, an increase in environmental quality and an increase in overall efficiency. Arguments in favor and against are abundant. Our position is that the issue should be empirically studied starting from an actual, non-optimal tax system structure and by way of checking the responsiveness of equilibria to revenue neutral tax regimes under alternate scenarios regarding technological substitution. With the use of a CGE model, we find that the most critical elasticity for achieving a double dividend is the substitution elasticity between labor and capital whereas the elasticity that would generate the highest reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is the substitution elasticity among energy goods. (author)
Approach to equilibrium in models of a system in contact with a heat bath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J.L.; Ravishankar, K.
1986-01-01
We investigate simple model systems in contact with an infinite heat bath. The former consists of a finite number of particles in a bounded region Λ of R/sup d/, d = 1, 2. The heat baths are infinite particle systems which can penetrate Λ and interact with the system via elastic collisions. Outside Λ the particles move freely and have a Gibbs probability measure prior to entering Λ. We show that starting from almost any initial configuration, the system approaches, as t → ∞, the appropriate Gibbs distribution. The combined system plus bath is Bernoulli
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Li
2015-04-01
Full Text Available China’s emissions continue to rise rapidly in line with its mounting energy consumption, which puts considerable pressure on China to meet its emission reduction commitments. This paper assesses the impacts of CO2 mitigation measures in China during the period from 2010 to 2050 by using a computable general equilibrium method, called AIM/CGE. Results show that renewable energy makes a critical difference in abating emissions during the period from 2010 to 2020. The scenarios with emission trading would drive more emission reductions, whereby the emission-cutting commitment for 2020 would be achieved and emission reductions in 2050 would be more than 57.90%. Meanwhile, the share of non-fossil energy increases significantly and would be more than doubled in 2050 compared with the BAU scenario. A carbon tax would result in a significant decline in emissions in the short term, but would have an adverse effect on economic growth and energy structure improvements. It is also observed that the integrated measures would not only substantially decrease the total emissions, but also improve the energy structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Liu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Water resources play a vital role in human life and agriculture irrigation, especially for agriculture-dominant developing countries and regions. Improving agricultural water use efficiency has consequently become a key strategic choice. This study, based on Zhangye City’s economic characteristics and data, applies a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with a constant elasticity of substitution (CES composited water−land resources account to assess the impact of improving agricultural water use efficiency on economy, water conservation and land reallocation. Results reveal that: Zhangye City’s GDP increases by 0.10% owing to an increasing average technical level by improving agricultural water use efficiency; total water consumption decreases by 122 million m3, 69% of which comes from a reduction of surface water use; and land demand increases by 257.43 hectares mainly due to agricultural land demands. With respect to the sectors’ output, export-oriented sectors with higher water intensities in the agricultural sectors benefit most. In contrast, land-intensive sectors contract the most, as the rental price of land rises. Therefore, agricultural water conservation technology should be introduced considering more in surface water. Furthermore, higher demand for agricultural land would reduce land availability for other sectors, thus inhibiting urbanization pace on a small scale.
Non-equilibrium statistical mechanical approach for describing heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sventek, J.S.
1979-01-01
With the availability of heavy-ion projectiles (A > 4) at low to intermediate energies (4 < E/A < 10), products showing various stages of relaxation for certain macroscopic variables (center-of-mass energy, orbital angular momentum, etc.) were produced in various reactions. The distributions for these macroscopic variables showed a correlation between the stage of relaxation reached and the net amount of mass transfer which had occurred in the reaction. There was also evidence that there was an asymmetry in the number of net transfers necessary for complete relaxation between stripping ad pickup reactions. A model for describing the time-evolution of these reactions has been formulated, the keystone of which is a master-equation approach for describing the time-dependence of the mass-asymmetry. This, coupled with deterministic equations of motion for the other macroscopic coordinates in the reaction lead to calculated distributions which provide an excellent qualitative description of these reactions, and, in some cases, quantitatively reproduce the experimental data quite well
Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima
2014-01-01
This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...
Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Xie, Heping; Lv, Chengwei; Yao, Liming
2018-08-01
In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders. In the proposed method, to response to climate change and other uncertainties, a risk assessment tool, Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) and uncertainties through reflecting parameters and coefficients using probability and fuzzy set theory are integrated in the modeling process. Then a case study from Yuheng coal chemical park is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization model. To reasonable search the potential consequences of different responses to water and waste load allocation strategies, a number of scenario results considering environmental uncertainty and decision maker' attitudes are examined to explore the tradeoffs between economic development and environmental protection and decision makers' objectives. The results are helpful for decision/police makers to adjust current strategies adapting for current changes. Based on the scenario analyses and discussion, some propositions and operational policies are given and sensitive adaptation strategies are presented to support the efficient, balanced and sustainable development of coal chemical industrial parks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dotov, D G; Kim, S; Frank, T D
2015-02-01
We derive explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium thermodynamical variables of a canonical-dissipative limit cycle oscillator describing rhythmic motion patterns of active systems. These variables are statistical entropy, non-equilibrium internal energy, and non-equilibrium free energy. In particular, the expression for the non-equilibrium free energy is derived as a function of a suitable control parameter. The control parameter determines the Hopf bifurcation point of the deterministic active system and describes the effective pumping of the oscillator. In analogy to the equilibrium free energy of the Landau theory, it is shown that the non-equilibrium free energy decays as a function of the control parameter. In doing so, a similarity between certain equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions is pointed out. Data from an experiment on human rhythmic movements is presented. Estimates for pumping intensity as well as the thermodynamical variables are reported. It is shown that in the experiment the non-equilibrium free energy decayed when pumping intensity was increased, which is consistent with the theory. Moreover, pumping intensities close to zero could be observed at relatively slow intended rhythmic movements. In view of the Hopf bifurcation underlying the limit cycle oscillator model, this observation suggests that the intended limit cycle movements were actually more similar to trajectories of a randomly perturbed stable focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proton therapy of iris melanoma with 50 CGE. Influence of target volume on clinical outcome
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riechardt, Aline I.; Joussen, Antonia M. [Charite University of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Berlin (Germany); Karle, Bettina [Helios Klinikum Emil-von-Behring, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Cordini, Dino; Heufelder, Jens [Charite University of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Lise-Meitner-Campus, Berlin-Protonen, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Charite University of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Gollrad, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Lise-Meitner-Campus, Berlin-Protonen, Berlin (Germany); Charite University of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany)
2017-11-15
The aim of this study was to evaluate local tumour control, incidence of radiation-induced glaucoma and associated interventions of sector-based and whole anterior segment proton beam therapy (PBT) for the treatment of iris melanoma. We retrospectively analysed the data of 77 patients with iris melanoma who underwent PBT applied as 50 CGE in four daily fractions. Of the patients, 47 received PBT with a circular-shaped collimator and 30 with a conformal sector-shaped target volume. Local control, eye preservation and secondary glaucoma were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 54.9 months. Local tumour control was 100% in patients receiving whole anterior segment irradiation. Two patients developed pigment dispersion in the non-irradiated area after sector-based PBT and received whole anterior segment salvage PBT. The mean volume of ciliary body irradiated was 89.0% and 34.9% for whole anterior segment and lesion-based irradiation, respectively. At the end of follow-up, secondary glaucoma was found in 74.3% of the patients with whole anterior segment irradiation and in 19.2% with sector-based irradiation. Patients with sector-based PBT had a stable visual acuity of logMAR 0.1, while it declined from logMAR 0.1 to 0.4 after whole anterior segment irradiation. We found a significant reduction in radiation-induced secondary glaucoma and glaucoma-associated surgical interventions and stable visual acuity after sector-based irradiation compared with whole anterior segment irradiation. Sector-based irradiation revealed a higher risk for local recurrence, but selected patients with well-circumscribed iris melanoma benefit from applying a lesion-based target volume when treated with sector-based PBT. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, nach Irismelanomtherapie durch sektorielle oder Ganzfeldbestrahlung mittels Protonentherapie mit 50 CGE (Cobalt-Gray-Aequivalent) Tumorkontrolle, Inzidenz des strahleninduzierten Glaukoms und damit assoziierte Interventionen auszuwerten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.durand@uclouvain.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel, E-mail: axel.pierru@ifp.f [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Smeers, Yves, E-mail: yves.smeers@uclouvain.ac.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
2010-09-15
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a 'hard cap' or a 'soft cap'. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories-with two branches after 2020-for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)
2010-09-15
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves; Pierru, Axel
2010-01-01
The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO 2 emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO 2 price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO 2 policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO 2 emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO 2 emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO 2 emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scaramuzzino, F.
2009-01-01
This paper considers a qualitative analysis of the solution of a pure exchange general economic equilibrium problem according to two independent parameters. Some recently results obtained by the author in the static and the dynamic case have been collected. Such results have been applied in a particular parametric case: it has been focused the attention on a numerical application for which the existence of the solution of time-depending parametric variational inequality that describes the equilibrium conditions has been proved by means of the direct method. By using MatLab computation after a linear interpolation, the curves of equilibrium have been visualized.
Pharmaceutical industry and trade liberalization using computable general equilibrium model.
Barouni, M; Ghaderi, H; Banouei, Aa
2012-01-01
Computable general equilibrium models are known as a powerful instrument in economic analyses and widely have been used in order to evaluate trade liberalization effects. The purpose of this study was to provide the impacts of trade openness on pharmaceutical industry using CGE model. Using a computable general equilibrium model in this study, the effects of decrease in tariffs as a symbol of trade liberalization on key variables of Iranian pharmaceutical products were studied. Simulation was performed via two scenarios in this study. The first scenario was the effect of decrease in tariffs of pharmaceutical products as 10, 30, 50, and 100 on key drug variables, and the second was the effect of decrease in other sectors except pharmaceutical products on vital and economic variables of pharmaceutical products. The required data were obtained and the model parameters were calibrated according to the social accounting matrix of Iran in 2006. The results associated with simulation demonstrated that the first scenario has increased import, export, drug supply to markets and household consumption, while import, export, supply of product to market, and household consumption of pharmaceutical products would averagely decrease in the second scenario. Ultimately, society welfare would improve in all scenarios. We presents and synthesizes the CGE model which could be used to analyze trade liberalization policy issue in developing countries (like Iran), and thus provides information that policymakers can use to improve the pharmacy economics.
Setiawan, R.
2018-05-01
In this paper, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) of the vendor-buyer supply-chain model under a probabilistic condition with imperfect quality items has been analysed. The analysis is delivered using two concepts in game theory approach, which is Stackelberg equilibrium and Pareto Optimal, under non-cooperative and cooperative games, respectively. Another result is getting acomparison of theoptimal result between integrated scheme and game theory approach based on analytical and numerical result using appropriate simulation data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakowski, R. A.
2006-06-01
Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krakowski, R. A
2006-06-15
Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)
Hassan, R.; Thurlow, J.; Roe, T.; Diao, X.; Chumi., S.; Tsur, Y.
2008-01-01
The pressure on an already stressed water situation in South Africa is predicted to increase significantly under climate change, plans for large industrial expansion, observed rapid urbanization, and government programs to provide access to water to millions of previously excluded people. The present study employed a general equilibrium approach to examine the economy-wide impacts of selec...
BOULANGER PIERRE; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE
2013-01-01
This JRC report presents methodological development of the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, for representing the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Using original data on European Union (EU) domestic support, it examines some likely macroeconomic effects of the expected CAP budget over the period 2014-2020. Results suggest that agreed budget cuts, in constant price, have limited impacts on EU and world markets, given the br...
Nogawa, Tomoaki; Ito, Nobuyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi
2012-01-01
We examine the effectiveness of assuming an equal probability for states far from equilibrium. For this aim, we propose a method to construct a master equation for extensive variables describing nonstationary nonequilibrium dynamics. The key point of the method is the assumption that transient states are equivalent to the equilibrium state that has the same extensive variables, i.e., an equal probability holds for microscopic states in nonequilibrium. We demonstrate an application of this method to the critical relaxation of the two-dimensional Potts model by Monte Carlo simulations. While the one-variable description, which is adequate for equilibrium, yields relaxation dynamics that are very fast, the redundant two-variable description well reproduces the true dynamics quantitatively. These results suggest that some class of the nonequilibrium state can be described with a small extension of degrees of freedom, which may lead to an alternative way to understand nonequilibrium phenomena. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Nogawa, Tomoaki
2012-10-18
We examine the effectiveness of assuming an equal probability for states far from equilibrium. For this aim, we propose a method to construct a master equation for extensive variables describing nonstationary nonequilibrium dynamics. The key point of the method is the assumption that transient states are equivalent to the equilibrium state that has the same extensive variables, i.e., an equal probability holds for microscopic states in nonequilibrium. We demonstrate an application of this method to the critical relaxation of the two-dimensional Potts model by Monte Carlo simulations. While the one-variable description, which is adequate for equilibrium, yields relaxation dynamics that are very fast, the redundant two-variable description well reproduces the true dynamics quantitatively. These results suggest that some class of the nonequilibrium state can be described with a small extension of degrees of freedom, which may lead to an alternative way to understand nonequilibrium phenomena. © 2012 American Physical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wianwiwat, Suthin; Asafu-Adjaye, John
2013-01-01
Given the rising price of crude oil, some developing countries including Thailand are looking towards developing their domestic renewable energy resources, in particular biofuels. However, there are concerns about the possible adverse effects such a policy strategy would have on key variables such as sectoral output, land allocation and the effects of prices, particularly food prices. This study develops a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Thailand economy that features enhancements of the energy sector and uses it to analyze the government’s recent renewable energy development plan. This plan aims to increase domestic energy use from renewable sources to replace fossil fuel imports. The study simulated specific policies contained in the plan. Among other things, we found that promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel and biofuel feedstock in the short-run, whereas these prices only increase slightly in the long-run due to more elastic supplies. The prices of food and other products marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined by the policy. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends a review of some of the targets because they were found to be rather high, and a phasing in of others. - Highlights: ► This study evaluates Thailand’s 10-year alternative energy development plan. ► Promoting biofuel use causes a rapid increase in the price of biofuel. ► Food prices marginally increase, implying that food security is not undermined. ► We recommend a review of some of the targets because they are too high
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marinkovic, N [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)
1978-07-01
For the need of in core fuel management and prediction of fuel cycle costs as well as operating of a nuclear power plant behaviour of main physical parameters and refueling scheme during approach to equilibrium operation are indispensable. An estimation of a refueling scheme during forst six years of exploitation for a commercially proven PWR reactor of WWER-440 type is shown in this paper. (author)
Kulikov, Mikhail Y.; Nechaev, Anton A.; Belikovich, Mikhail V.; Ermakova, Tatiana S.; Feigin, Alexander M.
2018-05-01
This Technical Note presents a statistical approach to evaluating simultaneous measurements of several atmospheric components under the assumption of photochemical equilibrium. We consider simultaneous measurements of OH, HO2, and O3 at the altitudes of the mesosphere as a specific example and their daytime photochemical equilibrium as an evaluating relationship. A simplified algebraic equation relating local concentrations of these components in the 50-100 km altitude range has been derived. The parameters of the equation are temperature, neutral density, local zenith angle, and the rates of eight reactions. We have performed a one-year simulation of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using a 3-D chemical-transport model. The simulation shows that the discrepancy between the calculated evolution of the components and the equilibrium value given by the equation does not exceed 3-4 % in the full range of altitudes independent of season or latitude. We have developed a statistical Bayesian evaluation technique for simultaneous measurements of OH, HO2, and O3 based on the equilibrium equation taking into account the measurement error. The first results of the application of the technique to MLS/Aura data (Microwave Limb Sounder) are presented in this Technical Note. It has been found that the satellite data of the HO2 distribution regularly demonstrate lower altitudes of this component's mesospheric maximum. This has also been confirmed by model HO2 distributions and comparison with offline retrieval of HO2 from the daily zonal means MLS radiance.
Borge, Javier
2015-01-01
G, G°, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta][subscript r]G°, [delta]G, and [delta]G° are essential quantities to master the chemical equilibrium. Although the number of publications devoted to explaining these items is extremely high, it seems that they do not produce the desired effect because some articles and textbooks are still being written with…
Jiang, J.; Zhang, J.
2010-01-01
In this paper we investigate China’s private economic capital and its spatial disparity from the perspective of institutional non-equilibrium, and then we test the efficiency coefficient of the institutional change of a region and inter-regions,which is analyzed on a special cost-benefit model.The
Nikolaychuk, Pavel Anatolyevich; Kuvaeva, Alyona Olegovna
2016-01-01
A laboratory experiment on the study of the chemical equilibrium based on the reaction between ferric and iodide ions in solution with the formation of ferrous ions, free iodine, and triiodide ions is developed. The total concentration of iodide and triiodide ions in the reaction mixture during the reaction is determined by the argentometric…
Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas
2006-01-01
Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of economic, environmental, and social effects triggered by governmental policies has become a central requirement for policy design. The three dimensions of SIA are inherently intertwined and subject to trade-offs. Quantification of trade-offs for policy decision support requires numerical models in order to assess systematically the interference of complex interacting forces that affect economic performance, environmental quality, and social conditions. This paper investigates the use of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models for measuring the impacts of policy interference on policy-relevant economic, environmental, and social (institutional) indicators. We find that operational CGE models used for energy-economy-environment (E3) analyses have a good coverage of central economic indicators. Environmental indicators such as energy-related emissions with direct links to economic activities are widely covered, whereas indicators with complex natural science background such as water stress or biodiversity loss are hardly represented. Social indicators stand out for very weak coverage, mainly because they are vaguely defined or incommensurable. Our analysis identifies prospects for future modeling in the field of integrated assessment that link standard E3-CGE-models to themespecific complementary models with environmental and social focus. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Ji Feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ya Xiong; Kou, Qin
2014-01-01
We use a dynamic CGE model (SICGE) to assess the economic and climate impacts of emissions trading system (ETS) in China with a carbon price of 100 Yuan/ton CO2. A particular focus is given to the regulated electricity price regime, which is a major concern of electricity sector’s cost-effective participation in ETS in China. We found: (1) Carbon pricing is an effective policy for China to reduce CO 2 emissions. Total CO 2 emissions reduction ranges from 6.8% to 11.2% in short-term. (2) Rigid electricity price entails lower CO 2 emissions reduction but can be considered as a feasible starting point to introduce carbon pricing policies in short-term as long as governmental subsidies are given to electricity production. (3) In mid- and long-term, the efficient policy is to earmark carbon revenue with competitive electricity price. We propose to use carbon revenue to reduce consumption tax in the first year of the introduction of carbon price and to use the carbon revenue to reduce production tax in following years. - Highlights: • We use a CGE model to assess the impacts of carbon pricing in China. • We test different scenarios of carbon cost pass-through in electricity price. • Carbon pricing policy cost-efficiency is examined with double-dividend hypothesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1984-12-15
From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.
van Damme, E.E.C.
2000-01-01
An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Jong-Hwan.
1993-01-01
Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de
Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.
2015-01-01
Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66’s pKa. PMID:26506245
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiongwu Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66's pKa.
Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R
2015-10-01
Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66's pKa.
Chau, Nancy H.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...
Modelling knowledge creation, investment decisions and economic growth in a spatial CGE setting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Di Comite
2014-01-01
Full Text Available La creación del conocimiento es habitualmente entendida como un vector clave de crecimiento económico. Mientras que la producción de conocimiento y el crecimiento económico han sido estudiados extensamente por separado, pocos estudios han intentado formalizar el mecanismo conectando los dos elementos desde la perspectiva de un modelo de equilibrio general espacial. Para rellenar este vacío, proponemos un modelo de creación de conocimiento aprovechando el modelo CGE multirregional RHOMOLO para la producción endógena de conocimientos y decisiones de inversión a nivel regional. El proceso de innovación se modeliza teniendo en cuenta la interacción entre investigadores, inversores y productores de bienes de consumo. Más en detalle, los investigadores en cada región usan su capital humano junto a activos que incorporan I+D y bienes intermedios para la producción de nuevas ideas, las cuales son mejoradas por la transferencia de conocimientos desde otras regiones. En la siguiente etapa, estas ideas son adquiridas por inversores locales y se combinan en el proceso de generar nuevos activos que incorporan I+D junto al capital humano y bienes intermedios, así aumentando el stock existente después de haber reemplazado la parte obsoleta. Por último, después del pago de los costes fijos de entrada, empresas regionales producen tanto bienes intermedios como bienes de consumo, alquilando capital humano y activos que incorporan I+D, combinándolos junto con un conjunto interregional de bienes intermedios en el proceso de producción, donde la disponibilidad de bienes y servicios públicos influye en su productividad. El modelo ha sido diseñado para ser calibrado con las versiones regionalizadas de matrices de contabilidad social, como son las que se pueden obtener de la base de datos World Input Output.
Michael K. Salemi
2007-01-01
Prior to the late 1990s, low unemployment was a standard feature of macroeconomic life in Hong Kong. Between 1985 and 1997, the unemployment rate averaged 2.5 percent. But the picture changed dramatically thereafter with the unemployment rate rising to 6.2 percent by 1999 and remaining above 5 percent through 2005. What caused the large and sustained increase? This paper provides some answers with an analysis based on a dynamic, general equilibrium model of a small, open economy in which wage...
Marginal abatement cost curves in general equilibrium: The influence of world energy prices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klepper, Gernot; Peterson, Sonja
2006-01-01
Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are a favorite instrument to analyze international emissions trading. This paper focuses on the question of how to define MACCs in a general equilibrium context where the global abatement level influences energy prices and in turn national MACCs. We discuss the mechanisms theoretically and then use the CGE model DART for quantitative simulations. The result is, that changes in energy prices resulting from different global abatement levels do indeed affect national MACCs. Also, we compare different possibilities of defining MACCs-of which some are robust against changes in energy prices while others vary considerably. (author)
Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese
2009-01-01
We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Xu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, Muhammad Arif; Schoenbach, Karl H
2012-01-01
Energetic and scalable non-equilibrium plasma was formed in pure water vapour at atmospheric pressure between wire-to-strip electrodes on a dielectric surface with one of the electrodes extended forming a conductive plane on the back side of the dielectric surface. The energy deposition increased by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional pulsed corona discharges under the same conditions. The scalability was demonstrated by operating two electrode assemblies with a common conductive plane between two dielectric layers. The energy yields for hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide generation were measured as ∼1.2 g H 2 /kWh and ∼4 g H 2 O 2 /kWh. (fast track communication)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duchemin, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.duchemin@cea.fr [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France); Jacquemin, Denis [Laboratoire CEISAM - UMR CNR 6230, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 1 rue Descartes, 75005 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Blase, Xavier [CNRS, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst. NÉEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2016-04-28
We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green’s function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.
What are the key drivers of MAC curves? A partial-equilibrium modelling approach for the UK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesicki, Fabian
2013-01-01
Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves are widely used for the assessment of costs related to CO 2 emissions reduction in environmental economics, as well as domestic and international climate policy. Several meta-analyses and model comparisons have previously been performed that aim to identify the causes for the wide range of MAC curves. Most of these concentrate on general equilibrium models with a focus on aspects such as specific model type and technology learning, while other important aspects remain almost unconsidered, including the availability of abatement technologies and level of discount rates. This paper addresses the influence of several key parameters on MAC curves for the United Kingdom and the year 2030. A technology-rich energy system model, UK MARKAL, is used to derive the MAC curves. The results of this study show that MAC curves are robust even to extreme fossil fuel price changes, while uncertainty around the choice of the discount rate, the availability of key abatement technologies and the demand level were singled out as the most important influencing factors. By using a different model type and studying a wider range of influencing factors, this paper contributes to the debate on the sensitivity of MAC curves. - Highlights: ► A partial-equilibrium model is employed to test key sensitivities of MAC curves. ► MAC curves are found to be robust to wide-ranging changes in fossil fuel prices. ► Most influencing factors are the discount rate, availability of key technologies. ► Further important uncertainty in MAC curves is related to demand changes
Analysing the Effects of a Pigs Production Quota within a Dynamic CGE Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adams, Philip D; Hansen, Lill Thanning; Jacobsen, Lars Bo
2001-01-01
In this paper we address the issue of timing and announcement within a dynamic applied general equilibrium model of the Danish economy. Specifically we analyse the introduction of a quota on the production of pigs. Two scenarios are analysed, namely the introduction of a once-off quota without any...
de Oliveira, Mário J
2017-01-01
This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chechetkin, V.R.; Lutovinov, V.S.
1986-09-11
The continuous stochastic formalism for the description of systems with birth and death processes randomly distributed in space is developed with the use of local birth and death operators and local generalization of the corresponding Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The functional stochastic equation for the evolution of the probability functional is derived and its modifications for evolution of the characteristic functional and the first passage time problem are given. The corresponding evolution equations for equal-time correlators are also derived. The results are generalized then on the exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions. As examples of the particular applications of the results the small fluctuations near stable equilibrium state and fluctuations in mono-molecular reactions, Lotka-Volterra model, Schloegl reaction and brusselator are considered. It is shown that the two-dimensional Lotka-Volterra model may exhibit synergetic phase transition analogous to the topological transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type. At the end of the paper some general consequences from stochastic evolution of the birth and death processes are discussed and the arguments on their importance in evolution of populations, cellular dynamics and in applications to various chemical and biological problems are presented.
Park, Eun Ji; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Kang Choon; Na, Dong Hee
2010-11-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microchip CGE (MCGE) for the analysis of PEG-modified granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF) prepared with PEG-aldehydes. The unmodified and PEG-modified G-CSFs were analyzed by Protein 80 and 230 Labchips on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. The MCGE allowed size-based separation and quantitation of PEG-G-CSF. The Protein 80 Labchip was useful for PEG-5K-G-CSF, while the Protein 230 Labchip was more suitable for PEG-20K-G-CSF. The MCGE was also used to monitor a search for optimal PEG-modification (PEGylation) conditions to produce mono-PEG-G-CSF. This study demonstrates the usefulness of MCGE for monitoring and optimizing the PEGylation of G-CSF with the advantages of speed, minimal sample consumption, and automatic quantitation.
Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model
Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...
Zakhari, Monica E. A.; Anderson, Patrick D.; Hütter, Markus
2017-07-01
Open-porous deformable particles, often envisaged as sponges, are ubiquitous in biological and industrial systems (e.g., casein micelles in dairy products and microgels in cosmetics). The rich behavior of these suspensions is owing to the elasticity of the supporting network of the particle, and the viscosity of permeating solvent. Therefore, the rate-dependent size change of these particles depends on their structure, i.e., the permeability. This work aims at investigating the effect of the particle-size dynamics and the underlying particle structure, i.e., the particle permeability, on the transient and long-time behavior of suspensions of spongy particles in the absence of applied deformation, using the dynamic two-scale model developed by Hütter et al. [Farad. Discuss. 158, 407 (2012), 10.1039/c2fd20025b]. In the high-density limit, the transient behavior is found to be accelerated by the particle-size dynamics, even at average size changes as small as 1 % . The accelerated dynamics is evidenced by (i) the higher short-time diffusion coefficient as compared to elastic-particle systems and (ii) the accelerated formation of the stable fcc crystal structure. Furthermore, after long times, the particle-size dynamics of spongy particles is shown to result in lower stationary values of the energy and normal stresses as compared to elastic-particle systems. This dependence of the long-time behavior of these systems on the permeability, that essentially is a transport coefficient and hence must not affect the equilibrium properties, confirms that full equilibration has not been reached.
2017-03-28
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-01-01
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-09-22
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.
Williams, Donald F.; Glasser, David
1991-01-01
An approach that may be used to introduce the fundamental ideas of thermodynamics using a mathematical background with the knowledge of the behavior of matter is described. The physical background, conservation of energy, predicting the behavior of a system, and solving problems are topics of discussion. (KR)
The effects of energy taxes on the Kenyan economy: a CGE analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semboja, H.H.H.
1994-01-01
The paper utilizes a computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the impact of the second oil price shock and consequent energy tax policies on the Kenyan economy. Simulations show that dramatic change in energy prices and consequent changes in domestic energy consumption generate sequential feedbacks in the production process and affect economic structures. Terms of trade deteriorate; the balance of payments deficit increases and national income falls. Energy import tariffs and a sales tax are effective policy instruments in controlling energy consumption and increasing government revenue. Both energy policies have net negative effects on other economics activities similar to those observed under the oil price shock. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staśkiewicz, B.; Okrasiński, W.
2012-01-01
We propose a simple analytical form of the vapor–liquid equilibrium curve near the critical point for Lennard-Jones fluids. Coexistence densities curves and vapor pressure have been determined using the Van der Waals and Dieterici equation of state. In described method the Bernoulli differential equations, critical exponent theory and some type of Maxwell's criterion have been used. Presented approach has not yet been used to determine analytical form of phase curves as done in this Letter. Lennard-Jones fluids have been considered for analysis. Comparison with experimental data is done. The accuracy of the method is described. -- Highlights: ► We propose a new analytical way to determine the VLE curve. ► Simple, mathematically straightforward form of phase curves is presented. ► Comparison with experimental data is discussed. ► The accuracy of the method has been confirmed.
Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio
2015-01-01
A didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium law. In this approach, we have avoided the kinetic derivation and the thermodynamic justification of the equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant expression is established empirically by a trial-and-error approach. Additionally, students learn to use the criterion of…
Equilibrium calculations, ch. 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deursen, A.P.J. van
1976-01-01
A calculation is presented of dimer intensities obtained in supersonic expansions. There are two possible limiting considerations; the dimers observed are already present in the source, in thermodynamic equilibrium, and are accelerated in the expansion. Destruction during acceleration is neglected, as are processes leading to newly formed dimers. On the other hand one can apply a kinetic approach, where formation and destruction processes are followed throughout the expansion. The difficulty of this approach stems from the fact that the density, temperature and rate constants have to be known at all distances from the nozzle. The simple point of view has been adopted and the measured dimer intensities are compared with the equilibrium concentration in the source. The comparison is performed under the assumption that the detection efficiency for dimers is twice the detection efficiency for monomers. The experimental evidence against the simple point of view that the dimers of the onset region are formed in the source already, under equilibrium conditions, is discussed. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Venugopalan, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berges, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaizot, J. -P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gelis, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2014-04-09
The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory*. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan and the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The RBRC is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has theory, lattice gauge computing and experimental components. It is presently exploring the possibility of an astrophysics component being added to the program. The purpose of this Workshop is to critically review the recent progress on the theory and phenomenology of early time dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies, to examine the various approaches on thermalization and existing issues, and to formulate new research efforts for the future. Topics slated to be covered include Experimental evidence for equilibration/isotropization, comparison of various approaches, dependence on the initial conditions and couplings, and turbulent cascades and Bose-Einstein condensation.
Reniers, Genserik; Dullaert, Wout; Karel, Soudan
2009-08-15
Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces domino effect risks, whose magnitude depends on every company's own risk management strategies and on those of all others. Preventing domino effects is therefore very important to avoid catastrophes in the chemical process industry. Given that chemical companies are interlinked by domino effect accident links, there is some likelihood that even if certain companies fully invest in domino effects prevention measures, they can nonetheless experience an external domino effect caused by an accident which occurred in another chemical enterprise of the cluster. In this article a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of chemical plants within chemical clusters while negotiating and deciding on domino effects prevention investments is employed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Ramon B.; Appenzeller, Joerg; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard
2015-01-01
A new compact modeling approach is presented which describes the full current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of high-performance (aggressively scaled-down) tunneling field-effect-transistors (TFETs) based on homojunction direct-bandgap semiconductors. The model is based on an analytic description of two key features, which capture the main physical phenomena related to TFETs: (1) the potential profile from source to channel and (2) the elliptic curvature of the complex bands in the bandgap region. It is proposed to use 1D Poisson's equations in the source and the channel to describe the potential profile in homojunction TFETs. This allows to quantify the impact of source/drain doping on device performance, an aspect usually ignored in TFET modeling but highly relevant in ultra-scaled devices. The compact model is validated by comparison with state-of-the-art quantum transport simulations using a 3D full band atomistic approach based on non-equilibrium Green's functions. It is shown that the model reproduces with good accuracy the data obtained from the simulations in all regions of operation: the on/off states and the n/p branches of conduction. This approach allows calculation of energy-dependent band-to-band tunneling currents in TFETs, a feature that allows gaining deep insights into the underlying device physics. The simplicity and accuracy of the approach provide a powerful tool to explore in a quantitatively manner how a wide variety of parameters (material-, size-, and/or geometry-dependent) impact the TFET performance under any bias conditions. The proposed model presents thus a practical complement to computationally expensive simulations such as the 3D NEGF approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezaei, Navid; Kalantar, Mohsen
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Proposing a multi-objective security pricing mechanism for islanded microgrids. • Generating Pareto points using epsilon constraint methodology. • Best compromise solution using a novel decision making approach. • An equilibrium-inspired technique is used as an efficient decision making method. • Stochastic management of hierarchical reserves in a droop controlled microgrid. - Abstract: The present paper formulates a frequency security constrained energy management system for an islanded microgrid. Static and dynamic securities of the microgrids have been modeled in depth based on droop control paradigm. The derived frequency dependent modeling is incorporated into a multi-objective energy management system. Microgrid central controller is in charge to determine optimal prices of energy and frequency security such that technical, economic and environmental targets are satisfied simultaneously. The associated prices are extracted based on calculating related Lagrange multipliers corresponding to providing the microgrid hourly energy and reserve requirements. Besides, to generate optimal Pareto solutions of the proposed multi-objective framework augmented epsilon constraint method is applied. Moreover, a novel methodology on the basis of Nash equilibrium strategy is devised and employed to select the best compromise solution from the generated Pareto front. Comprehensive analysis tool is implemented in a typical test microgrid and executed over a 24 h scheduling time horizon. The energy, primary and secondary frequency control reserves have been scheduled appropriately in three different case-studies which are defined based on the microgrid various operational policies. The optimization results verify that the operational policies adopted by means of the microgrid central controller have direct impacts on determined energy and security prices. The illustrative implementations can give the microgrid central controller an insight view to provide
Przystupa, Jan
2009-01-01
Taking into account a large number of types of nominal and real exchange rates, while estimating the real equilibrium exchange rate, one should always remember that there is no a single, universal equilibrium exchange rate. A point value or a path of that exchange rate depends on the adopted definitions and assumptions as well as on the method and purpose of the analysis. However, a value added of each estimation of the equilibrium exchange rate is an answer, whether the economic policy cause...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Gyeong Lyeob; Kwon, Tae Gyu [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)
1999-01-01
The present situation and characters of greenhouse gas emission in Korea was reviewed and then the theoretical analysis on pros and cons about emissions trading system and carbon tax, and estimation of reduction cost and loss of GDP using GDP model to reduce greenhouse gas was discussed. Finally a ripple effect of carbon tax and emissions trading system on balance of international payments and output per each industry was reviewed. 24 refs., 34 Figs., 30 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Detailed energy end-use technology information is considered within a CGE model. • Aggregated macro results of the detailed model are similar to traditional model. • The detailed model shows unique characteristics in the household sector. - Abstract: A global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model integrating detailed energy end-use technologies is developed in this paper. The paper (1) presents how energy end-use technologies are treated within the model and (2) analyzes the characteristics of the model’s behavior. Energy service demand and end-use technologies are explicitly considered, and the share of technologies is determined by a discrete probabilistic function, namely a Logit function, to meet the energy service demand. Coupling with detailed technology information enables the CGE model to have more realistic representation in the energy consumption. The proposed model in this paper is compared with the aggregated traditional model under the same assumptions in scenarios with and without mitigation roughly consistent with the two degree climate mitigation target. Although the results of aggregated energy supply and greenhouse gas emissions are similar, there are three main differences between the aggregated and the detailed technologies models. First, GDP losses in mitigation scenarios are lower in the detailed technology model (2.8% in 2050) as compared with the aggregated model (3.2%). Second, price elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency improvement are heterogeneous across regions and sectors in the detailed technology model, whereas the traditional aggregated model generally utilizes a single value for each of these variables. Third, the magnitude of emissions reduction and factors (energy intensity and carbon factor reduction) related to climate mitigation also varies among sectors in the detailed technology model. The household sector in the detailed technology model has a relatively higher reduction for both energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinsen, Thomas
2011-01-01
This paper describes a method to model the influence by global policy scenarios, particularly spillover of technology learning, on the energy service demand of the non-energy sectors of the national economy. It is exemplified by Norway. Spillover is obtained from the technology-rich global Energy Technology Perspective model operated by the International Energy Agency. It is provided to a national hybrid model where a national bottom-up Markal model carries forward spillover into a national top-down CGE model at a disaggregated demand category level. Spillover of technology learning from the global energy technology market will reduce national generation costs of energy carriers. This may in turn increase demand in the non-energy sectors of the economy because of the rebound effect. The influence of spillover on the Norwegian economy is most pronounced for the production level of industrial chemicals and for the demand for electricity for residential energy services. The influence is modest, however, because all existing electricity generating capacity is hydroelectric and thus compatible with the low emission policy scenario. In countries where most of the existing generating capacity must be replaced by nascent energy technologies or carbon captured and storage the influence on demand is expected to be more significant. - Highlights: → Spillover of global technology learning may be forwarded into a macroeconomic model. → The national electricity price differs significantly between the different global scenarios. → Soft-linking global and national models facilitate transparency in the technology learning effect chain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goertz, M.; Hansen, J.V.; Larsen, M.
1999-01-01
In this paper we develop a new CGE model of the Danish economy with the acronym ECOSMEC (Economic COuncil Simulation Model with Energy markets and Carbon taxation). The model is a hybrid of two existing static models developed by respectively the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council and by the MobiDK model project in the Ministry of Business and Industry. Distinct features of the ECOSMEC models are a rather disaggregated modelling of energy demand and supply, introduction of various market structures in the energy sector, and a consistent specification of different household types. The simulations presented in the paper have the following implications: Firstly, a uniform CO 2 tax of approximately 300 DKK per ton could reduce emissions by 20 per cent in a scenario with perfect competition in the energy sector. Secondly, a double dividend (reduced emissions and increased welfare) could be gained by using the CO 2 tax revenue for reducing distorting income taxes. However, the double dividend result depends decisively on the applied elasticity of substitution between consumption and leisure. Thirdly, assuming different market structures in the energy sector influences the uniform CO 2 tax needed to reach a given emission target. Fourthly, the empirical aguments for differentiated CO 2 taxes motivated by imperfect energy markets are weak. Fifthly, the Danish economy could benefit from a deregulation of the electricity and district heating sector with respect to welfare and economic activity. This result holds also if CO 2 emissions are kept constant. (au)
Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maisonnave, Hélène; Pycroft, Jonathan; Saveyn, Bert; Ciscar, Juan-Carlos
2012-01-01
The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.
Economic analysis of coal price-electricity price adjustment in China based on the CGE model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Y.X.; Zhang, S.L.; Yang, L.Y.; Wang, Y.J.; Wang, J.
2010-01-01
In recent years, coal price has risen rapidly, which has also brought a sharp increase in the expenditures of thermal power plants in China. Meantime, the power production price and power retail price have not been adjusted accordingly and a large number of thermal power plants have incurred losses. The power industry is a key industry in the national economy. As such, a thorough analysis and evaluation of the economic influence of the electricity price should be conducted before electricity price adjustment is carried out. This paper analyses the influence of coal price adjustment on the electric power industry, and the influence of electricity price adjustment on the macroeconomy in China based on computable general equilibrium models. The conclusions are as follows: (1) a coal price increase causes a rise in the cost of the electric power industry, but the influence gradually descends with increase in coal price; and (2) an electricity price increase has an adverse influence on the total output, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Electricity price increases have a contractionary effect on economic development and, consequently, electricity price policy making must consequently consider all factors to minimize their adverse influence.
Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.
1993-01-01
There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative
On the local equilibrium condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hessling, H.
1994-11-01
A physical system is in local equilibrium if it cannot be distinguished from a global equilibrium by ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. This should be a natural characterization of local equilibrium, but the problem is to give a precise meaning to the qualitative phrase ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. A solution is suggested in form of a Local Equilibrium Condition (LEC), which can be applied to linear relativistic quantum field theories but not directly to selfinteracting quantum fields. The concept of local temperature resulting from LEC is compared to an old approach to local temperature based on the principle of maximal entropy. It is shown that the principle of maximal entropy does not always lead to physical states if it is applied to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)
Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer.
Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo
2015-07-01
An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases.
Zanjanian, Hossein; Abdolabadi, Hamid; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Sarang, Amin
2018-05-15
Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts. In this paper, we analyzed the conflict of water allocation in Ilam dam among organizational stakeholders. We defined the strategies based on the background of the game and organizational objectives. The influence power of stakeholders and the numerical weights of strategies were quantified based on the expert judgment method. The relative priorities of strategies were then calculated for each state of the conflict. We used the GMCR + model to study the actions of stakeholders. Results suggest that the Jihad Agriculture Organization and the Water and Wastewater Company withdraw more water; hence, there exists no water to meet the environmental water right. In this case, the participation of the third party, such as the Governorship and the Justice can change the future of the conflict, and result in moving to the optimal state. However, results from Inverse GMCR analysis demonstrate that Justice is the most influential third party that can move the conflict towards a desired equilibrium (optimal case). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kenkre, V. M.; Chase, M.
2017-08-01
The approach to equilibrium of a quantum mechanical system in interaction with a bath is studied from a practical as well as a conceptual point of view. Explicit memory functions are derived for given models of bath couplings. If the system is a harmonic oscillator representing a molecule in interaction with a reservoir, the generalized master equation derived becomes an extension into the coherent domain of the well-known Montroll-Shuler equation for vibrational relaxation and unimolecular dissociation. A generalization of the Bethe-Teller result regarding energy relaxation is found for short times. The theory has obvious applications to relaxation dynamics at ultra-short times as in observations on the femtosecond time scale and to the investigation of quantum coherence at those short times. While vibrational relaxation in chemical physics is a primary target of the study, another system of interest in condensed matter physics, an electron or hole in a lattice subjected to a strong DC electric field that gives rise to well-known Wannier-Stark ladders, is naturally addressed with the theory. Specific system-bath interactions are explored to obtain explicit details of the dynamics. General phenomenological descriptions of the reservoir are considered rather than specific microscopic realizations.
Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koesler, Simon Tobias
2014-10-14
This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.
Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koesler, Simon Tobias
2014-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.
Economic impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico: A general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizondo, Alejandra; Boyd, Roy
2017-01-01
In this paper we analyze the economic impact of a decision to produce ethanol in Mexico, comparing the effect of a subsidy to initiate ethanol production with that of alternative public policies. Public support of biofuels has been a public policy goal since 2008, and the promotion of ethanol remains an active part of the government agenda. The evidence used to encourage or alter the policy is (by necessity) chiefly based on international experience. In this study we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) to estimate the impact of ethanol production on the Mexican economy. Using cost data from Brazil we introduce ethanol into a Mexican social accounting matrix, and insert a latent sector into the model to analyze ethanol promotion. Our results show that subsidies to ethanol would increase agriculture production but at the expense of aggregate welfare. By contrast, alternative 'clean energy' policies appear to advance economic growth to a greater extent. - Highlights: • A CGE model is used to estimate the impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico. • The benefits of a policy designed to promote the use of ethanol are rather small. • The rural sector benefits modestly, but production in other sectors decrease. • Alternative policies advance economic growth and welfare to a greater extent.
Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.
Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M
2018-05-15
Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.
Ex-Ante Impact Assessment of Water Policy Reform in South-Eastern Tunisia: A CGE Approach
Abdelahim, M.A.; Chant, L.J.; Abdallah, A.; Sghaier, M.
2011-01-01
Localizada no sudeste da Tunísia, o território Medenine é caracterizado por um clima árido. A escassez de água foi acentuada pela crescente demanda de diferentes setores econômicos. A competição inter-setorial pela água, principalmente entre o turismo e a agricultura, representa um grande problema.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin
2017-01-01
The Chinese government has been issuing numerous incentive policies to promote non-grain bioethanol development to address the problem of excessive energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study, we divide the incentive policies into five categories: subsidies on bioethanol production, non-grain feedstocks planting, marginal land reclamation and utilization, bioethanol consumption in more cities, and consumption tax on gasoline use. The objective of the paper is to evaluate and compare the economic, energy, and environmental effects of the incentive policies to help the government choose the optimal policies to promote bioethanol in China. The results show that subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can boost GDP, and simultaneously, decrease crude oil and gasoline consumption, and reduce CO_2 emissions. However, the increase in bioethanol consumption is combined with the rise in coal and electricity consumption. Subsidies on bioethanol production can promote GDP and reduce energy consumption and CO_2 emission but have less effect on bioethanol development than that under the scenario of subsides on bioethanol consumption. On the contrary, although subsidies on non-grain feedstocks planting and marginal land reclamation and utilization can improve macro-economy but have a negative effect on energy saving and CO_2 emission reduction. Therefore, appropriate subsidies on bioethanol production and consumption can promote bioethanol consumption with economic, energy and environmental benefits. The Chinese government should further pay more attention to the coordination of different policy options by policy tools and intensities. - Highlights: • Non-grain bioethanol incentive policy is divided into supply and demand perspectives. • China's bioethanol CGE model is constructed. • Demand incentives have largest positive effects on GDP. • Demand incentives have better effects on energy saving and emission reduction. • Subsidies on
Ion exchange equilibrium constants
Marcus, Y
2013-01-01
Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and
Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium
Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.
2006-01-01
In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In
Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.
Moritz, H.
There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.
Kalgin, Igor V; Chekmarev, Sergei F; Karplus, Martin
2014-04-24
Simulations of first-passage folding of the antiparallel β-sheet miniprotein beta3s, which has been intensively studied under equilibrium conditions by A. Caflisch and co-workers, show that the kinetics and dynamics are significantly different from those for equilibrium folding. Because the folding of a protein in a living system generally corresponds to the former (i.e., the folded protein is stable and unfolding is a rare event), the difference is of interest. In contrast to equilibrium folding, the Ch-curl conformations become very rare because they contain unfavorable parallel β-strand arrangements, which are difficult to form dynamically due to the distant N- and C-terminal strands. At the same time, the formation of helical conformations becomes much easier (particularly in the early stage of folding) due to short-range contacts. The hydrodynamic descriptions of the folding reaction have also revealed that while the equilibrium flow field presented a collection of local vortices with closed "streamlines", the first-passage folding is characterized by a pronounced overall flow from the unfolded states to the native state. The flows through the locally stable structures Cs-or and Ns-or, which are conformationally close to the native state, are negligible due to detailed balance established between these structures and the native state. Although there are significant differences in the general picture of the folding process from the equilibrium and first-passage folding simulations, some aspects of the two are in agreement. The rate of transitions between the clusters of characteristic protein conformations in both cases decreases approximately exponentially with the distance between the clusters in the hydrogen bond distance space of collective variables, and the folding time distribution in the first-passage segments of the equilibrium trajectory is in good agreement with that for the first-passage folding simulations.
2015-01-01
Simulations of first-passage folding of the antiparallel β-sheet miniprotein beta3s, which has been intensively studied under equilibrium conditions by A. Caflisch and co-workers, show that the kinetics and dynamics are significantly different from those for equilibrium folding. Because the folding of a protein in a living system generally corresponds to the former (i.e., the folded protein is stable and unfolding is a rare event), the difference is of interest. In contrast to equilibrium folding, the Ch-curl conformations become very rare because they contain unfavorable parallel β-strand arrangements, which are difficult to form dynamically due to the distant N- and C-terminal strands. At the same time, the formation of helical conformations becomes much easier (particularly in the early stage of folding) due to short-range contacts. The hydrodynamic descriptions of the folding reaction have also revealed that while the equilibrium flow field presented a collection of local vortices with closed ”streamlines”, the first-passage folding is characterized by a pronounced overall flow from the unfolded states to the native state. The flows through the locally stable structures Cs-or and Ns-or, which are conformationally close to the native state, are negligible due to detailed balance established between these structures and the native state. Although there are significant differences in the general picture of the folding process from the equilibrium and first-passage folding simulations, some aspects of the two are in agreement. The rate of transitions between the clusters of characteristic protein conformations in both cases decreases approximately exponentially with the distance between the clusters in the hydrogen bond distance space of collective variables, and the folding time distribution in the first-passage segments of the equilibrium trajectory is in good agreement with that for the first-passage folding simulations. PMID:24669953
Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.
Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V
2018-01-01
In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Collapse and equilibrium of rotating, adiabatic clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boss, A.P.
1980-01-01
A numerical hydrodynamics computer code has been used to follow the collapse and establishment of equilibrium of adiabatic gas clouds restricted to axial symmetry. The clouds are initially uniform in density and rotation, with adiabatic exponents γ=5/3 and 7/5. The numerical technique allows, for the first time, a direct comparison to be made between the dynamic collapse and approach to equilibrium of unconstrained clouds on the one hand, and the results for incompressible, uniformly rotating equilibrium clouds, and the equilibrium structures of differentially rotating polytropes, on the other hand
Zero-rating food in South Africa: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Kearney
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-rating food is considered to alleviate poverty of poor households who spend the largest proportion of their income on food. However, this will result in a loss of revenue for government. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is used to analyze the combined effects on zero-rating food and using alternative revenue sources to compensate for the loss in revenue. To prohibit excessively high increases in the statutory VAT rates of business and financial services, increasing direct taxes or increasing VAT to 16 per cent, is investigated. Increasing direct taxes is the most successful option when creating a more progressive tax structure, and still generating a positive impact on GDP. The results indicate that zero-rating food combined with a proportional percentage increase in direct taxes can improve the welfare of poor households.
General Equilibrium Analysis of Electricity Market Liberalization in Singapore: A Comparative Study
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Fenglong XIAO
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The liberalization in electricity market in Singapore has being undertaken for more than 15 years. This paper evaluates the influence of competition policies by computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Instead of the direct measurement of the impact of competition policy, the benefit of liberalization is reflected by the simulation of a hypothetical regulatory condition. Comparing to the regulatory scenario, simulation result implies the current liberalization raises GDP and exchange rate significantly, but also leaves the tradeoff between higher national income and lower consumer welfare to government. If such choice of economic policy is necessary for political demand, a formal legal framework is required to enforce the restoration of the economy from regulatory restrictions.
Schu, Kathryn L.
Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements
Brignole, Esteban Alberto
2013-01-01
Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balter, H.S.
1994-01-01
This work studies the behaviour of radionuclides when it produce a desintegration activity,decay and the isotopes stable creation. It gives definitions about the equilibrium between activity of parent and activity of the daughter, radioactive decay,isotope stable and transient equilibrium and maxim activity time. Some considerations had been given to generators that permit a disgregation of two radioisotopes in equilibrium and its good performance. Tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Mette Voldby; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Zankari, Ea
2017-01-01
As whole genome sequence data of microorganisms are becoming easily accessible and cheap to produce, a transformation of the traditional methods used for typing, phenotyping and phylogenetic analysis of microorganisms is on the way. Following the anticipation that most clinical microbiological an...
Ahn, Byeong-il; Im, Jeong-bin
2016-01-01
The present study develops an equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to evaluate the impacts of a free trade agreement (FTA) on the profits of individual farmers. The parameters representing the share of profit within revenue and the elasticity of cost with respect to quantity in the cost function play key roles in assessing the change in individual farmers' profit. The application of the developed EDM to assess the impacts of the Korea-Chile FTA indicates that this FTA has little impact on the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liberles David A
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The exchange of nucleotides at synonymous sites in a gene encoding a protein is believed to have little impact on the fitness of a host organism. This should be especially true for synonymous transitions, where a pyrimidine nucleotide is replaced by another pyrimidine, or a purine is replaced by another purine. This suggests that transition redundant exchange (TREx processes at the third position of conserved two-fold codon systems might offer the best approximation for a neutral molecular clock, serving to examine, within coding regions, theories that require neutrality, determine whether transition rate constants differ within genes in a single lineage, and correlate dates of events recorded in genomes with dates in the geological and paleontological records. To date, TREx analysis of the yeast genome has recognized correlated duplications that established a new metabolic strategies in fungi, and supported analyses of functional change in aromatases in pigs. TREx dating has limitations, however. Multiple transitions at synonymous sites may cause equilibration and loss of information. Further, to be useful to correlate events in the genomic record, different genes within a genome must suffer transitions at similar rates. Results A formalism to analyze divergence at two fold redundant codon systems is presented. This formalism exploits two-state approach-to-equilibrium kinetics from chemistry. This formalism captures, in a single equation, the possibility of multiple substitutions at individual sites, avoiding any need to "correct" for these. The formalism also connects specific rate constants for transitions to specific approximations in an underlying evolutionary model, including assumptions that transition rate constants are invariant at different sites, in different genes, in different lineages, and at different times. Therefore, the formalism supports analyses that evaluate these approximations. Transitions at synonymous
Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.
2008-01-01
Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up
Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, Y.
2015-01-01
The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiotani, Hiroki; Ono, Kiyoshi
2009-01-01
The Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) is a widely used computable general equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Purdue University. Although the GTAP-E, an energy environmental version of the GTAP model, is useful for surveying the energy-economy-environment-trade linkage is economic policy analysis, it does not have the decomposed model of the electricity sector and its analyses are comparatively static. In this study, a recursive dynamic CGE model with a detailed electricity technology bundle with nuclear power generation including FR was developed based on the GTAP-E to evaluate the long-term socioeconomic effects of FR deployment. The capital stock changes caused by international investments and some dynamic constraints of the FR deployment and operation (e.g., load following capability and plutonium mass balance) were incorporated in the analyses. The long-term socioeconomic effects resulting from the deployment of economic competitive FR with innovative technologies can be assessed; the cumulative effects of the FR deployment on GDP calculated using this model costed over 40 trillion yen in Japan and 400 trillion yen worldwide, which were several times more than the cost of the effects calculated using the conventional cost-benefit analysis tool, because of ripple effects and energy substitutions among others. (author)
Gouranga G. Das; Janki R.R. Alavalapati; Douglas R. Carter; Marions E. Tsigas
2005-01-01
In this paper, a multiregional computable general equilibrium model, which divides the United States (US) into four broad geographical regions and aggregates other nations into the rest of the world, is used to analyze the effects associated with environmental and technological policy shifts in the US forest sector. In particular, we analyze the impacts of: (i) a 20%...
Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations
Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.
2012-01-01
Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.
Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake.
Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi
2012-01-01
Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.
Ise, Takeshi; Litton, Creighton M.; Giardina, Christian P.; Ito, Akihiko
2010-12-01
Partitioning of gross primary production (GPP) to aboveground versus belowground, to growth versus respiration, and to short versus long-lived tissues exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. A recent meta-analysis of forest ecosystems suggests that carbon partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots varies consistently with GPP and that the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to GPP is conservative across environmental gradients. To examine influences of carbon partitioning schemes employed by global ecosystem models, we used this meta-analysis-based model and a satellite-based (MODIS) terrestrial GPP data set to estimate global woody NPP and equilibrium biomass, and then compared it to two process-based ecosystem models (Biome-BGC and VISIT) using the same GPP data set. We hypothesized that different carbon partitioning schemes would result in large differences in global estimates of woody NPP and equilibrium biomass. Woody NPP estimated by Biome-BGC and VISIT was 25% and 29% higher than the meta-analysis-based model for boreal forests, with smaller differences in temperate and tropics. Global equilibrium woody biomass, calculated from model-specific NPP estimates and a single set of tissue turnover rates, was 48 and 226 Pg C higher for Biome-BGC and VISIT compared to the meta-analysis-based model, reflecting differences in carbon partitioning to structural versus metabolically active tissues. In summary, we found that different carbon partitioning schemes resulted in large variations in estimates of global woody carbon flux and storage, indicating that stand-level controls on carbon partitioning are not yet accurately represented in ecosystem models.
Influence of collective excitations on pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.
1990-01-01
The influence of the collective states excitations on equilibrium and preequilibrium processes in reaction is discussed. It is shown that for a consistent description of the contribution of preequilibrium and equilibrium compound processes collective states should be taken into account in the level density calculations. The microscopic and phenomenological approaches for the level density calculations are discussed. 13 refs.; 8 figs
Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.
2001-01-01
Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)
Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D.
1980-01-01
Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM
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SUCIU GHEORGHE
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The analysis based on the balance sheet tries to identify the state of equilibrium (disequilibrium that exists in a company. The easiest way to determine the state of equilibrium is by looking at the balance sheet and at the information it offers. Because in the balance sheet there are elements that do not reflect their real value, the one established on the market, they must be readjusted, and those elements which are not related to the ordinary operating activities must be eliminated. The diagnosis of financial equilibrium takes into account 2 components: financing sources (ownership equity, loaned, temporarily attracted. An efficient financial equilibrium must respect 2 fundamental requirements: permanent sources represented by ownership equity and loans for more than 1 year should finance permanent needs, and temporary resources should finance the operating cycle.
Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A
2003-01-01
Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Mayer, J E
1968-01-01
The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t
Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions
Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford
1995-01-01
Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.
Kang, Yoonyoung
While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With
A Synthesis of Equilibrium and Historical Models of Landform Development.
Renwick, William H.
1985-01-01
The synthesis of two approaches that can be used in teaching geomorphology is described. The equilibrium approach explains landforms and landform change in terms of equilibrium between landforms and controlling processes. The historical approach draws on climatic geomorphology to describe the effects of Quaternary climatic and tectonic events on…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Wei
2012-01-01
This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Zhengquan; Wang, Daojuan; Chen, Chong
In recent years, prices of coal and crude oil have fallen significantly. These declines have had a large impact on China’s energy-economy-environment system variables. This paper establishes a computable general equilibrium model to systematically analyse the impact of coal price changes alone...... or the decline of both coal and oil prices on the variables of China's energy-economy-environment system. The results of the analysis show that the decline of the coal price alone or of coal and crude oil prices together will lead to a significant increase in demand for either coal and total energy or coal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen
2007-01-01
The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy
Eberl, Gérard
2016-08-01
The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.
Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, U.
1986-01-01
Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)
Pre-equilibrium plasma dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinz, U.
1986-01-01
Approaches towards understanding and describing the pre-equilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Focus is on a kinetic theory approach to non-equilibrium dynamics, its extension to include the dynamics of color degrees of freedom when applied to the quark-gluon plasma, its quantum field theoretical foundations, and its relationship to both the particle formation stage at the very beginning of the nuclear collision and the hydrodynamic stage at late collision times. The usefulness of this approach to obtain the transport coefficients in the quark-gluon plasma and to derive the collective mode spectrum and damping rates in this phase are discussed. Comments are made on the general difficulty to find appropriated initial conditions to get the kinetic theory started, and a specific model is given that demonstrates that, once given such initial conditions, the system can be followed all the way through into the hydrodynamical regime. 39 refs., 7 figs
Kadoura, Ahmad Salim
2013-06-01
In this work, a method to estimate solid elemental sulfur solubility in pure and gas mixtures using Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation is proposed. This method is based on Isobaric-Isothermal (NPT) ensemble and the Widom insertion technique for the gas phase and a continuum model for the solid phase. This method avoids the difficulty of having to deal with high rejection rates that are usually encountered when simulating using Gibbs ensemble. The application of this method is tested with a system made of pure hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) and solid elemental sulfur. However, this technique may be used for other solid-vapor systems provided the fugacity of the solid phase is known (e.g., through experimental work). Given solid fugacity at the desired pressure and temperature, the mole fraction of the solid dissolved in gas that would be in chemical equilibrium with the solid phase might be obtained. In other words a set of MC molecular simulation experiments is conducted on a single box given the pressure and temperature and for different mole fractions of the solute. The fugacity of the gas mixture is determined using the Widom insertion method and is compared with that predetermined for the solid phase until one finds the mole fraction which achieves the required fugacity. In this work, several examples of MC have been conducted and compared with experimental data. The Lennard-Jones parameters related to the sulfur molecule model (ɛ, σ) have been optimized to achieve better match with the experimental work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.
1996-01-01
Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi
2014-01-01
Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of catalytically pretreated biochar derived from the dried exocarp or fruit peel of mangostene with Group I alkali metal hydroxide (KOH. The pretreated char was activated in the presence of carbon dioxide gas flow at high temperature to upgrade its physiochemical properties for the removal of copper, Cu(II cations in single solute system. The effect of three independent variables, including temperature, agitation time and concentration, on sorption performance were carried out. Reaction kinetics parameters were determined by using linear regression analysis of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The regression co-efficient, R2 values were best for the pseudo second order kinetic model for all the concentration ranges under investigation. This implied that Cu(II cations were adsorbed mainly by chemical interactions with the surface active sites of the activated biochar. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to interpret the equilibrium data at different temperature. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The surface area of the activated sample was 367.10 m2/g, whereas before base activation, it was only 1.22 m2/g. The results elucidated that the base pretreatment was efficient enough to yield porous carbon with an enlarged surface area, which can successfully eliminate Cu(II cations from waste water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masato; Konashi, Kenji
2010-01-01
A combination of a first-principles calculation, lattice dynamics and CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) modeling is proven as a powerful tool so as to evaluate the Gibbs free energy and a phase equilibrium between compounds including large amount of vacancies. In this work, non-stoichiometric PuO 2-x (dioxide) and Pu 2 O 3 (sesquioxide) has been studied. An electron cohesive energy was evaluated from a first-principles calculations to estimate total energy of the compounds and a vacancy formation energy, and the theory of statistical mechanics was applied to evaluate enthalpy/entropy change due to oxygen vacancies for the non-stoichiometry of the PuO 2 (i.e. PuO 2-x ). Then a vacancy-vacancy interaction energy was determined by fitting to the experimental data of a quantity of non-stoichiometry of the PuO 2 compounds as a function of oxygen potentials at large deviation from stoichiometry. The resulting Gibbs free energy yields phase boundary between the phases with good agreement with to the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minamoto, Satoshi [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Kasumigaseki 3, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Energy and Industrial Systems Department (Japan); Kato, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Konashi, Kenji, E-mail: satoshi.minamoto@ctc-g.co.jp, E-mail: masato.kato@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: konashi@imr.tohoku-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai-chou, Ibaraki (Japan)
2010-03-15
A combination of a first-principles calculation, lattice dynamics and CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) modeling is proven as a powerful tool so as to evaluate the Gibbs free energy and a phase equilibrium between compounds including large amount of vacancies. In this work, non-stoichiometric PuO{sub 2-x} (dioxide) and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sesquioxide) has been studied. An electron cohesive energy was evaluated from a first-principles calculations to estimate total energy of the compounds and a vacancy formation energy, and the theory of statistical mechanics was applied to evaluate enthalpy/entropy change due to oxygen vacancies for the non-stoichiometry of the PuO{sub 2} (i.e. PuO{sub 2-x}). Then a vacancy-vacancy interaction energy was determined by fitting to the experimental data of a quantity of non-stoichiometry of the PuO{sub 2} compounds as a function of oxygen potentials at large deviation from stoichiometry. The resulting Gibbs free energy yields phase boundary between the phases with good agreement with to the experimental data.
Equilibrium shoreface profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G
2017-01-01
Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide......; there is no tuning or calibration and computation times are short. It is therefore easily implemented with repeated iterations to manage uncertainty....
Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.
2001-01-01
A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
Zurek, E; Woo, T K; Firman, T K; Ziegler, T
2001-01-15
Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the energies of 36 different methylaluminoxane (MAO) cage structures with the general formula (MeAlO)n, where n ranges from 4 to 16. A least-squares fit has been used to devise a formula which predicts the total energies of the MAO with different n's giving an rms deviation of 4.70 kcal/mol. These energies in conjunction with frequency calculations based on molecular mechanics have been used to estimate the finite temperature enthalpies, entropies, and free energies for these MAO structures. Furthermore, formulas have been devised which predict finite temperature enthalpies and entropies for MAO structures of any n for a temperature range of 198.15-598.15 K. Using these formulas, the free energies at different temperatures have been predicted for MAO structures where n ranges from 17 to 30. The free energy values were then used to predict the percentage of each n found at a given temperature. Our calculations give an average n value of 18.41, 17.23, 16.89, and 15.72 at 198.15, 298.15, 398.15, and 598.15 K, respectively. Topological arguments have also been used to show that the MAO cage structure contains a limited amount of square faces as compared to octagonal and hexagonal ones. It is also suggested that the limited number of square faces with their strained Al-O bonds explain the high molar Al:catalyst ratio required for activation. Moreover, in this study we outline a general methodology which may be used to calculate the percent abundance of an equilibrium mixture of oligomers with the general formula (X)n.
The Cost of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada's Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg, Dept. of Economics, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich, Center for Energy Policy and Economy, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland))
2008-07-01
Canada is committed under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 to a level six percent below the 1990 reference value. To date, however, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions remain far above 1990 levels. Stringent short-term policy measures are needed if Canada is to meet this legally binding commitment. This paper uses a multi-region, multi-commodity static general equilibrium model to quantify the economic impacts of alternative compliance strategies for Canada in the context of climate policies undertaken by other Kyoto Parties. The numerical results confirm fears among Canadian policy makers of larger economic adjustment cost should Canada fulfill its Kyoto commitment solely through domestic action. Comprehensive use of flexible mechanisms - in particular the Clean Development Mechanism - could allow Canada to live up with its international climate policy commitment at a substantially lower economic cost
Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency
Ten Raa, T.
2013-01-01
Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and
Differential Equation of Equilibrium
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...
Comments on equilibrium, transient equilibrium, and secular equilibrium in serial radioactive decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prince, J.R.
1979-01-01
Equations describing serial radioactive decay are reviewed along with published descriptions or transient and secular equilibrium. It is shown that terms describing equilibrium are not used in the same way by various authors. Specific definitions are proposed; they suggest that secular equilibrium is a subset of transient equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johari, G.P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca
2014-04-01
Highlights: • Stress release in a glass occurs at a faster rate than structural relaxation. • Plastically-deformed glass would show two exothermic minima, and no glass transition. • Enthalpy matching procedure would yield an inaccurate fictive temperature. • Complex heat capacity may distinguish plastically-deformed from quench-formed glass. - Abstract: Plastic deformation of crystals and glasses produces internal strains (stresses), which change their energy and other thermodynamic properties. On annealing, these stresses decrease at a rate faster than the structure relaxes toward the equilibrium state. Mechanism of such relaxations in crystals differs from that in glasses and it also differs for glasses of different types. In all cases, the energy related properties decrease with time isothermally and on heating, resembling the structure relaxation of a stress-free glass. We consider these features and argue that kinetics of enthalpy loss with time yields the rate constants of the stress release and of the structure change, and not the viscosity determining α-relaxation time. Since thermal cycling does not recover the enthalpy from internal stresses, a glass with stresses has neither a glass-softening temperature, T{sub g}, nor a fictive temperature, T{sub f}. Plastic deformation would not rejuvenate a physically aged glass to the properties of its un-aged state. The Prigogine–Defay ratio can be extended to all T{sub f}s, and used to investigate the effect of distribution of relaxation times on its value, but it can not be defined for an internally stressed glass. After discussing the effects of annealing on the heat capacity and DSC scans, we conclude that on slow heating, glass with deformation-induced stresses would show two exothermic minima, and normal glass would show only one such minimum. Temperature-modulated scanning calorimetry would also distinguish an internally stressed glass from an equally high-enthalpy, stress-free glass. Enthalpy
Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain
2014-01-01
The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…
A dynamic general equilibrium analysis on fostering a hydrogen economy in Korea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Gyeong-Lyeob
2010-01-01
Hydrogen is anticipated to become one of the major alternative energy technologies for a sustainable energy system. This study analyzes the dynamic economic impacts of building a hydrogen economy in Korea employing a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. As a frontier technology, hydrogen is featured as having a slow diffusion rate due to option value, positive externality, resistance of old technology, and complementary vintages. Without government intervention, hydrogen-derived energy will supply up to 6.5% of final energy demand by 2040. Simulation outcomes show that as price subsidy rates increase by 10%, 20%, and 30%, hydrogen demand will increase by 9.2%, 15.2%, and 37.7%, respectively, of final energy demand by 2040. The output of the transportation sector will increase significantly, while demands for oil and electricity will decline. Demands for coal and LNG will experience little change. Household consumption will decline because of the increase of income taxes. Overall GDP will increase because of the increase in exports and investments. CO 2 emission will decline for medium and high subsidy rate cases, but increase for low subsidy cases. Ultimately, subsidy policy on hydrogen will not be an effective measure for mitigating CO 2 emission in Korea when considering dynamic general equilibrium effects. (author)
Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium emissions in proton-induced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
necessary for the domain of fission-reactor technology for the calculation of nuclear transmutation ... tions occur in three stages: INC, pre-equilibrium and equilibrium (or compound. 344. Pramana ... In the evaporation phase of the reaction, the.
Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.
1981-01-01
This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)
Problems in equilibrium theory
Aliprantis, Charalambos D
1996-01-01
In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Levent; Acar, Mustafa
2011-01-01
As a small open economy, Turkey depends on both imported oil and natural gas, importing almost two-thirds of its primary energy demand. This paper analyzes the economic effects of oil price shocks for Turkey as a small, open oil- and gas-importing country. To analyze the potential long-term effects of oil price shocks on macroeconomic variables of interest, including GDP, consumer price inflation, indirect tax revenues, trade balance, and carbon emissions, we developed TurGEM-D, a dynamic multisectoral general equilibrium model for the Turkish economy. Using TurGEM-D, we analyzed the impact of oil price shocks under three distinct scenarios: reference, high and low oil prices. The simulation results show that these oil prices have very significant effects on macro indicators and carbon emissions in the Turkish economy. - Research highlights: → World oil prices are projected to rise in coming decade, to around $185 per barrel in 2020. → If this occurs in Turkey, how to quantitatively evaluate the impacts on Turkish economy? → Cumulative output loss resulting from world oil prices increased by 121% can be as large as 14%. → Cumulative inflation as measured by CPI index can be nearly 5% under a fixed exchange rate regime. → Cumulative carbon emissions fall by around 51.7% without using any tools for climate change policy.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Jackson, E Atlee
2000-01-01
Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George
Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....
Molecular equilibrium with condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharp, C.M.; Huebner, W.F.
1990-01-01
Minimization of the Gibbs energy of formation for species of chemical elements and compounds in their gas and condensed phases determines their relative abundances in a mixture in chemical equilibrium. The procedure is more general and more powerful than previous abundance determinations in multiphase astrophysical mixtures. Some results for astrophysical equations of state are presented, and the effects of condensation on opacity are briefly indicated. 18 refs
Noncompact Equilibrium Points and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahra Al-Rumaih
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We prove an equilibrium existence result for vector functions defined on noncompact domain and we give some applications in optimization and Nash equilibrium in noncooperative game.
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
Quasivariational Inequalities for a Dynamic Competitive Economic Equilibrium Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmela Vitanza
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space L2([0,T],ℝ. This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.
Equilibrium Selection in Games with Macroeconomic Complementarities
Kaarboe, Oddvar M.; Tieman, Alexander F.
1999-01-01
We apply the stochastic evolutionary approach of equilibrium selection tomacroeconomic models in which a complementarity at the macro level ispresent. These models often exhibit multiple Pareto-ranked Nash equilibria,and the best response-correspondence of an individual increases with ameasure of
Identifying apparent local stable isotope equilibrium in a complex non-equilibrium system.
He, Yuyang; Cao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jianwei; Bao, Huiming
2018-02-28
Although being out of equilibrium, biomolecules in organisms have the potential to approach isotope equilibrium locally because enzymatic reactions are intrinsically reversible. A rigorous approach that can describe isotope distribution among biomolecules and their apparent deviation from equilibrium state is lacking, however. Applying the concept of distance matrix in graph theory, we propose that apparent local isotope equilibrium among a subset of biomolecules can be assessed using an apparent fractionation difference (|Δα|) matrix, in which the differences between the observed isotope composition (δ') and the calculated equilibrium fractionation factor (1000lnβ) can be more rigorously evaluated than by using a previous approach for multiple biomolecules. We tested our |Δα| matrix approach by re-analyzing published data of different amino acids (AAs) in potato and in green alga. Our re-analysis shows that biosynthesis pathways could be the reason for an apparently close-to-equilibrium relationship inside AA families in potato leaves. Different biosynthesis/degradation pathways in tubers may have led to the observed isotope distribution difference between potato leaves and tubers. The analysis of data from green algae does not support the conclusion that AAs are further from equilibrium in glucose-cultured green algae than in the autotrophic ones. Application of the |Δα| matrix can help us to locate potential reversible reactions or reaction networks in a complex system such as a metabolic system. The same approach can be broadly applied to all complex systems that have multiple components, e.g. geochemical or atmospheric systems of early Earth or other planets. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
De Groot, Sybren Ruurds
1984-01-01
The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn
Computational studies in tokamak equilibrium and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braams, B.J.
1986-01-01
This thesis is concerned with some problems arising in the magnetic confinement approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. The work address the numerical modelling of equilibrium and transport properties of a confined plasma and the interpretation of experimental data. The thesis is divided in two parts. Part 1 is devoted to some aspects of the MHD equilibrium problem, both in the 'direct' formulation (given an equation for the plasma current, the corresponding equilibrium is to be determined) and in the 'inverse' formulation (the interpretation of measurements at the plasma edge). Part 2 is devoted to numerical studies of the edge plasma. The appropriate Navier-Stokes system of fluid equations is solved in a two-dimensional geometry. The main interest of this work is to develop an understanding of particle and energy transport in the scrape-off layer and onto material boundaries, and also to contribute to the conceptual design of the NET/INTOR tokamak reactor experiment. (Auth.)
Regret Theory and Equilibrium Asset Prices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiliang Sheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Regret theory is a behavioral approach to decision making under uncertainty. In this paper we assume that there are two representative investors in a frictionless market, a representative active investor who selects his optimal portfolio based on regret theory and a representative passive investor who invests only in the benchmark portfolio. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the representative active investor is modeled as minimization of the regret about final wealth relative to the benchmark portfolio. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to a behavioral asset priciting model. We show that the market beta and the benchmark beta that is related to the investor’s regret are the determinants of equilibrium asset prices. We also extend our model to a market with multibenchmark portfolios. Empirical tests using stock price data from Shanghai Stock Exchange show strong support to the asset pricing model based on regret theory.
Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium
Romatschke, Paul
2018-01-01
Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.
Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G
2016-05-01
The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Equilibrium models and variational inequalities
Konnov, Igor
2007-01-01
The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...
Grinding kinetics and equilibrium states
Opoczky, L.; Farnady, F.
1984-01-01
The temporary and permanent equilibrium occurring during the initial stage of cement grinding does not indicate the end of comminution, but rather an increased energy consumption during grinding. The constant dynamic equilibrium occurs after a long grinding period indicating the end of comminution for a given particle size. Grinding equilibrium curves can be constructed to show the stages of comminution and agglomeration for certain particle sizes.
Mental Equilibrium and Rational Emotions
Eyal Winter; Ignacio Garcia-Jurado; Jose Mendez-Naya; Luciano Mendez-Naya
2009-01-01
We introduce emotions into an equilibrium notion. In a mental equilibrium each player "selects" an emotional state which determines the player's preferences over the outcomes of the game. These preferences typically differ from the players' material preferences. The emotional states interact to play a Nash equilibrium and in addition each player's emotional state must be a best response (with respect to material preferences) to the emotional states of the others. We discuss the concept behind...
Para-equilibrium phase diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelton, Arthur D.; Koukkari, Pertti; Pajarre, Risto; Eriksson, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A rapidly cooled system may attain a state of para-equilibrium. • In this state rapidly diffusing elements reach equilibrium but others are immobile. • Application of the Phase Rule to para-equilibrium phase diagrams is discussed. • A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is described. - Abstract: If an initially homogeneous system at high temperature is rapidly cooled, a temporary para-equilibrium state may result in which rapidly diffusing elements have reached equilibrium but more slowly diffusing elements have remained essentially immobile. The best known example occurs when homogeneous austenite is quenched. A para-equilibrium phase assemblage may be calculated thermodynamically by Gibbs free energy minimization under the constraint that the ratios of the slowly diffusing elements are the same in all phases. Several examples of calculated para-equilibrium phase diagram sections are presented and the application of the Phase Rule is discussed. Although the rules governing the geometry of these diagrams may appear at first to be somewhat different from those for full equilibrium phase diagrams, it is shown that in fact they obey exactly the same rules with the following provision. Since the molar ratios of non-diffusing elements are the same in all phases at para-equilibrium, these ratios act, as far as the geometry of the diagram is concerned, like “potential” variables (such as T, pressure or chemical potentials) rather than like “normal” composition variables which need not be the same in all phases. A general algorithm to calculate para-equilibrium phase diagrams is presented. In the limit, if a para-equilibrium calculation is performed under the constraint that no elements diffuse, then the resultant phase diagram shows the single phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy at any point on the diagram; such calculations are of interest in physical vapor deposition when deposition is so rapid that phase
Middlemen: A Directed Search Equilibrium Approach
Makoto Watanabe
2012-01-01
This paper studies an intermediated market operated by middlemen with high inventory holdings. I present a directed search model in which middlemen are less likely to experience a stockout because they have the advantage of inventory capacity, relative to other sellers. The model explains why popular items are sold at a larger premium, and everyday items at a larger discount, by large-scaled intermediaries. The concentration of middlemen's market, i.e., few middlemen, each with large capacity...
equilibrium approach in thederivation of differential equations
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ... In this paper, the differential equations of Mindlin plates are derived from basic principles by ..... Journal of Applied Mechanics, pages 31-38.
Approach to equilibrium in infinite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haag, R.
1975-01-01
Ergodic theory of infinite quantum systems is discussed. The framework of this theory is based in an algebra of quasi-local observables. Nonrelativistic situation, i.e., Galilei invariance and Clifford algebra, is used [pt
Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García Benavente, José Miguel
2016-01-01
In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity
Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
: ... This canonical prescription is the starting point for studying a system in ... abilistic approach to non-equilibrium dynamics by treating the case of Markovian ..... equation in this network between the incoming flux and the outgoing flux at each.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scaramucci, Jose A.; Perin, Clovis; Pulino, Petronio; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. da; Cortez, Luis A.B.
2006-01-01
In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but especially after the electricity crisis, energy policy in Brazil has been directed towards increasing thermoelectricity supply and promoting further gains in energy conservation. Two main issues are addressed here. Firstly, we estimate the economic impacts of constraining the supply of electric energy in Brazil. Secondly, we investigate the possible penetration of electricity generated from sugarcane bagasse. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. The traditional sector of electricity and the remainder of the economy are characterized by a stylized top-down representation as nested CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production functions. The electricity production from sugarcane bagasse is described through a bottom-up activity analysis, with a detailed representation of the required inputs based on engineering studies. The model constructed is used to study the effects of the electricity shortage in the preexisting sector through prices, production and income changes. It is shown that installing capacity to generate electricity surpluses by the sugarcane agroindustrial system could ease the economic impacts of an electric energy shortage crisis on the gross domestic product (GDP)
Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abul Quasem Al-Amin
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.
Transition towards a low carbon economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Poland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.
2013-01-01
In the transition to sustainable economic structures the European Union assumes a leading role with its climate and energy package which sets ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by 2020. Among EU Member States, Poland with its heavy energy system reliance on coal is particularly worried on the pending trade-offs between emission regulation and economic growth. In our computable general equilibrium analysis of the EU climate and energy package we show that economic adjustment cost for Poland hinge crucially on restrictions to where-flexibility of emission abatement, revenue recycling, and technological options in the power system. We conclude that more comprehensive flexibility provisions at the EU level and a diligent policy implementation at the national level could achieve the transition towards a low carbon economy at little cost thereby broadening societal support. - Highlights: ► Economic impact assessment of the EU climate and energy package for Poland. ► Sensitivity analysis on where-flexibility, revenue recycling and technology choice. ► Application of a hybrid bottom-up, top-down CGE model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roh, Heui-Seol
2015-01-01
Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms
Fundamental functions in equilibrium thermodynamics
Horst, H.J. ter
In the standard presentations of the principles of Gibbsian equilibrium thermodynamics one can find several gaps in the logic. For a subject that is as widely used as equilibrium thermodynamics, it is of interest to clear up such questions of mathematical rigor. In this paper it is shown that using
On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masudul Alam Choudhury
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.
A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minsuk Kwak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongxiu He
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In Beijing, China, the rational consumption of energy is affected by the insufficient linkage mechanism of the energy pricing system, the unreasonable price ratio and other issues. This paper combines the characteristics of Beijing’s energy market, putting forward the society-economy equilibrium indicator R maximization taking into consideration the mitigation cost to determine a reasonable price ratio range. Based on the computable general equilibrium (CGE model, and dividing four kinds of energy sources into three groups, the impact of price fluctuations of electricity and natural gas on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, Consumer Price Index (CPI, energy consumption and CO2 and SO2 emissions can be simulated for various scenarios. On this basis, the integrated effects of electricity and natural gas price shocks on the Beijing economy and environment can be calculated. The results show that relative to the coal prices, the electricity and natural gas prices in Beijing are currently below reasonable levels; the solution to these unreasonable energy price ratios should begin by improving the energy pricing mechanism, through means such as the establishment of a sound dynamic adjustment mechanism between regulated prices and market prices. This provides a new idea for exploring the rationality of energy price ratios in imperfect competitive energy markets.
A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism
Berrittella, M.; Bigano, A.; Roson, R.; Tol, R.S.J.
2006-01-01
This paper studies the economic implications of climate-change-induced variations in tourism demand, using a world CGE model. The model is first re-calibrated at some future years, obtaining hypothetical benchmark equilibria, which are subsequently perturbed by shocks, simulating the effects of
Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices
Garcia Bertrand, Raquel
In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary
Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.
Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F
2016-11-28
We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.
Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.
Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M
2017-09-18
Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.
Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect
Raff, Lionel M.
2014-01-01
The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…
Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.
1985-02-01
An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift
Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...
This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms. This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment. This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a
Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biagini, Enrico
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the
Equilibrium reconstruction in stellarators: V3FIT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, J.D.; Knowlton, S.F. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Hirshman, S.P.; Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
2003-07-01
The first section describes a general response function formalism for computing stellarator magnetic diagnostic signals, which is the first step in developing a reconstruction capability. The approach parallels that used in the EFIT two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium reconstruction code. The second section describes the two codes we have written, V3RFUN and V3POST. V3RFUN computes the response functions for a specified magnetic diagnostic coil, and V3POST uses the response functions calculated by V3RFUN, along with the plasma current information supplied by the equilibrium code VMEC, to compute the expected magnetic diagnostic signals. These two codes are currently being used to design magnetic diagnostic for the NCSX stellarator (at PPPL) and the CTH toroidal hybrid stellarator (at Auburn University). The last section of the paper describes plans for the V3FIT code. (orig.)
Numerical Verification Of Equilibrium Chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piro, Markus; Lewis, Brent; Thompson, William T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Besmann, Theodore M.
2010-01-01
A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel J. Turbay
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The strategic equilibrium of an N-person cooperative game with transferable utility is a system composed of a cover collection of subsets of N and a set of extended imputations attainable through such equilibrium cover. The system describes a state of coalitional bargaining stability where every player has a bargaining alternative against any other player to support his corresponding equilibrium claim. Any coalition in the sable system may form and divide the characteristic value function of the coalition as prescribed by the equilibrium payoffs. If syndicates are allowed to form, a formed coalition may become a syndicate using the equilibrium payoffs as disagreement values in bargaining for a part of the complementary coalition incremental value to the grand coalition when formed. The emergent well known-constant sum derived game in partition function is described in terms of parameters that result from incumbent binding agreements. The strategic-equilibrium corresponding to the derived game gives an equal value claim to all players. This surprising result is alternatively explained in terms of strategic-equilibrium based possible outcomes by a sequence of bargaining stages that when the binding agreements are in the right sequential order, von Neumann and Morgenstern (vN-M non-discriminatory solutions emerge. In these solutions a preferred branch by a sufficient number of players is identified: the weaker players syndicate against the stronger player. This condition is referred to as the stronger player paradox. A strategic alternative available to the stronger players to overcome the anticipated not desirable results is to voluntarily lower his bargaining equilibrium claim. In doing the original strategic equilibrium is modified and vN-M discriminatory solutions may occur, but also a different stronger player may emerge that has eventually will have to lower his equilibrium claim. A sequence of such measures converges to the equal
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium solvation and solute electronic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.; Hynes, J.T.
1990-01-01
When a molecular solute is immersed in a polar and polarizable solvent, the electronic wave function of the solute system is altered compared to its vacuum value; the solute electronic structure is thus solvent-dependent. Further, the wave function will be altered depending upon whether the polarization of the solvent is or is not in equilibrium with the solute charge distribution. More precisely, while the solvent electronic polarization should be in equilibrium with the solute electronic wave function, the much more sluggish solvent orientational polarization need not be. We call this last situation non-equilibrium solvation. We outline a nonlinear Schroedinger equation approach to these issues
Thermodynamic evolution far from equilibrium
Khantuleva, Tatiana A.
2018-05-01
The presented model of thermodynamic evolution of an open system far from equilibrium is based on the modern results of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the nonlocal theory of nonequilibrium transport developed by the author and the Speed Gradient principle introduced in the theory of adaptive control. Transition to a description of the system internal structure evolution at the mesoscopic level allows a new insight at the stability problem of non-equilibrium processes. The new model is used in a number of specific tasks.
Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira
2009-01-01
The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables
Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....
Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution using chemical equilibrium codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitkaenen, P.; Pirhonen, V.
1991-01-01
Geochemical equilibrium codes are a modern tool in studying interaction between groundwater and solid phases. The most common used programs and application subjects are shortly presented in this article. The main emphasis is laid on the approach method of using calculated results in evaluating groundwater evolution in hydrogeological system. At present in geochemical equilibrium modelling also kinetic as well as hydrologic constrains along a flow path are taken into consideration
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.
1985-07-01
A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations
Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.
Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F
2013-07-28
It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other
Explicit integration of extremely stiff reaction networks: partial equilibrium methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M W; Hix, W R; Billings, J J
2013-01-01
In two preceding papers (Guidry et al 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015001 and Guidry and Harris 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015002), we have shown that when reaction networks are well removed from equilibrium, explicit asymptotic and quasi-steady-state approximations can give algebraically stabilized integration schemes that rival standard implicit methods in accuracy and speed for extremely stiff systems. However, we also showed that these explicit methods remain accurate but are no longer competitive in speed as the network approaches equilibrium. In this paper, we analyze this failure and show that it is associated with the presence of fast equilibration timescales that neither asymptotic nor quasi-steady-state approximations are able to remove efficiently from the numerical integration. Based on this understanding, we develop a partial equilibrium method to deal effectively with the approach to equilibrium and show that explicit asymptotic methods, combined with the new partial equilibrium methods, give an integration scheme that can plausibly deal with the stiffest networks, even in the approach to equilibrium, with accuracy and speed competitive with that of implicit methods. Thus we demonstrate that such explicit methods may offer alternatives to implicit integration of even extremely stiff systems and that these methods may permit integration of much larger networks than have been possible before in a number of fields. (paper)
3D equilibrium codes for mirror machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, T.B.
1983-01-01
The codes developed for cumputing three-dimensional guiding center equilibria for quadrupole tandem mirrors are discussed. TEBASCO (Tandem equilibrium and ballooning stability code) is a code developed at LLNL that uses a further expansion of the paraxial equilibrium equation in powers of β (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure). It has been used to guide the design of the TMX-U and MFTF-B experiments at Livermore. Its principal weakness is its perturbative nature, which renders its validity for high-β calculation open to question. In order to compute high-β equilibria, the reduced MHD technique that has been proven useful for determining toroidal equilibria was adapted to the tandem mirror geometry. In this approach, the paraxial expansion of the MHD equations yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations of motion valid for arbitrary β, that are solved as an initial-value problem. Two particular formulations have been implemented in computer codes developed at NYU/Kyoto U and LLNL. They differ primarily in the type of grid, the location of the lateral boundary and the damping techniques employed, and in the method of calculating pressure-balance equilibrium. Discussions on these codes are presented in this paper. (Kato, T.)
Thermal equilibrium, stability and burn control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohn, D.
1982-01-01
A number of aspects of the thermal stability and equilibrium control of ignited tokamak plasma have been investigated. Examined approaches were passive control (the effect of radial motion, the effect of radial motion and small additional transport loss), active control (the compression and decompression of plasma, subignited operation with small amount of variable external heating, and density control), and thermal equilibrium control (additional power loss from impurity radiation and enhanced transport from increased ripple). One-D calculation has been made on thermal instability eigen-modes. It was found that for electron thermal induction loss given by Alcator scaling and for neoclassical ion transport, there was at most one unstable mode with a temperature profile which maintains the temperature profile at thermal equilibrium. The effect of the coupling of temperature fluctuation and the fluctuation in major radius was investigated. Temperature driven radial motion combined with a small amount of ripple transport loss was found to be a very effective mechanism for passive thermal stability control. (Kato, T.)
Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)
2013-07-01
Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.
Thermal equilibrium in strongly damped collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samaddar, S.K.; De, J.N.; Krishan, K.
1985-01-01
Energy division between colliding nuclei in damped collisions is studied in the statistical nucleon exchange model. The reactions 56 Fe+ 165 Ho and 56 Fe+ 238 U at incident energy of 465 MeV are considered for this purpose. It is found that the excitation energy is approximately equally shared between the nuclei for the peripheral collisions and the systems slowly approach equilibrium for more central collisions. This is in conformity with the recent experimental observations. The calculated variances of the charge distributions are found to depend appreciably on the temperature and are in very good agreement with the experimental data
Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter
We consider a non-cooperative queueing environment where a finite number of customers independently choose when to arrive at a queueing system that opens at a given point in time and serves customers on a last-come first-serve preemptive-resume (LCFS-PR) basis. Each customer has a service time...... requirement which is identically and independently distributed according to some general probability distribution, and they want to complete service as early as possible while minimizing the time spent in the queue. In this setting, we establish the existence of an arrival time strategy that constitutes...... a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...
PROCEDURES FOR THE DERIVATION OF EQUILIBRIUM ...
This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations for 32 nonionic organic chemicals in sediment which are protective of the presence of freshwater and marine benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for the varying biological availability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms. EqP can be used to calculate ESBs for any toxicity endpoint for which there are water-only toxicity data; it is not limited to any single effect endpoint. For the purposes of this document, ESBs for 32 nonionic organic chemicals, including several low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic compounds, pesticides, and phthalates, were derived using Final Chronic Values (FCV) from Water Quality Criteria (WQC) or Secondary Chronic Values (SCV) derived from existing toxicological data using the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) or narcosis theory approaches. These values are intended to be the concentration of each chemical in water that is protective of the presence of aquatic life. For nonionic organic chemicals demonstrating a narcotic mode of action, ESBs derived using the GLI approach specifically for fres
Stability of plasma in static equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krusiial, M D; Oberman, N R [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1958-07-01
Our purpose is to derive from the Boltzmann equation in the small m/e limit, criteria useful in the discussion of stability of plasmas in static equilibrium. At first we ignore collisions but later show their effects may be taken into account. Our approach yields a generalization of the usual energy principles for investigating the stability of hydromagnetic systems to situations where the effect of heat flow along magnetic lines is not negligible, and hence to situations where the strictly hydrodynamic approach is inapplicable. In the first two sections we characterize our general method of approach and delineate the properties of the small m/e limit which we use to determine the constants of the motion and the condition for static equilibrium. In the next two sections we calculate the first and second variations of the energy and conclude with a statement of the general stability criterion. In the final three sections we state several theorems which relate our stability criterion to those of ordinary hydromagnetic theory, we show how to take into account the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss the remaining problem of incorporating the charge neutrality condition into the present stability theory. (author)
Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect
Raff, Lionel M.
2014-01-01
The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G chemistry textbooks and even in some more advanced texts. Similarly, the criteria for equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…
Equilibrium problems for Raney densities
Forrester, Peter J.; Liu, Dang-Zheng; Zinn-Justin, Paul
2015-07-01
The Raney numbers are a class of combinatorial numbers generalising the Fuss-Catalan numbers. They are indexed by a pair of positive real numbers (p, r) with p > 1 and 0 0 and similarly use both methods to identify the equilibrium problem for (p, r) = (θ/q + 1, 1/q), θ > 0 and q \\in Z+ . The Wiener-Hopf method is used to extend the latter to parameters (p, r) = (θ/q + 1, m + 1/q) for m a non-negative integer, and also to identify the equilibrium problem for a family of densities with moments given by certain binomial coefficients.
Equilibrium in a Production Economy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)
2011-06-15
Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.
Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vetter, Henrik
2014-01-01
The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...
Equilibrium in a Production Economy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.
2011-01-01
Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.
The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery
Hewitt, Paul G.
2016-01-01
Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…
Non equilibrium atomic processes and plasma spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Takako
2003-01-01
Along with the technical progress in plasma spectroscopy, non equilibrium ionization processes have been recently observed. We study non local thermodynamic equilibrium and non ionization equilibrium for various kinds of plasmas. Specifically we discuss non equilibrium atomic processes in magnetically confined plasmas, solar flares and laser produced plasmas using a collisional radiative model based on plasma spectroscopic data. (author)
Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burm, K.T.A.L.
2004-01-01
A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously
Non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, David S
2012-01-01
We discuss non-equilibrium aspects of fluctuation-induced interactions. While the equilibrium behavior of such interactions has been extensively studied and is relatively well understood, the study of these interactions out of equilibrium is relatively new. We discuss recent results on the non-equilibrium behavior of systems whose dynamics is of the dissipative stochastic type and identify a number of outstanding problems concerning non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions.
Kanoatov, Mirzo; Galievsky, Victor A; Krylova, Svetlana M; Cherney, Leonid T; Jankowski, Hanna K; Krylov, Sergey N
2015-03-03
Nonequilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM) is a versatile tool for studying affinity binding. Here we describe a NECEEM-based approach for simultaneous determination of both the equilibrium constant, K(d), and the unknown concentration of a binder that we call a target, T. In essence, NECEEM is used to measure the unbound equilibrium fraction, R, for the binder with a known concentration that we call a ligand, L. The first set of experiments is performed at varying concentrations of T, prepared by serial dilution of the stock solution, but at a constant concentration of L, which is as low as its reliable quantitation allows. The value of R is plotted as a function of the dilution coefficient, and dilution corresponding to R = 0.5 is determined. This dilution of T is used in the second set of experiments in which the concentration of T is fixed but the concentration of L is varied. The experimental dependence of R on the concentration of L is fitted with a function describing their theoretical dependence. Both K(d) and the concentration of T are used as fitting parameters, and their sought values are determined as the ones that generate the best fit. We have fully validated this approach in silico by using computer-simulated NECEEM electropherograms and then applied it to experimental determination of the unknown concentration of MutS protein and K(d) of its interactions with a DNA aptamer. The general approach described here is applicable not only to NECEEM but also to any other method that can determine a fraction of unbound molecules at equilibrium.
Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities
Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra
2015-01-01
Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…
Essays in general equilibrium theory
Konovalov, A.
2001-01-01
The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with
Financial equilibrium with career concerns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amil Dasgupta
2006-03-01
Full Text Available What are the equilibrium features of a financial market where a sizeable proportion of traders face reputational concerns? This question is central to our understanding of financial markets, which are increasingly dominated by institutional investors. We construct a model of delegated portfolio management that captures key features of the US mutual fund industry and embed it in an asset pricing framework. We thus provide a formal model of financial equilibrium with career concerned agents. Fund managers differ in their ability to understand market fundamentals, and in every period investors choose a fund. In equilibrium, the presence of career concerns induces uninformed fund managers to churn, i.e., to engage in trading even when they face a negative expected return. Churners act as noise traders and enhance the level of trading volume. The equilibrium relationship between fund return and net fund flows displays a skewed shape that is consistent with stylized facts. The robustness of our core results is probed from several angles.
Equilibrium with arbitrary market structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodal, Birgit; Vind, Karl
2005-01-01
. The complete market predicted by this theory is clearly unrealistic, and Radner [10] formulated and proved existence of equilibrium in a multiperiod model with incomplete markets. In this paper the Radner result is extended. Radner assumed a specific structure of markets, independence of preferences...
Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1998-01-01
We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Wu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. The Gompertz function is estimated using historical data on vehicle development trends in North America, Pacific Rim and Europe to overcome the problem of insufficient long-running data on Chinese vehicle ownership. Results indicate that the number of projected vehicle stocks for 2050 is 300, 455 and 463 million for low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios respectively. Furthermore, the growth in China’s vehicle stock will increase beyond the inflection point of Gompertz curve by 2020, but will not reach saturation point during the period 2014–2050. Of major road vehicle categories, cars are the largest energy consumers, followed by trucks and buses. Growth in Chinese vehicle demand is primarily determined by per capita GDP. Vehicle saturation levels solely influence the shape of the Gompertz curve and population growth weakly affects vehicle demand. Projected total energy consumption of road vehicles in 2050 is 380, 575 and 586 million tonnes of oil equivalent for each scenario.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois
2013-01-01
The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.
On generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problems
Kum, Sangho; Kim, Won Kyu
2008-09-01
In this paper, we will introduce the generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which generalize the operator equilibrium problem due to Kazmi and Raouf [K.R. Kazmi, A. Raouf, A class of operator equilibrium problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 308 (2005) 554-564] into multi-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. Using a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem in [S. Park, Foundations of the KKM theory via coincidences of composites of upper semicontinuous maps, J. Korean Math. Soc. 31 (1994) 493-519] and an existence theorem of equilibrium for 1-person game in [X.-P. Ding, W.K. Kim, K.-K. Tan, Equilibria of non-compact generalized games with L*-majorized preferences, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 164 (1992) 508-517] as basic tools, we prove new existence theorems on generalized operator equilibrium problem and generalized operator quasi-equilibrium problem which includes operator equilibrium problems.
Methane on Mars: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Photochemical Calculations
Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.; Ewell, M.
2010-01-01
The detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars by Mars Express and Earth-based spectroscopy is very surprising, very puzzling, and very intriguing. On Earth, about 90% of atmospheric ozone is produced by living systems. A major question concerning methane on Mars is its origin - biological or geological. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicated that methane cannot be produced by atmospheric chemical/photochemical reactions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for three gases, methane, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Earth s atmosphere are summarized in Table 1. The calculations indicate that these three gases should not exist in the Earth s atmosphere. Yet they do, with methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide enhanced 139, 50 and 12 orders of magnitude above their calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentration due to the impact of life! Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations have been performed for the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars based on the assumed composition of the Mars atmosphere shown in Table 2. The calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars is shown in Table 3. Clearly, based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, methane should not be present in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is in concentrations approaching 30 ppbv from three distinct regions on Mars.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.
2000-08-01
The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.
The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Addy, Samuel N.
A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the
Equilibrium studies of helical axis stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Rome, J.A.; Cantrell, J.L.; Lynch, V.E.
1984-01-01
The equilibrium properties of helical axis stellarators are studied with a 3-D equilibrium code and with an average method (2-D). The helical axis ATF is shown to have a toroidally dominated equilibrium shift and good equilibria up to at least 10% peak beta. Low aspect ratio heliacs, with relatively large toroidal shifts, are shown to have low equilibrium beta limits (approx. 5%). Increasing the aspect ratio and number of field periods proportionally is found to improve the equilibrium beta limit. Alternatively, increasing the number of field periods at fixed aspect ratio which raises and lowers the toroidal shift improves the equilibrium beta limit
Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium
Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi
2018-05-01
This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.
An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics
Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a
Money Inventories in Search Equilibrium
Berentsen, Aleksander
1998-01-01
The paper relaxes the one unit storage capacity imposed in the basic search-theoretic model of fiat money with indivisible real commodities and indivisible money. Agents can accumulate as much money as they want. It characterizes the stationary distributions of money and shows that for reasonable parameter values (e.g. production cost, discounting, degree of specialization) a monetary equilibrium exists. There are multiple stationary distributions of a given amount of money, which differ in t...
CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation
Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville
2017-10-01
For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.
CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.
Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville
2017-10-01
For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.
Local equilibrium in bird flocks
Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene
2016-12-01
The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.
Hydrologic controls on equilibrium soil depths
Nicótina, L.; Tarboton, D. G.; Tesfa, T. K.; Rinaldo, A.
2011-04-01
This paper deals with modeling the mutual feedbacks between runoff production and geomorphological processes and attributes that lead to patterns of equilibrium soil depth. Our primary goal is an attempt to describe spatial patterns of soil depth resulting from long-term interactions between hydrologic forcings and soil production, erosion, and sediment transport processes under the framework of landscape dynamic equilibrium. Another goal is to set the premises for exploiting the role of soil depths in shaping the hydrologic response of a catchment. The relevance of the study stems from the massive improvement in hydrologic predictions for ungauged basins that would be achieved by using directly soil depths derived from geomorphic features remotely measured and objectively manipulated. Hydrological processes are here described by explicitly accounting for local soil depths and detailed catchment topography. Geomorphological processes are described by means of well-studied geomorphic transport laws. The modeling approach is applied to the semiarid Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, located near Boise, Idaho. Modeled soil depths are compared with field data obtained from an extensive survey of the catchment. Our results show the ability of the model to describe properly the mean soil depth and the broad features of the distribution of measured data. However, local comparisons show significant scatter whose origins are discussed.
A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis
Masataka, SUZUKI; Yoshihiko, YAMAZAKI; Yumiko, TANIGUCHI; Department of Psychology, Kinjo Gakuin University; Department of Health and Physical Education, Nagoya Institute of Technology; College of Human Life and Environment, Kinjo Gakuin University
2003-01-01
SUZUKI,M., YAMAZAKI,Y. and TANIGUCHI,Y., A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.9, No.1 pp.7-25, 2003. According to the equilibrium point hypothesis of motor control, control action of muscles is not explicitly computed, but rather arises as a consequence of interaction among moving equilibrium point, reflex feedback and muscle mechanical properties. This approach is attractive as it obviates the n...
Plasma equilibrium response modelling and validation on JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lister, J.B.; Sharma, A.; Limebeer, D.J.N.; Wainwright, J.P.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.
2002-01-01
A systematic procedure to identify the plasma equilibrium response to the poloidal field coil voltages has been applied to the JT-60U tokamak. The required response was predicted with a high accuracy by a state-space model derived from first principles. The ab initio derivation of linearized plasma equilibrium response models is re-examined using an approach standard in analytical mechanics. A symmetric formulation is naturally obtained, removing a previous weakness in such models. RZIP, a rigid current distribution model, is re-derived using this approach and is compared with the new experimental plasma equilibrium response data obtained from Ohmic and neutral beam injection discharges in the JT-60U tokamak. In order to remove any bias from the comparison between modelled and measured plasma responses, the electromagnetic response model without plasma was first carefully tuned against experimental data, using a parametric approach, for which different cost functions for quantifying model agreement were explored. This approach additionally provides new indications of the accuracy to which various plasma parameters are known, and to the ordering of physical effects. Having taken these precautions when tuning the plasmaless model, an empirical estimate of the plasma self-inductance, the plasma resistance and its radial derivative could be established and compared with initial assumptions. Off-line tuning of the JT-60U controller is presented as an example of the improvements which might be obtained by using such a model of the plasma equilibrium response. (author)
ALARA in diagnosis and therapy: for an equilibrium medically reasonable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurengo, A.; Fraboulet, P.
1998-01-01
After a recall about the differences of conceptions in radiation protection in the medical field it is shown how it is possible to make with efficiency an optimization approach and to lead towards an equilibrium medically acceptable between the therapeutic necessity and the protection of medical personnel. The problem of the patients radiation protection is out of this frame. (N.C.)
FastChem: An ultra-fast equilibrium chemistry
Kitzmann, Daniel; Stock, Joachim
2018-04-01
FastChem is an equilibrium chemistry code that calculates the chemical composition of the gas phase for given temperatures and pressures. Written in C++, it is based on a semi-analytic approach, and is optimized for extremely fast and accurate calculations.
Learning of Chemical Equilibrium through Modelling-Based Teaching
Maia, Poliana Flavia; Justi, Rosaria
2009-01-01
This paper presents and discusses students' learning process of chemical equilibrium from a modelling-based approach developed from the use of the "Model of Modelling" diagram. The investigation was conducted in a regular classroom (students 14-15 years old) and aimed at discussing how modelling-based teaching can contribute to students…
The geometry of finite equilibrium sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
2009-01-01
We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely noncollinear....
The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely non collinear....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klára Plecitá
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with largest imbalances in 2010. Further the medium-run equilibrium exchange rates for Greece and Ireland are estimated applying the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER approach popularised by Clark and MacDonald (1998. In addition, the long-run equilibrium exchange rates are estimated using the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate (PEER model. Employing the BEER and PEER approaches on quarterly time series of real effective exchange rates (REER from 1997: Q1 to 2010: Q4 we identify an undervaluation of the Greek and Irish REER around their entrance to the euro area. For the rest of the period analysed their REER is broadly in line with estimated BEER and PEER levels.
The concept of equilibrium in organization theory
Gazendam, H.W.M.
1998-01-01
Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or
The concept of equilibrium in organization theory
Gazendam, Henk W.M.
1997-01-01
Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium metal-ceramic interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Y.; Merkle, K.L.
1992-01-01
Metal-ceramic interfaces in thermodynamic equilibrium (Au/ZrO 2 ) and non-equilibrium (Au/MgO) have been studied by TEM and HREM. In the Au/ZrO 2 system, ZrO 2 precipitates formed by internal oxidation of a 7%Zr-Au alloy show a cubic ZrO 2 phase. It appears that formation of the cubic ZrO 2 is facilitated by alignment with the Au matrix. Most of the ZrO 2 precipitates have a perfect cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the Au matrix. The large number of interfacial steps observed in a short-time annealing experiment indicate that the precipitates are formed by the ledge growth mechanism. The lowest interfacial energy is indicated by the dominance of closed-packed [111] Au/ZrO 2 interfaces. In the Au/MgO system, composite films with small MgO smoke particles embedded in a Au matrix were prepared by a thin film technique. HREM observations show that most of the Au/MgO interfaces have a strong tendency to maintain a dense lattice structure across the interfaces irrespective of whether the interfaces are incoherent or semi-coherent. This paper reports that this indicates that there may be a relatively strong bond between MgO and Au
Transport infrastructure and technology: Investment, externalities, and general equilibrium effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.; Nijkamp, P. [Faculty of Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
1993-04-01
The paper addresses the use of general equilibrium models to analyze transportation policies. After a discussion of possible approaches, a representative set of static and dynamic models is developed and investigated, which focus on the interaction between general equilibrium, transport, infrastructure and environment. It is shown that each of these allows one to deal with specific types of policy questions. More technical modelling issues are dealt with as well, e.g. returns to scale, production functions, and disaggregation. Finally, attention is devoted to freight transport in a multisectoral production setting. 5 figs., 8 refs.
Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.
1987-01-01
The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given
Equilibrium composition for the reaction of plutonium hydride with air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Lexi; Sun Ying; Xue Weidong; Zhu Zhenghe; Wang Rong; Luo Deli
2002-01-01
There are six independent constituents with 4 chemical elements, i.e. PuH 2.7 (s), PuN(s), Pu 2 O 3 (s), N 2 , O 2 and H 2 , therefore, the system described involves of 2 independent reactions, both ΔG 0 <<0. The calculated equilibrium compositions are in agreement with those of the experimental, which indicates that the chemical equilibrium is nearly completely approached. Therefore, it is believed that the reaction rate of plutonium hydride with air is extremely rapid. The author has briefly discussed the simultaneous reactions and its thermodynamic coupling effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kourdey, A.
2002-09-15
The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)
Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.
Thermal equilibrium in Einstein's elevator.
Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Chacón-Acosta, Guillermo; Dagdug, Leonardo; Cubero, David
2013-05-01
We report fully relativistic molecular-dynamics simulations that verify the appearance of thermal equilibrium of a classical gas inside a uniformly accelerated container. The numerical experiments confirm that the local momentum distribution in this system is very well approximated by the Jüttner function-originally derived for a flat spacetime-via the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. Moreover, it is shown that when the acceleration or the container size is large enough, the global momentum distribution can be described by the so-called modified Jüttner function, which was initially proposed as an alternative to the Jüttner function.
Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case.
Mroczyńska, Karina; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Grubecki, Ireneusz; Pietrzak, Marek; Ośmiałowski, Borys
2015-01-01
The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance of conformational equilibrium and its influence on association in solution. Moreover, the associates were observed by mass spectrometry. The DFT-based computations for complexes and single bond rotational barriers supports experimental data and helps understanding the properties of multiply hydrogen bonded complexes.
Financial markets theory equilibrium, efficiency and information
Barucci, Emilio
2017-01-01
This work, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, presents the economic foundations of financial markets theory from a mathematically rigorous standpoint and offers a self-contained critical discussion based on empirical results. It is the only textbook on the subject to include more than two hundred exercises, with detailed solutions to selected exercises. Financial Markets Theory covers classical asset pricing theory in great detail, including utility theory, equilibrium theory, portfolio selection, mean-variance portfolio theory, CAPM, CCAPM, APT, and the Modigliani-Miller theorem. Starting from an analysis of the empirical evidence on the theory, the authors provide a discussion of the relevant literature, pointing out the main advances in classical asset pricing theory and the new approaches designed to address asset pricing puzzles and open problems (e.g., behavioral finance). Later chapters in the book contain more advanced material, including on the role of information in financial markets, non-c...
Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.
2015-01-01
Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…
The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.
Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob
2013-10-08
In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.
Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.
van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard
2017-08-01
A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.
Equilibrium and kinetic models for colloid release under transient solution chemistry conditions
We present continuum models to describe colloid release in the subsurface during transient physicochemical conditions. Our modeling approach relates the amount of colloid release to changes in the fraction of the solid surface area that contributes to retention. Equilibrium, kinetic, equilibrium and...
Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part II - Equilibrium of inorganic nitrogen system
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Naik, S.; SenGupta, R.
observed are found to be close to the equilibrium values calculated from theoretical relations and are nearer to the more recent concept of the normal value for sea water.It is inferred that the system approaches equilibrium conditions in the deeper waters...
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chengmin; Jiang, Chuanwen; Chen, Qiming
2007-01-01
Equilibrium is the optimum operational condition for the power market by economics rule. A realistic spot power market cannot achieve the equilibrium condition due to network losses and congestions. The impact of the network losses and congestion on spot power market is analyzed in this paper in order to establish a new equilibrium model considering the network loss and transmission constraints. The OPF problem formulated according to the new equilibrium model is solved by means of the equal price principle. A case study on the IEEE-30-bus system is provided in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoefnagels, Ric; Banse, Martin; Dornburg, Veronika; Faaij, André
2013-01-01
Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. - Highlights: • We analyse large scale production of bioenergy and biochemicals in the Netherlands. • The scenarios include up to 30% substitution of fossil fuels by biomass in 2030. • Resulting in strong greenhouse gas savings and positive macro-economic effects. • Large amounts of imported biomass are required to meet the domestic demand. • This requires high rates of technological change and strict sustainability criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guivarch, C.; Hallegatte, St.; Crassous, R.
2008-09-01
This paper proposes to test the global hybrid computable general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R against macro-economic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003-2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the various mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy response to rising oil prices and, second, to validate our model as a tool capable of reproducing short-run statistical data. With default parametrization, the model predicts a significant decrease in the Indian growth rate that is not observed. However, this discrepancy is corrected if three additional mechanisms identified by the International Monetary Fund are introduced, namely the rise in exports of refined oil products, the imbalance of the trade balance allowed by large capital inflows, and the incomplete pass-through of the oil price increase to Indian customers. This work is a first step toward model validation, and provides interesting insights on the modeling methodology relevant to represent an economy's response to a shock, as well as on how short-term mechanisms - and policy action - can smooth the negative impacts of energy price shocks or climate policies. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nazir Ahmed GOPANG
2010-02-01
Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guivarch, Celine; Hallegatte, Stephane; Crassous, Renaud
2009-01-01
This paper proposes to test the global hybrid computable general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R against macroeconomic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003-2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the various mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy response to rising oil prices and, second, to validate our model as a tool capable of reproducing short-run statistical data. With default parameterization, the model predicts a significant decrease in the Indian growth rate that is not observed. However, this discrepancy is corrected if three additional mechanisms identified by the International Monetary Fund are introduced, namely the rise in exports of refined oil products, the imbalance of the trade balance allowed by large capital inflows, and the incomplete pass-through of the oil price increase to Indian customers. This work is a first step toward model validation, and provides interesting insights on the modeling methodology relevant to represent an economy's response to a shock, as well as on how short-term mechanisms - and policy action - can smooth the negative impacts of energy price shocks or climate policies. (author)
This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations for 32 nonionic organic chemicals in sediment which are protective of the presence of freshwater and marine benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach...
Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrnegger, F.
1987-01-01
The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device
Stellar Equilibrium in Semiclassical Gravity.
Carballo-Rubio, Raúl
2018-02-09
The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation. Despite the complexity of the resulting field equations, it is possible to find exact solutions. Aside from being the first known exact solutions that describe relativistic stars including the nonperturbative backreaction of semiclassical effects, these are identified as a nontrivial combination of the black star and gravastar proposals.
Risk premia in general equilibrium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Posch, Olaf
This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explici......'s effective risk aversion.......This paper shows that non-linearities can generate time-varying and asymmetric risk premia over the business cycle. These (empirical) key features become relevant and asset market implications improve substantially when we allow for non-normalities in the form of rare disasters. We employ explicit...... solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual...
Neoclassical equilibrium in gyrokinetic simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nguyen, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a set of model collision operators, which reproduce the neoclassical equilibrium and comply with the constraints of a full-f global gyrokinetic code. The assessment of these operators is based on an entropy variational principle, which allows one to perform a fast calculation of the neoclassical diffusivity and poloidal velocity. It is shown that the force balance equation is recovered at lowest order in the expansion parameter, the normalized gyroradius, hence allowing one to calculate correctly the radial electric field. Also, the conventional neoclassical transport and the poloidal velocity are reproduced in the plateau and banana regimes. The advantages and drawbacks of the various model operators are discussed in view of the requirements for neoclassical and turbulent transport.
QUIL: a chemical equilibrium code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunsford, J.L.
1977-02-01
A chemical equilibrium code QUIL is described, along with two support codes FENG and SURF. QUIL is designed to allow calculations on a wide range of chemical environments, which may include surface phases. QUIL was written specifically to calculate distributions associated with complex equilibria involving fission products in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. QUIL depends upon an energy-data library called ELIB. This library is maintained by FENG and SURF. FENG enters into the library all reactions having standard free energies of reaction that are independent of concentration. SURF enters all surface reactions into ELIB. All three codes are interactive codes written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available
Pre-equilibrium gamma emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sudip
1993-01-01
Together with the direct reaction and the compound nuclear emissions the pre-equilibrium (PEQ) or pre-compound processes give a fairly complete picture of nuclear reactions induced by light ions at energies of some tens of MeV. PEQ particle emissions covering the higher energy continuum spectra have been investigated in detail both experimentally and theoretically. In contrast, very little work has been done on PEQ γ- emissions. The reason is that in spite of extensive work done on PEQ particle emissions, the mechanism is not yet fully understood. Also, the PEQ γ-emission cross-sections (∼ micro barns) are very small compared to the PEQ particle emission cross-sections (∼ milli barns). Yet apart from the academic interest the understanding of PEQ γ-emissions is important for applied fusion research etc. In this paper the PEQ γ-emissions is discussed and the work done in this field is reviewed. (author). 14 refs
Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2013-01-01
Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...
Nanoscale dislocation shear loops at static equilibrium and finite temperature
Dang, Khanh; Capolungo, Laurent; Spearot, Douglas E.
2017-12-01
Atomistic simulations are used to determine the resolved shear stress necessary for equilibrium and the resulting geometry of nanoscale dislocation shear loops in Al. Dislocation loops with different sizes and shapes are created via superposition of elemental triangular dislocation displacement fields in the presence of an externally imposed shear stress. First, a bisection algorithm is developed to determine systematically the resolved shear stress necessary for equilibrium at 0 K. This approach allows for the identification of dislocation core structure and a correlation between dislocation loop size, shape and the computed shear stress for equilibrium. It is found, in agreement with predictions made by Scattergood and Bacon, that the equilibrium shape of a dislocation loop becomes more circular with increasing loop size. Second, the bisection algorithm is extended to study the influence of temperature on the resolved shear stress necessary for stability. An approach is presented to compute the effective lattice friction stress, including temperature dependence, for dislocation loops in Al. The temperature dependence of the effective lattice friction stress can be reliably computed for dislocation loops larger than 16.2 nm. However, for dislocation loops smaller than this threshold, the effective lattice friction stress shows a dislocation loop size dependence caused by significant overlap of the stress fields on the interior of the dislocation loops. Combined, static and finite temperature atomistic simulations provide essential data to parameterize discrete dislocation dynamics simulations.
Paths to equilibrium in non-conformal collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Attems Maximilian
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Ever since fast hydrodynamization has been observed in heavy ion collisions the understanding of the hot early out-of-equilibrium stage of such collisions has been a topic of intense research. We use the gauge/gravity duality to model the creation of a strongly coupled Quark-Gluon plasma in a non-conformal gauge theory. This numerical relativity study is the first non-conformal holographic simulation of a heavy ion collision and reveals the existence of new relaxation channels due to the presence of non-vanishing bulk viscosity. We study shock wave collisions at different energies in gauge theories with different degrees of non-conformality and compare three relaxation times which can occur in different orderings: the hydrodynamization time (when hydrodynamics becomes applicable, the EoSization time (when the average pressure approaches its equilibrium value and the condensate relaxation time (when the expectation value of a scalar operator approaches its equilibrium value. We find that these processes can occur in several different orderings. In particular, the condensate can remain far from equilibrium even long after the plasma has hydrodynamized and EoSized.
Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....
Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoly M. Tsirlin
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.
Hiramatsu, Tomoru
RELU-TRAN (Regional Economy and Land Use and Transportation) is a numerically solvable general equilibrium model (Anas and Liu, 2007), which treats in a unified manner the regional economy, urban land use and urban personal transportation sectors. In this dissertation, the model is extended by adding the consumer-workers' choice of private vehicle type according to the vehicle's fuel economy, by treating congestion on local roads as well as on major roads and by introducing car fuel consumption as a function of congested vehicle speed. By making the extensions, the model becomes more suitable to analyze the fuel consumption and CO2 emission consequences of urban development. The model is calibrated and simulated for the Chicago metropolitan area. By adjusting the model to the longer time span gradually, the shortand long-run price elasticities of fuel consumption are examined. As the time span becomes longer, fuel consumption becomes more elastic with respect to gasoline price, but when technological improvements in car fuel economy over comparable time spans are introduced exogenously, then the elasticity of fuel with respect to gasoline price becomes similar to that estimated in the econometric literature. Comparative statics exercises show that, if travel by auto becomes relatively more attractive in terms of travel time or travel cost than travel by public transit, then the Chicago MSA becomes more sprawled in total developed land area, whereas if public transit travel becomes relatively more attractive, then the Chicago MSA becomes more centralized. To mitigate fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, relative effectiveness of quasi-Pigouvian congestion tolls, a fuel tax on gasoline, a cordon toll around the downtown and a downtown parking fee are tested. All of these policies successfully reduce the aggregate fuel consumption and CO2. The urban growth boundary (UGB) is an alternative policy tested by the model. The UGB directly makes the Chicago MSA more
Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.
Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin
2016-03-01
Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.
Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Key words: Static equilibrium, charged metallic body, potential energy, projected gradient method. ... television, radio, internet, microwave ovens, mobile telephones, satellite communication systems, radar systems, electrical motors, electrical.
Random walk to a nonergodic equilibrium concept
Bel, G.; Barkai, E.
2006-01-01
Random walk models, such as the trap model, continuous time random walks, and comb models, exhibit weak ergodicity breaking, when the average waiting time is infinite. The open question is, what statistical mechanical theory replaces the canonical Boltzmann-Gibbs theory for such systems? In this paper a nonergodic equilibrium concept is investigated, for a continuous time random walk model in a potential field. In particular we show that in the nonergodic phase the distribution of the occupation time of the particle in a finite region of space approaches U- or W-shaped distributions related to the arcsine law. We show that when conditions of detailed balance are applied, these distributions depend on the partition function of the problem, thus establishing a relation between the nonergodic dynamics and canonical statistical mechanics. In the ergodic phase the distribution function of the occupation times approaches a δ function centered on the value predicted based on standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. The relation of our work to single-molecule experiments is briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez Caceres, Jose Luis; Hong, Rolando; Martinez Ortiz, Carlos; Sautie Castellanos, Miguel; Valdes, Kiria; Guevara Erra, Ramon
2004-10-01
Under the assumption of even point mutation pressure on the DNA strand, rates for transitions from one amino acid into another were assessed. Nearly 25% of all mutations were silent. About 48% of the mutations from a given amino acid stream either into the same amino acid or into an amino acid of the same class. These results suggest a great stability of the Standard Genetic Code respect to mutation load. Concepts from chemical equilibrium theory are applicable into this case provided that mutation rate constants are given. It was obtained that unequal synonymic codon usage may lead to changes in the equilibrium concentrations. Data from real biological species showed that several amino acids are close to the respective equilibrium concentration. However in all the cases the concentration of leucine nearly doubled its equilibrium concentration, whereas for the stop command (Term) it was about 10 times lower. The overall distance from equilibrium for a set of species suggests that eukaryotes are closer to equilibrium than prokaryotes, and the HIV virus was closest to equilibrium among 15 species. We obtained that contemporary species are closer to the equilibrium than the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was. Similarly, nonpreserved regions in proteins are closer to equilibrium than the preserved ones. We suggest that this approach can be useful for exploring some aspects of biological evolution in the framework of Standard Genetic Code properties. (author)
Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... of polluted sediments. Glass jars with µm-thin silicone coatings on the inner walls can be used for ex situ equilibration while a device housing several silicone-coated fibers can be used for in situ equilibration. In both cases, parallel sampling with varying silicone thicknesses can be applied to confirm...... will focus at the latest developments in equilibrium sampling concepts and methods. Further, we will explain how these approaches can provide a new basis for a thermodynamic assessment of polluted sediments....
Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R
2013-11-01
Previous research has demonstrated the value of macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. A single-country whole-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun
2016-12-01
Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blawzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.
2005-01-01
Phase equilibria between regions of different thickness in thin liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles are investigated using a quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic formalism. Appropriate equilibrium conditions for the film tension, normal pressure, and chemical potential of the particles in the film are formulated, and it is shown that the relaxation of these parameters occurs consecutively on three distinct time scales. Film stratification is described quantitatively for a hard-sphere suspension using a Monte-Carlo method to evaluate thermodynamic equations of state. Coexisting phases are determined for systems in constrained- and full-equilibrium states that correspond to different stages of film relaxation. We also evaluated the effective viscosity coefficients for two-dimensional compressional and shear flows of a film and the self and collective mobility coefficients of the stabilizing particles. The hydrodynamic calculations were performed using a multiple-reflection representation of Stokes flow between two free surfaces. In this approach, the particle-laden film is equivalent to a periodic system of spheres with a unit cell that is much smaller in the transverse direction than in the lateral direction. (author)
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2015-12-15
We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.
Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review
Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei
2001-01-01
The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...
Gibbs equilibrium averages and Bogolyubov measure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sankovich, D.P.
2011-01-01
Application of the functional integration methods in equilibrium statistical mechanics of quantum Bose-systems is considered. We show that Gibbs equilibrium averages of Bose-operators can be represented as path integrals over a special Gauss measure defined in the corresponding space of continuous functions. We consider some problems related to integration with respect to this measure
Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?
Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.
2015-01-01
Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the
Vertical field and equilibrium calculation in ETE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montes, Antonio; Shibata, Carlos Shinya.
1996-01-01
The free-boundary MHD equilibrium code HEQ is used to study the plasma behaviour in the tokamak ETE, with optimized compensations coils and vertical field coils. The changes on the equilibrium parameters for different plasma current values are also investigated. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Statistical thermodynamics of equilibrium polymers at interfaces
Gucht, van der J.; Besseling, N.A.M.
2002-01-01
The behavior of a solution of equilibrium polymers (or living polymers) at an interface is studied, using a Bethe-Guggenheim lattice model for molecules with orientation dependent interactions. The density profile of polymers and the chain length distribution are calculated. For equilibrium polymers
Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation
Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R
1997-01-01
There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase
On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems
Akimoto, Takuma
2008-01-01
We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.
Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Foundations, Applications, Frontiers
Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy
2007-01-01
This book offers a homogeneous presentation of the many faces of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part is devoted to a description of the nowadays thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory of non-equilibrium processes. This part of the book may serve as a basis to an introductory course dedicated to first-year graduate students in sciences and engineering. The classical description can however not be complete, as it rests on the hypothesis of local equilibrium. This has fostered the development of many theories going beyond local equilibrium and which cannot be put aside. The second part of the book is concerned with these different approaches, and will be of special interest for PhD students and researchers. For the sake of homogeneity, the authors have used the general structure and methods presented in the first part. Indeed, besides their differences, all these formalisms are not closed boxes but present some overlappings and parallelisms which are emphasized in this book. For pe...
Temperature relaxation in collisional non equilibrium plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; Azevedo, C.A.; Assis, A.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. We study the relaxation of a space uniform plasma composed of electrons and one species of ions. To simplified the consideration, standard approach is usually accepted: the distribution functions are considered to be a Maxwellian with time dependent electron T{sub e}(t) and ion T{sub i}(t) temperatures. This approach imposes a severe restriction on the electron/ion distributions that could be very far from the equilibrium. In the present work the problem is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic Fokker - Planck equation, which is widely used for the description of collisional plasmas. This equation has many applications in plasma physics as an intrinsic part of physical models, both analytical and numerical. A new detailed description of this classical problem of the collisional plasma kinetic theory is given. A deeper examination of the problem shows that the unusual perturbation theory can not be used. The part of the perturbation of the electron distribution has the character of a boundary layer in the neighborhood of small velocities. In this work the boundary layer is thoroughly studied. The correct distribution electron function is given. Nonmonotonic character of the distribution relaxation in the tail region is observed. The corrected formula for temperature equalization is obtained. The comparison of the calculation results with the asymptotic approach is made. We should stress the important role of the completely conservative different scheme used here, which keeps the symmetric properties of the nonlinear exact equation. This allows us to make calculations without numerical error accumulations, except for machine errors. (author)
Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization
Anzà, F.; Vedral, V.
2017-03-01
A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.
Differential topology and general equilibrium with complete and incomplete markets
Villanacci, Antonio; Benevieri, Pierluigi; Battinelli, Andrea
2002-01-01
General equilibrium In this book we try to cope with the challenging task of reviewing the so called general equilibrium model and of discussing one specific aspect of the approach underlying it, namely, market completeness. With the denomination "general equilibrium" (from now on in short GE) we shall mainly refer to two different things. On one hand, in particular when using the expression "GE approach", we shall refer to a long established methodolog ical tradition in building and developing economic models, which includes, as of today, an enormous amount of contributions, ranging in number by several 1 thousands • On the other hand, in particular when using the expression "stan dard differentiable GE model", we refer to a very specific version of economic model of exchange and production, to be presented in Chapters 8 and 9, and to be modified in Chapters 10 to 15. Such a version is certainly formulated within the GE approach, but it is generated by making several quite restrictive 2 assumptions •...
BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium
Mars, M.
2009-08-01
Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting
Mann, Stephen
2009-10-01
Understanding how chemically derived processes control the construction and organization of matter across extended and multiple length scales is of growing interest in many areas of materials research. Here we review present equilibrium and non-equilibrium self-assembly approaches to the synthetic construction of discrete hybrid (inorganic-organic) nano-objects and higher-level nanostructured networks. We examine a range of synthetic modalities under equilibrium conditions that give rise to integrative self-assembly (supramolecular wrapping, nanoscale incarceration and nanostructure templating) or higher-order self-assembly (programmed/directed aggregation). We contrast these strategies with processes of transformative self-assembly that use self-organizing media, reaction-diffusion systems and coupled mesophases to produce higher-level hybrid structures under non-equilibrium conditions. Key elements of the constructional codes associated with these processes are identified with regard to existing theoretical knowledge, and presented as a heuristic guideline for the rational design of hybrid nano-objects and nanomaterials.
Near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures for cohesionless small bodies
Descamps, Pascal
2016-02-01
In a previous paper (Descamps, P. [2015]. Icarus 245, 64-79), we developed a specific method aimed to retrieve the main physical characteristics (shape, density, surface scattering properties) of highly elongated bodies from their rotational lightcurves through the use of dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures. The present work is a test of this method. For that purpose we introduce near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures which are base dumb-bell equilibrium shapes modulated by lognormal statistics. Such synthetic irregular models are used to generate lightcurves from which our method is successfully applied. Shape statistical parameters of such near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped objects are in good agreement with those calculated for example for the Asteroid (216) Kleopatra from its dog-bone radar model. It may suggest that such bilobed and elongated asteroids can be approached by equilibrium figures perturbed be the interplay with a substantial internal friction modeled by a Gaussian random sphere.
Non-equilibrium reactive flux: A unified framework for slow and fast reaction kinetics.
Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy
2017-10-21
The flux formulation of reaction rate theory is recast in terms of the expectation value of the reactive flux with an initial condition that corresponds to a non-equilibrium, factorized reactant density. In the common case of slow reactive processes, the non-equilibrium expression reaches the plateau regime only slightly slower than the equilibrium flux form. When the reactants are described by a single quantum state, as in the case of electron transfer reactions, the factorized reactant density describes the true initial condition of the reactive process. In such cases, the time integral of the non-equilibrium flux expression yields the reactant population as a function of time, allowing characterization of the dynamics in cases where there is no clear separation of time scales and thus a plateau regime cannot be identified. The non-equilibrium flux offers a unified approach to the kinetics of slow and fast chemical reactions and is ideally suited to mixed quantum-classical methods.
Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryson Eric J
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.
Jiang, Lingxiang; Yu, Caifang; Deng, Manli; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Yilin; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin
2010-02-18
Cationic surfactant/anionic surfactant/beta-CD ternary aqueous systems provide a platform for the coexistence of the host-guest (beta-CD/surfactant) equilibrium and the biased aggregation (monomeric/aggregated surfactants) equilibrium. We report here that the interplay between the two equilibria dominates the systems as follows. (1) The biased aggregation equilibrium imposes an apparent selectivity on the host-guest equilibrium, namely, beta-CD has to always selectively bind the major surfactant (molar fraction > 0.5) even if binding constants of beta-CD to the pair of surfactants are quite similar. (2) In return, the host-guest equilibrium amplifies the bias of the aggregation equilibrium, that is, the selective binding partly removes the major surfactant from the aggregates and leaves the aggregate composition approaching the electroneutral mixing stoichiometry. (3) This composition variation enhances electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged surfactant head groups, thus resulting in less-curved aggregates. In particular, the present apparent host-guest selectivity is of remarkably high values, and the selectivity stems from the bias of the aggregation equilibrium rather than the difference in binding constants. Moreover, beta-CD is defined as a "stoichiometry booster" for the whole class of cationic/anionic surfactant systems, which provides an additional degree of freedom to directly adjust aggregate compositions of the systems. The stoichiometry boosting of the compositions can in turn affect or even determine microstructures and macroproperties of the systems.
Isospin equilibrium and non-equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Liewen; Ge Lingxiao; Zhang Xiaodong; Zhang Fengshou
1997-01-01
The equilibrium and non-equilibrium of the isospin degree of freedom are studied in terms of an isospin-dependent QMD model, which includes isospin-dependent symmetry energy, Coulomb energy, N-N cross sections and Pauli blocking. It is shown that there exists a transition from the isospin equilibrium to non-equilibrium as the incident energy from below to above a threshold energy in central, asymmetric heavy-ion collisions. Meanwhile, it is found that the phenomenon results from the co-existence and competition of different reaction mechanisms, namely, the isospin degree of freedom reaches an equilibrium if the incomplete fusion (ICF) component is dominant and does not reach equilibrium if the fragmentation component is dominant. Moreover, it is also found that the isospin-dependent N-N cross sections and symmetry energy are crucial for the equilibrium of the isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy. (author)
Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?
Paiva, Joao C. M.; Goncalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana
2008-01-01
In this article we examine three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" In the first approach, the answer is yes as a result of a common students' alternative conception; the second approach, valid only for ideal…
Local Nash equilibrium in social networks.
Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong
2014-08-29
Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of the QGP in a magnetic field: a holographic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Critelli, Renato
2017-01-01
This manuscript reviews recent theoretical progress on the understanding of the quark gluon plasma in a magnetic field that I presented on the conference Hot Quarks 2016, held at South Padre Island, Texas, USA, 12-17 September 2016. It is shown that, using a holographic bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton model, one can have a good quantitative agreement with Lattice result for QCD equation of state and Polyakov loop with nonzero magnetic field. I also present results for the anisotropic shear viscosity ratio η || / η ⊥ , with the conclusion that η || < η ⊥ for non-zero magnetic field. (paper)
Kramer, Koen; van der Werf, D. C.
2010-01-01
The environment is changing and so are forests, in their functioning, in species composition, and in the species’ genetic composition. Many empirical and process-based models exist to support forest management. However, most of these models do not consider the impact of environmental changes and forest management on genetic diversity nor on the rate of adaptation of critical plant processes. How genetic diversity and rates of adaptation depend on management actions is a crucial next step in m...
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium with the Jigsaw Technique
Doymus, Kemal
2008-03-01
This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning (jigsaw) versus individual learning methods on students’ understanding of chemical equilibrium in a first-year general chemistry course. This study was carried out in two different classes in the department of primary science education during the 2005-2006 academic year. One of the classes was randomly assigned as the non-jigsaw group (control) and other as the jigsaw group (cooperative). Students participating in the jigsaw group were divided into four “home groups” since the topic chemical equilibrium is divided into four subtopics (Modules A, B, C and D). Each of these home groups contained four students. The groups were as follows: (1) Home Group A (HGA), representin g the equilibrium state and quantitative aspects of equilibrium (Module A), (2) Home Group B (HGB), representing the equilibrium constant and relationships involving equilibrium constants (Module B), (3) Home Group C (HGC), representing Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Chatelier’s principle (Module C), and (4) Home Group D (HGD), representing calculations with equilibrium constants (Module D). The home groups then broke apart, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, and the students moved into jigsaw groups consisting of members from the other home groups who were assigned the same portion of the material. The jigsaw groups were then in charge of teaching their specific subtopic to the rest of the students in their learning group. The main data collection tool was a Chemical Equilibrium Achievement Test (CEAT), which was applied to both the jigsaw and non-jigsaw groups The results indicated that the jigsaw group was more successful than the non-jigsaw group (individual learning method).
MHD equilibrium identification on ASDEX-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, P.J.; Schneider, W.; Lakner, K.; Zehrfeld, H.P.; Buechl, K.; Gernhardt, J.; Gruber, O.; Kallenbach, A.; Lieder, G.; Wunderlich, R.
1992-01-01
A central activity accompanying the ASDEX-Upgrade experiment is the analysis of MHD equilibria. There are two different numerical methods available, both using magnetic measurements which reflect equilibrium states of the plasma. The first method proceeds via a function parameterization (FP) technique, which uses in-vessel magnetic measurements to calculate up to 66 equilibrium parameters. The second method applies an interpretative equilibrium code (DIVA) for a best fit to a different set of magnetic measurements. Cross-checks with the measured particle influxes from the inner heat shield and the divertor region and with visible camera images of the scrape-off layer are made. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Numerical method for partial equilibrium flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramshaw, J.D.; Cloutman, L.D.; Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)
1981-01-01
A numerical method is presented for chemically reactive fluid flow in which equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions occur simultaneously. The equilibrium constraints on the species concentrations are established by a quadratic iterative procedure. If the equilibrium reactions are uncoupled and of second or lower order, the procedure converges in a single step. In general, convergence is most rapid when the reactions are weakly coupled. This can frequently be achieved by a judicious choice of the independent reactions. In typical transient calculations, satisfactory accuracy has been achieved with about five iterations per time step
The economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon.
Edward C Waters; David W. Holland; Richard W. Haynes
1977-01-01
Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, can severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE)...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, A.K.; Hussain, T.A.; Shahad, Haroun A.K. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)
2003-05-01
The problem of non-equilibrium heat conduction in a semi-infinite medium subjected to a step change in temperature is analyzed thermodynamically using the extended irreversible thermodynamic approach. The results show clearly the wave nature of the dimensionless temperature distribution, Stanton number and the dimensionless entropy change profiles. The non-equilibrium profiles approach the equilibrium profiles as the speed of wave propagation is increased. The results also show that the non-equilibrium temperature is higher than the equilibrium temperature but the difference decreases as the wave propagation speed increases. (Author)
Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium in global flux surface hopping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sifain, Andrew E.; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2015-01-01
Global flux surface hopping (GFSH) generalizes fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH)—one of the most popular approaches to nonadiabatic molecular dynamics—for processes exhibiting superexchange. We show that GFSH satisfies detailed balance and leads to thermodynamic equilibrium with accuracy similar to FSSH. This feature is particularly important when studying electron-vibrational relaxation and phonon-assisted transport. By studying the dynamics in a three-level quantum system coupled to a classical atom in contact with a classical bath, we demonstrate that both FSSH and GFSH achieve the Boltzmann state populations. Thermal equilibrium is attained significantly faster with GFSH, since it accurately represents the superexchange process. GFSH converges closer to the Boltzmann averages than FSSH and exhibits significantly smaller statistical errors
A toroidal plasma MHD equilibrium code 'EQUCIR version 1'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shinya, Kichiro; Kameari, Akihisa.
1980-10-01
A new free-boundary toroidal MHD equilibrium code ''EQUCIR version 1'' has been developed. The central problems approached by this code is as follows: 1) The magnetic flux distribution of a plasma at equilibrium is determined in the given external field. 2) A set of circuit equations between the plasma and the external conductors are constructed. These circuit equations and the Grad-Shafranov equation are solved self-consistently and the time evolutions of plasma equilibria and currents in external conductors are determined at the same time. 3) The currents in the external conductors are determined so that the plasma cross-section and plasma parameters are to be maintained with desired ones. It is shown that this code is very useful for study of the tokamak plasma equilibria, for design of the poloidal coil system and for investigation of experimental results. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geemert, R. van E-mail: rene.vangeemert@psi.ch; Hoogenboom, J.E. E-mail: j.e.hoogenboom@iri.tudelft.nl
2001-09-01
As nuclear fuel economy is basically a multi-cycle issue, a fair way of evaluating reload patterns is to consider their performance in the case of an equilibrium cycle. The equilibrium cycle associated with a reload pattern is defined as the limit fuel cycle that eventually emerges after multiple successive periodic refueling, each time implementing the same reload scheme. Since the equilibrium cycle is the solution of a reload operation invariance equation, it can in principle be found with sufficient accuracy only by applying an iterative procedure, simulating the emergence of the limit cycle. For a design purpose such as the optimization of reload patterns, in which many different equilibrium cycle perturbations (resulting from many different limited changes in the reload operator) must be evaluated, this requires far too much computational effort. However, for very fast calculation of these many different equilibrium cycle perturbations it is also possible to set up a generalized variational approach. This approach results in an iterative scheme that yields the exact perturbation in the equilibrium cycle solution as well, in an accelerated way. Furthermore, both the solution of the adjoint equations occurring in the perturbation theory formalism and the implementation of the optimization algorithm have been parallellized and executed on a massively parallel machine. The combination of parallellism and generalized perturbation theory offers the opportunity to perform very exhaustive, fast and accurate sampling of the solution space for the equilibrium cycle reload pattern optimization problem.
Dissipation and the relaxation to equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, Denis J; Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J
2009-01-01
Using the recently derived dissipation theorem and a corollary of the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), namely the second-law inequality, we derive the unique time independent, equilibrium phase space distribution function for an ergodic Hamiltonian system in contact with a remote heat bath. We prove under very general conditions that any deviation from this equilibrium distribution breaks the time independence of the distribution. Provided temporal correlations decay, we show that any nonequilibrium distribution that is an even function of the momenta eventually relaxes (not necessarily monotonically) to the equilibrium distribution. Finally we prove that the negative logarithm of the microscopic partition function is equal to the thermodynamic Helmholtz free energy divided by the thermodynamic temperature and Boltzmann's constant. Our results complement and extend the findings of modern ergodic theory and show the importance of dissipation in the process of relaxation towards equilibrium
Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp
formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...
Intermittent many-body dynamics at equilibrium
Danieli, C.; Campbell, D. K.; Flach, S.
2017-06-01
The equilibrium value of an observable defines a manifold in the phase space of an ergodic and equipartitioned many-body system. A typical trajectory pierces that manifold infinitely often as time goes to infinity. We use these piercings to measure both the relaxation time of the lowest frequency eigenmode of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, as well as the fluctuations of the subsequent dynamics in equilibrium. The dynamics in equilibrium is characterized by a power-law distribution of excursion times far off equilibrium, with diverging variance. Long excursions arise from sticky dynamics close to q -breathers localized in normal mode space. Measuring the exponent allows one to predict the transition into nonergodic dynamics. We generalize our method to Klein-Gordon lattices where the sticky dynamics is due to discrete breathers localized in real space.
Moisture transport and equilibrium in organic coatings
Wel, van der G.K.; Adan, O.C.G.
2000-01-01
Improving coating performance in regard of protection of substrates and structures against moisturerelated degradation requires detailed knowledge of underlying transport mechanisms. In this paper a review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic
Non-equilibrium entropy in excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betak, E.
1991-06-01
The time-dependent behaviour of entropy in excited nuclei is investigated. In distinction to recent claims, it is shown that no self-organization is involved in pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs
Plasma equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldas, I.L.; Vannucci, A.
1985-01-01
A phenomenological introduction of some of the main theoretical and experimental features on equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In general only macroscopic effects are considered, being the plasma described as a fluid. (L.C.) [pt
"Secrets" of High Pressure Phase Equilibrium Experiment.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wichterle, Ivan
2005-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 11 (2005), s. 477-479 ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vapour-liquid equilibrium * experimental work Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik
2008-01-01
Considering a set of two coupled nonautonomous differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides describing the behavior of a DC/DC power converter, we discuss a border-collision bifurcation that can lead to the birth of a two-dimensional invariant torus from a stable node equilibrium...... point. We obtain the chart of dynamic modes and show that there is a region of parameter space in which the system has a single stable node equilibrium point. Under variation of the parameters, this equilibrium may disappear as it collides with a discontinuity boundary between two smooth regions...... in the phase space. The disappearance of the equilibrium point is accompanied by the soft appearance of an unstable focus period-1 orbit surrounded by a resonant or ergodic torus. Detailed numerical calculations are supported by a theoretical investigation of the normal form map that represents the piecewise...
Near-Nash equilibrium strategies for LQ differential games with inaccurate state information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available ε -Nash equilibrium or “near equilibrium” for a linear quadratic cost game is considered. Due to inaccurate state information, the standard solution for feedback Nash equilibrium cannot be applied. Instead, an estimation of the players' states is substituted into the optimal control strategies equation obtained for perfect state information. The magnitude of the ε in the ε -Nash equilibrium will depend on the quality of the estimation process. To illustrate this approach, a Luenberger-type observer is used in the numerical example to generate the players' state estimates in a two-player non-zero-sum LQ differential game.
Quantum Cournot equilibrium for the Hotelling–Smithies model of product choice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahaman, Ramij; Majumdar, Priyadarshi; Basu, B
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates the quantization of a spatial Cournot duopoly model with product choice, a two stage game focusing on non-cooperation in locations and quantities. With quantization, the players can access a continuous set of strategies, using a continuous variable quantum mechanical approach. The presence of quantum entanglement in the initial state identifies a quantity equilibrium for each location pair choice with any transport cost. Also higher profit is obtained by the firms at Nash equilibrium. Adoption of quantum strategies rewards us by the existence of a larger quantum strategic space at equilibrium. (paper)
EquilTheTA: Thermodynamic and transport properties of complex equilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colonna, G.; D'Angola, A.
2012-01-01
EquilTheTA (EQUILibrium for plasma THErmodynamics and Transport Applications) is a web-based software which calculates chemical equilibrium product concentrations from any set of reactants and determines thermodynamic and transport properties for the product mixture in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The program calculates chemical equilibrium by using a hierarchical approach, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients starting from recent and accurate databases of atomic and molecular energy levels and collision integrals. In the calculations, Debye length and cut-off are consistently updated and virial corrections (up to third order) can be considered. Transport coefficients are calculated by using high order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method.
Ionization equilibrium in dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, R.
1987-01-01
The average degree of ionization for a strongly coupled plasma is investigated and calculated. Two widely used approaches: the Saha equation method and the Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical atomic model are adopted to determine the degree of ionization. Both methods are modified in a number of ways to include the strong-coupling effect in the plasma. In the Saha equation approach, the strong-coupling effects are introduced through: (i) a replacement of the Coulomb potential by a screened Debye potential; (ii) adoption of the Planck-Larkin partition function; (iii) description of the electron component by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated degree of ionization exceeds that obtained from the original Saha equation, exhibits a minimum as a function of the density and shows an abrupt phase transition from weakly ionized to a fully ionized state. The zero-temperature TF model for compressed ions and the finite-temperature TF model for ions are investigated for the first time. In order to take into account the strong-coupling effect in a systematic way, a strong-coupling TF model is set up. Favorable results with the relatively simple approximations indicate that the newly established strong-coupling TF model is a more systematic and physically consistent approach
Specific features of plasma equilibrium in closed mixed-type stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafranov, V.D.; Mikhajlov, M.I.
1992-01-01
High values of rotational transformation (i/2π>1) are studied in terms of their usefulness for plasma equilibrium using stellarators with spatial magnetic axis and circular cross section of averaged magnetic surfaces. It is shown that, in contrast to a conventional stellarator with circular magnetic axis, where ultimate equilibrium pressure grows proportionally (i/2π) 2 equilibrium in lost in more complex stellarators consisting of heterogeneous sections as rotational transformation approaches, over period of the system, whole-number values. At the same time, in case when the transformation approaches a whole-number value of i/2π, short-circuit of secondary currents occurs within one of the periods of the system and ultimate equilibrium pressure value can exceed that in a conventional stellarator having the same length of the system and rotational transformation value
The Theory of Variances in Equilibrium Reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, Leonid E.; Lewandowski, Jerome; Foley, Elizabeth L.; Levinton, Fred M.; Yuh, Howard Y.; Drozdov, Vladimir; McDonald, Darren
2008-01-01
The theory of variances of equilibrium reconstruction is presented. It complements existing practices with information regarding what kind of plasma profiles can be reconstructed, how accurately, and what remains beyond the abilities of diagnostic systems. The σ-curves, introduced by the present theory, give a quantitative assessment of quality of effectiveness of diagnostic systems in constraining equilibrium reconstructions. The theory also suggests a method for aligning the accuracy of measurements of different physical nature
Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.
2000-04-01
We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)
Equivalence of Equilibrium Propagation and Recurrent Backpropagation
Scellier, Benjamin; Bengio, Yoshua
2017-01-01
Recurrent Backpropagation and Equilibrium Propagation are algorithms for fixed point recurrent neural networks which differ in their second phase. In the first phase, both algorithms converge to a fixed point which corresponds to the configuration where the prediction is made. In the second phase, Recurrent Backpropagation computes error derivatives whereas Equilibrium Propagation relaxes to another nearby fixed point. In this work we establish a close connection between these two algorithms....
Non-equilibrium dog-flea model
Ackerson, Bruce J.
2017-11-01
We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.
Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.
2000-01-01
the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....
Equilibrium fluctuation energy of gyrokinetic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.
1985-11-01
The thermal equilibrium electric field fluctuation energy of the gyrokinetic model of magnetized plasma is computed, and found to be smaller than the well-known result (k)/8π = 1/2T/[1 + (klambda/sub D/) 2 ] valid for arbitrarily magnetized plasmas. It is shown that, in a certain sense, the equilibrium electric field energy is minimum in the gyrokinetic regime. 13 refs., 2 figs
Support of the extremal measure in a vector equilibrium problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapik, M A
2006-01-01
A generalization of the Mhaskar-Saff functional is obtained for a vector equilibrium problem with an external field. As an application, the supports of the equilibrium measures are found in a special vector equilibrium problem with Nikishin matrix.
Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross-Sectional Area
2016-04-01
classic Escoffier (1940) inlet stability analysis to produce a new quadratic formula derived from simplified momentum and conservation equations ...neglecting time dependence and taking the maximum current gives the following quadratic equation : 2 0 0 d b d ghagAhU U c LA c Lω + − = (5) with the...or quadratic approach as the equilibrium area can be determined through Equation 9. As an alternative, cross- sectional equilibrium is expressed in
Khanh, Phan Quoc; Plubtieng, Somyot; Sombut, Kamonrat
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is introduce several types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and optimization problems with equilibrium constraints. Base on criterion and characterizations for these types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness we argue on diameters and Kuratowski’s, Hausdorff’s, or Istrǎtescus measures of noncompactness of approximate solution sets under suitable conditions, and we prove the Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and op...
Equilibrium statistical mechanics on correlated random graphs
Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena
2011-02-01
Biological and social networks have recently attracted great attention from physicists. Among several aspects, two main ones may be stressed: a non-trivial topology of the graph describing the mutual interactions between agents and, typically, imitative, weighted, interactions. Despite such aspects being widely accepted and empirically confirmed, the schemes currently exploited in order to generate the expected topology are based on a priori assumptions and, in most cases, implement constant intensities for links. Here we propose a simple shift [-1,+1]\\to [0,+1] in the definition of patterns in a Hopfield model: a straightforward effect is the conversion of frustration into dilution. In fact, we show that by varying the bias of pattern distribution, the network topology (generated by the reciprocal affinities among agents, i.e. the Hebbian rule) crosses various well-known regimes, ranging from fully connected, to an extreme dilution scenario, then to completely disconnected. These features, as well as small-world properties, are, in this context, emergent and no longer imposed a priori. The model is throughout investigated also from a thermodynamics perspective: the Ising model defined on the resulting graph is analytically solved (at a replica symmetric level) by extending the double stochastic stability technique, and presented together with its fluctuation theory for a picture of criticality. Overall, our findings show that, at least at equilibrium, dilution (of whatever kind) simply decreases the strength of the coupling felt by the spins, but leaves the paramagnetic/ferromagnetic flavors unchanged. The main difference with respect to previous investigations is that, within our approach, replicas do not appear: instead of (multi)-overlaps as order parameters, we introduce a class of magnetizations on all the possible subgraphs belonging to the main one investigated: as a consequence, for these objects a closure for a self-consistent relation is achieved.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics on correlated random graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena
2011-01-01
Biological and social networks have recently attracted great attention from physicists. Among several aspects, two main ones may be stressed: a non-trivial topology of the graph describing the mutual interactions between agents and, typically, imitative, weighted, interactions. Despite such aspects being widely accepted and empirically confirmed, the schemes currently exploited in order to generate the expected topology are based on a priori assumptions and, in most cases, implement constant intensities for links. Here we propose a simple shift [-1,+1]→[0,+1] in the definition of patterns in a Hopfield model: a straightforward effect is the conversion of frustration into dilution. In fact, we show that by varying the bias of pattern distribution, the network topology (generated by the reciprocal affinities among agents, i.e. the Hebbian rule) crosses various well-known regimes, ranging from fully connected, to an extreme dilution scenario, then to completely disconnected. These features, as well as small-world properties, are, in this context, emergent and no longer imposed a priori. The model is throughout investigated also from a thermodynamics perspective: the Ising model defined on the resulting graph is analytically solved (at a replica symmetric level) by extending the double stochastic stability technique, and presented together with its fluctuation theory for a picture of criticality. Overall, our findings show that, at least at equilibrium, dilution (of whatever kind) simply decreases the strength of the coupling felt by the spins, but leaves the paramagnetic/ferromagnetic flavors unchanged. The main difference with respect to previous investigations is that, within our approach, replicas do not appear: instead of (multi)-overlaps as order parameters, we introduce a class of magnetizations on all the possible subgraphs belonging to the main one investigated: as a consequence, for these objects a closure for a self-consistent relation is achieved
Discussion of push-pull equilibrium in well field at Yining in-situ leaching mine, Xinjiang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Haifeng; Su Xuebin
1999-01-01
Combined with a case of in-situ leaching project, the author discusses the principle and approaches for push-pull equilibrium controlling, and gives the suggestions solving the un-equilibrium problems of push-pull in well field during operation
Geometrical Description of Chemical Equilibrium and Le Cha^telier's Principle: Two-Component Systems
Novak, Igor
2018-01-01
Chemical equilibrium is one of the most important concepts in chemistry. The changes in properties of the chemical system at equilibrium induced by variations in pressure, volume, temperature, and concentration are always included in classroom teaching and discussions. This work introduces a novel, geometrical approach to understanding the…
Lubineau, Gilles
2011-04-01
New identification strategies have to be developed in order to perform the identification quickly and at very-low cost. A popular class of approaches relies on full-field measurement obtained through digital image correlation. We propose here a global equilibrium approach. It is based on the virtual field method in case specific virtual fields are used. It can also be seen as a generalization of the equilibrium gap method. This approach is easy to implement and we prove that it provides better or comparable results to the constitutive equation gap method that is known to be a very accurate reference. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Structure of the automatic system for plasma equilibrium position control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubarev, V.F.; Krivonos, Yu.G.; Samojlenko, Yu.I.; Snegur, A.A.
1978-01-01
Considered are the principles of construction of the automatic system for plasma filament equilibrium position control inside the discharge chamber for the installation of a tokamak type. The combined current control system in control winding is suggested. The most powerful subsystem creates current in the control winding according to the program calculated beforehand. This system provides plasma rough equilibrium along the ''big radius''. The subsystem performing the current change in small limits according to the principle of feed-back coupling is provided simultaneously. The stabilization of plasma position is achieved in the discharge chamber. The advantage of construction of such system is in decreasing of the automatic requlator power without lowering the requirements to the accuracy of equilibrium preservation. The subsystem of automatic control of plasma position over the vertical is put into the system. Such an approach to the construction of the automatic control system proves to be correct; it is based on the experience of application of similar devices for some existing thermonuclear plants
Failure of Local Thermal Equilibrium in Quantum Friction
Intravaia, F.; Behunin, R. O.; Henkel, C.; Busch, K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.
2016-09-01
Recent progress in manipulating atomic and condensed matter systems has instigated a surge of interest in nonequilibrium physics, including many-body dynamics of trapped ultracold atoms and ions, near-field radiative heat transfer, and quantum friction. Under most circumstances the complexity of such nonequilibrium systems requires a number of approximations to make theoretical descriptions tractable. In particular, it is often assumed that spatially separated components of a system thermalize with their immediate surroundings, although the global state of the system is out of equilibrium. This powerful assumption reduces the complexity of nonequilibrium systems to the local application of well-founded equilibrium concepts. While this technique appears to be consistent for the description of some phenomena, we show that it fails for quantum friction by underestimating by approximately 80% the magnitude of the drag force. Our results show that the correlations among the components of driven, but steady-state, quantum systems invalidate the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, calling for a critical reexamination of this approach for describing the physics of nonequilibrium systems.
Calculating zeros: Non-equilibrium free energy calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oostenbrink, Chris; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van
2006-01-01
Free energy calculations on three model processes with theoretically known free energy changes have been performed using short simulation times. A comparison between equilibrium (thermodynamic integration) and non-equilibrium (fast growth) methods has been made in order to assess the accuracy and precision of these methods. The three processes have been chosen to represent processes often observed in biomolecular free energy calculations. They involve a redistribution of charges, the creation and annihilation of neutral particles and conformational changes. At very short overall simulation times, the thermodynamic integration approach using discrete steps is most accurate. More importantly, reasonable accuracy can be obtained using this method which seems independent of the overall simulation time. In cases where slow conformational changes play a role, fast growth simulations might have an advantage over discrete thermodynamic integration where sufficient sampling needs to be obtained at every λ-point, but only if the initial conformations do properly represent an equilibrium ensemble. From these three test cases practical lessons can be learned that will be applicable to biomolecular free energy calculations
Equilibrium 𝛽-limits in classical stellarators
Loizu, J.; Hudson, S. R.; Nührenberg, C.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.
2017-12-01
A numerical investigation is carried out to understand the equilibrium -limit in a classical stellarator. The stepped-pressure equilibrium code (Hudson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 19 (11), 2012) is used in order to assess whether or not magnetic islands and stochastic field-lines can emerge at high . Two modes of operation are considered: a zero-net-current stellarator and a fixed-iota stellarator. Despite the fact that relaxation is allowed (Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58 (3), 1986, pp. 741-763), the former is shown to maintain good flux surfaces up to the equilibrium -limit predicted by ideal-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), above which a separatrix forms. The latter, which has no ideal equilibrium -limit, is shown to develop regions of magnetic islands and chaos at sufficiently high , thereby providing a `non-ideal -limit'. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the value of at which the Shafranov shift of the axis reaches a fraction of the minor radius follows in all cases the scaling laws predicted by ideal-MHD. We compare our results to the High-Beta-Stellarator theory of Freidberg (Ideal MHD, 2014, Cambridge University Press) and derive a new prediction for the non-ideal equilibrium -limit above which chaos emerges.
Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma
Blankson, Isaiah M.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).