WorldWideScience

Sample records for equatorial cold-tongue results

  1. Main processes of the Atlantic cold tongue interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) is studied by means of a mixed-layer heat budget analysis. A method to classify extreme cold and warm ACT events is proposed and applied to ten various analysis and reanalysis products. This classification allows 5 cold and 5 warm ACT events to be selected over the period 1982-2007. Cold (warm) ACT events are defined by the presence of negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies at the center of the equatorial Atlantic in late boreal spring, preceded by negative (positive) zonal wind stress anomalies in the western equatorial Atlantic. An ocean general circulation model capable of reconstructing the interannual variability of the ACT correctly is used to demonstrate that cold ACT events develop rapidly from May to June mainly due to intense cooling by vertical mixing and horizontal advection. The simulated cooling at the center of the basin is the result of the combined effects of non-local and local processes. The non-local process is an upwelling associated with an eastward-propagating Kelvin wave, which makes the mixed-layer more shallow and preconditions the upper layers to be cooled by an intense heat loss at the base of the mixed-layer, which is amplified by a stronger local injection of energy from the atmosphere. The early cooling by vertical mixing in March is also shown to be a good predictor of June cooling. In July, horizontal advection starts to warm the mixed-layer abnormally and damps SST anomalies. The advection anomalies, which result from changes in the horizontal temperature gradient, are associated in some cases with the propagation of Rossby waves along the equator. During warm ACT events, processes are reversed, generating positive SST anomalies: a downwelling Kelvin wave triggers stratification anomalies and mixed-layer depth anomalies, amplified by a weaker injection of energy from the atmosphere in May-June. In July, warm ACT events are abnormally cooled due to

  2. The evolution of the equatorial thermocline and the early Pliocene El Padre mean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Heather L.; Ravelo, A. Christina; Dekens, Petra S.; LaRiviere, Jonathan P.; Wara, Michael W.

    2015-06-01

    The tropical Pacific thermocline strength, depth, and tilt are critical to tropical mean state and variability. During the early Pliocene (~3.5 to 4.5 Ma), the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline was deeper and the cold tongue was warmer than today, which resulted in a mean state with a reduced zonal sea surface temperature gradient or El Padre. However, it is unclear whether the deep thermocline was a local feature of the EEP or a basin-wide condition with global implications. Our measurements of Mg/Ca of Globorotalia tumida in a western equatorial Pacific site indicate Pliocene subsurface temperatures warmer than today; thus, El Padre included a basin-wide thermocline that was relatively warm, deep, and weakly tilted. At ~4 Ma, thermocline steepening was coupled to cooling of the cold tongue. Since ~4 Ma, the basin-wide thermocline cooled/shoaled gradually, with implications for thermocline feedbacks in tropical dynamics and the interpretation of TEX86-derived temperatures.

  3. Impacts of the Tropical Pacific Cold Tongue Mode on ENSO Diversity Under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Quanliang; Feng, Juan; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Xin

    2017-11-01

    The causes of ENSO diversity, although being of great interest in recent research, do not have a consistent explanation. This study provides a possible mechanism focused on the background change of the tropical Pacific as a response to global warming. The second empirical orthogonal function mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical Pacific, namely the cold tongue mode (CTM), represents the background change of the tropical Pacific under global warming. Using composite analysis with surface observations and subsurface ocean assimilation data sets, we find ENSO spatial structure diversity is closely associated with the CTM. A positive CTM tends to cool the SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific and warm the SST outside, as well as widen (narrow) zonal and meridional scales for El Niño (La Niña), and vice versa. Particularly in the positive CTM phase, the air-sea action center of El Niño moves west, resembling the spatial pattern of CP-El Niño. This westward shift of center is related to the weakened Bjerknes feedback (BF) intensity by the CTM. By suppressing the SSTA growth of El Niño in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the CTM contributes to more frequent occurrence of CP-El Niño under global warming.

  4. An analysis of warm pool and cold tongue El Ninos: air-sea coupling processes, global influences, and recent trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Jha, Bhaskar; Huang, Boyin [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wyle Information Systems, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The differences in tropical air-sea interactions and global climate connection as well as the hindcast skills for the warm pool (WP) and cold tongue (CT) El Ninos are investigated based on observed, (re)analyzed, and model hindcast data. The robustness of observed global climate connection is established from the model simulations. Lastly, variations of atmosphere and ocean conditions in the recent decades, and their possible connection with the frequency increase of the WP El Nino are discussed. Consistent with previous results, our individual case study and composite results suggest that stronger (weaker) and more eastward extended (westward confined) westerly wind along the equatorial Pacific in early months of a year is associated with active (suppressed) air-sea interaction over the cold tongue/the Intertropical Convergence Zone complex, as well as more (less) intensive oceanic thermocline feedback, favoring the CT (WP) El Nino development. The preceding westerly wind signal and air-sea interaction differences may be responsible for the predication skill difference with higher (lower) overall hindcast skill for the CT (WP) El Nino in the Climate Forecast System of National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Our model experiments show that, in addition to the tropics, the eastern Pacific, North America and North Atlantic are the major regions having robust climate differences between the CT and WP El Ninos. Nevertheless, the climate contrasts seem not robust over the Eurasian continent. Also, the frequency increase of the WP El Nino in the recent decades may not be directly connected with the linear trend of the tropical climate. (orig.)

  5. Understanding the effect of an excessive cold tongue bias on projecting the tropical Pacific SST warming pattern in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Huang, Ping; Lian, Tao; Tan, Hongjian

    2018-05-01

    An excessive cold tongue is a common bias among current climate models, and considered an important source of bias in projections of tropical Pacific climate change under global warming. Specifically, the excessive cold tongue bias is closely related to the tropical Pacific SST warming (TPSW) pattern. In this study, we reveal that two processes are the critical mechanisms by which the excessive cold tongue bias influences the projection of the TPSW pattern, based on 32 models from phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Projection (CMIP5). On the one hand, by assuming that the shortwave (SW) radiation to SST feedback is linearly correlated to the cold tongue SST, the excessive cold tongue bias can induce an overly weak negative SW-SST feedback in the central Pacific, which can lead to a positive SST warming bias in the central to western Pacific (around 150°E-140°W). Moreover, the overly weak local atmospheric dynamics response to SST is a key process of the overly weak SW-SST feedback, compared with the cloud response to atmospheric dynamics and the SW radiation response to cloud. On the other hand, the overly strong ocean zonal overturning circulation associated with the excessive cold tongue bias results in an overestimation of the ocean dynamical thermostat effect, with enhanced ocean stratification under global warming, leading to a negative SST warming bias in the central and eastern Pacific (around 170°W-120°W). These two processes jointly form a positive SST warming bias in the western Pacific, contributing to a La Niña-like warming bias. Therefore, we suggest a more realistic climatological cold tongue SST is needed for a more reliable projection of the TPSW pattern.

  6. Mechanism of seasonal eddy kinetic energy variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minyang; Du, Yan; Qiu, Bo; Cheng, Xuhua; Luo, Yiyong; Chen, Xiao; Feng, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced mesoscale eddy activities or tropical instability waves (TIWs) exist along the northern front of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. In this study, we investigate seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) over this region and its associated dynamic mechanism using a global, eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulation, the equatorial mooring data, and satellite altimeter observations. The seasonal-varying enhanced EKE signals are found to expand westward from 100°W in June to 180°W in December between 0°N and 6°N. This westward expansion in EKE is closely connected to the barotropically-baroclinically unstable zonal flows that are in thermal-wind balance with the seasonal-varying thermocline trough along 4°N. By adopting an 1½-layer reduced-gravity model, we confirm that the seasonal perturbation of the thermocline trough is dominated by the anticyclonic wind stress curl forcing, which develops due to southerly winds along 4°N from June to December.

  7. A long history of equatorial deep-water upwelling in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Ren, Haojia

    2017-06-01

    Cold, nutrient- and CO2-rich waters upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) give rise to the Pacific cold tongue. Quasi-periodic subsidence of the thermocline and attenuation in wind strength expressed by El Niño conditions decrease upwelling rates, increase surface-water temperatures in the EEP, and lead to changes in regional climates both near and far from the equatorial Pacific. EEP surface waters have elevated CO2 concentrations during neutral (upwelling) or La Niña (strong upwelling) conditions. In contrast, approximate air-sea CO2 equilibrium characterizes El Niño events. One hypothesis proposes that changes in physical oceanography led to the establishment of a deep tropical thermocline and expanded mixed-layer prior to 3 million years ago. These effects are argued to have substantially reduced deep-water upwelling rates in the EEP and promoted a "permanent El Niño-like" climate state. For this study, we test this supposition by reconstructing EEP "excess CO2" and upwelling history for the past 6.5 million years using the alkenone-pCO2 methodology. Contrary to previous assertions, our results indicate that average temporal conditions in the EEP over the past ∼6.5 million years were characterized by substantial CO2 disequilibrium and high nutrient delivery to surface waters - characteristics that imply strong upwelling of deep waters. Upwelling appears most vigorous between ∼6.5 to 4.5 million years ago coinciding with high accumulation rates of biogenic material during the late Miocene - early Pliocene "biogenic bloom".

  8. Numerical experiments on the atmospheric response to cold Equatorial Pacific conditions ('La Nina') during northern summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Schriever, D.; Arpe, K.; Branstator, G.W.; Legnani, R.; Ulbrich, U.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of cold conditions in the central and eastern Equatorial Pacific during Northern Summer is examined in a series of numerical experiments with the low resolution (T21) atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM2. Anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) as observed in June 1988 were prescribed and the effect on the global circulation is examined. In the model atmosphere, the anomalous cold water in the Equatorial Pacific excites a strong and stable response over the tropical Central and East Pacific. From here stationary Rossby waves radiate into both hemispheres. The Northern Hemisphere wave train is weak and affects only the Northeast Pacific area; the Southern Hemisphere wave train arches from the Central Pacific over the southern tip of South America to the South Atlantic. This response is not only present in the basic anomaly experiment with the T21 GCM but also in experiments with SST anomalies confined to the tropics and with an envelope-formulation of the SST anomalies, in experiments with a linear model, and in high resolution (T42) model experiments. The model output is also compared to the actually observed atmospheric state in June 1988. (orig./KW)

  9. Dynamical diagnostics of the SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Part II analysis of CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple coupled framework established in Part I is utilized to investigate inter-model diversity in simulating the equatorial Pacific SST annual cycle (SSTAC). It demonstrates that the simulated amplitude and phase characteristics of SSTAC in models are controlled by two internal dynamical factors (the damping rate and phase speed) and two external forcing factors (the strength of the annual and semi-annual harmonic forcing). These four diagnostic factors are further condensed into a dynamical response factor and a forcing factor to derive theoretical solutions of amplitude and phase of SSTAC. The theoretical solutions are in remarkable agreement with observations and CMIP5 simulations. The great diversity in the simulated SSTACs is related to the spreads in these dynamic and forcing factors. Most models tend to simulate a weak SSTAC, due to their weak damping rate and annual harmonic forcing. The latter is due to bias in the meridional asymmetry of the annual mean state of the tropical Pacific, represented by the weak cross-equatorial winds in the cold tongue region.

  10. Orographic effects on tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Hideki

    again by the Bjerknes feedback. During boreal winter, cold surges from the flat Asian continent enhance the easterly wind in the North Indian Ocean, resulting in another development of the equatorial cold tongue. Over the subtropical northwestern Pacific, the removal of mountains strengthens the subtropical trade winds, and SST cools, suppressing atmospheric convection. A cold thermocline dome appears in the subsurface during boreal winter but appears to have little effects on the SST.

  11. Role of interannual Kelvin wave propagations in the equatorial Atlantic on the Angola Benguela Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbol Koungue, Rodrigue Anicet; Illig, Serena; Rouault, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The link between equatorial Atlantic Ocean variability and the coastal region of Angola-Namibia is investigated at interannual time scales from 1998 to 2012. An index of equatorial Kelvin wave activity is defined based on Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Along the equator, results show a significant correlation between interannual PIRATA monthly dynamic height anomalies, altimetric monthly Sea Surface Height Anomalies (SSHA), and SSHA calculated with an Ocean Linear Model. This allows us to interpret PIRATA records in terms of equatorial Kelvin waves. Estimated phase speed of eastward propagations from PIRATA equatorial mooring remains in agreement with the linear theory, emphasizing the dominance of the second baroclinic mode. Systematic analysis of all strong interannual equatorial SSHA shows that they precede by 1-2 months extreme interannual Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies along the African coast, which confirms the hypothesis that major warm and cold events in the Angola-Benguela current system are remotely forced by ocean atmosphere interactions in the equatorial Atlantic. Equatorial wave dynamics is at the origin of their developments. Wind anomalies in the Western Equatorial Atlantic force equatorial downwelling and upwelling Kelvin waves that propagate eastward along the equator and then poleward along the African coast triggering extreme warm and cold events, respectively. A proxy index based on linear ocean dynamics appears to be significantly more correlated with coastal variability than an index based on wind variability. Results show a seasonal phasing, with significantly higher correlations between our equatorial index and coastal SSTA in October-April season.

  12. Biogeography and potential exchanges among the atlantic Equatorial belt cold-seep faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Olu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Like hydrothermal vents along oceanic ridges, cold seeps are patchy and isolated ecosystems along continental margins, extending from bathyal to abyssal depths. The Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Guinea, was one focus of the Census of Marine Life ChEss (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems program to study biogeography of seep and vent fauna. We present a review and analysis of collections from five seep regions along the AEB: the Gulf of Mexico where extensive faunal sampling has been conducted from 400 to 3300 m, the Barbados accretionary prism, the Blake ridge diapir, and in the Eastern Atlantic from the Congo and Gabon margins and the recently explored Nigeria margin. Of the 72 taxa identified at the species level, a total of 9 species or species complexes are identified as amphi-Atlantic. Similarity analyses based on both Bray Curtis and Hellinger distances among 9 faunal collections, and principal component analysis based on presence/absence of megafauna species at these sites, suggest that within the AEB seep megafauna community structure is influenced primarily by depth rather than by geographic distance. Depth segregation is observed between 1000 and 2000 m, with the middle slope sites either grouped with those deeper than 2000 m or with the shallower sites. The highest level of community similarity was found between the seeps of the Florida escarpment and Congo margin. In the western Atlantic, the highest degree of similarity is observed between the shallowest sites of the Barbados prism and of the Louisiana slope. The high number of amphi-atlantic cold-seep species that do not cluster according to biogeographic regions, and the importance of depth in structuring AEB cold-seep communities are the major conclusions of this study. The hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR did not appear as "stepping stones" for dispersal of the AEB seep fauna, however, the south MAR and off axis regions

  13. Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Nakaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS, which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  14. Proposal for a new noncontact method for measuring tongue moisture to assist in tongue diagnosis and development of the tongue image analyzing system, which can separately record the gloss components of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Takeda, Kanako; Ishikawa, Yuya; Oji, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ueda, Keigo; Nagamine, Koichi; Namiki, Takao; Miyake, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  15. Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido

    2010-01-01

    ’d tongues in the frequency–amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil’s staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms...

  16. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory medicines may be prescribed for glossititis and geographic tongue. Alternative Names Dark tongue; Burning tongue syndrome - symptoms Images Black hairy tongue Black hairy tongue ...

  17. A comparison of the results of radiotherapy and surgical treatment of tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Hirokazu; Ikushima, Hitoshi; Nishitani, Hiromu; Takegawa, Yoshihiro; Kashihara, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the results of tongue cancer treatments retrospectively in order to compare the outcomes of radiotherapy and surgery among patients presenting with early-stage tongue cancer. One-hundred and forty-three patients who underwent radical treatment of tongue cancer between 1976 and 1996 were classified into six treatment groups in order to compare the 5-year survival rate, 5-year local control and lymph node metastasis between the groups. Furthermore, prognostic factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year survival rate for the entire subject population was 71%, and that for patients diagnosed as having stage I, II, III and IV tumors was 85%, 80%, 76% and 53%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of patients who underwent surgical treatment alone for early-stage tongue cancer was higher than that of patients who underwent interstitial radiotherapy alone (100% and 70%, respectively). The 5-year local control rate did not differ significantly between patients who underwent surgical treatment alone for early-stage cancer and those who underwent interstitial radiotherapy alone (87% and 86%, respectively). Furthermore, the survival rate did not differ significantly between patients presenting with cervical lymph node metastasis upon initial examination and those who developed cervical lymph node metastasis later (62% and 69%, respectively). The results of a univariate analysis showed that prognosis was significantly better for women and N0 patients, and the results of a multivariate analysis confirmed that prognosis was significantly better for patients under 60 years of age, women, and N0 patients. The survival rate of patients treated for early-stage tongue cancer was slightly higher for those who underwent surgical treatment alone compared with those who underwent interstitial radiotherapy alone. However, local control was comparable between these two groups of patients. (author)

  18. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... school. Participants: In Study 1, eleven tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria and 11 age-and sex-matched controls participated in tongue training. In Study 2, 16 healthy elderly and 16 healthy young participants volunteered. Intervention: In study 1 and study 2, the tongue....... Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) were compared between groups. Results: In study 1, tongue-disabled patients performed poorer than healthy controls (P=0.005) and with a trend of a gender difference (P=0.046). In study 2, healthy...

  19. Tongue motor training support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Onishi, Kohei; Nakayama, Atsushi; Kamata, Katsuhiro; Stefanov, Dimitar; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new tongue-training system that can be used for improvement of the tongue's range of motion and muscle strength after dysphagia. The training process is organized in game-like manner. Initially, we analyzed surface electromyography (EMG) signals of the suprahyoid muscles of five subjects during tongue-training motions. This test revealed that four types tongue training motions and a swallowing motion could be classified with 93.5% accuracy. Recognized EMG signals during tongue motions were designed to allow control of a mouse cursor via intentional tongue motions. Results demonstrated that simple PC games could be played by tongue motions, achieving in this way efficient, enjoyable and pleasant tongue training. Using the proposed method, dysphagia patients can choose games that suit their preferences and/or state of mind. It is expected that the proposed system will be an efficient tool for long-term tongue motor training and maintaining patients' motivation.

  20. Coupled processes and the tropical climatology : part III : instabilities of the fully coupled climatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.A.; Neelin, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled processes between the equatorial ocean and atmosphere control the spatial structure of the annual mean state in the Pacific region,in particular the warm-pool/cold- tongue structure.At the same time,coupled processes are known to be responsible for the variability about this mean state,in

  1. Discriminant analysis on the treatment results of interstitial radium tongue implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Masao; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi; Matsubara, Sho; Suzuki, Soji; Takeda, Masamune

    1989-01-01

    Discriminant analysis was carried out for 48 tongue cancer patients who were treated with radium single-plane implantation. The 48 patients were grouped into 32 successfully cured without complications, five successfully cured with complications, six successfully cured but requiring additional boost therapy and five with local recurrence. To evaluate the relation between the dose distribution and the local treatment results, the analysis was based on a volume-dose relationship. The functions introduced by this discriminant analysis were linear, and the parameters used were modal dose, average dose and shape factors of histograms. Each group of treatment results had a correction rate of >80%, except for the successfully cured group with ulcers. The discriminant functions were useful as an index to obtain a final clinical treatment result at the early time of implantation, and these functions could be used as a criterion for the optimal treatment of tongue carcinoma. We were also able to recognize the limitation of the actual arrangement of sources in the single-plane implant. (author)

  2. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  3. Excitation of electromagnetic proton cyclotron instability by parallel electric field in the equatorial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, S.K.; Azif, Z.A.; Gwal, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the growth rate of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability is investigated in a mixture of cold species of ions and warm proton in the presence of weak parallel static electric field. An attempt has been made to explain the excitation of EMIC waves through linear wave-particle (W-P) interaction in the equatorial magnetospheric region. The proton cyclotron instability is modified in presence of weak parallel electric field and the growth rate is computed for equatorial magnetospheric plasma parameters. The results of theoretical investigations of the growth rate are used to explain the excitation mechanism of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) waves as observed by satellites. (author). 29 refs., 4 figs

  4. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  5. The neck-tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, R W; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    The neck-tongue syndrome, consisting of pain in the neck and altered sensation in the ipsilateral half of the tongue aggravated by neck movement, has been attributed to damage to lingual afferent fibres travelling in the hypoglossal nerve to the C2 spinal roots. The lingual afferents in the hypoglossal nerve are thought to be proprioceptive. Two further cases of the neck-tongue syndrome are described, the spectrum of its clinical manifestations is explored, and the phenomenon of lingual pseudoathetosis is illustrated as a result of the presumed lingual deafferentation. Images PMID:8158185

  6. Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

    1976-11-01

    The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested.

  7. Modulation of oral heat and cold pain by irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Kelly C; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2008-01-01

    Common food irritants elicit oral heat or cool sensations via actions at thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We used a half-tongue, 2-alternative forced-choice procedure coupled with bilateral pain intensity ratings to investigate irritant effects on heat and cold pain. The method was validated in a bilateral thermal difference detection task. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde enhanced lingual heat pain elicited by a 49 degrees C stimulus. Mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde weakly enhanced lingual cold pain (9.5 degrees C), whereas capsaicin had no effect. Menthol significantly enhanced cold pain and weakly reduced heat pain. To address if capsaicin's effect was due to summation of perceptually similar thermal and chemical sensations, one-half of the tongue was desensitized by application of capsaicin. Upon reapplication, capsaicin elicited little or no irritant sensation yet still significantly enhanced heat pain on the capsaicin-treated side, ruling out summation. In a third experiment, capsaicin significantly enhanced pain ratings to graded heat stimuli (47 degrees C to 50 degrees C) resulting in an upward shift of the stimulus-response function. Menthol may induce cold hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPM8 in peripheral fibers. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde may induce heat hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPV1 that is coexpressed with TRPA1 in peripheral nociceptors.

  8. Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30 had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05. When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group. The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning.

  9. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling Changes in color or texture Abnormal movement or difficulty moving the tongue Taste problems These problems can have many different causes. ...

  10. Tongue-controlled computer game: a new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim; Holm, Trine Davidsen; Nielsen, Mathilde Skorstengaard; Mosegaard, Trine; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the influence of tongue disability, age, and sex on motor performance for a tongue-training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Two controlled observational studies. A neurorehabilitation center and a dental school. In study 1, tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria (n=11) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=11) participated in tongue training. In study 2, healthy elderly persons (n=16) and healthy young persons (n=16) volunteered. In study 1 and study 2, the tongue training lasted 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Participants were instructed to play a computer game with the tongue using TDS. Motor performance was compared between groups in both studies. Correlation analyses were performed between age and relative improvement in performance. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue evaluated on 0-to-10 numeric rating scales were compared between groups. In study 1, tongue-disabled patients performed poorer than healthy controls (P=.005) and with a trend of a sex difference (P=.046). In study 2, healthy young participants performed better than healthy elderly participants (Peffect of sex (P=.140). There was a significant negative correlation between age and relative improvement in performance (δ=-.450; P=.009). There were no significant differences in subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain, and fatigue between groups in any of the studies (P>.094). The present study provides evidence that tongue disability and age can influence behavioral measures of tongue motor performance. TDS may be a new adjunctive neurorehabilitation regimen in treating tongue-disabled patients. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional anatomy of the hypoglossal innervated muscles of the rat tongue: a model for elongation and protrusion of the mammalian tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, J R; Goldberg, S J

    2000-12-01

    This anatomical investigation in the rat was designed to illustrate the detailed organization of the tongue's muscles and their innervation in order to elucidate the actions of the muscles of the higher mammalian tongue and thereby clarify the protrusor subdivision of the hypoglossal-tongue complex. The hypoglossal innervated, extrinsic styloglossus, hyoglossus, and genioglossus and the intrinsic transversus, verticalis and longitudinalis linguae muscles were observed by microdissection and analysis of serial transverse-sections of the tongue. Sihler's staining technique was applied to whole rat tongues to demonstrate the hypoglossal nerve branching patterns. Dissections of the tongue demonstrate the angles at which the extrinsic muscles act on the base of the tongue. The Sihler stained hypoglossal nerves demonstrate branches to the styloglossus and hyoglossus emanating from its lateral division while branches to the genioglossus muscle exit from its medial division. The largest portions of both XIIth nerve divisions can be seen to enter the body of the tongue to innervate the intrinsic muscles. Transverse sections of the tongue demonstrate the organization of the intrinsic muscle fibers of the tongue. Longitudinal muscle fibers run along the entire circumference of the tongue. Alternating sheets of transverse lingual and vertical lingual muscles can be observed to insert into the circumference of the tongue. Most importantly in clarifying tongue protrusion, we demonstrate the transversus muscle fibers enveloping the most superior and inferior portions of the longitudinalis muscles. Longitudinal muscle fascicles are completely encircled and thus are likely to be compressed by transverse muscle fascicles resulting in elongation of the tongue. We discuss our findings in relation to biomechanical studies, that describe the tongue as a muscular hydrostat and thereby define the "elongation-protrusion apparatus" of the mammalian tongue. In so doing, we clarify the

  12. El Niño revisited: the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on the world's largest tuna fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Receveur, A.; Simon, N.; Menkes, C.; Tremblay-Boyer, L.; Senina, I.; Lehodey, P.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives global climate on inter-annual scales and impacts the ecosystem structure in the warm-pool and cold-tongue of the Pacific Ocean. During the El Niño phase of ENSO, the warm-pool can stretch from the western equatorial Pacific to the eastern Pacific allowing species associated with the warm-pool to correspondingly spread eastwards. Conversely, during the la Niña phase the warm-pool is pushed to the far western equatorial Pacific by the cold-tongue allowing species associated with this ecosystem to spread westwards. Consequently, ENSO dynamics are likely to be critical for understanding the ecological processes supporting fisheries in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Surface inhabiting tuna, such as skipjack, are thought to track the convergence of the warm-pool and cold-tongue with fishing vessels tracking this tuna behavior. Given the reliance of Pacific Island economies on tuna fisheries, knowing when tunas are more likely to be present in high density in their territorial waters is beneficial for harvest control policies such as effort trading between nations. We use the SEAPODYM model to investigate the response of bigeye and skipjack tuna species to the phases of ENSO. SEAPODYM is an age structured model that integrates fisheries dependent and independent data with environmental data. We analyze the outputs of SEAPODYM using wavelets to assess the impact of environmental and biotic variables on the abundance and distribution of adult and juvenile age classes and to study time series cycle and temporal lags to ENSO. The main result for skipjack is the eastward or westward movement of the biomass pattern which is significantly lagged with the warm pool ENSO displacement. That lag ranges from 8 months for juvenile up to 18 months for adults. Such delayed response, can be traced in the model. Higher temperature in the central Pacific during El Niño leads to better recruitment which leads to lagged increase of juvenile

  13. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  14. Tongue coating microbiome regulates the changes in tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis of Gan-shen deficiency syndrome type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenna; Li, Xihai; Li, Yachan; Li, Candong; Gao, Bizheng; Gan, Huijuan; Li, Sumin; Shen, Jianying; Kang, Jie; Ding, Shanshan; Lin, Xuejuan; Liao, Linghong

    2013-11-01

    Tongue inspection is a unique and important method of diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a diagnostic approach which involves observing the changes in the tongue proper and tongue coating in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. However, the biological basis of TCM tongue diagnosis remains to be poorly understood and lacks systematic investigation at the molecular level. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tongue coating microbiome on changes in the tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMO) of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms of tongue coating microbiome-induced changes in the tongue texture and coating by investigating the histomorphological changes and performing a bacterial analysis of the tongue coating. We found that the number of intermediate cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was higher, while the number of superficial cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was lower. The maturation value (MV) of tongue exfoliated cells in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased, compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. Furthermore, the total bacterial count, oral streptococcus, Gram‑positive (G+) and Gram‑negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating was significantly decreased compared with the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. The results of ultrastructural examination demonstrated that the number of epithelial cells and bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. These observations indicate that the tongue coating microbiome may be an important factor contributing to changes in the tongue in patients with PMO of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type.

  15. Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Shimoyama, Yu; Minami, Kentaro; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-14

    The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health.

  16. Black, Hairy Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds. These papillae, which are longer than normal, can easily trap and be stained by bacteria, yeast, tobacco, food or other ... tongue Altered taste or metallic taste in your mouth Bad breath ( ...

  17. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    . EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  18. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Erin M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.

  19. Tongue prints in biometric authentication: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddy, Nadeem; Radhika, T; Nithya, S

    2017-01-01

    Biometric authentication is an important process for the identification and verification of individuals for security purposes. There are many biometric systems that are currently in use and also being researched. Tongue print is a new biometric authentication tool that is unique and cannot be easily forged because no two tongue prints are similar. The present study aims to evaluate the common morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. The usefulness of alginate impression and dental cast in obtaining the lingual impression was also evaluated. The study sample included twenty participants. The participants were subjected to visual examination following which digital photographs of the dorsal surface of the tongue were taken. Alginate impressions of the tongue were made, and casts were prepared using dental stone. The photographs and the casts were analyzed by two observers separately for the surface morphology including shape, presence or absence of fissures and its pattern of distribution. Three reference points were considered to determine the shape of the tongue. The most common morphological feature on the dorsum of the tongue was the presence of central fissures. Multiple vertical fissures were observed in males whereas single vertical fissure was a common finding in females. The fissures were predominantly shallow in males and deep in females. The tongue was predominantly U shaped in males and females. V-shaped tongue was observed in 25% of females. Tongue prints are useful in biometric authentication. The methodology used in the study is simple, easy and can be adopted by dentists on a regular basis. However, large-scale studies are required to validate the results and also identify other features of the tongue that can be used in forensics and biometric authentication process.

  20. Arnold Tongues in Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mogens

    In a recent work with Leo Kadanoff we studied the synchronization between an internal and an external frequency. One obtains a highly structured diagram with details that in essence are related to the difference between rational and irrational number. The synchronized regions appear as Arnold tongues that widen as the coupling between the frequencies increases. Such tongues have been observed in many physical systems, like in the Libchaber convective cell in the basement of the University of Chicago. In biological systems, where oscillators appear in in a broad variety, very little research on Arnold tongues has been performed. We discuss single cell oscillating dynamics triggered by an external cytokine signal. When this signal is overlaid by an oscillating variation, the two oscillators might couple leading to Arnold tongue diagram. When the tongues overlap, the cell dynamics can shift between the tongues eventually leading to a chaotic response. We quantify such switching in single cell experiments and in model systems based on Gillespie simulations. Kadanoff session.

  1. Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utanohara, Yuri; Hayashi, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2008-09-01

    It is clinically important to evaluate tongue function in terms of rehabilitation of swallowing and eating ability. We have developed a disposable tongue pressure measurement device designed for clinical use. In this study we used this device to determine standard values of maximum tongue pressure in adult Japanese. Eight hundred fifty-three subjects (408 male, 445 female; 20-79 years) were selected for this study. All participants had no history of dysphagia and maintained occlusal contact in the premolar and molar regions with their own teeth. A balloon-type disposable oral probe was used to measure tongue pressure by asking subjects to compress it onto the palate for 7 s with maximum voluntary effort. Values were recorded three times for each subject, and the mean values were defined as maximum tongue pressure. Although maximum tongue pressure was higher for males than for females in the 20-49-year age groups, there was no significant difference between males and females in the 50-79-year age groups. The maximum tongue pressure of the seventies age group was significantly lower than that of the twenties to fifties age groups. It may be concluded that maximum tongue pressures were reduced with primary aging. Males may become weaker with age at a faster rate than females; however, further decreases in strength were in parallel for male and female subjects.

  2. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology.

  3. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Equatorial Guinea is situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west African coast between Cameroon and Gabon. The people are predominantly of Bantu origin. The country's ties with Spain are significant; in 1959, it became the Spanish Equatorial region ruled by Spain's commissioner general. Recent political developments in Equatorial Guinea include the formation of the Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea in July of 1987 and the formation of a 60-member unicameral Chamber of Representatives of the People in 1983. Concerning the population, 83% of the people are Catholic and the official language is Spanish. Poverty and serious health, education and sanitary problems exist. There is no adequate hospital and few trained physicians, no dentists, and no opticians. Malaria is endemic and immunization for yellow fever is required for entrance into the country. The water is not potable and many visitors to the country bring bottled water. The tropical climate of Equatorial Guinea provides the climate for the country's largest exports and source of economy; cacao, wood and coffee. Although the country, as a whole, has progressed towards developing a participatory political system, there are still problems of governmental corruption in the face of grave health and welfare conditions. In recent years, the country has received assistance from the World Bank and the United States to aid in its development.

  4. Seasonal prediction skill of ECMWF System 4 and NCEP CFSv2 retrospective forecast for the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Webster, Peter J.; Curry, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal prediction skill for the Northern Hemisphere winter is assessed using retrospective predictions (1982-2010) from the ECMWF System 4 (Sys4) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) CFS version 2 (CFSv2) coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal climate prediction systems. Sys4 shows a cold bias in the equatorial Pacific but a warm bias is found in the North Pacific and part of the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 has strong warm bias from the cold tongue region of the eastern Pacific to the equatorial central Pacific and cold bias in broad areas over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. A cold bias in the Southern Hemisphere is common in both reforecasts. In addition, excessive precipitation is found in the equatorial Pacific, the equatorial Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in Sys4, and in the South Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in CFSv2. A dry bias is found for both modeling systems over South America and northern Australia. The mean prediction skill of 2 meter temperature (2mT) and precipitation anomalies are greater over the tropics than the extra-tropics and also greater over ocean than land. The prediction skill of tropical 2mT and precipitation is greater in strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters than in weak ENSO winters. Both models predict the year-to-year ENSO variation quite accurately, although sea surface temperature trend bias in CFSv2 over the tropical Pacific results in lower prediction skill for the CFSv2 relative to the Sys4. Both models capture the main ENSO teleconnection pattern of strong anomalies over the tropics, the North Pacific and the North America. However, both models have difficulty in forecasting the year-to-year winter temperature variability over the US and northern Europe. (orig.)

  5. Seasonal prediction skill of ECMWF System 4 and NCEP CFSv2 retrospective forecast for the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Webster, Peter J.; Curry, Judith A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The seasonal prediction skill for the Northern Hemisphere winter is assessed using retrospective predictions (1982-2010) from the ECMWF System 4 (Sys4) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) CFS version 2 (CFSv2) coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal climate prediction systems. Sys4 shows a cold bias in the equatorial Pacific but a warm bias is found in the North Pacific and part of the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 has strong warm bias from the cold tongue region of the eastern Pacific to the equatorial central Pacific and cold bias in broad areas over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. A cold bias in the Southern Hemisphere is common in both reforecasts. In addition, excessive precipitation is found in the equatorial Pacific, the equatorial Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in Sys4, and in the South Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in CFSv2. A dry bias is found for both modeling systems over South America and northern Australia. The mean prediction skill of 2 meter temperature (2mT) and precipitation anomalies are greater over the tropics than the extra-tropics and also greater over ocean than land. The prediction skill of tropical 2mT and precipitation is greater in strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters than in weak ENSO winters. Both models predict the year-to-year ENSO variation quite accurately, although sea surface temperature trend bias in CFSv2 over the tropical Pacific results in lower prediction skill for the CFSv2 relative to the Sys4. Both models capture the main ENSO teleconnection pattern of strong anomalies over the tropics, the North Pacific and the North America. However, both models have difficulty in forecasting the year-to-year winter temperature variability over the US and northern Europe. (orig.)

  6. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue...

  7. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  8. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  9. Ballistic tongue projection in a miniaturized salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Bloom, Segall V

    2018-05-20

    Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism. Preceding ballistic projection is an unusual preparatory phase of tongue protrusion, which, like tongue retraction, shows lower performance and higher thermal sensitivity that are indicative of movement being powered directly by muscle shortening. The variability of tongue-projection kinematics and dynamics is comparable to larger ballistic-tongued plethodontids and reveals that Thorius is capable of modulating its tongue movements in response to prey distance. Morphological examination revealed that T. macdougalli possesses a reduced number of myofibers in the tongue muscles, a large projector muscle mass relative to tongue mass, and an unusual folding of the tongue skeleton, compared with larger relatives. Nonetheless, T. macdougalli retains the elaborated collagen aponeuroses in the projector muscle that store elastic energy and a tongue skeleton that is free of direct myofiber insertion, two features that appear to be essential for ballistic tongue projection in salamanders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Equatorial westward electrojet impacting equatorial ionization anomaly development during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2013-11-01

    investigate the forward plasma fountain and the equatorial ionosphere in the topside region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm in the Australian sector at ~0900 LT. Space- and ground-based multi-instrument measurements, Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations, and field-aligned observations comprise our results. These reveal an unusual storm development during which the eastward prompt penetration electric (E) field (PPEF) developed and operated under the continuous effects of the westward disturbance dynamo E-field (DDEF) while large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) traveled equatorward and generated strong equatorward wind surges. We have identified the eastward PPEF by the superfountain effect causing the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)'s development with crests situated at ~±28°N (geomagnetic) in the topside ionosphere at ~840 km altitude. The westward DDEF's occurrence is confirmed by mapping the "anti-Sq" current system wherein the equatorial westward current created a weak long-lasting westward electrojet event. Line plots of vertical drift data tracked large-scale TIDs. Four scenarios, covering ~3.5 h in universal time, demonstrate that the westward DDEF became superimposed on the eastward PPEF. As these E-fields of different origins became mapped into the F region, they could interact. Consequently, the eastward PPEF-related equatorial upward E × B drift became locally reduced by up to 75 m/s near the dip equator by the westward DDEF-related equatorial downward E × B drift. Meanwhile, the EIA displayed a better development as equatorial wind surges, reproduced by CTIPe, increased from 501 to 629 m/s, demonstrating the crucial role of mechanical wind effects keeping plasma density high.

  12. Results in patients treated with high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for oral tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michinori; Shirane, Makoto; Ueda, Tsutomu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Eight patients were treated with high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for oral tongue cancer between September 2000 and August 2004. The patient distribution was 1 T1, 5 T2, 1 T3, and 1 T4a. Patients received 50-60 Gy in 10 fractions over seven days with high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Six of the eight patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (20-30 Gy) and interstitial brachytherapy. The two-year primary local control rate was 83% for initial case. High-dose-rate brachytherapy was performed safely even for an aged person, and was a useful treatment modality for oral tongue cancer. (author)

  13. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EQUATORIAL SUPERROTATION ON TIDALLY LOCKED EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showman, Adam P.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing richness of exoplanet observations has motivated a variety of three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of these planets. Under strongly irradiated conditions, models of tidally locked, short-period planets (both hot Jupiters and terrestrial planets) tend to exhibit a circulation dominated by a fast eastward, or 'superrotating', jet stream at the equator. When the radiative and advection timescales are comparable, this phenomenon can cause the hottest regions to be displaced eastward from the substellar point by tens of degrees longitude. Such an offset has been subsequently observed on HD 189733b, supporting the possibility of equatorial jets on short-period exoplanets. Despite its relevance, however, the dynamical mechanisms responsible for generating the equatorial superrotation in such models have not been identified. Here, we show that the equatorial jet results from the interaction of the mean flow with standing Rossby waves induced by the day-night thermal forcing. The strong longitudinal variations in radiative heating-namely intense dayside heating and nightside cooling-trigger the formation of standing, planetary-scale equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. The Rossby waves develop phase tilts that pump eastward momentum from high latitudes to the equator, thereby inducing equatorial superrotation. We present an analytic theory demonstrating this mechanism and explore its properties in a hierarchy of one-layer (shallow-water) calculations and fully 3D models. The wave-mean-flow interaction produces an equatorial jet whose latitudinal width is comparable to that of the Rossby waves, namely the equatorial Rossby deformation radius modified by radiative and frictional effects. For conditions typical of synchronously rotating hot Jupiters, this length is comparable to a planetary radius, explaining the broad scale of the equatorial jet obtained in most hot-Jupiter models. Our theory illuminates the dependence of the equatorial jet

  15. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotoe eSakihara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz and beta (13−25 Hz bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance.

  16. Functional MRI of tongue motor tasks in patients with tongue cancer: observations before and after partial glossectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haupage, Samantha; Branski, Ryan C.; Kraus, Dennis; Peck, Kyung K.; Hsu, Meier; Holodny, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The current study seeks to provide preliminary data regarding this central, adaptive response during tongue motor tasks utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after glossectomy. Six patients, with confirmed histological diagnoses of oral tongue cancer, underwent fMRI before and 6 months after partial glossectomy. These data were compared to nine healthy controls. All subjects performed three tongue motor tasks during fMRI: tongue tapping (TT), dry swallow (Dry), and wet swallow (Wet). Following surgery, increased activation was subjectively observed in the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the precentral gyrus confirmed increased cortical activity following surgery. In addition, comparisons between pre-surgical scans and controls suggested the dry swallow task was sensitive to elicit tongue-related activation in the precentral gyrus (p ≤ 0.05). The adaptive changes in the cortex following partial glossectomy reflect recruitment of the parietal, frontal, and cingulate cortex during tongue motor tasks. In addition, post-operative activation patterns more closely approximated control levels than the pre-operative scans. Furthermore, the dry swallow task appears most specific to elicit tongue-related cortical activity. (orig.)

  17. Functional MRI of tongue motor tasks in patients with tongue cancer: observations before and after partial glossectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupage, Samantha; Branski, Ryan C.; Kraus, Dennis [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Head and Neck Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Peck, Kyung K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Holodny, Andrei [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The current study seeks to provide preliminary data regarding this central, adaptive response during tongue motor tasks utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after glossectomy. Six patients, with confirmed histological diagnoses of oral tongue cancer, underwent fMRI before and 6 months after partial glossectomy. These data were compared to nine healthy controls. All subjects performed three tongue motor tasks during fMRI: tongue tapping (TT), dry swallow (Dry), and wet swallow (Wet). Following surgery, increased activation was subjectively observed in the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the precentral gyrus confirmed increased cortical activity following surgery. In addition, comparisons between pre-surgical scans and controls suggested the dry swallow task was sensitive to elicit tongue-related activation in the precentral gyrus (p {<=} 0.05). The adaptive changes in the cortex following partial glossectomy reflect recruitment of the parietal, frontal, and cingulate cortex during tongue motor tasks. In addition, post-operative activation patterns more closely approximated control levels than the pre-operative scans. Furthermore, the dry swallow task appears most specific to elicit tongue-related cortical activity. (orig.)

  18. Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonadaceae on the dorsum of the human tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Conti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux. RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001 and non-smokers (p=0.0485. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.

  19. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Yeates

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Yeates1, Sonja M Molfenter1, Catriona M Steele1,2,3,41Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada; 2Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 3Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator in Aging; 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI, an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.Keywords: speech-language pathology, dysphagia, rehabilitation, aging, strength, accuracy

  20. [Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li

    2004-12-01

    This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective.

  1. Tongue metastasis mimicking an abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavili, Ertuğrul; Oztürk, Mustafa; Yücel, Tuba; Yüce, Imdat; Cağli, Sedat

    2010-03-01

    Primary tumors metastasizing to the oral cavity are extremely rare. Lung is one of the most common primary sources of metastases to the tongue. Although the incidence of lung cancer is increasing, tongue metastasis as the initial presentation of the tumor remains uncommon. Due to the rarity of tongue metastasis, little is known about its imaging findings. Herein we report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of a lingual metastasis, mimicking an abscess, from a primary lung cancer.

  2. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  3. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dip latitude as the electrons/ions can move vertically along the inclined magnetic field lines. Equatorial electrojet has been extensively studied from ground, rocket ... Keywords. Equatorial electrojet; Brazilian anomaly in equatorial electrojet; asymmetries in equatorial electrojet. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 119, No. 4, August 2010, pp.

  4. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Anomalous cold in the Pangaean tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Soreghan, M.J.; Poulsen, C.J.; Young, R.A.; Eble, C.F.; Sweet, D.E.; Davogustto, O.C.

    2008-01-01

    The late Paleozoic archives the greatest glaciation of the Phanerozoic. Whereas high-latitude Gondwanan strata preserve widespread evidence for continental ice, the Permo-Carboniferous tropics have long been considered analogous to today's: warm and shielded from the highlatitude cold. Here, we report on glacial and periglacial indicators that record episodes of freezing continental temperatures in western equatorial Pangaea. An exhumed glacial valley and associated deposits record direct evidence for glaciation that extended to low paleoelevations in the ancestral Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, the Permo-Carboniferous archives the only known occurrence of widespread tropical loess in Earth's history; the volume, chemistry, and provenance of this loess(ite) is most consistent with glacial derivation. Together with emerging indicators for cold elsewhere in low-latitude Pangaea, these results suggest that tropical climate was not buffered from the high latitudes and may record glacial-interglacial climate shifts of very large magnitude. Coupled climate-ice sheet model simulations demonstrate that low atmospheric CO2 and solar luminosity alone cannot account for such cold, and that other factors must be considered in attempting to explain this 'best-known' analogue to our present Earth. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Storm-enhanced plasma density and polar tongue of ionization development during the 15 May 2005 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the ionosphere's global response to the 15 May 2005 superstorm in terms of storm evolution and ionospheric electrodynamics. Our aim is to study the global distribution of plasma and the resultant large-scale ionospheric features including the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), storm-enhanced density (SED), and polar tongue of ionization (TOI). We have combined multi-instrument ionospheric data, solar and terrestrial magnetic data, and polar convection maps. Results reveal the prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field to the polar region and then to the equator with a dusk-to-dawn polarity during the initial phase and with a dawn-to-dusk polarity during the main phase. This drove during the initial phase a weak eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in the American sector at nighttime and a weak westward EEJ in the Indian-Australian sector at daytime. During the main phase, these EEJs intensified and changed polarities. SED and polar TOI development was observed prior to and during the initial phase at evening-premidnight hours over North America and during the main phase in the south at afternoon-evening hours in the Australian sector. During the main phase and early in the recovery phase, the EIA-SED structure was well formed in the Asian longitude sector. Then, polar TOI development was absent in the north because of the long distance from the magnetic pole but was supported in the south because of the closeness of daytime cusp and magnetic pole. Thus, the EIA-SED-TOI structure developed twice but each time in a different longitude sector and with different characteristics.

  7. Performance evaluation of GPS receiver under equatorial scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison de Oliveira Moraes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial scintillation is a phenomenon that occurs daily in the equatorial region after the sunset and affects radio signals that propagate through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, equatorial scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Positioning System (GPS. This work is concerned with evaluating the impact of equatorial scintillation on the performance of GPS receivers. First, the morphology and statistical model of equatorial scintillation is briefly presented. A numerical model that generates synthetic scintillation data to simulate the effects of equatorial scintillation is presented. An overview of the main theoretical principles on GPS receivers is presented. The analytical models that describe the effects of scintillation at receiver level are presented and compared with numerical simulations using a radio software receiver and synthetic data. The results achieved by simulation agreed quite well with those predicted by the analytical models. The only exception is for links with extreme levels of scintillation and when weak signals are received.

  8. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Tongue Images Classification Based on Constrained High Dispersal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided tongue diagnosis has a great potential to play important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the majority of the existing tongue image analyses and classification methods are based on the low-level features, which may not provide a holistic view of the tongue. Inspired by deep convolutional neural network (CNN, we propose a novel feature extraction framework called constrained high dispersal neural networks (CHDNet to extract unbiased features and reduce human labor for tongue diagnosis in TCM. Previous CNN models have mostly focused on learning convolutional filters and adapting weights between them, but these models have two major issues: redundancy and insufficient capability in handling unbalanced sample distribution. We introduce high dispersal and local response normalization operation to address the issue of redundancy. We also add multiscale feature analysis to avoid the problem of sensitivity to deformation. Our proposed CHDNet learns high-level features and provides more classification information during training time, which may result in higher accuracy when predicting testing samples. We tested the proposed method on a set of 267 gastritis patients and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers. Test results show that CHDNet is a promising method in tongue image classification for the TCM study.

  10. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Jin; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Keun Ho

    2012-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs) are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D) image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  11. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  12. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  13. Did mosasaurs have forked tongues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Mulder, E. W. A.; Schwenk, K.

    Ever since the first mosasaur restorations were published, these extinct marine reptiles have been pictured with either notched, forked or undivided tongues. Here, we present an overview of existing iconography, a review of the previous literature, and we discuss how best to reconstruct tongue form

  14. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  15. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  16. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds. PMID:29065640

  17. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Nur Diyana; Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori

    2017-01-01

    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k -means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k -means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  18. Dental and oral complications of lip and tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, R J G; De Witte, A M J C; Delmé, K I M; De Bruyne, M A A; Hommez, G M G; Goyvaerts, D

    2005-10-22

    Piercing of the tongue and perioral regions is an increasingly popular expression of body art, with more patients coming in for a routine check-up with tongue and/or lip piercings. Several complications of oral piercing have been reported, some of which are life-threatening. In the present clinical survey the prevalence of both tongue and lip piercing complications in oral health was assessed in a group of 50 patients. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of the teeth, especially in association with tongue piercing. Gingival recession was seen as a result of lip piercing with studs. Post-procedural complications included oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be given more authority to advise patients with oral and facial piercings or those who plan to acquire this type of body art.

  19. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dmhartl@aol.com; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  20. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  1. Proton flux under radiation belts: near-equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, O.R.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Petrov, A.N.; Kudela, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the features of low-energy proton flux increases in near-equatorial region (McIlvein parameter L th the proton flux (with energy from tens keV up to several MeV) increases are registering regularly. However modern proton flux models (for example AP8 model) works at L>1.15 only and does not take into account near-equatorial protons. These fluxes are not too big, but the investigation of this phenomenon is important in scope of atmosphere-ionosphere connections and mechanisms of particles transport in magnetosphere. In according to double charge-exchange model the proton flux in near-equatorial region does not depend on geomagnetic local time (MLT) and longitude. However the Azur satellite data and Kosmos-484, MIR station and Active satellite data revealed the proton flux dependence on longitude. The other feature of near-equatorial proton flux is the dependence on geomagnetic local time revealed in the Sampex satellite experiment and other experiments listed above. In this work the dependences on MLT and longitude are investigated using the Active satellite (30-500 keV) and Sampex satellite (>800 keV). This data confirms that main sources of near-equatorial protons are radiation belts and ring current. The other result is that near-equatorial protons are quasi-trapped. The empirical proton flux dependences on L, B at near-equatorial longitudes are presented. (author)

  2. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States). E-mail: jun@reyes.stanford.edu; Pawlicki, Todd; Chen Yan; Li Jinsheng; Jiang, Steve B.; Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions for a Varian MLC. We have compared the dose distributions calculated using the intensity maps with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Our results showed that, for one intensity-modulated treatment field, the maximum tongue-and-groove effect could be up to 10% of the maximum dose in the dose distributions. For an IMRT treatment with multiple gantry angles ({>=} 5), the difference between the dose distributions with and without the tongue-and-groove effect was hardly visible, less than 1.6% for the two typical clinical cases studied. After considering the patient setup errors, the dose distributions were smoothed with reduced and insignificant differences between plans with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Therefore, for a multiple-field IMRT plan ({>=} 5), the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions will be generally clinically insignificant due to the smearing effect of individual fields. The tongue-and-groove effect on an IMRT plan with small number of fields (<5) will vary depending on the number of fields in a plan (coplanar or non-coplanar), the MLC leaf sequences and the patient setup uncertainty, and may be significant (>5% of maximum dose) in some cases, especially when the patient setup uncertainty is small ({<=} 2 mm). (author)

  3. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewanthwar Swathi Latha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  4. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  5. Bioelectronic tongues: New trends and applications in water and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz

    2016-05-15

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for fast, highly sensitive and selective methods of analysis to meet new challenges in environmental monitoring, food safety and public health. In response to this demand, biosensors have arisen as a promising tool, which offers accurate chemical data in a timely and cost-effective manner. However, the difficulty to obtain sensors with appropriate selectivity and sensitivity for a given analyte, and to solve analytical problems which do not require the quantification of a certain analyte, but an overall effect on a biological system (e.g. toxicity, quality indices, provenance, freshness, etc.), led to the concept of electronic tongues as a new strategy to tackle these problems. In this direction, to improve the performance of electronic tongues, and thus to spawn new application fields, biosensors have recently been incorporated to electronic tongue arrays, leading to what is known as bioelectronic tongues. Bioelectronic tongues provide superior performance by combining the capabilities of electronic tongues to derive meaning from complex or imprecise data, and the high selectivity and specificity of biosensors. The result is postulated as a tool that exploits chemometrics to solve biosensors' interference problems, and biosensors to solve electronic tongues' selectivity problems. The review presented herein aims to illustrate the capabilities of bioelectronic tongues as analytical tools, especially suited for screening analysis, with particular emphasis in water analysis and the characterization of food and beverages. After briefly reviewing the key concepts related to the design and principles of electronic tongues, we provide an overview of significant contributions to the field of bioelectronic tongues and their future perspectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Research on Techniques of Multifeatures Extraction for Tongue Image and Its Application in Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is one of the important methods in the Chinese traditional medicine. Doctors can judge the disease’s situation by observing patient’s tongue color and texture. This paper presents a novel approach to extract color and texture features of tongue images. First, we use improved GLA (Generalized Lloyd Algorithm to extract the main color of tongue image. Considering that the color feature cannot fully express tongue image information, the paper analyzes tongue edge’s texture features and proposes an algorithm to extract them. Then, we integrate the two features in retrieval by different weight. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the detection rate of lesion in tongue image relative to single feature retrieval.

  7. Equatorial spread F: a review of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors review an intense research effort aimed at understanding the large scale disruption of the equatorial F layer which often commences just after sunset, and lasts for most of the night. A very attractive explanation for the phenomena, although one not universally accepted, is that the F layer is unstable to the classic Rayleigh-Taylor condition in which a heavy fluid, the plasma, is supported against gravity by a light 'fluid', the Earth's magnetic field. It is concluded that a reasonable case has been made for this explanation provided that the concept is extended to include nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor like buoyancy effects above the F peak where linear process is stable. Internal gravity waves in neutral atmosphere seem to play an important role in seeding the Rayleigh-Taylor process with large scale finite amplitude perturbations. One of the remarkable features of this phenomena is the nearly simultaneous generation of structure with scale sizes spanning five orders of magnitude. These results may have applications in astrophysical processes where the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is thought to play a role. (Auth.)

  8. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jeong Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days, the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days, the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days. In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days, the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB and the posterior cranial base (PCB was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  9. Morphology of the tongue of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae. II. Histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Crole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of brief, fragmented descriptions have been provided on the gross morphology of the ratite tongue, very few studies have documented the histological structure of this organ. This paper presents the first definitive histological description of the emu tongue and reviews, consolidates and compares the scattered information on the histology of the ratite tongue available in the literature. Five tongues were removed from heads obtained from birds at slaughter and fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin. Appropriate longitudinal and transverse segments were removed, routinely processed for light microscopy, and sections examined after staining with H & E and PAS. The entire tongue (body and root is invested by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The supporting connective tissue of the tongue dorsum displays only large, simple branched tubular mucussecreting glands, whereas the caudal tongue body ventrum and tongue root, in addition to these glands, also exhibits small, simple tubular mucus-secreting glands. Herbst corpuscles are associated with the large, simple branched glands. Lymphoid tissue is restricted to the tongue ventrum and is particularly obvious at the junction of the ventral tongue body and frenulum where a large aggregation of diffuse lymphoid tissue, with nodular tissue proximally, was consistently observed. A structure resembling a taste bud was located in the epithelium on the caudal extremity of the tongue root of one bird. This is the first reported observation of taste buds in ratites. Forming the core of the tongue body is the cartilaginous paraglossum lying dorsal to the partially ossified rostral projection of the basihyale. The histological features of the emu tongue are generally similar to those described for the greater rhea and ostrich, except that taste buds were not identified in these species. The results would suggest that the emu tongue functions as a sensory organ, both for taste and

  10. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmies-Vilà, Montserrat; Hofmann, Alex; Chatziioannou, Vasileios

    2018-01-01

    Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  11. Specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Cally J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. Here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, Glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. In G. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. During nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. Tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue...

  12. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Karanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The head and neck is the second most common region for extranodal lymphomas. The most common site is the Waldeyer's ring, and involvement of the base of tongue is extremely rare. We present a rare case of a young female with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL of the base of tongue. A 23-year-old female presented with a history of foreign body sensation in her throat for a month. Oral examination revealed a lobulated smooth mass at the base of tongue. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography neck shows polypoidal homogeneously enhancing soft tissue lesion in the base of tongue extending till the lateral pharyngeal wall. The biopsy of the lesion was reported as NHL. Hodgkin's lymphoma should be kept in the differential diagnosis of swelling arising from the base of tongue. We report a rare and varied presentation of extranodal lymphoma. A careful clinical evaluation supported by histopathological and radiologic investigations will help in identifying the disease at an early stage, resulting in a better prognosis.

  14. Geographic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to irritation from hot or spicy foods, or alcohol. The condition appears to be less common in ... Avoid irritating your tongue with hot or spicy food or alcohol if you are prone to this condition. Alternative ...

  15. Eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature annual cycle in the Kiel climate model: simulation benefits from enhancing atmospheric resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengel, C.; Latif, M.; Park, W.; Harlaß, J.; Bayr, T.

    2018-05-01

    A long-standing difficulty of climate models is to capture the annual cycle (AC) of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) sea surface temperature (SST). In this study, we first examine the EEP SST AC in a set of integrations of the coupled Kiel Climate Model, in which only atmosphere model resolution differs. When employing coarse horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution, significant biases in the EEP SST AC are observed. These are reflected in an erroneous timing of the cold tongue's onset and termination as well as in an underestimation of the boreal spring warming amplitude. A large portion of these biases are linked to a wrong simulation of zonal surface winds, which can be traced back to precipitation biases on both sides of the equator and an erroneous low-level atmospheric circulation over land. Part of the SST biases also is related to shortwave radiation biases related to cloud cover biases. Both wind and cloud cover biases are inherent to the atmospheric component, as shown by companion uncoupled atmosphere model integrations forced by observed SSTs. Enhancing atmosphere model resolution, horizontal and vertical, markedly reduces zonal wind and cloud cover biases in coupled as well as uncoupled mode and generally improves simulation of the EEP SST AC. Enhanced atmospheric resolution reduces convection biases and improves simulation of surface winds over land. Analysis of a subset of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) reveals that in these models, very similar mechanisms are at work in driving EEP SST AC biases.

  16. Using unconstrained tongue motion as an alternative control mechanism for wheeled mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-06-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users' intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input for wheeled mobility. We tested the eTDS performance in driving PWCs on 12 able-bodied human subjects, of which 11 were novice. The results showed that all subjects could complete navigation tasks by operating the PWC using their tongue motions. Despite little prior experience, the average time using the eTDS and the tongue was only approximately three times longer than using a joystick and the fingers. Navigation time was strongly dependant on the number of issued commands, which reduced by gaining experience. Particularly, the unintended issued commands (the Midas touch problem) were rare, demonstrating the effectiveness of the tongue tracking and external magnetic field cancellation algorithms as well as the safety of the TDS for wheeled mobility.

  17. Involvement of peripheral artemin signaling in tongue pain: possible mechanism in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Takeda, Mamoru; Honda, Kuniya; Maruno, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Ayano; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by altered sensory qualities, namely tongue pain hypersensitivity. We found that the mRNA expression of Artemin (Artn) in the tongue mucosa of patients with burning mouth syndrome was significantly higher than that of control subjects, and we developed a mouse model of burning mouth syndrome by application of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) diluted with 50% ethanol to the dorsum of the tongue. TNBS treatment to the tongue induced persistent, week-long, noninflammatory tongue pain and a significant increase in Artn expression in the tongue mucosa and marked tongue heat hyperalgesia. Following TNBS treatment, the successive administration of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist SB366791 or neutralizing anti-Artn antibody completely inhibited the heat hyperalgesia. The number of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α3 (GFRα3)-positive and TRPV1-positive trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue significantly increased following TNBS treatment and was significantly reduced by successive administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody. The capsaicin-induced current in TG neurons innervating the tongue was enhanced following TNBS treatment and was inhibited by local administration of neutralizing anti-Artn antibody to the tongue. These results suggest that the overexpression of Artn in the TNBS-treated tongue increases the membrane excitability of TG neurons innervating the tongue by increasing TRPV1 sensitivity, which causes heat hyperalgesia. This model may be useful for the study of tongue pain hypersensitivity associated with burning mouth syndrome.

  18. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pàmies-Vilà

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  19. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  20. Diagnosing the Growth of Equatorial Typhoon Vamei (2001 from an Energy Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Rong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly, on 27 December 2001, a storm named Typhoon Vamei formed near in Singaporean waters. An examination on the SSM/I-derived rainfall rates and air-sea parameters showed that significant higher latent heat release and air-sea energy flux during convective rainfall activities played a key role in the typhoon¡¦s growth. A quantitative analysis revealed that the energy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and the latent heat release during the rainfall activities both increased significantly during the initial growth stage. However, the values rapidly decreased just before the storm reached typhoon strength. Separately, in contrast to a case that occurred in 1999, the total thermal energy calculated from Typhoon Vamei¡¦s formation was two times higher. Thus, despite a very weak Coriolis force in the equatorial belt, the special terrain of Borneo Island and narrow channel in the equatorial South China Sea caused a Borneo vortex via northeasterly cold surges, together with the accumulated energy was sufficiently strong enough to induce the formation of Typhoon Vamei.

  1. CT Accuracy of Extrinsic Tongue Muscle Invasion in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, J C; Baugnon, K L; Lacayo, E A; Hudgins, P A; Patel, M R; Magliocca, K R; Corey, A S; El-Deiry, M; Wadsworth, J T; Beitler, J J; Saba, N F; Liu, Y; Aiken, A H

    2017-02-01

    Extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in oral cavity cancer upstages the primary tumor to a T4a. Despite this American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criterion, no studies have investigated the accuracy or prognostic importance of radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion, the feasibility of standardizing extrinsic tongue muscle invasion reporting, or the degree of agreement across different disciplines: radiology, surgery, and pathology. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement among radiology, surgery, and pathology for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion and to determine the imaging features most predictive of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion with surgical/pathologic confirmation. Thirty-three patients with untreated primary oral cavity cancer were included. Two head and neck radiologists, 3 otolaryngologists, and 1 pathologist prospectively evaluated extrinsic tongue muscle invasion. Fourteen of 33 patients had radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion; however, only 8 extrinsic tongue muscle invasions were confirmed intraoperatively. Pathologists were unable to determine extrinsic tongue muscle invasion in post-formalin-fixed samples. Radiologic extrinsic tongue muscle invasion had 100% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 57% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value with concurrent surgical-pathologic evaluation of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion as the criterion standard. On further evaluation, the imaging characteristic most consistent with surgical-pathologic evaluation positive for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion was masslike enhancement. Evaluation of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion is a subjective finding for all 3 disciplines. For radiology, masslike enhancement of extrinsic tongue muscle invasion most consistently corresponded to concurrent surgery/pathology evaluation positive for extrinsic tongue muscle invasion. Intraoperative surgical and pathologic evaluation should be encouraged to verify radiologic extrinsic tongue

  2. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Nur Denizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the questions and tick-circle or write in the correct blank. The questionnaire was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches with the help of 4-point Likert-scale questions and one open-ended question at the last part. The participants of the study were 20 volunteer students (15 females and 5 males in Uludag University on whom the questionnaire was randomly applied.  They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and the mean age was 23. Their mother tongue was Turkish, and they knew English as a foreign language. The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation. When it comes to having difficulty, participants had difficulty with determiners, English tenses and articles. The results indicated the interference of mother tongue in almost all aspects.

  3. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  4. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  5. Hydatid Cyst of Tongue: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Aggarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis, endemic in the cattle and dog rearing region worldwide as well as in some parts of India.Cystic echinococcosis affects mostly the liver and lung (80%, but tongue is one of the very rare sites. Case Report A 10 year old boy had presented with an isolated cystic lesion in tongue, which was expelled spontaneously with no residual lesion. On detailed examination, no other site in the body was involved. Discussion Parasitic cyst of the tongue is rare entity. Microbiological and histopathological examination helped clinch the diagnosis Hydatid cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis in isolated cystic lesion of tongue, especially in the risk group.

  6. Relationships between dysphagia and tongue pressure during swallowing in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagi, Y; Ono, T; Hori, K; Fujiwara, S; Tokuda, Y; Murakami, K; Maeda, Y; Sakoda, S; Yokoe, M; Mihara, M; Mochizuki, H

    2018-03-25

    Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia is yet to be understood. This study investigated the tongue motor function during swallowing in relation to dysphagia and the severity of PD. Thirty patients with PD (14 males and 16 females; average age, 69.4 years), Hoehn and Yahr stage II-IV, in Osaka University Hospital are participated in this study. During swallowing 5 ml of water, tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using a sensor sheet with 5 measuring points. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point during swallowing was compared between patients with PD and healthy controls. Subjective assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia was performed using Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire-Japanese. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point was significantly lower in patients with PD than in healthy controls (8 males and 12 females; average age, 71.6 years). Furthermore, the maximal tongue pressure was significantly lower in dysphagic PD patients than non-dysphagic PD patients. Loss of tongue pressure production at the anterior part of the hard palate was strongly related to dysphagia in the oral phase as well as in the pharyngeal phase. An abnormal pattern of tongue pressure production was more frequently observed in dysphagic PD patients than in non-dysphagic PD patients. The results suggest that tongue pressure measurement might be useful for early and quantitative detection of tongue motor disability during swallowing in patients with PD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Measurement and research on the appearance of tongue board based on modification to discuss centrifugal fan air performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Cheng, Tseng-Tang; Cho, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Wei-Tang; Chen, Sih-Li; Chen, Chien-Wei; Jian, Ling-You

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a reduced fan noise method, with increased fan-benefit analysis of various performances. The experimental approach adopts changes in the outlet in the form of two fans (flat tongue and a V-Type tongue plate) in order to measure the noise under the two forms of value and volume of supply air fan, shaft power consumption, operating current, and static pressure. The results showed that the tongue plate and the V-plane tongue plate noise between the value of the measurement location of 6.7 in the tongue plate in the plane below the noise level is about V-tongue plate 1 ~ 1.5dB (A). Air flow rate testing showed that the flat plate and the V-Type tongue plate between the tongue plate V-Type flow rate value, the measurement location of 3.4 in the tongue plate in the plane was more than the V-Type flow rate tongue plate 5 to 5.5%. Shaft power testing of measurement model 3, and measurement model 4, showed that the tongue plate in the plane V-tongue plate was more than 8%, 5%. The measurement models 3 and 4 and 5 showed more than the V-Type plane tongue plate 1%, 2.7%, and 2.6%. The measurement models 6 and 8 showed that, the flat tongue plate is less than the V-tongue plate of 2.9% and 2.3%. Static pressure testing showed that the flat tongue plate in particular measurement models (3,4,8,9), the static value of V-tongue plate than the 11.1% higher, respectively, 9%, 4.3%, and 3.7%. The results summarized above suggest that, in the specific measurement points, when parallel to the tongue plate the V-tongue board has better performance.

  8. Relationship between dynamic infrared thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongue in anaemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between dynamic infrared (IR) thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongues of anaemia patients was investigated. Blood perfusion rates at multiple locations on the tongues of 62 anaemia patients and 70 control subjects were measured. For both groups of subjects, dynamic IR thermal images were also recorded within 16 s after the mouth opened. The results showed that the blood perfusion rates at different sites (apex, middle, left side and right side) on the tongues in anaemia patients (3.49, 3.71, 3.85 and 3.77 kg/s m-3) were significantly lower than those at the corresponding sites in control subjects (4.45, 4.66, 4.81 and 4.70 kg/s m-3). After the mouth opened, the tongue temperature decreased more rapidly in anaemia patients than in control subjects. To analyse the heat transfer mechanism, a transient heat transfer model of the tongue was developed. The tongue temperatures in anaemia patients and control subjects were calculated using this model and compared to the tongue temperatures measured by the IR thermal imager. The relationship between the tongue surface temperature and the tongue blood perfusion rate was analysed. The simulation results indicated that the low blood perfusion rate and the correlated changes in anaemia patients can cause faster temperature decreases of the tongue surface.

  9. PEDICLE TONGUE FLAP SURGERY IN ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthubabu K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oral submucous fibrosis is a disease of unknown aetiology and is a legacy of Indians. It has been variously treated both medically and surgically but neither has been found to be rewarding. Various groups have been studying the therapy schedules and aetiological association, but the conclusions have remained unclear. AIM The study aims to focus on newer surgical therapy stressing on the mechanics and use of pedicle tongue flap in the management of this condition. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study comprised of 40 patients from our outpatient department suffering from oral submucous fibrosis in the age group of 11 to 70 years. The contributory factors of oral submucous fibrosis and the symptoms of the disease were evaluated and the role of pedicle tongue flap surgery in the management of this disease which is a premalignant condition is discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Pedicle tongue flap surgery has given promising results in the treatment of trismus due to oral submucous fibrosis. After the surgery, none of our patients developed any malignant change.

  10. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves

  11. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  13. MRI diagnosis of tongue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Kazuyuki; Abe, Satoru; Ohmori, Keiichi; Hosokawa, Yoichirou; Yamasaki, Michio; Hirano, Masayasu.

    1992-01-01

    MRI studies were performed on 29 patients with tongue tumors. Twenty-six cases were fresh, others were recurrent. Signal intensity of tongue tumor was not characteristic and specific, and it was a low∼iso signal on T1 weighted image (WI), heterogeneously iso∼high signal intensity on T2 WI, heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-DTPA enhanced image compared to muscle signal intensity. In 3 of 29 patients, the tongue tumor invaded to the mandible. With regard to the grasping tumor invasion to the mandible, the STIR method was superior to T1, T2 WI of the spin echo method. Dynamic enhanced MR images were performed in 6 of 29 patients. Dynamic change of signal intensity after gadolinium-DTPA administration were assessed with fast low angle shot imaging. On dynamic study at about 20 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection, the first signal intensity in the periphery of the tumor gradually began to increase. Maximum signal intensity of the tumor showed at about 70 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection. In search from 0 to 5 minutes, after the tongue tumor showed maximum signal intensity, its signal maintain the maximum. Necrotic and peritumorous edema showed a significantly lower and more gradual increase in signal intensity than adjacent neoplastic tissue on dynamic enhanced MRI. (author)

  14. Monitoring of quality and storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk by voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was self-developed and applied to monitor the quality and storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk. The VE-tongue comprised four working electrodes: gold, silver, platinum, and palladium electrode. Two potential waveforms: Multi-frequency rectangle pulse voltammetry (MRPV) and multi-frequency staircase pulse voltammetry (MSPV) were applied to working electrodes in the study, and both of MRPV and MSPV consisted of three frequency segments: 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 100 Hz. The total areas under the corresponding curves obtained by VE-tongue in the three frequencies were applied as characteristic data, which were evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The results of PCA and CA indicate that the milk samples of different storage time could be successfully classified by the VE-tongue based on MRPV and MSPV, respectively. Combining the areas obtained by the VE-tongue based on MRPV and MSPV, the classification results of PCA and CA were improved evidently. The total bacterial count, acidity and viscosity of the milk samples were also measured during the storage, and those physicochemical characteristics showed regular configuration in PCA and CA plots. Furthermore, the total bacterial count and viscosity properties were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and the combination of the areas obtained by the VE-tongue based on the MRPV and MSPV were applied as the input data of PLSR and LS-SVM. Both the prediction techniques performed well in predicting viscosity and total bacterial count, and the prediction results of LS-SVM were better than that of PLSR. Those results demonstrate that the VE-tongue could be applied to monitor the quality storage time of unsealed pasteurized milk

  15. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  16. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan Balaji; B Maharani; Velappan Ravichandran; Thiyagarajan Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed dat...

  17. Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the National Policy on Education In Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... the implementation of the mother-tongue/language policy; curriculum materials were not supplied in schools for mother-tongue instruction; specialized teachers were ...

  18. Resonance tongues in the linear Sitnikov equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misquero, Mauricio

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we deal with a Hill's equation, depending on two parameters e\\in [0,1) and Λ >0, that has applications to some problems in Celestial Mechanics of the Sitnikov type. Due to the nonlinearity of the eccentricity parameter e and the coexistence problem, the stability diagram in the (e,Λ )-plane presents unusual resonance tongues emerging from points (0,(n/2)^2), n=1,2,\\ldots The tongues bounded by curves of eigenvalues corresponding to 2π -periodic solutions collapse into a single curve of coexistence (for which there exist two independent 2π -periodic eigenfunctions), whereas the remaining tongues have no pockets and are very thin. Unlike most of the literature related to resonance tongues and Sitnikov-type problems, the study of the tongues is made from a global point of view in the whole range of e\\in [0,1). Indeed, an interesting behavior of the tongues is found: almost all of them concentrate in a small Λ -interval [1, 9 / 8] as e→ 1^-. We apply the stability diagram of our equation to determine the regions for which the equilibrium of a Sitnikov (N+1)-body problem is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and the regions having symmetric periodic solutions with a given number of zeros. We also study the Lyapunov stability of the equilibrium in the center of mass of a curved Sitnikov problem.

  19. Impact of sodium lauryl sulfate in oral liquids on e-tongue measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immohr, Laura Isabell; Turner, Roy; Pein-Hackelbusch, Miriam

    2016-12-30

    During development of oral liquid medicines taste assessment is often required to evaluate taste and taste masking. Electronic tongue analysis can provide taste assessment of medicinal products but should only be conducted with medicines that interact with the instrument without damaging the sensor membranes or interfering with their electrical output so that robust data is generated. To explore the impact of a substance deemed unsuitable for electronic tongue analysis the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the performance of the electronic tongue was conducted using electronic tongues equipped with self-developed PVC based sensors. The results showed a significant impact of SLS on all applied sensor types and an alteration of the sensor's sensitivity. Nevertheless, concentration dependent sensor responses could still be obtained and the sensor performance was not impacted negatively. Assessment of unsuitable substances should therefore be evaluated prior to performing electronic tongue analysis so that their impact is understood fully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in supermodeling the tropical Pacific climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Bhatt, Bhuwan C.; Duane, Gregory S.

    2017-12-01

    The supermodel strategy interactively combines several models to outperform the individual models comprising it. A key advantage of the approach is that nonlinear improvements can be achieved, in contrast to the linear weighted combination of individual unconnected models. This property is found in a climate supermodel constructed by coupling two versions of an atmospheric model differing only in their convection scheme to a single ocean model. The ocean model receives a weighted combination of the momentum and heat fluxes. Optimal weights can produce a supermodel with a basic state similar to observations: a single Intertropical Convergence zone (ITCZ), with a western Pacific warm pool and an equatorial cold tongue. This is in stark contrast to the erroneous double ITCZ pattern simulated by both of the two stand-alone coupled models. By varying weights, we develop a conceptual scheme to explain how combining the momentum fluxes of the two different atmospheric models affects equatorial upwelling and surface wind feedback so as to give a realistic basic state in the tropical Pacific. In particular, we propose a mechanism based on the competing influences of equatorial zonal wind and off-equatorial wind stress curl in driving equatorial upwelling in the coupled models. Our results show how nonlinear ocean-atmosphere interaction is essential in combining these two effects to build different sea surface temperature structures, some of which are realistic. They also provide some insight into observed and modelled tropical Pacific climate.

  1. Tongue schwannomas associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harusachi Kanazawa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are typically solitary benign neural tumors; however, multiple lesions associated with the rare genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 have been reported in some cases. We present the case of a tongue schwannomas in a 36-year-old woman previously diagnosed with NF2 with bilateral vestibular schwannomas. To alleviate difficulties with swallowing, tongue nodular masses were surgically removed, and schwannoma was histologically diagnosed. Our patient represents the first case of histologically confirmed tongue schwannoma associated with NF2. This indicates that in patient with NF2, schwannoma may be detected in the oral cavity as well as in other parts of the body. Thus, careful clinical and histological examinations are warranted to identify schwannomas associated with NF2 even in the oral cavity. Keywords: Schwannoma, Tongue, Oral manifestation, Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2

  2. The Classification of Tongue Colors with Standardized Acquisition and ICC Profile Correction in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.

  3. A visco-hyperelastic constitutive model and its application in bovine tongue tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali-Akbar Karkhaneh; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Panahi, Masoud Shariat; Payan, Yohan

    2018-04-11

    Material properties of the human tongue tissue have a significant role in understanding its function in speech, respiration, suckling, and swallowing. Tongue as a combination of various muscles is surrounded by the mucous membrane and is a complicated architecture to study. As a first step before the quantitative mechanical characterization of human tongue tissues, the passive biomechanical properties in the superior longitudinal muscle (SLM) and the mucous tissues of a bovine tongue have been measured. Since the rate of loading has a sizeable contribution to the resultant stress of soft tissues, the rate dependent behavior of tongue tissues has been investigated via uniaxial tension tests (UTTs). A method to determine the mechanical properties of transversely isotropic tissues using UTTs and inverse finite element (FE) method has been proposed. Assuming the strain energy as a general nonlinear relationship with respect to the stretch and the rate of stretch, two visco-hyperelastic constitutive laws (CLs) have been proposed for isotropic and transversely isotropic soft tissues to model their stress-stretch behavior. Both of them have been implemented in ABAQUS explicit through coding a user-defined material subroutine called VUMAT and the experimental stress-stretch points have been well tracked by the results of FE analyses. It has been demonstrated that the proposed laws make a good description of the viscous nature of tongue tissues. Reliability of the proposed models has been compared with similar nonlinear visco-hyperelastic CLs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A

    2011-06-07

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, we show that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. We also show that the tongue-fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap. Our results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Our findings have ramifications for the study of feeding mechanics in other nectarivorous birds, and for the understanding of the evolution of nectarivory in general. We propose a conceptual mechanical explanation for this unique fluid-trapping capacity, with far-reaching practical applications (e.g., biomimetics).

  5. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  6. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s -1 and accelerations 350 m s -2 , with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s -1 with an acceleration of 573 m s -2 while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  7. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debray, Alexis, E-mail: debray.alexis@canon.co.jp [Canon Incorporation, 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s{sup -1} and accelerations 350 m s{sup -2}, with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s{sup -1} with an acceleration of 573 m s{sup -2} while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  8. The equatorial F-layer: progress and puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available This work reviews some aspects of the ionospheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical introduction, brief summaries are given of the physics that makes the equatorial ionosphere so interesting, concentrating on the large-scale structure rather than the smaller-scale instability phenomena. Several individual topics are then discussed, including eclipse effects, the asymmetries of the `equatorial trough', variations with longitude, the semiannual variation, the effects of the global thermospheric circulation, and finally the equatorial neutral thermosphere, including `superrotation' and possible topographic influences.

    Keyword: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere

  9. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Metabolic markers and microecological characteristics of tongue coating in patients with chronic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue diagnosis is a non-invasive, simple and valuable diagnostic tool. TCM treats the tongue coating on a very sensitive scale that reflects physiological and pathological changes in the organs, especially the spleen and stomach. Tongue coating can diagnose disease severity and determine the TCM syndrome (“Zheng” in Chinese). The biological bases of different tongue coating appearances are still poorly understood and lack systematic investigation at the molecular level. Methods Tongue coating samples were collected from 70 chronic gastritis patients and 20 normal controls. 16S rRNA denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA–DGGE) and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were designed to profile tongue coatings. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and partial least squares–discriminate analysis. Results Ten potential metabolites or markers were found in chronic gastritis patients, including UDP-D-galactose, 3-ketolactose, and vitamin D2, based on LC–MS. Eight significantly different strips were observed in samples from chronic gastritis patients based on 16S rRNA–DGGE. Two strips, Strips 8 and 10, were selected for gene sequencing. Strip 10 sequencing showed a 100% similarity to Rothia mucilaginosa. Strip 8 sequencing showed a 96.2% similarity to Moraxella catarrhalis. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism could possibly form the basis of tongue coating conformation in chronic gastritis patients. The study revealed important connections between metabolic components, microecological components and tongue coating in chronic gastritis patients. Compared with other diagnostic regimens, such as blood tests or tissue biopsies, tongue coating is more amenable to, and more convenient for, both patients and doctors. PMID:24041039

  11. Tongue force in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Wassenberg, MWM; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Objectives - The aim was to study tongue force in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compare it with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Material and methods - Tongue force

  12. Passive wireless tags for tongue controlled assistive technology interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakibet, Osman O.; Horne, Robert J.; Kelly, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue control with low profile, passive mouth tags is demonstrated as a human–device interface by communicating values of tongue-tag separation over a wireless link. Confusion matrices are provided to demonstrate user accuracy in targeting by tongue position. Accuracy is found to increase dramatically after short training sequences with errors falling close to 1% in magnitude with zero missed targets. The rate at which users are able to learn accurate targeting with high accuracy indicates that this is an intuitive device to operate. The significance of the work is that innovative very unobtrusive, wireless tags can be used to provide intuitive human–computer interfaces based on low cost and disposable mouth mounted technology. With the development of an appropriate reading system, control of assistive devices such as computer mice or wheelchairs could be possible for tetraplegics and others who retain fine motor control capability of their tongues. The tags contain no battery and are intended to fit directly on the hard palate, detecting tongue position in the mouth with no need for tongue piercings. PMID:27222736

  13. Tapping into tongue motion to substitute or augment upper limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghovanloo, Maysam; Sahadat, M. Nazmus; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Kong, Fanpeng; Sebkhi, Nordine

    2017-05-01

    Assistive technologies (AT) play an important role in the lives of people with disabilities. Most importantly, they allow individuals with severe physical disabilities become more independence. Inherent abilities of the human tongue originated from its strong representation in the motor cortex, its direct connection to the brain through well-protected cranial nerves, and easy access without a surgery have resulted in development of a series of tongue-operated ATs that tap into the dexterous, intuitive, rapid, precise, and tireless motion of the tongue. These ATs not only help people with tetraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury or degenerative neurological diseases to access computers/smartphones, drive wheelchairs, and interact with their environments but also have the potential to enhance rehabilitation paradigms for stroke survivors. In this paper, various types of tongue operated ATs are discussed based on their working principles and task based performances. Comparisons are drawn based on widely accepted and standardized quantitative measures, such as throughput, information transfer rate, typing speed/accuracy, tracking error, navigation period, and navigation accuracy as well as qualitative measures, such as user feedback. Finally, the prospects of using variations of these versatile devices to enhance human performance in environments that limit hand and finger movements, such as space exploration or underwater operations are discussed.

  14. Backscatter measurements of 11-cm equatorial spread-F irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the equatorial F-region ionosphere, a turbulent cascade process has been found to exist that extends from irregularity spatial wavelengths longer than tens of kilometers down to wavelengths as short as 36 cm. To investigate the small-scale regime of wavelengths less than 36 cm, an equatorial radar experiment was conducted using a frequency of 1320 MHz that corresponds to an irregularity wavelength of 11 cm. The first observations of radar backscatter from 11-cm field-aligned irregularities (FAI) are described. These measurements extend the spatial wavelength regime of F-region FAI to lengths that approach both electron gyroradius and the Debye length. Agreement of these results with the theory of high-frequency drift waves suggests that these observations may be unique to the equatorial ionosphere. That is, the requirement of low electron densities for which the theroy calls may preclude the existence of 11-cm FAI elsewhere in the F-region ionosphere, except in equatorial plasma bubbles

  15. Galvanic Tongue Stimulation Inhibits Five Basic Tastes Induced by Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Aoyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic tongue stimulation (GTS modulates taste sensation. However, the effect of GTS is contingent on the electrode polarity in the proximity of the tongue. If an anodal electrode is attached in the proximity of the tongue, an electrical or metallic taste is elicited. On the other hand, if only cathodal electrode is attached in the proximity of the tongue, the salty taste, which is induced by electrolyte materials, is inhibited. The mechanism of this taste inhibition is not adequately understood. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that the inhibition is cause by ions, which elicit taste and which migrate from the taste sensors on the tongue by GTS. We verified the inhibitory effect of GTS on all five basic tastes induced by electrolyte materials. This technology is effective for virtual reality systems and interfaces to support dietary restrictions. Our findings demonstrate that cathodal-GTS inhibits all the five basic tastes. The results also support our hypothesis that the effects of cathodal-GTS are caused by migrating tasting ions in the mouth.

  16. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-12-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites ranging from 350 to 4800 m water depth inside or near the channel and away from its influence. Ifremer conducted eight deep-sea cruises on board research vessels between 2000 and 2005. Standardized methods of sampling together with new technologies such as the ROV Victor 6000 and its associated instrumentation were used to investigate this poorly known continental margin. In addition to the study of sedimentary environments more or less influenced by turbidity events, the discovery of one of the largest cold seeps near the Congo channel and deep coral reefs extends our knowledge of the different habitats of this margin. This paper presents the background, objectives and major results of the BIOZAIRE Program. It highlights the work achieved in the 16 papers in this special issue. This synthesis paper describes the knowledge acquired at a regional and local scale of the Equatorial East Atlantic margin, and tackles new interdisciplinary questions to be answered in the various domains of physics, chemistry, taxonomy and ecology to better understand the deep-sea environment in the Gulf of Guinea.

  17. New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and the midnight temperature maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meriwether

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical observations of thermospheric winds and temperatures determined with high resolution measurements of Doppler shifts and Doppler widths of the OI 630-nm equatorial nightglow emission have been made with improved accuracy at Arequipa, Peru (16.4° S, 71.4° W with an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. An observing procedure previously used at Arecibo Observatory was applied to achieve increased spatial and temporal sampling of the thermospheric wind and temperature with the selection of eight azimuthal directions, equally spaced from 0 to 360°, at a zenith angle of 60°. By assuming the equivalence of longitude and local time, the data obtained using this technique is analyzed to determine the mean neutral wind speeds and mean horizontal gradients of the wind field in the zonal and meridional directions. The new temperature measurements obtained with the improved instrumental accuracy clearly show the midnight temperature maximum (MTM peak with amplitudes of 25 to 200 K in all directions observed for most nights. The horizontal wind field maps calculated from the mean winds and gradients show the MTM peak is always preceded by an equatorward wind surge lasting 1–2 h. The results also show for winter events a meridional wind abatement seen after the MTM peak. On one occasion, near the September equinox, a reversal was observed during the poleward transit of the MTM over Arequipa. Analysis inferring vertical winds from the observed convergence yielded inconsistent results, calling into question the validity of this calculation for the MTM structure at equatorial latitudes during solar minimum. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of the NCAR general circulation model indicates that the model fails to reproduce the observed amplitude by a factor of 5 or more. This is attributed in part to the lack of adequate spatial resolution in the model as the MTM phenomenon takes place within a scale of 300–500 km and ~45 min in

  18. The influence of tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M

    2018-06-01

    The ability to generate tongue pressures is widely considered to be critical for liquid bolus propulsion in swallowing. It has been proposed that the application of tongue pressure may also serve the function of collecting sensory information regarding bolus viscosity (resistance to flow). In this study, we explored the impact of age-related reductions in tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity. The experiment employed a triangle test discrimination protocol with an array of xanthan-gum thickened liquids in the mildly to moderately thick consistency range. A sample of 346 healthy volunteers was recruited, with age ranging from 12 to 86 (164 men, 182 women). On average, participants were able to detect a 0.29-fold increase in xanthan-gum concentration, corresponding to a 0.5-fold increase in viscosity at 50/s. Despite having significantly reduced tongue strength on maximum isometric tongue-palate pressure tasks, and regardless of sex, older participants in this study showed no reductions in viscosity discrimination acuity. In this article, the relationship between tongue strength and the ability to discriminate small differences in liquid viscosity during oral processing is explored. Given that tongue strength declines with age in healthy adults and is also reduced in individuals with dysphagia, it is interesting to determine whether reduced tongue strength might contribute to difficulties in evaluating liquid viscosity during the oral stage of swallowing. Using an array of mildly to moderately thick xanthan-gum thickened liquids, this experiment failed to find any evidence that reductions in tongue strength influence oral viscosity discrimination acuity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Differences in the Tongue Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients and Controls over a Normal Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between tongue features and the existence of menstrual pain and to provide basic information regarding the changes in tongue features during a menstrual cycle. Methods. This study was conducted at the Kyung Hee University Medical Center. Forty-eight eligible participants aged 20 to 29 years were enrolled and assigned to two groups according to their visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Group A included 24 females suffering from primary dysmenorrhea (PD caused by qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome with VAS ≥ 4. In contrast, Group B included 24 females with few premenstrual symptoms and VAS < 4. All participants completed four visits (menses-follicular-luteal-menses phases, and the tongue images were taken by using a computerized tongue image analysis system (CTIS. Results. The results revealed that the tongue coating color value and the tongue coating thickness in the PD group during the menstrual phase were significantly lower than those of the control group (P=0.031 and P=0.029, resp.. Conclusions. These results suggest that the tongue features obtained from the CTIS may serve as a supplementary means for the differentiation of syndromes and the evaluation of therapeutic effect and prognosis in PD. Trial Registration. This trial was registered with Clinical Research Information Service, registration number KCT0001604, registered on 27 August 2015.

  20. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Xie, Shang-Ping; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role.

  1. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wittenberg, Andrew T. [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Masumoto, Yukio [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role. (orig.)

  2. Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2004-01-01

    To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s-2. At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to

  3. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P ...) and intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...

  4. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  6. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  7. Case report: transpalatal arch resulting in soft tissue damage of the tongue 3 years post-orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Joe; Woods, Eva; Hodgson, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Whilst transient effects of orthodontic appliances on the oral mucosa are well recognized, chronic lesions, persisting post therapy are unusual. We describe a persistent lingual mucosal defect related to a transpalatal arch (TPA) in a healthy 19-year-old female. The asymptomatic lesion is presently being monitored, however, surgical revision in the future may be requested by the patient if the area fails to remodel. Clinical Relevance: Soft tissue trauma to the tongue by anchorage reinforcing appliances may result in long-term effects that could require surgical management.

  8. Base-of-tongue carcinoma: treatment results using concomitant boost radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Albert C.; Morrison, William H.; Garden, Adam S.; Ang, Kian K.; Goepfert, Helmuth; Peters, Lester J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of accelerated fractionated radiotherapy using the concomitant boost schedule for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Methods and Materials: Between September 1984 and July 1992, 54 patients with squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue were treated at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center using the concomitant boost schedule. The distribution of T and N stages was T1-4, T2-27, T3-22, and T4-1; N0-9, N1-11, N2-24, N3-7, and NX-3. American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage groupings were II-6, III-14, and IV-34. Before radiation, nodal excision and neck dissection were done in 5 and 10 patients, respectively; 5 patients had neck dissections after radiotherapy. Standard on and off spinal cord fields were irradiated with 1.8 Gy fractions to 54 Gy given over 6 weeks. The boost was given concomitantly during the large field treatment as a second daily (1.5 Gy) fraction, with an interfraction interval of 4-6 h. The median dose to the primary tumor was 72 Gy (range, 66-74 Gy). The median treatment duration was 42 days (range, 39-48 days). Only three patients had treatment interrupted for more than one scheduled treatment day. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival rates were 59 and 65%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 41 months. The 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate was 76%. The actuarial local control rates achieved with radiotherapy at 5 years for T1, T2, and T3 primary tumors were 100%, 96%, and 67%, respectively; including surgical salvage, the local control rate of T3 primary tumors was 70%. Six patients had regional failures, which in three patients occurred in conjunction with primary tumor recurrence. Twenty-six patients with regional adenopathy were treated with radiation alone to full dose and had a complete clinical response in the neck; no planned neck dissections were performed in these patients. Only 2 of these 26 patients

  9. AMDO TIBETAN TONGUE TWISTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blo rtan rdo rje

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tongue twisters are a distinctive and significant part of Tibetan oral folk literature. They are made up of words and phrases related to what people see and experience in daily life. These words are strung together and are difficult to articulate rapidly and fluently, often because of a succession of questions and/ or similar consonantal sounds. This article sheds light on this poorly studied, vanishing, aspect of Tibetan tradition by focusing on tongue twisters that were once popular in Pha bzhi (Hayu 哈 玉 , a subdivision of Skya rgya (Jiajia 贾 加 Administrative Village, Skya rgya Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha 尖扎 County, Rma lho (Huangnan 黄南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China.

  10. Oceanic Channel of the IOD-ENSO teleconnection over the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    The lag correlations of observations and model simulated data that participate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5) are used to study the precursory teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific ENSO one year later through the Indonesian seas. The results suggest that Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) play an important role in the IOD-ENSO teleconnection. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeastern Indian Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific and induce significant coupled ocean-atmosphere evolution. The teleconnection is found to have decadal variability. Similar decadal variability has also been identified in the historical simulations of the CMIP5 models. The dynamics of the inter-basin teleconnection during the positive phases of the decadal variability are diagnosed to be the interannual variations of the ITF associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). During the negative phases, the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific is anomalously deeper so that the sea surface temperature anomalies in the cold tongue are not sensitive to the thermocline depth changes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found not affected significantly by the anthropogenic forcing.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akio; Oishi, Tomonari; Murai, Yoshiyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Masato

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  12. Morphology of the tongue of Vermilingua (Xenarthra: Pilosa) and evolutionary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Daniel M; Martins-Santos, Elisângela; Santos, André L Q; Miranda, Flávia R; Mahecha, Germán A B; Perini, Fernando A

    2017-10-01

    The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent. The filiform papillae of Myrmecophaga tridactyla are simple all over the tongue, differing from Tamandua tetradactyla and Cyclopes didactylus, which present composed filiform papillae in the rostral and middle regions. Histologically, the tongue has a peculiar organization of muscular and neurovascular tissues, differing from the usual mammalian pattern. However, the tongue structure is less divergent in Cyclopes. The presence of two circumvallate papillae is common to the three major clades of Xenarthra (Cingulata, Folivora and Vermilingua). In each group, the tongue may reflect functional features related to myrmecophagous (anteaters and some armadillos), omnivorous (remaining armadillos) and folivorous (sloths) feeding habits. The similarities between the tongues of Vermiligua and other non-xenarthran eutherian myrmecophagous mammals are somewhat general and, under close inspection, superficial, being an example of different lineages achieving the same morphofunctional adaptations through distinct evolutionary pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  14. Immediate effects of tongue trills associated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabron, Eliana Maria Gradim; Petrini, Andressa Schweitzer; Cardoso, Vanessa de Moraes; Batista, João Carlos Torgal; Motonaga, Suely Mayumi; Marino, Viviane Cristina de Castro

    2017-06-08

    To investigate vocal quality variability after applying tongue trills associated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the larynx of women with normal laryngeal function. Additionally, to verify the effect of this technique over time on voice quality. Participants were 40 women (average 23.4 years) without vocal complaints. The procedure involved tongue trills with or without TENS for 3 minutes, rest and repeating the technique for another 2 minutes. The participants' voices were recorded before (Pre), after three minutes (Post 3min) and after two additional minutes (Post 5min) applying the technique. TENS with two electrodes was used on the thyroid cartilage. Self-assessment, acoustic and perceptual analysis were performed. When comparing tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS, a greater sense of stability in phonation (self-assessment) and improvement in voice quality (perceptual evaluation) was observed in the combination technique. There was no statistical difference in acoustics findings between tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS. When comparing the time effect of tongue trills with TENS in self-assessment there was a perception of less muscle tension (3min) and greater comfort during phonation (5 min); in the acoustic analysis, there was an increase of F0 (3 and 5 min) and intensity (5 min) when compared to Pre-moment; in the perceptual evaluation, better voice quality (3min). Comparing tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS, there were changes in the comfort and muscle tension perception, as well as in vocal quality. On the other hand, tongue trills associated with TENS performed in 3 or 5 minutes resulted in beneficial effects on the voice identified in the assessments.

  15. Photoelectric panel with equatorial mounting of drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Krauinsh, D. P.; Sokolov, A. P.; Mainy, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the work is determined by the need to create effective models for sunny energy. The article considers a photoelectric panel equipped with a system for tracking the sun. Efficiency of the system is provided by equatorial mounting, which compensates for the rotation of the Earth by rotating the sunny panel in the plane of the celestial equator. The specificity of climatic and geographical conditions of Tomsk is estimated. The dynamics of power variations of photoelectric panels with equatorial mounting during seasonal fluctuations in Tomsk is calculated. A mobile photovoltaic panel with equatorial mounting of the drive has been developed. The methods of design strategy for placing photovoltaic panels in the architectural environment of the city are presented. Key words: sunny energy, photovoltaics, equatorial mounting, mechatronic model, wave reducer, electric drive.

  16. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  17. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  18. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of tongue flicking in Python molurus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.H.; Sluijs, van der I.; Snelderwaard, P.C.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The forked snake tongue is a muscular organ without hard skeletal support. A functional interpretation of the variable arrangement of the intrinsic muscles along the tongue requires a quantitative analysis of the motion performance during tongue protrusion and flicking. Therefore, high-speed

  19. Mother tongue education in Kenya: significance, challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of mother tongue(s) (also referred to as vernaculars or indigenous languages or African languages) in the cognitive, linguistic, personal and educational development of children cannot be overemphasized. Indeed it is out of this recognition that the UNESCO declared 2006, the Year of African Languages.

  20. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  1. Contributory role of the tongue and mandible in modulating the in-mouth air cavity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, Pierre; Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Peyron, Marie-Agnes; Woda, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The tongue-to-palate distance influences the volume of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC), thus conditioning the entry of aromatic compounds to the olfactory mucosa site. This study was set out to record the IMAC volume by measuring tongue-to-palate distance at rest. Twelve young adults in good general health were tested--lips contacting, with at-rest posture of the tongue and jaw during a silent reading task. Observations in this study were limited to pre- and post-swallowing sequences. The tongue-to-palate distance was measured using three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper surface. IMAC volume was evaluated from a geometrical model, taking into account the tongue-to-palate distance, the IMAC transversal distance measured from dental casts and historic data giving the anterior-posterior distance of the oral cavity. (1) In the at-rest posture, the tongue-to-palate distance was significantly greater at the posterior sensor level. (2) A vertical shift in tongue posture at rest frequently appeared following deglutition. The upward shifts were of larger amplitude and more frequent than the downward shifts. (3) Evaluation of the IMAC volume gave an approximate value of 12 ml at rest. (4) The chin sensor at rest was 2.8 ± 0.8 mm below its position when in occlusion. The tongue and mandible contribute to shaping the IMAC volume. These and other results suggest that deglutition changes tongue-to-palate distance and influences aroma release during mastication/deglutition acts through modulation of the IMAC volume.

  2. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training....... The resting motor thresholds of tongue MEPs were lowered by training with TDS and TPT (Ptraining with TDS and TPT (P

  3. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  4. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal Nawfal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap.

  5. Inducing Speech Errors in Dysarthria Using Tongue Twisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Heather; Connaghan, Kathryn; Patel, Rupal

    2017-01-01

    Although tongue twisters have been widely use to study speech production in healthy speakers, few studies have employed this methodology for individuals with speech impairment. The present study compared tongue twister errors produced by adults with dysarthria and age-matched healthy controls. Eight speakers (four female, four male; mean age =…

  6. Detection of Taste Change of Bovine and Goat Milk in Room Ambient Using Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Tazi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue (e-tongue based on an array of lipid/polymer membranes has been successfully developed for measuring the taste evolution of natural milk. The e-tongue consisted of 16 different lipid/polymer membranes combined with or without a pH sensor. The natural milk of bovine and goat were purchased from the local farming store in Malang-Indonesia. The taste measurement was carried out, from fresh (0 h to stale (12 h, every two hours under room ambient without any treatment. The responses of the e-tongue were evaluated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA and a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. From PCA results, the taste of both milk samples tends to change by time although some groups show a partial overlapping. LDA results show the high precision of the e-tongue in clustering taste evolution. The correctly classified groups after the cross-validation procedure were achieved 95.7 and 87.1% for bovine and goat milk, respectively. The improvement of the classification using LDA was obtained by adding data from a pH sensor of each measurement as 100 and 98.6% for bovine and goat milk, respectively. This work indicates that the lab-made e-tongue may be useful to predict the quality of natural milk for the food industry.

  7. Space Weather Research in the Equatorial Region: A Philosophical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Victor; Odunaike, Rasaki; Laoye, John

    Investigations using radio waves reflected from the ionosphere, at high-and mid-latitudes indicate that ionospheric absorption can strongly increase following geomagnetic storms; which appears to suggest some definite relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storms at these latitudes. However, corresponding earlier studies in the equatorial region did not appear to show any explicit relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storm activity. This position appeared acceptable to the existing scientific paradigm, until in an act of paradigm shift, by a change of storm selection criteria, some more recent space weather investigations in the low latitudes showed that ionospheric radio wave absorption in the equatorial region clearly increases after intense storms. Given that these results in the equatorial region stood against the earlier results, this paper presently attempts to highlight their philosophical underpinning and posit that they constitute a scientific statement.

  8. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji, E-mail: tmntt08@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mori, Takayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, 4-86 Minaminokawa-cho, Ogaki 503-8502 (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Naiki, Takafumi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Moriwaki, Hisataka [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi [The Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation.

  9. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation

  10. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  11. Dagara Tongue-Root Vowel Harmony | Kuubezelle | Ghana Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though tongue-root vowel harmony in many Ghanaian languages has been described, there still remain many others which have received little or no description at all. Dagara, a dialect of Dagaare a Mabia language, is one of such dialects. This paper presents a description of Dagara tongue-root vowel harmony using ...

  12. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  13. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of tongue and mouth pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Wha; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Hong, Won Pyo; Park, Hyung Sik

    1991-01-01

    The evaluation of the tongue and mouth floor using the CT scan can be limited due to dental artifacts. Because the therapeutic plan depends on the nature and the cancer staging of lesions, it is essential to obtain accurate evaluation of lesions. In this study are explored the of Ultrasonography for the evaluation of tongue and mouth floor pathology. We have obtained ultrasonograms in 20 patients who had benign and malignant lesions in the tongue and mouth floor. Comparative analysis was made on 15 patients who underwent both CT and ultrasonography. We used the bimanual compression technique and the phonation technique during real-time scanning. Out of 15 cases, six had tongue cancer, and seven of them had cancer of the mouth floor. The other cases included a ranula, a dermoid cyst, a Ludwig's angina, and abscess of salivary gland, and one care with stones of the submandibular gland. All the benign and malignant masses appeared hypoechoic. Even though the lesions of tongue and mouth floor could not be evaluated by CT scan due to dental artifacts and extremely small size in 5 cases, ultrasonogram using the bimanual compression technique demonstrated good localization of the lesion, and also was greatly helpful in visualizing the invasion of the surrounding structures. Ultrasonography of the tongue and mouth floor proved to be superior to the CT scan not only in delineating the size and extent of the primary lesion, but also in visualizing invasion of surrounding structures

  14. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the same processing method) were discriminated using α-Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) ... discovery and quantification of many of the key taste and ..... flavonoids from tea samples of different origins by HPLC-DAD-ESI-.

  15. Contrastive analysis in mother tongue teaching in Sweden – teacher’sperceptions and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Marina

    2017-01-01

    This study is about contrastive analysis in mother tongue teaching in Sweden. Contrastive analysis between mother tongue and Swedish is part of the Swedish syllabus for the school subject mother tongue and is therefore a pertinent subject to be investigated. The study analyzes how five mother tongue teachers in a medium-sized Swedish city work with contrastive analysis in their classes and how they evaluate the importance of this content in mother tongue teaching. The question concerning the ...

  16. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-07-01

    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue color (舌色 shé sè has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine (中醫 zhōng yī. However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle (月經周期 yuè jīng zhōu qī. This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red–green–blue (RGB, hue–saturation–brightness (HSB, luminance-a-b (Lab, and cyan–magenta–yellow–black (CMYK models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis (舌診 shé zhěn or performing clinical studies among childbearing women.

  18. Using Unconstrained Tongue Motion as an Alternative Control Mechanism for Wheeled Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated, minimally invasive, unobtrusive, noncontact, and wireless assistive technology that infers users’ intentions by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motions, and translating them to user-defined commands. We have developed customized interface circuitry between an external TDS (eTDS) prototype and a commercial powered wheelchair (PWC) as well as three control strategies to evaluate the tongue motion as an alternative control input fo...

  19. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Mohamad Javad; Hosseini, Shahla; Monabati, Ahmad; Valibeigi, Behnaz; Khademi, Bijan; Abedi, Elham; Azarpira, Negar

    2017-01-01

    Oral tongue Squamous Cell carcinoma (SCC) commonly involves males between the sixth to eighth decades of life. Major risk factors are tobacco usage and alcohol consumption. The increasing number of patients developing oral tongue cancer without these well-known risk factors suggests that a viral infection, such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV), may be responsible for this increase, by acting as an oncogenic agent. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and its clinicopathologic significance in oral tongue SCCs. Tissue blocks from a total of 50 cases (patients with oral tongue SCC) and 50 controls (palatine tonsillar tissues with benign diagnosis) were selected. DNA was extracted from tumoral and non-tumoral tissue blocks. Detection of common HPV DNA by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and high-risk genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18, by conventional PCR, was achieved and the results correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Of the 50 patients (18 males and 32 females with a mean age of 57.36±12.18 years, and age range of 27 to 86 years), 7 (14%) had HPV positive results. None of the control group subjects had HPV DNA positive results (P-value of 0.012). The HPV genotype 16/18 was not detected in positive cases. No statistically significant association was found between HPV status and gender, age, tumor grade, tumor stage or lymph node involvement. Although there was a significantly higher prevalence of HPV in oral tongue SCC, its association with carcinogenesis in this area requires further studies.

  20. Model-based inverse estimation for active contraction stresses of tongue muscles using 3D surface shape in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Narihiko; Ii, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Tsukasa; Nozaki, Kazunori; Wada, Shigeo

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a novel inverse estimation approach for the active contraction stresses of tongue muscles during speech. The proposed method is based on variational data assimilation using a mechanical tongue model and 3D tongue surface shapes for speech production. The mechanical tongue model considers nonlinear hyperelasticity, finite deformation, actual geometry from computed tomography (CT) images, and anisotropic active contraction by muscle fibers, the orientations of which are ideally determined using anatomical drawings. The tongue deformation is obtained by solving a stationary force-equilibrium equation using a finite element method. An inverse problem is established to find the combination of muscle contraction stresses that minimizes the Euclidean distance of the tongue surfaces between the mechanical analysis and CT results of speech production, where a signed-distance function represents the tongue surface. Our approach is validated through an ideal numerical example and extended to the real-world case of two Japanese vowels, /ʉ/ and /ɯ/. The results capture the target shape completely and provide an excellent estimation of the active contraction stresses in the ideal case, and exhibit similar tendencies as in previous observations and simulations for the actual vowel cases. The present approach can reveal the relative relationship among the muscle contraction stresses in similar utterances with different tongue shapes, and enables the investigation of the coordination of tongue muscles during speech using only the deformed tongue shape obtained from medical images. This will enhance our understanding of speech motor control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Equatorial electrojet and its response to external electromagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2012-09-01

    In the quiet low-latitude Earth's ionosphere, a sufficiently developed current system that is responsible for the Sq magnetic-field variations is formed in quiet Sun days under the action of tidal streams. The density of the corresponding currents is maximum in the midday hours at the equatorial latitudes, where the so-called equatorial electrojet is formed. In this work, we discuss the nature of the equatorial electrojet. This paper studies the value of its response to external effects. First of all, it is concerned with estimating the possibility of using the equatorial electrojet for generating low-frequency electromagnetic signals during periodic heating of the ionosphere by the heating-facility radiation. The equatorial electrojet can also produce electrodynamic response to the natural atmospheric processes, e.g., an acoustic-gravity wave.

  2. Equatorial Pacific peak in biological production regulated by nutrient and upwelling during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Etourneau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest increase in export production in the eastern Pacific of the last 5.3 Myr (million years occurred between 2.2 and 1.6 Myr, a time of major climatic and oceanographic reorganization in the region. Here, we investigate the causes of this event using reconstructions of export production, nutrient supply and oceanic conditions across the Pliocene–Pleistocene in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP for the last 3.2 Myr. Our results indicate that the export production peak corresponds to a cold interval marked by high nutrient supply relative to consumption, as revealed by the low bulk sedimentary 15N/14N (δ15N and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST values. This ∼0.6 million year long episode of enhanced delivery of nutrients to the surface of the EEP was predominantly initiated through the upwelling of nutrient-enriched water sourced in high latitudes. In addition, this phenomenon was likely promoted by the regional intensification of upwelling in response to the development of intense Walker and Hadley atmospheric circulations. Increased nutrient consumption in the polar oceans and enhanced denitrification in the equatorial regions restrained nutrient supply and availability and terminated the high export production event.

  3. The Tongue and Quill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Tongue and Quill is dedicated to every man and woman in today's twenty-first century Air Force who will ever sling ink at paper, pound a keyboard, give a briefing, or staff a package to support the mission...

  4. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pain...... training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning....

  5. Time dependent response of equatorial ionospheric electric fieldsto magnetospheric disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, L.

    1995-01-01

    We use extensive radar measurements of F region vertical plasma drifts and auroral electrojet indices to determine the storm time dependence of equatorial zonal electric fields. These disturbance drifts result from the prompt penetration of high latitude electric fields and from the dynamo action of storm time winds which produce largest perturbations a few hours after the onset of magnetic activity. The signatures of the equatorial disturbance electric fields change significantly depending o...

  6. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  7. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  8. Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D

    2000-01-01

    A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension.


Keywords: portal hypertension; lingual; tongue; varicose vein

  9. Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Language is a crucial factor for the academic achievement of minority people. Speaking the mother tongue in school increases self-confidence and thinking skills, and conveys freedom of speech. Mother tongue is an inseparable element of his or her culture and that everyone has the right to learn his or her mother tongue. The main objective of this…

  10. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  11. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  12. Occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during Intense Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Song Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in low-latitude ionospheric space weather is how magnetic storms affect the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we present the measurements of the ion density and velocity in the evening equatorial ionosphere by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during 22 intense magnetic storms. The DMSP measurements show that deep ion density depletions (plasma bubbles are generated after the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF turns southward. The time delay between the IMF southward turning and the first DMSP detection of plasma depletions decreases with the minimum value of the IMF Bz, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field (IEF Ey, and the magnitude of the Dst index. The results of this study provide strong evidence that penetration electric field associated with southward IMF during the main phase of magnetic storms increases the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles in the evening sector.

  13. An investigation of tropical Atlantic bias in a high-resolution coupled regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Hsieh, Jen-Shan [Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Li, Mingkui; Xu, Zhao [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Chang, Ping [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Second Institute of Oceanography, State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2012-11-15

    Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) commonly fail to simulate the eastern equatorial Atlantic boreal summer cold tongue and produce a westerly equatorial trade wind bias. This tropical Atlantic bias problem is investigated with a high-resolution (27-km atmosphere represented by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, 9-km ocean represented by the Regional Ocean Modeling System) coupled regional climate model. Uncoupled atmospheric simulations test climate sensitivity to cumulus, land-surface, planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and radiation parameterizations and reveal that the radiation scheme has a pronounced impact in the tropical Atlantic. The CAM radiation simulates a dry precipitation (up to -90%) and cold land-surface temperature (up to -8 K) bias over the Amazon related to an over-representation of low-level clouds and almost basin-wide westerly trade wind bias. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model and Goddard radiation simulates doubled Amazon and Congo Basin precipitation rates and a weak eastern Atlantic trade wind bias. Season-long high-resolution coupled regional model experiments indicate that the initiation of the warm eastern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) bias is more sensitive to the local rather than basin-wide trade wind bias and to a wet Congo Basin instead of dry Amazon - which differs from AOGCM simulations. Comparisons between coupled and uncoupled simulations suggest a regional Bjerknes feedback confined to the eastern equatorial Atlantic amplifies the initial SST, wind, and deepened thermocline bias, while barrier layer feedbacks are relatively unimportant. The SST bias in some CRCM simulations resembles the typical AOGCM bias indicating that increasing resolution is unlikely a simple solution to this problem. (orig.)

  14. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Passive restriction of blood flow and counter-current heat exchange via lingual retia in the tongue of a neonatal gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G; Kienle, Sarah S

    2015-04-01

    Retia mirabilia play broad roles in cetacean physiology, including thermoregulation during feeding and pressure regulations during diving. Vascular bundles of lingual retia are described within the base of the tongue of a neonatal female gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Each rete consists of a central artery surrounded by four to six smaller veins. The retia and constituent vessels decrease in diameter as they extend anteriorly within the hyoglossus muscle from a position anterior to the basihyal cartilage toward the apex of the tongue. The position of the retia embedded in the hyoglossus and the anterior constriction of the vessels differs from reports of similar vascular bundles that were previously identified in gray whales. The retia likely serve as a counter-current heat exchange system to control body temperature during feeding. Cold blood flowing toward the body center within the periarterial veins would accept heat from warm blood in the central artery flowing toward the anterior end of the tongue. Although thermoregulatory systems have been identified within the mouths of a few mysticete species, the distribution of such vascular structures likely is more widespread among baleen whales than has previously been described. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented

  17. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  18. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue: A rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munlima; Rahman, Tashnin; Sarma, Anupam; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva

    2014-05-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms that most commonly occur in the kidneys of young children. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the tongue is an extremely rare entity and very few have been reported in the literature. The course of extra-renal MRT is short and its prognosis is very poor. A 19-year-old female presented with a progressive swelling and restricted mobility of the tongue for over 3 months duration. We present here a locally advanced case of MRT of the tongue, its diagnosis, management and review of the literature related to it.

  19. Ultrastructural aspects of the tongue in Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster, 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Plácido Guimarães

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tongue of birds presents diversified morphologic characteristics, related directly their feeding habits and may be adapted to food capture. Penguins of the Spheniscidae family are pelagic birds that are totally adapted to the marine environment.  The objective of this study was to describe the morphology of the tongue in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus. In order to investigate these characteristics, six tongues of juvenile S. magellanicus were collected and their morphology analyzed macroscopically and microscopically.  The tongue of the Magellanic penguin has a fusiform shape with a round apex that is narrower than the root, following the shape of the beak.  The epithelium of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be stratified and very keratinized, with the presence of lingual papillae that showed a caudally inclined apex. The neighboring connective tissue showed absence of mucous glands. The cartilaginous skeleton was observed in the medial region of the tongue, extending from the base to the apex. The structure of the tongue of the Magellanic penguin showed to be similar to that of other penguin species, but also showed peculiar characteristics that were not observed in other bird families.

  20. Modeling of Transient Nectar Flow in Hummingbird Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that hummingbirds do not pick up floral nectar via capillary action. The long believed capillary rise models were mistaken and unable to predict the dynamic nectar intake process. Instead, hummingbird's tongue acts as an elastic micropump. Nectar is drawn into the tongue grooves during elastic expansion after the grooves are squeezed flat by the beak. The new model is compared with experimental data from high-speed videos of 18 species and tens of individuals of wild hummingbirds. Self-similarity and transitions of short-to-long time behaviours have been resolved for the nectar flow driven by expansive filling. The transient dynamics is characterized by the relative contributions of negative excess pressure and the apparent area modulus of the tongue grooves.

  1. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  2. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  3. Tongue papillae morphology of brown-throated sloth Bradypus variegatus (SCHINZ, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bradypus variegatus inhabits the forests of South America and feeds from leaves, branches and sprouts from different plants. Due to its diet and the lack of literature on the morphological aspect of Xenarthras, five Bradypus variegatus tongues from animals which died from natural causes were evaluated, and they came from Pará State Museum Emílio Goeldi and were donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphological Research (LaPMA from UFRA, for revealing the different types of papillae and epithelial-connective tissue. Macroscopically, the tongues presented elongated shape, rounded apex, body, root, median sulcus in the root's apex, and two vallate papillae. The mucous membrane of the tongue revealed a keratinized stratified pavement epithelium, while the ventral surface of the tongue was thin and smooth, not provided with any type of papillae. However, the dorsal surface of the tongue was irregular with the presence of three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The filiform papillae found were of a simple type, presenting a rounded base, irregularly distributed with a larger concentration and development on the tongue's apex and body. The fungiform papilla showed a practically smooth surface with irregular format, with the presence of gustatory pores; these were found all over the dorsal surface, with larger concentration at the rostral part of the apex. Only two vallate papillae were observed disposed in the root of the tongue, surrounded by a deep groove, and revealing several taste buds. The tongues from Bradypus variegatus presented gustatory papillae similar to the ones described for other Xenarthras species and wild mammals.

  4. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  5. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number.

  6. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  7. CONVECTIVE BURSTS AND THE COUPLING OF SATURN'S EQUATORIAL STORMS AND INTERIOR ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%—roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed ∼1% SKR changes.

  8. Multiple embryos, multiple nepionts and multiple equatorial layers in Cycloclypeus carpenteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgring, Erik; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 17 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri have been analyzed by means of microCT scanning. We used CT scanning technique as it enables the visualization and the quantifications of internal structures of hollow specimens without their destruction. It has been observed that many specimens possessing the natural morphology of this taxon, actually contain multiple embryos (up to 16 in one single specimen) and, in some few cases, multiple nepionts each with its own heterosteginid chambers (up to three separated nepionts). The diameter of each proloculus has been measured, and as a result, they are very variable even within the same specimen, therefore questioning the long known theory that schizonts have smaller proloculi than gamonts and also questioning the fact that proloculi in the same species should all have comparable size. Furthermore, we have observed the presence of additional equatorial planes on several specimens. Such additional planes are always connected to what seems to be the main equatorial plane. Such connections are T-shaped and are located at the junction between two equatorial layers; these junctions are made by a chamberlet, which possesses an unusually higher number of apertures. The connections between equatorial planes are always perfectly synchronized with the relative growth step and the same chamber can be therefore followed along the multiple equatorial planes. Apparently there is a perfect geometric relationship between the creation of additional equatorial planes and the position of the nepionts. Whenever the nepionts are positioned on different planes, additional planes are created and the angle of the nepionts is related to the banding angle of the equatorial planes. The presence of additional planes do not hamper the life of the cell, on the contrary, it seems that the cell is still able to build nicely shaped chamberlets and, after volumetric calculations, it seems all specimens managed to keep their logistic growth

  9. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  10. Analysis of normal tongue by dynamic enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    We qualitatively evaluated dynamic enhanced MR images of normal tongues of 26 patients without oral malignancy, inflammatory diseases or systemic diseases. The selected slices were not affected by apparent artifacts including motion and susceptibility, and the tongue shape was delineated as symmetrical on coronal images, which were obtained using a T1 weighted spin echo pulse sequence (repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=200/20). Slices at the incisor and molar levels were evaluated. Structures that could be identified on each pre-contrast image could also be identified on the post-contrast dynamic enhanced image. However, identification of the intrinsic tongue musculature was impossible on the images that were composed of symmetrical, relatively high signal areas surrounded by a low signal area. Both areas were gradually but apparently enhanced. The sublingual space was easily identified at the molar level, as it was rapidly enhanced and symmetrically delineated on each image, however, it was difficult to determine at the incisor level. Further, the lingual septum could also be identified in almost all images at the molar level, and showed no enhancement pattern, whereas, the mucosal surface of the dorsum tongue was rapidly enhanced, and identified on each image. (author)

  11. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiesa Estomba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations.   Case Report A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion:  TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.

  12. The Fast and Non-capillary Fluid Filling Mechanism in the Hummingbird's Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Hummingbirds gather nectar by inserting their beaks inside flowers and cycling their tongues at a frequency of up to 20 Hz. It is unclear how they achieve efficiency at this high licking rate. Ever since proposed in 1833, it has been believed that hummingbird tongues are a pair of tiny straws filled with nectar by capillary rise. Our discoveries are very different from this general consensus. The tongue does not draw up floral nectar via capillary action under experimental conditions that resemble natural ones. Theoretical models based on capillary rise were mistaken and unsuitable for estimating the fluid intake rate and to support foraging theories. We filmed (up to 1265 frames/s) the fluid uptake in 20 species of hummingbirds that belong to 7 out of the 9 main hummingbird clades. We found that the fluid filling within the portions of the tongue that remain outside the nectar is about five times faster than capillary filling. We present strong evidence to rule out the capillarity model. We introduce a new fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic model and compare the results with field experimental data to explain how hummingbirds actually extract fluid from flowers at the lick level.

  13. Tongue motion variability with changes of upper airway stimulation electrode configuration and effects on treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Armin; Kilic, Ayse; König, Inke R; Suurna, Maria V; Hofauer, Benedikt; Heiser, Clemens

    2017-12-27

    Upper airway stimulation (UAS) is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous data have demonstrated a correlation between the phenotype of tongue motion and therapy response. Closed loop hypoglossal nerve stimulation implant offers five different electrode configuration settings which may result in different tongue motion. Two-center, prospective consecutive trial in a university hospital setting. Clinical outcomes of 35 patients were analyzed after at least 12 months of device use. Tongue motion was assessed at various electrode configuration settings. Correlation between the tongue motion and treatment response was evaluated. OSA severity was significantly reduced with the use of UAS therapy (P < .001). Changes in tongue motion patterns were frequently observed (58.8%) with different electrode configuration settings. Most of the patients alternated between right and bilateral protrusion (73.5%), which are considered to be the optimal phenotypes for selective UAS responses. Different voltage settings were required to achieve functional stimulation levels when changing between the electrode settings. UAS is highly effective for OSA treatment in selected patients with an apnea-hypopnea index between 15 and 65 events per hour and higher body mass index. Attention should be given to patients with shifting tongue movement in response to change of electrode configuration. The intraoperative cuff placement should be reassessed when tongue movement shifting is observed. 4 Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Visual feedback of tongue movement for novel speech sound learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Katz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation training studies have yielded important information concerning the processing of audiovisual (AV information. Second language (L2 learners show increased reliance on bottom-up, multimodal input for speech perception (compared to monolingual individuals. However, little is known about the role of viewing one’s own speech articulation processes during speech training. The current study investigated whether real-time, visual feedback for tongue movement can improve a speaker’s learning of non-native speech sounds. An interactive 3D tongue visualization system based on electromagnetic articulography (EMA was used in a speech training experiment. Native speakers of American English produced a novel speech sound (/ɖ̠/; a voiced, coronal, palatal stop before, during, and after trials in which they viewed their own speech movements using the 3D model. Talkers’ productions were evaluated using kinematic (tongue-tip spatial positioning and acoustic (burst spectra measures. The results indicated a rapid gain in accuracy associated with visual feedback training. The findings are discussed with respect to neural models for multimodal speech processing.

  15. Mother tongue education: a panacea to effective teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The controversy as to whether the English Language or the child's mother tongue facilitates teaching and learning at primary school level has not been resolved. The advocates of mother-tongue medium claim that it makes for meaningful teaching and learning and better pupils' participation in the learning process while ...

  16. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  17. A case of tongue edema associated with radiation-induced ulcer with low level of C1 inhibitor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Tsuyoshi; Hosoda, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    A 66-year-old man became aware of sudden swelling of the tongue with swallowing disturbance. He had a medical history of tongue cancer treated by interstitial radiotherapy and had undergone a cytological examination of an ulcer on the right side of the tongue three weeks earlier because of suspected recurrence. The cytological examination result was class I with no malignant findings. Angioneurotic edema, so-called ''Quincke's edema'', associated with radiation-induced ulcer of the tongue, was diagnosed. Tranexamic acid, d-chlorpheniramine maleate, and epinephrine were administered. After six days, the tongue edema had almost disappeared. Laboratory examination revealed a low level of C1 inhibitor activity with normal levels of CH50, C1, C3, and C4 at the time of swelling. Hereditary angioneurotic edema with absence of hereditary trait was suspected based on the sudden edema attack and low level of C1 inhibitor activity. The C1 inhibitor activity returned to normal after disappearance of the tongue edema. (author)

  18. A study on ionospheric scintillation near the EIA crest in relation to equatorial electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Chakraborty, S. K.; Veenadhari, B.; Banola, S.

    2014-02-01

    Equatorial electrojet (EEJ) data, which are considered as a proxy index of equatorial electric field, are analyzed in conjunction with equatorial ionosonde, total electron content (TEC) and scintillation data near the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest for the equinoctial months of high solar activity years (2011-2012) to identify any precursor index of postsunset evolution of equatorial electron density irregularities and subsequent occurrence of scintillation near the northern EIA crest. Only geomagnetically quiet and normal electrojet days are considered. The diurnal profiles of EEJ on the scintillation days exhibit a secondary enhancement in the afternoon to presunset hours following diurnal peaks. A series of electrodynamical processes conducive for generation of irregularities emerge following secondary enhancement of EEJ. Latitudinal profile of TEC exhibits resurgence in EIA structure around the postsunset period. Diurnal TEC profile near the EIA crest resembles postsunset secondary enhancement on the days with afternoon enhancement in EEJ. Occurrence of equatorial spread F and postsunset scintillation near the EIA crest seems to follow the secondary enhancement events in EEJ. Both the magnitude and duration of enhanced EEJ are found to be important for postsunset intensification of EIA structure and subsequent occurrence of equatorial irregularities. A critical value combining the two may be considered an important precursor for postsunset occurrence of scintillation near the EIA crest. The results are validated using archived data for the years 1989-1990 and explained in terms of modulation effects of enhanced equatorial fountain.

  19. 3-D neurohistology of transparent tongue in health and injury with optical clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-En eHua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tongue receives extensive innervation to perform taste, sensory, and motor functions. Details of the tongue neuroanatomy and its plasticity in response to injury offer insights to investigate tongue neurophysiology and pathophysiology. However, due to the dispersed nature of the neural network, standard histology cannot provide a global view of the innervation. We prepared transparent mouse tongue by optical clearing to reveal the spatial features of the tongue innervation and its remodeling in injury. Immunostaining of neuronal markers, including PGP9.5 (pan-neuronal marker, calcitonin gene-related peptide (sensory nerves, tyrosine hydroxylase (sympathetic nerves, and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cholinergic parasympathetic nerves and neuromuscular junctions, was combined with vessel painting and nuclear staining to label the tissue network and architecture. The tongue specimens were immersed in the optical-clearing solution to facilitate photon penetration for 3-dimensiontal (3-D confocal microscopy. Taking advantage of the transparent tissue, we simultaneously revealed the tongue microstructure and innervation with subcellular-level resolution. 3-D projection of the papillary neurovascular complex and taste bud innervation was used to demonstrate the spatial features of tongue mucosa and the panoramic imaging approach. In the tongue injury induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide administration in the drinking water, we observed neural tissue remodeling in response to the changes of mucosal and muscular structures. Neural networks and the neuromuscular junctions were both found rearranged at the peri-lesional region, suggesting the nerve-lesion interactions in response to injury. Overall, this new tongue histological approach provides a useful tool for 3-D imaging of neural tissues to better characterize their roles with the mucosal and muscular components in health and disease.

  20. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. [Colorimetric investigation of normal tongue and lip colors from 516 healthy adults by visible reflection spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Yang, Li; Xu, Ying; Liu, Pei-pei; Guo, Shi-jun; Liu, Song-hao

    2011-09-01

    Using the data from normal tongue and lip colors of normal people which were collected by the visible reflection spectrum, we analyzed the colorimetric parameters of tongue and lip colors. In this study, 516 healthy students aging from 19 to 26 from the colleges and universities of Guangdong Province of China were taken as research subjects. After collecting the data of tongue and lip colors of the 516 subjects using visible reflectance spectroscopy, CIE XYZ tristimulus values as defined by the International Commission on Illumination in 1964 were calculated, and the colorimetric parameters of the normal tongue and lip colors were obtained, such as the CIE 1964 chromaticity coordinate, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity. The results of CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram calculated on the visible reflection spectrum showed that the normal tongue color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.341 3±0.008 5 and y(10) was 0.332 6±0.005 1, and the normal lip color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.357 7±0.009 2 and y(10) was 0.338 3±0.005 7; the brightness Y values of the normal tongue color and lip colors were 17.96±3.78 and 19.78±3.72, the dominant wavelength values of the normal tongue color and lip color were (626.3±51.6) nm and (600.4±18.2) nm, and the excitation purity values of the normal tongue color and lip color were 0.083±0.031 and 0.144±0.036, respectively. Application of the visible reflection spectrum is a standard way to collect colorimetric data for inspection of the complexion. The investigation of chromaticity coordinates, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity of the normal tongue and lip colors may offer the basic reference for diagnosing morbid complexion on the tongue and lip colors in traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  3. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mucous retention cyst of the tongue: distinction from other cystic lesions of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Casas, L E; Bardales, R H

    2000-05-01

    Mucous retention cyst (MRC) is a common submucosal lesion of the oral cavity that, when deeply seated, simulates a neoplasm. This report describes the fine-needle aspiration cytology findings of a lingual MRC of complex architecture and with metaplastic epithelium. In addition, we emphasize its cytologic differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant cystic lesions of the tongue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of aspiration cytology of a complex MRC of the tongue. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Texture Of Zircaloy-4 Result Of Beta-Quenching, Cold Rolling And Recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futichah; Sulistioso

    1998-01-01

    Differences of crystallographic texture of zircaloy-4 plate depends on cold working and heat treatment.To determine the change of zircaloy-4 textures, the solid solution treatment process at beta phase which was followed by quenching on water was employed for this sample. The next step was cold rolling until deformation epsilon = 1.62. The specimens were recrystallized at 750 o C, for 2 hours. The result of beta-quench gave a spread and different orientations and the main orientation occurred at (0001)[1010] and (0001)[1120]. Result of cold rolling with epsilon = 1.39 and epsilon 1.62 is the deformation texture at the main orientation of (0001)[1010] with the angle of inclination was around 38 o. However, the result of Recrystallization process on 750 o C for 2 hours gave annealing textures with orientations of (0001)[1120]. It means that the recrystallization process of zircaloy-4 plate can not remove the deformation textures, but can change the crystallographic orientation

  5. "Hidden" tongue jewellery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2001-06-01

    Tongue piercing has many associated risks. This is a case report of a patient who, to avoid parental disapproval, hid the dorsal aspect of a lingual stud device. Subsequently, the dorsum repaired. The device could no longer be removed manually and warranted surgical removal. Despite being in situ for over two years, no further complications arose, but all efforts to obtain patient agreement for removal of the device failed.

  6. The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube

    OpenAIRE

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics. Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes. We demonstrate that the hummingbird tongue does not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instea...

  7. Reaksi Radang pada Lidah dengan Tongue Piercing (Kajian in vivo pada Lidah Tikus Jantan Sprague dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feby Aryani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports associated with tongue piercing have presented various complications, such as tooth fracture, viral infection (HIV, Hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex, Epstein Barr, fungal infection (Candida spp, pain altered taste, edema, paresthesis, gingival recession, prolonged bleeding, contact dermatitis. However, there is no scientific evidence to reveal hispathological change in tongue piercing. The aim of this study is to investigate the inflammation response to tongue piercing in Spraque Dawley rats. Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats were divided into one control group of 3 untreated rats and three experimental groups of 5 rats each, according to the duration of tongue piercing until the end of 1st week (A, 6th week (B and 12th week (C. At the end of treatments, the rats were anesthetized and sacrifices. Paraffin embedded tongue specimens were prepared for histological examination with H&E stainig. The number of inflammatory cells (PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages was counted under light microscope. All experimental procedures were carried out under approval of study protocol by the Health and Medical Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The results of this study indicated that the number of PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages was increasing to the 1st week after tongue piercing. The number of lymphocytes and macrohpages was still increasing after 6th and 12th weeks of piercing, but the bumber of PMN leukocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages between the groups of 1st, 6th, and 12th weeks after piercing. It was concluded that tongue piercing induce inflammatory response for 12 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats.

  8. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  9. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  10. Reliability of Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Oncosurgical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Ranjan Chaudhuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary closure following oncosurgical resection of carcinoma tongue has been found to compromise tongue function in regards to speech and swallowing very badly. In contrast, reconstruction of tongue with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection has shown promising functional outcome. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients (ten male and three female with squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior 2/3rd of tongue had undergone either hemiglossectomy or subtotal glossectomy. Reconstruction was done with free radial forearm flap following oncosurgical resection and neck dissection. All of them received postoperative radiotherapy. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 2 years. The age of the patients ranged between 32 and 65 years. Flap dimension ranged from 7x6 cm to 10x8 cm. Vascular anastomosis performed in an end-to-end manner with 8-0 Ethilon® under loupe magnifiacation. Results Venous congestion occurred in one patient after 48 hours postoperatively and the flap underwent complete necrosis on postoperative day 5. Postoperative hematoma was found in one patient within first 24 hours of reconstruction. Re-exploration was done immediately, blood clots were removed. No fresh bleeding point was seen and the flap survived. In this series, 12 out of 13 flaps survived completely (92%. Conclusion The free radial forearm flap has become a workhorse flap in head and reconstruction due to its lack of extra bulk, relative ease of dissection, long vascular pedicle, good calibre vessels, malleability and minimal donor site morbidity. Furthermore its low flap loss and complication rate offer the best choice for tongue reconstruction.

  11. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  12. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  13. The role of the Indonesian Throughflow in equatorial Pacific thermocline ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    1999-09-01

    The role of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the thermocline circulation of the low-latitude Pacific Ocean is explored using a high-resolution primitive equation ocean circulation model. Seasonally forced runs for a domain with an open Indonesian passage are compared with seasonally forced runs for a closed Pacific domain. Three cases are considered: one with no throughflow, one with 10 Sv of imposed ITF transport, and one with 20 Sv of ITF transport. Two idealized tracers, one that tags northern component subtropical water and another that tags southern component subtropical water, are used to diagnose the mixing ratio of northern and southern component waters in the equatorial thermocline. It is found that the mixing ratio of north/south component waters in the equatorial thermocline is highly sensitive to whether the model accounts for an ITF. Without an ITF, the source of equatorial undercurrent water is primarily of North Pacific origin, with the ratio of northern to southern component water being approximately 2.75 to 1. The ratio of northern to southern component water in the Equatorial Undercurrent with 10 Sv of ITF is approximately 1.4 to 1, and the ratio with 20 Sv of imposed ITF is 1 to 1.25. Estimates from data suggest a mean mixing ratio of northern to southern component water of less than 1 to 1. Assuming that the mixing ratio changes approximately linearly as the ITF transport varies between 10 and 20 Sv, an approximate balance between northern and southern component water is reached when the ITF transport is approximately 16 Sv. It is also shown that for the isopycnal surfaces within the core of the equatorial undercurrent, a 2°C temperature front exists across the equator in the western equatorial Pacific, beneath the warm pool. The implications of the model results and the temperature data for the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific are considered.

  14. Classification of monofloral honeys by voltammetric electronic tongue with chemometrics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > We self-developed a voltammetric electronic tongue based on new sensors array. > We advanced a new method to extract eigenvalues from signals obtained by VE-tongue. > We first detected the monofloral honeys of different floral origins using VE-tongue. - Abstract: A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) based on multifrequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) was developed to classify monofloral honeys of seven kinds of floral origins. The VE-tongue was composed of six working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, tungsten, and titanium) in a standard three-electrode configuration. The applied waveform of MLAPV was composed of four individual frequencies: 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1000 Hz. Two eigenvalues (the maximum value and the minimum value) of each cycle were extracted for building the first database (FDB); four eigenvalues (the maximum value, the minimum value, and two inflexion values) were exacted for building the second database (SDB). The two databases were analyzed by three-pattern recognition techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis (CA), respectively. It was possible to discriminate the seven kinds of honeys of different floral origins completely based on FDB and SDB by PCA, DFA and CA, and FDB was certificated as an efficient database by contrasting with the SDB. Moreover, the effective working electrodes and frequencies were picked out as the best experimental project for the further study.

  15. ITER L 6 equatorial maintenance duct remote handling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.

    1996-09-01

    The status and conclusions of a preliminary study of equatorial maintenance duct remote handling is reported. Due to issues with the original duct design a significant portion of the study had to be refocused on equatorial duct layout studies. The study gives an overview of some of the options for design of these ducts and the impact of the design on the equipment to work in the duct. To develop a remote handling concept for creating access through the ducts the following design tasks should be performed: define the operations sequences for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; review the remote handling requirements for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; design concept for door and pipe handling equipment and to propose preliminary procedures for material handling outsides the duct. 35 figs

  16. The growth and decay of equatorial backscatter plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    1980-02-01

    During the past three years, a series of rocket experiments from the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, were conducted to investigate the character of intense, scintillation-producing irregularities that occur in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. Because the source mechanism of equatorial irregularities, believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, is analogous to that which generates plasma-density striations in a nuclear-induced environment, there is considerable interest in the underlying physics that controls the characteristics of these irregularities. A primary objective of ALTAIR investigations of equatorial irregularities is to seek an understanding of the underlying physics by establishing the relationship between meter-scale irregularities (detected by ALTAIR), and the large-scale plasma-density depletions (or 'bubbles') that contain the kilometer-scale, scintillation-producing irregularities. We describe the time evolution of backscatter 'plumes' produced by one meter equatorial field-aligned irregularities. Using ALTAIR, a fully steerable backscatter radar, to repeatedly map selected plumes, we characterize the dynamic behavior of plumes in terms of growth and a decay phase. Most of the observed characteristics are found to be consistent with equatorial-irregularity generation predicted by current theories of Rayleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instabilities. However, other characteristics have been found that suggest key roles played by the eastward neutral wind and by altitude-modulation of the bottomside F layer in establishing the initial conditions for plume growth.

  17. Fighting A Losing Battle: Assessing The Impact Of Mother-Tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although UNESCO (1953) and a number of other educational organizations have persistently advocated for mother-tongue education, such advocacy has made little impact in most countries. This paper takes stock of some of the issues and arguments involved. It then shows how mother-tongue education remains an ...

  18. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  19. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R adj > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L −1 < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation

  20. Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawashima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1 is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRPexpressing terminals.

  1. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  2. Corticobulbar motor evoked potentials from tongue muscles used as a control in cervical spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs changes might be caused to the non-surgically induced factors during cervical spinal surgery. Therefore, control MEPs recorded cranially to the exit of the C5 root are highly recommendable in cervical spinal surgery. We studied whether corticobulbar MEPs (C-MEPs from tongue muscle could be used as a control MEPs in cervical spinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive cervical spinal surgeries were analyzed. Stimulation of motor area for tongue was done by subcutaneous electrodes placed at C3/C4 (10–20 EEG System, and recording was done from both sides of tongue. Results: C-MEPs were recorded successfully 24 out of the 25 (96% tested patients. Forty-six out of fifty MEPs (92% from tongue muscles were monitorable from the baseline. In two patients, we could obtain only unilateral C-MEPs. Mean MEPs latencies obtained from the left and right side of the tongue were 11.5 ± 1 ms and 11.5 ± 0.8 ms, respectively. Conclusions: Monitoring C-MEPs from tongue muscles might be useful control in cervical spinal surgery. They were easily elicited and relatively free from phenomenon of peripheral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Significance: This is first study to identify the usefulness of C-MEPs as a control of cervical spinal surgery. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor-evoked potential, Corticospinal tract, Corticobulbar MEPs, Hypoglossal nerve

  3. Brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Ito, Katsuhide

    2003-01-01

    In treatment choices of stage II (T2N0M0) tongue cancer, brachytherapy is less invasive and superior in function preservation, therefore its role is more important in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment results and morbidity of brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. Between 1980 and 2001, 198 patients with stage II tongue cancer were treated with brachytherapy at Hiroshima University Hospital. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 89 years old (median: 62 years old). Patients were divided into three groups as follows: 119 patients younger than 65 years old (Non-Elderly group), 53 patients between 65 and 75 years old (Junior Elderly group), and 26 patients 75 years or older (Senior Elderly group). Radiotherapy was performed in 101 patients with brachytherapy alone, and in 97 patients with brachytherapy and external radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was also performed in 77 patients. Follow-up period ranged from 4 to 243 months (median: 55 months). The 5-year local control rate was 85% in the Non-Elderly group, 85% in the Junior Elderly group and 81% in the Senior Elderly group. There was no significant difference among these groups. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 85%, 81% and 70% respectively. The Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate than the other two groups (p=0.03). There was also a tendency of higher incidence of neck metastasis and low salvage rate by neck dissection in the Senior Elderly group. Although the Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate, the local control rate was similar to those of the other two groups. Brachytherapy is an effective treatment option for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. (author)

  4. Learners' Motivation for Literacy in the Mother Tongue 1: Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the desirability of and motivational needs for basic literacy in the mother tongue and library use in lbadan metropolis. Data were collected through indepth interviews with 25 adult basic learners. The study reveals a strong desire for literacy in the mother tongue by the respondents. The learners' ...

  5. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Denizer, Elif Nur

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s) it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the quest...

  6. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  7. New ergonomic headset for Tongue-Drive System with wireless smartphone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Hwang, In-O; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless tongue-operated assistive technology (AT), developed for people with severe physical disabilities to control their environment using their tongue motion. We have developed a new ergonomic headset for the TDS with a user-friendly smartphone interface, through which users will be able to wirelessly control various devices, access computers, and drive wheelchairs. This headset design is expected to act as a flexible and multifunctional communication interface for the TDS and improve its usability, accessibility, aesthetics, and convenience for the end users.

  8. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  9. Tongue anato-histology of the oceanodromous adult Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851 with a note on the comparison with the tongue structure of adult R. kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Kettratad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and histological structures of the tongue tissue of Rastrelliger brachysoma and R. kanagurta were investigated. Anatomical structure of the tongue in R. brachysoma was poorly developed and was of triangular shape. The histological and histochemical technique showed the tissue to be principally composed of three layers: tunica mucosa, tunica submucosa and osteocartilagionous skeleton. Stratified epithelium of its mucosal surface was interrupted with several cell types including goblet cells and taste buds. Numerous teeth with elongated shape were also found centrally on the anterior tip of the tongue. They are found among a few dermal papillae of the tongue. Tunica submucosa consisted of connective tissue, blood vessels and pigment cells. When compared anatomically and histologically with that of R. kanagurta, the overall morphological was quite similar. However, some histological structures including taste buds and teeth of R. kanagurta were rarely seen. Rastrelliger kanagurta also tended to have more goblet cell than R. brachysoma. Rastrelliger kanagurta tended to possess less overall histological structures of the tongue. This difference could potentially cause by different feeding adaptation between the two species. Regardless of the differences found between the two species, both are still considered as herbivores.

  10. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin to...

  11. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. DEG/ENaC ion channels involved in sensory transduction are modulated by cold temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askwith, Candice C.; Benson, Christopher J.; Welsh, Michael J.; Snyder, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Several DEG/ENaC cation channel subunits are expressed in the tongue and in cutaneous sensory neurons, where they are postulated to function as receptors for salt and sour taste and for touch. Because these tissues are exposed to large temperature variations, we examined how temperature affects DEG/ENaC channel function. We found that cold temperature markedly increased the constitutively active Na+ currents generated by epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 25°C. Cold temperature did not induce current from other DEG/ENaC family members (BNC1, ASIC, and DRASIC). However, when these channels were activated by acid, cold temperature potentiated the currents by slowing the rate of desensitization. Potentiation was abolished by a “Deg” mutation that alters channel gating. Temperature changes in the physiologic range had prominent effects on current in cells heterologously expressing acid-gated DEG/ENaC channels, as well as in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. The finding that cold temperature modulates DEG/ENaC channel function may provide a molecular explanation for the widely recognized ability of temperature to modify taste sensation and mechanosensation. PMID:11353858

  13. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Tongue: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Farhadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell fibroma of the tongue is a rare benign fibrous tumor of connective tissues in the oral cavity, very few of which have been reported. This benign neoplasm has a predilection for the gingiva and .usually occurs in women under 30. Since this tumor is clinically, and especially histopathologically, placed in the differential diagnosis list of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors, its proper diagnosis is of great significance because widespread and unnecessary surgeries are avoided as a result. The aim of the present report is to present a case of the tumor in the tongue of a 65-year-old man. The fibroma is a benign fibrous tumor of connective tissues which is microscopically classified in differential diagnosis with other soft tissue tumors since its proper diagnosis prevents from extensive and unnecessary surgeries on the patient.

  14. Modeling Global Ocean Biogeochemistry With Physical Data Assimilation: A Pragmatic Solution to the Equatorial Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Stock, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Dunne, John P.; Rosati, Anthony; John, Jasmin; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2018-03-01

    Reliable estimates of historical and current biogeochemistry are essential for understanding past ecosystem variability and predicting future changes. Efforts to translate improved physical ocean state estimates into improved biogeochemical estimates, however, are hindered by high biogeochemical sensitivity to transient momentum imbalances that arise during physical data assimilation. Most notably, the breakdown of geostrophic constraints on data assimilation in equatorial regions can lead to spurious upwelling, resulting in excessive equatorial productivity and biogeochemical fluxes. This hampers efforts to understand and predict the biogeochemical consequences of El Niño and La Niña. We develop a strategy to robustly integrate an ocean biogeochemical model with an ensemble coupled-climate data assimilation system used for seasonal to decadal global climate prediction. Addressing spurious vertical velocities requires two steps. First, we find that tightening constraints on atmospheric data assimilation maintains a better equatorial wind stress and pressure gradient balance. This reduces spurious vertical velocities, but those remaining still produce substantial biogeochemical biases. The remainder is addressed by imposing stricter fidelity to model dynamics over data constraints near the equator. We determine an optimal choice of model-data weights that removed spurious biogeochemical signals while benefitting from off-equatorial constraints that still substantially improve equatorial physical ocean simulations. Compared to the unconstrained control run, the optimally constrained model reduces equatorial biogeochemical biases and markedly improves the equatorial subsurface nitrate concentrations and hypoxic area. The pragmatic approach described herein offers a means of advancing earth system prediction in parallel with continued data assimilation advances aimed at fully considering equatorial data constraints.

  15. Experiment on a novel user input for computer interface utilizing tongue input for the severely disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kencana, Andy Prima; Heng, John

    2008-11-01

    This paper introduces a novel passive tongue control and tracking device. The device is intended to be used by the severely disabled or quadriplegic person. The main focus of this device when compared to the other existing tongue tracking devices is that the sensor employed is passive which means it requires no powered electrical sensor to be inserted into the user's mouth and hence no trailing wires. This haptic interface device employs the use of inductive sensors to track the position of the user's tongue. The device is able perform two main PC functions that of the keyboard and mouse function. The results show that this device allows the severely disabled person to have some control in his environment, such as to turn on and off or control daily electrical devices or appliances; or to be used as a viable PC Human Computer Interface (HCI) by tongue control. The operating principle and set-up of such a novel passive tongue HCI has been established with successful laboratory trials and experiments. Further clinical trials will be required to test out the device on disabled persons before it is ready for future commercial development.

  16. Intraseasonal vertical velocity variation caused by the equatorial wave in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Mizuno, K.

    to the theoretical solution of the equatorial waves [Matsuno, 1966] and the phase speed of the baroclinic mode, the wave that has meridional current on the equator with a quasi-biweekly period is the anti-symmetric mixed Rossby-gravity wave. In the wave... and conclusions are given in section 5. 2. Field Experiment, Data, and Methods 2.1. MISMO Ocean Observation [8] The goal of MISMO was to observe atmospheric conditions and variability associated with intraseasonal disturbances and resulting ocean responses...

  17. Selective Use of the Mother Tongue to Enhance Students’ English Learning Processes...Beyond the Same Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cuartas Alvarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of an action-research project that examines enhancing students’ English learning processes through the selective use of their mother tongues with the aim of overcoming their reluctant attitudes toward learning English in the classroom. This study involves forty ninth-graders from an all-girls public school in Medellin, Colombia. The data gathered included field notes, questionnaires, and participants’ focus group interviews. The findings show that the mother tongue plays an important role in students’ English learning processes by fostering students’ affective, motivational, cognitive, and attitudinal aspects. Thus, the mother tongue serves as the foothold for further advances in learning English when used selectively.

  18. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.-H.; Johnson, J.R.; Kim, K.; Kim, K.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion efficiency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data

  19. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.-H.Lee, J.R. Johnson, K. Kim and K.-S.Kim

    2008-11-20

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion effciency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data.

  20. Features of structure of motor nerve endings in the tongue of normal and dehydrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Popel’

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at an analytical review of scientific literature on the structure of the tongue of different animals and humans, and also at studying the features of the structure of motor nerve endings in the tongue muscles of healthy rats and rats that have undergone prolonged dehydration. Over 14 days, using histological methods we studied neuromuscular endings and peculiarities of their distribution in the tongue muscles of 25 mature rats, both in normal condition and under dehydration. The analysis of the results showed different structures of differentiated motor nerve endings among the rats in normal condition, and also revealed the peculiarities and quantitative characteristics of the components of the neuromuscular endings in relation to the duration of dehydration. The type of neuromuscular ending reflects the morphologically interdependent structure of efferent neuromediators in relation to a part of the tongue. This may determine the nature of the processes of prehension and chewing of food. The structure of neuromuscular endings of the muscles of the tip of the tongue is the most differentiated, they are more numerous and larger. The tip of the tongue of rats had a higher number of nuclei and larger size of the neuromuscular endings of the muscles than the other parts. This, perhaps, is determined by the speed of the movements of the tongue due to eating different foods. The number of nuclei and the size of neuromuscular endings are characterized by significant variations in the pattern of axon branching, which is determined by the anatomical, physiological and biomechanical conditions of functioning of the rats’ tongue muscles. The quantitative analysis of structural peculiarities of axomycin synapses showed that muscle fibers of the tongue have neuroumuscular endings with regulated synaptoarchitectonics which is characterized by the sprouting of the motor axon, a certain length and width of the active zones, number and size of

  1. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of the anterior tongue. Report of two cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, de JG; Kibbelaar, RE; Waal, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    The ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) of the tongue is a recently proposed entity that presents clinically as a slow-growing, painless, firm, submucosal nodule of the anterior dorsum of the tongue. The lesion is histologically characterized by a well-circumscribed lobular proliferation of

  2. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  3. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  4. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap | Nawfal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large palatal fi stulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue fl ap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fi stula closure with anteriorly based tongue fl ap. Key words: Cleft surgery, ...

  5. Ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Desanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondrolipomas and osteolipomas are uncommon variants of lipomatous tumors. Case report. We presented a 60-year-old woman with ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue. Clinical examination revealed a firm nodular mass, located in the midline of the posterior region on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Histologically, the lesion was well-delimited showing areas of mature adipocytes arranged in lobules and separated by fibrous connective tissue septa, islands of mature cartilaginous tissue and osseous metaplasia. Trabeculae of lamellar bone within a fibro-fatty background were visible throughout the tumor. The cartilaginous areas merging centrally with bone formation and fatty marrow tissue were present, as well as the hematopoietic elements in the fatty marrow. The bone forming was found to be through both membranous and enchondral mechanisms. Conclusion. Ossifying chrondrolipoma with hematopoietic elements is extremely unusual lesion. This interesting entity should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lingual lesions.

  6. Anticarcinogenesis effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr on tongue carcinogenesis in 4NQO-induced rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Agustina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Gynura procumbens (Lour Merr leaves have been long used as various cancers medication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated anticarcinogenesis of ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenesis of the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves on 4 nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. Fifty six 4 week old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into 7 groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 were lingually induced by 4NQO for 8 weeks. In groups 2 and 3 the extract was given simultaneously with or after 4NQO induction finished, each for 10 weeks and 26 weeks, respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were induced by 4NQO for 16 weeks. However, in groups 5 and 6 the extract was given as well simultaneously with or after the 4NQO induction, each for 18 weeks, respectively. Group 7 served as the as untreated control group. The results from microscopical assessment showed that tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC developed in 100% (3/3 of group 1. However, only 33.3% (2/6 and 25% (2/8 of rats in groups 2 and 3, respectively demonstrated tongue SCC. Among groups 4, 5 and 6, no significant difference of tongue SCC incidence was observed. From these results it is apparent that the ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens leaves could inhibit the progression of 4NQOinduced rat tongue carcinogenesis in the initiation phase.

  7. Treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer with interstitial brachytherapy: maximum tumor thickness is prognostic of nodal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Akagi, Yukio; Ito, Katsuhide

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic importance of T classification and maximum tumor thickness (MTT) on the treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1981 and December 1993, 173 cases were eligible for this retrospective analysis. Of 173 patients, 75 were classified as Stage I and 98 as Stage II: maximum tumor length ranged from 6 to 40 mm. MTT, which ranged from 2 to 38 mm, was measured with ultrasonography and/or palpation. Brachytherapy was performed with iridium hairpins or radium needles following external irradiation in 66 patients, or exclusively in 107 patients. Results: The 5-year local recurrence rates were Stage I, 7%; Stage II, 22%; MTT < 8 mm, 8%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 28%. The 5-year regional recurrence rates were Stage I, 15%; Stage II, 29%; MTT < 8 mm, 18%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 31%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (5% and 6% vs. 16% and 24%). The 5-year regional recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy-only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (14% and 16% vs. 34% and 46%). There was no significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of Stage I and Stage II, MTT < 8 mm. However, there was a significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of MTT ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.005). Conclusions: For patients with Stage I and II oral tongue cancer, tumor thickness as well as T classification were prognostic for nodal metastasis and prognosis. Patients with MTT ≥ 8 mm are more likely to fail in the neck region. These findings suggest that MTT should be considered along with T stage in determining strategies for Stage I and II oral tongue cancer

  8. ENSO-driven nutrient variability recorded by central equatorial Pacific corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; McGregor, H. V.; Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence for shifts in global ocean primary productivity suggests that surface ocean nutrient availability is a key link between global climate and ocean carbon cycling. Time-series records from satellite, in situ buoy sensors, and bottle sampling have documented the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on equatorial Pacific hydrography and broad changes in biogeochemistry since the late 1990's, however, data are sparse prior to this. Here we use a new paleoceanographic nutrient proxy, coral P/Ca, to explore the impact of ENSO on nutrient availability in the central equatorial Pacific at higher-resolution than available from in situ nutrient data. Corals from Christmas (157°W 2°N) and Fanning (159°W 4°N) Islands recorded a well-documented decrease in equatorial upwelling as a ~40% decrease in P/Ca during the 1997-98 ENSO cycle, validating the application of this proxy to Pacific Porites corals. We compare the biogeochemical shifts observed through the 1997-98 event with two pre-TOGA-TAO ENSO cycles (1982-83 and 1986-87) reconstructed from a longer Christmas Island core. All three corals revealed ~30-40% P/Ca depletions during ENSO warming as a result of decreased regional wind stress, thermocline depth, and equatorial upwelling velocity. However, at the termination of each El Niño event, surface nutrients did not return to pre-ENSO levels for ~4-12 months after, SST as a result of increased biological draw down of surface nutrients. These records demonstrate the utility of high-resolution coral nutrient archives for understanding the impact of tropical Pacific climate on the nutrient and carbon cycling of this key region.

  9. Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. PANCHARIYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..

  10. A custom-made mouthpiece incorporating tongue depressors and elevators to reduce radiation-induced tongue mucositis during carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Hiroaki; Koto, Masashi; Ebner, Daniel K; Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    We introduce a custom-made mouthpiece for carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck malignancy. The mouthpiece incorporates either a tongue depressor or elevator depending on tumor location. The risk of tongue mucositis may be reduced without compromising therapeutic efficacy through mouthpiece shaping. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of speech and tongue motion in normal and post-glossectomy speaker using cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jinhee; Sung, Iel-Yong; Son, Jang-Ho; Stone, Maureen; Ord, Robert; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females) and 13 patients (eight males and five females) volunteered to participate in the experiment. The patients underwent glossectomy surgery for T1 or T2 lateral lingual tumors. The speech tasks "a souk" and "a geese" were spoken by all subjects providing data for the vowels /u/ and /i/. Cine MRI and speech acoustics were recorded and measured to compare the changes in the tongue with vowel acoustics after surgery. 2D measurements were made of the interlip distance, tongue-palate distance, tongue position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior), tongue height on the left and right sides, and pharynx size. Vowel formants Fl, F2, and F3 were measured. The patients had significantly lower F2/Fl ratios (F=5.911, p=0.018), and lower F3/F1 ratios that approached significance. This was seen primarily in the /u/ data. Patients had flatter tongue shapes than controls with a greater effect seen in /u/ than /i/. The patients showed complex adaptation motion in order to preserve the acoustic integrity of the vowels, and the tongue modified cavity size relationships to maintain the value of the formant frequencies.

  12. Phase III trial of high- vs. low-dose-rate interstitial radiotherapy for early mobile tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Early mobile tongue cancer can be controlled with interstitial radiotherapy (ISRT). We carried out a Phase III trial to compare the treatment results of low-dose-rate (Ld) ISRT and high-dose-rate (HDR) ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 1992 through October 1996, 59 patients with cancer of the early mobile tongue were registered in this Phase III study. Eight patients were excluded from the evaluation because of violations of the requirements for this study. Of 51 eligible patients, 26 patients were treated with LDR-ISRT (70 Gy/4-9 days) and 25 patients with HDR-ISRT (60 Gy/10 fractions/1 week). For the hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT, the time interval between 2 fractions was more than 6 h. Results: Five-year local control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 84% and 87% respectively. Nodal metastasis occurred in 6 patients in each group. Five-year nodal control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 77% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer has the same local control compared with continuous LDR-ISRT. Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT is an alternative treatment for continuous LDR-ISRT

  13. Application of Sensory Evaluation, HS-SPME GC-MS, E-Nose, and E-Tongue for Quality Detection in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electronic tongue (E-tongue), headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), electronic nose (E-nose), and quantitative describe analysis (QDA) were applied to describe the 2 types of citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarins [Citrus unshiu Marc.] and sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis {L.} Osbeck]) and their mixing juices systematically and comprehensively. As some aroma components or some flavor molecules interacted with the whole juice matrix, the changes of most components in the fruit juice were not in proportion to the mixing ratio of the 2 citrus fruits. The potential correlations among the signals of E-tongue and E-nose, volatile components, and sensory attributes were analyzed by using analysis of variance partial least squares regression. The result showed that the variables from the sensor signals (E-tongue system and E-nose system) had significant and positive (or negative) correlations to the most variables of volatile components (GC-MS) and sensory attributes (QDA). The simultaneous utilization of E-tongue and E-nose obtained a perfect classification result with 100% accuracy rate based on linear discriminant analysis and also attained a satisfying prediction with high coefficient association for the sensory attributes (R(2) > 0.994 for training sets and R(2) > 0.983 for testing sets) and for the volatile components (R(2) > 0.992 for training sets and R(2) > 0.990 for testing sets) based on random forest. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods, such as GC-MS and sensory evaluation by human panel in the fruit industry. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods for characterizing food flavors. Based on those

  14. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  15. ERK-GluR1 phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neurons is involved in pain associated with dry tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yuka; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kubo, Asako; Chen, Jui Yen; Noma, Noboru; Batbold, Dulguun; Imamura, Yoshiki; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    was significantly reduced in PD98059-administrated rats compared to the vehicle-administrated tongue-dry rats. These findings suggest that the pERK-pGluR1 cascade is involved in central sensitization of trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive neurons, thus resulting in tongue mechanical hyperalgesia associated with tongue drying. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Reinvigorating Ethnic Cultural Identity Through Mother-Tongue-Teaching Materials in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-chiao

    1996-01-01

    Explores to what extent a mother-tongue educational program can reinvigorate Taiwan's ethnic cultural identity. Content of mother-tongue materials used in Taipei county for Taiwanese, Hakka, and Ataylic students is analyzed, and interviews with members from each ethnic group are also conducted as a supplement. (JL)

  17. Severe tongue laceration with massive hemorrhage in a 35-year-old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs G.T. presented as an unbooked grandmultipara, in eclamptic fits and severe tongue laceration complicated by intrauterine foetal death, anaemia, acute renal failure and cerebrovascular injury. A female fresh stillbirth was delivered following induction of labor at 28 weeks gestation. Tongue was observed to be ...

  18. A lateral cephalometric study of the size of tongue and intermaxillary space in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Rae

    1977-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the size of tongue area and intermaxillary space area, and compare the sexual differences between normal Korean children and adults by introducing planimetric and linear analysis of the lateral cephalograms. The cephalograms were composed of 41 child male aged 10.8, 40 child female aged 10.5, 38 adult male aged 21.3 , and 40 adult female aged 20.8 respectively. In order to study and measure the intermaxillary space area, the following were selected, as reference items: occlusal plane, anterior intermaxillary space height, posterior intermaxillary space height, length of intermaxillary space. Among those reference items anterior intermaxillary space height and posterior intermaxillary space height were perpendicular to the maxillary plane. An index, (Anterior intermaxillary space height + posterior intermaxillary space height )/2 Length of intermaxillary space, was introduced for the calculation of intermaxillary space area. While the tongue area was plotted by outline of tongue shadow, above a line extending from the vallecula to the most anterior point on the hyoid body, and above a line from the most anterior point of the hyoid body to the mention. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in intermaxillary space area in childhood and adulthood group. But intermaxillary space area of childhood group showed no significant sexual difference, and that of adulthood group showed significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 2. In both groups, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in tongue area, and there are also statistical significance of sexual differences in both age groups. 3. Considerable growth changes between the childhood and adulthood groups were revealed in intermaxillary space area an d tongue area, and the tongue had tendency to become relatively smaller when compared with the intermaxillary space in both sexes.

  19. A lateral cephalometric study of the size of tongue and intermaxillary space in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the size of tongue area and intermaxillary space area, and compare the sexual differences between normal Korean children and adults by introducing planimetric and linear analysis of the lateral cephalograms. The cephalograms were composed of 41 child male aged 10.8, 40 child female aged 10.5, 38 adult male aged 21.3 , and 40 adult female aged 20.8 respectively. In order to study and measure the intermaxillary space area, the following were selected, as reference items: occlusal plane, anterior intermaxillary space height, posterior intermaxillary space height, length of intermaxillary space. Among those reference items anterior intermaxillary space height and posterior intermaxillary space height were perpendicular to the maxillary plane. An index, (Anterior intermaxillary space height + posterior intermaxillary space height)/2 Length of intermaxillary space, was introduced for the calculation of intermaxillary space area. While the tongue area was plotted by outline of tongue shadow, above a line extending from the vallecula to the most anterior point on the hyoid body, and above a line from the most anterior point of the hyoid body to the mention. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In general, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in intermaxillary space area in childhood and adulthood group. But intermaxillary space area of childhood group showed no significant sexual difference, and that of adulthood group showed significant sexual difference when evaluated statistically. 2. In both groups, the measurements of male were larger than those of female in tongue area, and there are also statistical significance of sexual differences in both age groups. 3. Considerable growth changes between the childhood and adulthood groups were revealed in intermaxillary space area an d tongue area, and the tongue had tendency to become relatively smaller when compared with the intermaxillary space in both sexes.

  20. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  1. High altitude flights in equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkar, R. T.

    A thorough analysis of balloon flights made from Hyderabad, India (Latitude 17°28'N, Longitude 78°35'E), and other equatorial sites has been made. It has been shown that limited success is expected for flights made from equatorial latitudes with balloons made out of natural colour polyethylene film, since the best known balloon film in the world today viz. Winzen Stratofilm is tested for low temperature brittleness only at -80°C., whereas the tropopause temperatures over equatorial latitudes vary between -80°C and -90°C. The success becomes even more critical when flights are made with heavy payloads and larger balloons particularly at night when in the absence of solar radiation the balloon film becomes more susceptible to low temperature brittle failure. It is recommended that in case of capped balloons longer caps should be used to fully cover the inflated protion of the balloon at the higher level equatorial tropopause. It is also advised that the conditions such as wind shears in the tropopause should be critically studied before launching and a day with the tropopause temperature nearer to -80°C should be chosen. Special care also should be taken while handling the balloon on ground and during launching phase. Properties of Winzen Stratofilm have been critically studied and fresh mandates have been recommended on the basis of limiting values of film stresses which caused balloon failures in the equatorial tropopause. It is also emphasized that the data on such flights is still meagre especially for flights with heavy payloads and larger balloons. It has been also shown that it is safest to use balloons made out of grey coloured film which retains its flexibility with the absorption of solar radiation, the success obtained with such balloons so far being 100%. The drawback, however, is that these balloons cannot be used for night flights. Stratospheric wind regimes over Hyderabad are also discussed with a view to determine the period over which long

  2. The scaling of tongue projection in the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, Anthony; Redding, Chrystal L; Meyers, J Jay; Nishikawa, Kiisa C

    2014-08-01

    Within a year of hatching, chameleons can grow by up to two orders of magnitude in body mass. Rapid growth of the feeding mechanism means that bones, muscles, and movements change as chameleons grow while needing to maintain function. A previous morphological study showed that the musculoskeletal components of the feeding apparatus grow with negative allometry relative to snout-vent length (SVL) in chameleons. Here, we investigate the scaling of prey capture kinematics and muscle physiological cross-sectional area in the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. The chameleons used in this study varied in size from approximately 3 to 18 cm SVL (1-200 g). Feeding sequences of 12 chameleons of different sizes were filmed and the timing of movements and the displacements and velocities of the jaws, tongue, and the hyolingual apparatus were quantified. Our results show that most muscle cross-sectional areas as well as tongue and hyoid mass scaled with isometry relative to mandible length, yet with negative allometry relative to SVL. Durations of movement also scaled with negative allometry relative to SVL and mandible length. Distances and angles generally scaled as predicted under geometric similarity (slopes of 1 and 0, respectively), while velocities generally scaled with slopes greater than 0 relative to SVL and mandible length. These data indicate that the velocity of jaw and tongue movements is generally greater in adults compared to juveniles. The discrepancy between the scaling of cross-sectional areas versus movements suggests changes in the energy storage and release mechanisms implicated in tongue projection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Late complications after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Teshima, Teruki; Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Fuchihata, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to analyze the treatment results and late complications of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) for early (T1N0, T2N0) mobile tongue cancer using the microSelectron-HDR. From January 1993 through April 2001, a total of 72 patients with early squamous cell carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated with microSelectron-HDR interstitial brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Of the patients, 18% were treated with a combination of prior external radiation and HDR-ISBT, and 82% were treated with HDR-ISBT alone. For HDR-ISBT alone, all cases were treated with a total dose of 54 Gy/9 fractions every 5 days or 60 Gy/10 fractions every 8 days. In combined therapy with an external dose of 30 to 40 Gy, HDR-ISBT was given at a total dose of 42-50 Gy. The Brinkman and alcohol indexes were used to analyze the incidence of late complications after HDR-ISBT. The 2- and 5-year local control rates were 85% and 82%, respectively. Fifteen of 72 patients (21%) treated with HDR-ISBT had late complications. Ten of 15 patients (67%) with late complications had a Brinkman index exceeding 600. HDR-ISBT is useful and easily applied under local anesthesia to early or superficial lesions of the mobile tongue. However, we found an increase in late complications, such as soft-tissue ulcers and bone exposure, after irradiation of tongue cancer with 60 Gy HDR-ISBT in patients with a Brinkman index greater than 600. (author)

  4. Impact of different solar penetration depths on climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different estimates of shortwave attenuation depth (SWAD of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR derived from remotely sensed ocean colour data have been tested in an ocean general circulation model (OGCM forced with interannual atmospheric forcings. Two estimates (referred to as [Kd(PAR]1-1 and [Kd(PAR]2-1 are calculated from different algorithms based on the diffusive attenuation coefficient at 490 nm and the third one ([Kd(AVE]1-1 is just an average of [Kd(PAR]1-1 and [Kd(PAR]2-1. [Kd(PAR]2-1 is larger than [Kd(PAR]1-1 almost everywhere in the tropical oceans. Our results show that the OGCM with [Kd(PAR]2-1 produces warmer sea surface temperature (SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific and Atlantic and leads to reduce a cold bias in the equatorial cold tongue regions. It has warmer subsurface temperatures in the low latitude, a slower meridional velocity and Pacific equatorial undercurrent (EUC than the model with [Kd(PAR]1-1. These results are similar to previous studies, although we use a different model and different methods. This study has further analysis and firstly reveals that slower EUC and meridional velocity in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 are mainly related to the changes of the acceleration due to zonal density gradient. This acceleration driving the EUC eastward in the subsurface becomes smaller in the subsurface along the equatorial Pacific. However, near the sea surface, the zonally averaged accelerations over the different ocean basins are larger in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 than that with [Kd(PAR]1-1, which pushes back the poleward meridional transport. The interannual variability in the model with [Kd(PAR]2-1 is generally weaker than that in the experiment with [Kd(PAR]1-1 due to a deeper mixed layer depth. The vertical temperature errors averaged horizontally within the domain of 30°S to 30°N in the experiment with [Kd(AVE]1-1 are almost in the middle of errors of the other two experiments. This indicates that

  5. Alleviating tropical Atlantic sector biases in the Kiel climate model by enhancing horizontal and vertical atmosphere model resolution: climatology and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaß, Jan; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the quality of simulating tropical Atlantic (TA) sector climatology and interannual variability in integrations of the Kiel climate model (KCM) with varying atmosphere model resolution. The ocean model resolution is kept fixed. A reasonable simulation of TA sector annual-mean climate, seasonal cycle and interannual variability can only be achieved at sufficiently high horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution. Two major reasons for the improvements are identified. First, the western equatorial Atlantic westerly surface wind bias in spring can be largely eliminated, which is explained by a better representation of meridional and especially vertical zonal momentum transport. The enhanced atmospheric circulation along the equator in turn greatly improves the thermal structure of the upper equatorial Atlantic with much reduced warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases. Second, the coastline in the southeastern TA and steep orography are better resolved at high resolution, which improves wind structure and in turn reduces warm SST biases in the Benguela upwelling region. The strongly diminished wind and SST biases at high atmosphere model resolution allow for a more realistic latitudinal position of the intertropical convergence zone. Resulting stronger cross-equatorial winds, in conjunction with a shallower thermocline, enable a rapid cold tongue development in the eastern TA in boreal spring. This enables simulation of realistic interannual SST variability and its seasonal phase locking in the KCM, which primarily is the result of a stronger thermocline feedback. Our findings suggest that enhanced atmospheric resolution, both vertical and horizontal, could be a key to achieving more realistic simulation of TA climatology and interannual variability in climate models.

  6. Cat Got Your Tongue? Using the Tip-of-the-Tongue State to Investigate Fixed Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Bull, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that they play a prominent role in everyday speech, the representation and processing of fixed expressions during language production is poorly understood. Here, we report a study investigating the processes underlying fixed expression production. "Tip-of-the-tongue" (TOT) states were elicited for well-known idioms…

  7. Operation of a quadripole probe on magnetospheric satellite (GEOS experiment). Contribution to cold plasma behaviour study near equatorial plasma pause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreau-Prior, P.

    1983-06-01

    This thesis is concerned with the exploitation of GEOS Satellite RF quadripole probe measurements, GEOS satellites have explored magnetosphere on the geostationary orbit and around it. Results a low to qualify the instrument in magnetospheric plasma (previously, it had been used only in ionosphere). Furthermore existence, outside the outer plasmasphere, of a cold population (from 0,4 to 8 eV) with medium density (from 2 to 50 particles cm -3 ) is shown. This population had been ignored until then, by in situ particle measure experiment. So, new perspectives on coupling nature of the explored region with ionosphere, and with plasma sheet, more particularly because the temperature measured at the equator is on an average, clearly higher than in high ionosphere the principal source of magnetospheric cold plasma [fr

  8. Larger CO2 source at the equatorial Pacific during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Obrochta, Stephen; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    While biogeochemical and physical processes in the Southern Ocean are thought to be central to atmospheric CO2 rise during the last deglaciation, the role of the equatorial Pacific, where the largest CO2 source exists at present, remains largely unconstrained. Here we present seawater pH and pCO2 variations from fossil Porites corals in the mid equatorial Pacific offshore Tahiti based on a newly calibrated boron isotope paleo-pH proxy. Our new data, together with recalibrated existing data, indicate that a significant pCO2 increase (pH decrease), accompanied by anomalously large marine 14C reservoir ages, occurred following not only the Younger Dryas, but also Heinrich Stadial 1. These findings indicate an expanded zone of equatorial upwelling and resultant CO2 emission, which may be derived from higher subsurface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. PMID:24918354

  9. Neck-tongue syndrome on sudden turning of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J W; Anthony, M

    1980-01-01

    A syndrome of unilateral upper nuchal or occipital pain, with or without numbness in these areas, accompanied by simultaneous ipsilateral numbness of the tongue is explicable by compression of the second cervical root in the atlantoaxial space on sharp rotation of the neck. Afferents fibres from the lingual nerve travelling via the hypoglossal nerve to the second cervical root provide a plausible anatomical explanation for compression of that root causing numbness of half the tongue. PMID:7359159

  10. 'Tongue-and-groove' effect in intensity modulated radiotherapy with static multileaf collimator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, W; Kung, J; Dai, J

    2004-01-01

    The 'tongue-and-groove problem' in step-and-shoot delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy is investigated. A 'tongue-and-groove' index (TGI) is introduced to quantify the 'tongue-and-groove' effect in step-and-shoot delivery. Four different types of leaf sequencing methods are compared. The sliding window method and the reducing level method use the same number of field segments to deliver the same intensity map, but the TGI is much less for the reducing level method. The leaf synchronization method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen fails in step-and-shoot delivery, but a new method inspired by the method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen is shown to eliminate 'tongue-and-groove' underdosage completely

  11. Long term results of primary radiation therapy for squamous cancer of the base of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, LB; Lee, H; Kraus, DH; Zelefsky, M; Strong, EW; Pfister, DG; Raben, A; Shah, J; White, C; Carper, E; Portenoy, R

    1996-01-01

    From 1981-1995, 68 patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the base of tongue were managed with primary radiation therapy, with neck dissection added for those who presented with palpable lymph node metastases. Ages ranged from 35-77 (median 55). There were 59 males and 9 females. T Stage was: T1-17, T2-32, T3-17, T4-2. Fifty-eight patients (85%) presented with nodal metastases. Treatment generally involved external beam radiation (EBRT) to the primary site and upper neck (54 Gy), low neck (50 Gy), additional EBRT to area of nodal involvement to 60 Gy, followed (2-4 weeks later) by brachytherapy boost (20-30 Gy) to the base of tongue using Iridium-192. The implant was done at the same anesthesia as the neck dissection, and all patients had temporary tracheostomy. Follow-up ranges from 1-151 months (median 36 months). Nine patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Actuarial 5 and 10-year local control is 88% and 88%, regional control is 96% and 96%, distant metastasis free survival is 91% and 76%, disease free survival is 80% and 67%, and overall survival is 86% and 52%, respectively. After EBRT, 78% of dissected necks were pathologically negative. Complications occurred in 16%. A detailed quality of life (QOL) assessment has been completed on the first 36 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and median follow-up of 5 years. This included a Performance Status Assessment, socio-demographic and economic questionnaire, a multidimensional QOL assessment measuring emotional, physical, social and functional well-being, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. This data will be presented. The overwhelming majority of patients were able to maintain their pre-diagnosis earning potential, employment status, speaking ability and ability to eat in public. However, a variety of symptoms such as xerostomia, swallowing difficulty, decreased energy, changes in taste and dietary restrictions were observed. Our data shows that primary radiation therapy produces

  12. Analysis of dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; MRI of the tongue and formant analysis of vowels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Sakae; Arasaki, Keisuke (Hitachi General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Nagata, Hiroshi; Shouji, Shinichi

    1994-03-01

    To evaluate dysarthria in patients with ALS, we used MRI (gradient rephasing echo method) and compared it with the computed acoustic analysis. Five ALS male patients of progressive bulbar palsy type and five normal males were asked to phonate the five Japanese vowels, /a/[center dot]/i/[center dot]/u/[center dot]/e/[center dot]/o/. MRI of the sagittal tongue and vocal tract was obtained by the gradient rephasing echo method (0.2 Tesla, TR: 30 ms, TE: 10 ms, FA: 25degC, Hitachi). We could clearly visualized the change of tongue shape and the narrow site of the vocal tract for each vowel phonation. In normal subjects, the tongue shape and the narrow site of the vocal tract were distinguishable between each vowel, but unclear in ALS. Acoustic analysis showed that the first formant frequency of /i/[center dot]/u/ in ALS was higher than normal and the second formant frequency of /i/[center dot]/e/ in ALS was significantly lower than normal. The discrepancy from the normal first, second and third formant frequency for each vowel of ALS was most seen in /i/[center dot]/ e/. It was speculated that /i/ and /e/ were the most disturbed vowels in ALS. The first and second formant frequency of vowel depends on the tongue shape and the width of the oral cavity. Therefore the results of the acoustic analysis in ALS indicated poor movement of tongue in /i/[center dot]/u/[center dot]/e/ and were compatible with the findings of the sagittal tongue MRI. The sagittal view of the tongue in the gradient rephasing echo MRI and the acoustic analysis are useful in evaluating dysarthria in ALS. (author).

  13. Detection of odoriferous subgingival and tongue microbiota in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with oral malodor using polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R Kamaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis has been correlated with the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs produced in the oral cavity by metabolic activity of bacteria colonizing the periodontal pockets and the dorsum of the tongue. It has been assumed that there is a relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms of subgingival plaque and tongue coating, such as P. gingivalis (Pg, T. forsythia (Tf, and F. nucleatum (Fn using polymerase chain reaction (PCR in nondiabetic and diabetic chronic periodontitis patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients (with and without diabetes with 5-7 mm pocket depth, radiographic evidence of bone loss, and presence of oral malodor participated in this study. Subjective assessment of mouth air was done organoleptically and by using a portable sulfide monitor. Tongue coating was also assessed. Results: The scores of plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, VSC levels, and tongue coating between the nondiabetic and diabetic patients were not significant (P>0.5. In nondiabetic patients, Fn was found to be significantly (P0.5. In diabetic patients, Fn and Tf have shown significant (P<0.5 an increase in subgingival and tongue samples, respectively, whereas Pg has not shown significant difference between subgingival and tongue samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results confirm that there is no difference in clinical parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic periodontitis patients, but the odoriferous microbial profiles in tongue samples of diabetic patients were found to be high. However, there is a weak positive correlation between VSC levels, clinical parameters, and odoriferous microbial profiles.

  14. Nonlinear bounce resonances between magnetosonic waves and equatorially mirroring electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya

    2015-08-01

    Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the flux of these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from an equatorial pitch angle of 90° down to lower values. However, this mechanism has not been uniquely identified yet. Here we investigate the mechanism of bounce resonance with equatorial noise (or fast magnetosonic waves). A test particle simulation is used to examine the effects of monochromatic magnetosonic waves on the equatorially mirroring energetic electrons, with a special interest in characterizing the effectiveness of bounce resonances. Our analysis shows that bounce resonances can occur at the first three harmonics of the bounce frequency (nωb, n = 1, 2, and 3) and can effectively reduce the equatorial pitch angle to values where resonant scattering by whistler mode waves becomes possible. We demonstrate that the nature of bounce resonance is nonlinear, and we propose a nonlinear oscillation model for characterizing bounce resonances using two key parameters, effective wave amplitude à and normalized wave number k~z. The threshold for higher harmonic resonance is more strict, favoring higher à and k~z, and the change in equatorial pitch angle is strongly controlled by k~z. We also investigate the dependence of bounce resonance effects on various physical parameters, including wave amplitude, frequency, wave normal angle and initial phase, plasma density, and electron energy. It is found that the effect of bounce resonance is sensitive to the wave normal angle. We suggest that the bounce resonant interaction might lead to an observed pitch angle distribution with a minimum at 90°.

  15. Effect of chemical compounds on electronic tongue response to citrus juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electronic tongue system mimics the process of taste detection by human taste buds and recognition by the brain, hence helping in prediction of taste. With this unique capability, the electronic tongue has been used for taste detection of a wide range of food products. As a preliminary step in p...

  16. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  17. Tongue-operated assistive technology with access to common smartphone applications via Bluetooth link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology (AT) that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and electronic gadgets using their tongue motion. We developed the TDS to control smartphone's (iPhone/iPod Touch) built-in and downloadable apps with a customized Bluetooth mouse module by emulating finger taps on the touchscreen. The TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface was evaluated by four able-bodied subjects to complete a scenario consisting of seven tasks, which were randomly ordered by using touch on the iPhone screen with index finger, a computer mouse on iPhone, and TDS-iPhone Bluetooth mouse interface with tongue motion. Preliminary results show that the average completion times of a scenario with touch, mouse, and TDS are 165.6 ± 14.50 s, 186.1 ± 15.37 s, and 651.6 ± 113.4 s, respectively, showing that the TDS is 84.37% and 81.16% slower than touch and mouse for speed of typing with negligible errors. Overall, considering the limited number of commands and unfamiliarity of the subjects with the TDS, we achieved acceptable results for hands-free functionality.

  18. Controversies in the management of tongue base cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Tongue base cancer is one of the most lethal head and neck cancers. There is considerable controversy in the management of this disease with wide variation of opinion within the literature. METHODS: We discuss the presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which exist in the literature. Articles were reviewed from 1970 to 2007 within the Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with a history of persistent unilateral neck pain, even in the absence of clinical signs warrant MRI neck imaging. Tongue base cancer organ preservation therapeutic strategies, radiation and concomitant platinum based chemotherapy, currently optimise oncologic and quality of life outcomes.

  19. The carcinomas tongue-incidence risk factor, presentation and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Mazafar, K.

    2000-01-01

    The tongue is one of the common site for the development of carcinoma in the oral cavity. A prospective study was done from 1st January 1995 to 30th November, 1995. A total of 47 new cases of the oral cavity cancer were seen during this period. Out of which 10 (21.3%) cases were of tongue carcinoma and it was found to be the commonest tumor of the oral cavity. Surgery was the best option for early lesions. (author)

  20. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  1. The tongue microbiome in healthy subjects and patients with intraoral halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seerangaiyan, Kavitha; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) is an unpleasant odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is thought that the microbiota of the dorsal tongue coating plays a crucial role in this condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of the tongue microbiome in subjects with and without IOH. A

  2. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najeeb, T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  3. Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient′s age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue.

  4. Giant neurofibrolipoma of the tip of the tongue: Case report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurofibrolipoma is a very rare benign oral tumor with other synonyms such as neural fibrolipoma, perineural lipoma and intraneural lipoma. A 50 years old female presented with a massive swelling of the tongue of 6 years duration. The tumor was attached to the mucosa of the tip of the tongue, disturbing mastication and ...

  5. Palliation of dysphagia with radiotherapy for exophytic base tongue metastases in a case of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Wadasadawala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Base tongue involvement is a rare presentation of lingual metastases from renal cell carcinoma. A 48-year-old gentleman was treated with open radical nephrectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy for Stage II Furhman grade I clear cell carcinoma of the left kidney at an outside hospital. He presented metachronously 5 years later with progressive dysphagia and change of voice. Clinicoradiological evaluation revealed a large exophytic mass in the oropharynx with epicenter in the right base of tongue. Metastatic workup revealed widespread dissemination to multiple organs and bone. In view of predominant symptom of dysphagia, base tongue metastasis was treated with protracted course of palliative radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy in conventional fractionation over 5 weeks. This resulted in excellent and durable response at the base tongue lesion (till the time of last follow-up. Radiation therapy is an acceptable palliative strategy for advanced lingual metastasis as it produces prompt relief of pain, bleeding, and dysphagia.

  6. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  7. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  8. Research on the Method of Big Data Collecting, Storing and Analyzing of Tongue Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wu, Qingfeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyzes the contents of the clinical data of tongue diagnosis of TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), and puts forward a method to collect, store and analyze the clinical data of tongue diagnosis. Under the guidance of TCM theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment, this method combines with Hadoop, which is a distributed computing system with strong expansibility, and integrates the functions of analysis and conversion of big data of clinic tongue diagnosis. At the same time, the consistency, scalability and security of big data in tongue diagnosis are realized.

  9. Implementation of Man-made Tongue Immobilization Devices in Treating Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Won Joo; Yoon, Jong Won; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    For head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy, proper immobilization of intra-oral structures is crucial in reproducing treatment positions and optimizing dose distribution. We produced a man-made tongue immobilization device for each patient subjected to this study. Reproducibility of treatment positions and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were compared using man-made tongue immobilization devices and conventional tongue-bites. Dental alginate and putty were used in producing man-made tongue immobilization devices. In order to evaluate reproducibility of treatment positions, all patients were CT-simulated, and linac-gram was repeated 5 times with each patient in the treatment position. An acrylic phantom was devised in order to evaluate safety of man-made tongue immobilization devices. Air, water, alginate and putty were placed in the phantom and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were calculated using Pinnacle (version 7.6c, Phillips, USA) and measured with EBT film. Two different field sizes (33 cm and 55 cm) were used for comparison. Evaluation of linac grams showed reproducibility of a treatment position was 4 times more accurate with man-made tongue immobilization devices compared with conventional tongue bites. Patients felt more comfortable using customized tongue immobilization devices during radiation treatment. Air-and-tissue interface dose distributions calculated using Pinnacle were 7.78% and 0.56% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Dose distributions measured with EBT (international specialty products, USA) film were 36.5% and 11.8% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Values from EBT film were higher. Using man-made tongue immobilization devices made of dental alginate and putty in treatment of head and neck cancer patients showed higher reproducibility of treatment position compared with using conventional mouth pieces. Man-made immobilization devices can help optimizing air

  10. Implementation of Man-made Tongue Immobilization Devices in Treating Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Won Joo; Yoon, Jong Won; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Cancer Center, Yensei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    For head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy, proper immobilization of intra-oral structures is crucial in reproducing treatment positions and optimizing dose distribution. We produced a man-made tongue immobilization device for each patient subjected to this study. Reproducibility of treatment positions and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were compared using man-made tongue immobilization devices and conventional tongue-bites. Dental alginate and putty were used in producing man-made tongue immobilization devices. In order to evaluate reproducibility of treatment positions, all patients were CT-simulated, and linac-gram was repeated 5 times with each patient in the treatment position. An acrylic phantom was devised in order to evaluate safety of man-made tongue immobilization devices. Air, water, alginate and putty were placed in the phantom and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were calculated using Pinnacle (version 7.6c, Phillips, USA) and measured with EBT film. Two different field sizes (33 cm and 55 cm) were used for comparison. Evaluation of linac grams showed reproducibility of a treatment position was 4 times more accurate with man-made tongue immobilization devices compared with conventional tongue bites. Patients felt more comfortable using customized tongue immobilization devices during radiation treatment. Air-and-tissue interface dose distributions calculated using Pinnacle were 7.78% and 0.56% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Dose distributions measured with EBT (international specialty products, USA) film were 36.5% and 11.8% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Values from EBT film were higher. Using man-made tongue immobilization devices made of dental alginate and putty in treatment of head and neck cancer patients showed higher reproducibility of treatment position compared with using conventional mouth pieces. Man-made immobilization devices can help optimizing air

  11. Model-based identification of motion sensor placement for tracking retraction and elongation of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yikun K; Nash, Martyn P; Pullan, Andrew J; Kieser, Jules A; Röhrle, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Electromagnetic articulography (EMA) is designed to track facial and tongue movements. In practice, the EMA sensors for tracking the movement of the tongue's surface are placed heuristically. No recommendation exists. Within this paper, a model-based approach providing a mathematical analysis and a computational-based recommendation for the placement of sensors, which is based on the tongue's envelope of movement, is proposed. For this purpose, an anatomically detailed Finite Element (FE) model of the tongue has been employed to determine the envelope of motion for retraction and elongation using a forward simulation. Two optimality criteria have been proposed to identify a set of optimal sensor locations based on the pre-computed envelope of motion. The first one is based on the assumption that locations exhibiting large displacements contain the most information regarding the tongue's movement and are less susceptible to measurement errors. The second one selects sensors exhibiting each the largest displacements in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, medial-lateral and overall direction. The quality of the two optimality criteria is analysed based on their ability to deduce from the respective sensor locations the corresponding muscle activation parameters of the relevant muscle fibre groups during retraction and elongation by solving the corresponding inverse problem. For this purpose, a statistical analysis has been carried out, in which sensor locations for two different modes of deformation have been subjected to typical measurement errors. Then, for tongue retraction and elongation, the expectation value, the standard deviation, the averaged bias and the averaged coefficient of variation have been computed based on 41 different error-afflicted sensor locations. The results show that the first optimality criteria is superior to the second one and that the averaged bias and averaged coefficient of variation decrease when the number of sensors is

  12. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-06-22

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period.

  13. Morpholoical Study of the Brandt’s Hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas (Eulipotyphla, Erinaceidae, Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and histological structure of two adult Brandt’s hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas, (Brandt, 1836 tongue were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. On the dorsal surface of the tongue, three types of papillae were observed: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. Apex and corpus of the tongue as well as the lateral surface of the corpus were covered with numerous filiform papillae with bifurcated tip, while the epithelium lining the ventral lingual surface was free from papillae. Discoid shape fungiform papillae were scattered over the entire surface of the lingual apex, corpus and lateral surface uniformly between the filiform ones without regional variation in number and size. Three elliptical or oval vallate papillae in an inverted triangle form were found on the root of the tongue. Each papilla had a lobulated and very irregular dorsal surface. Both fungiform and vallate papillae contain taste buds. The foliate papillae was absent. Overall, the present findings reveal that despite some similarities, the lingual papillae of the Brandt’s hedgehog as an omnivore animal has spices-specific characteristics compare to the Erinaceous auritus as an insectivore species. This finding provides a set of basic data about the morphology of tongue and its lingual papillae in Brandt’s hedgehog.

  14. Interannual rainfall variability in the Amazon basin and sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and the tropical Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchail, Josyane; Cochonneau, Gérard; Molinier, Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Chaves, Adriana Goretti De Miranda; Guimarães, Valdemar; de Oliveira, Eurides

    2002-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the Amazon basin is studied in relation to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial Pacific and the northern and southern tropical Atlantic during the 1977-99 period, using the HiBAm original rainfall data set and complementary cluster and composite analyses.The northeastern part of the basin, north of 5 °S and east of 60 °W, is significantly related with tropical SSTs: a rainier wet season is observed when the equatorial Pacific and the northern (southern) tropical Atlantic are anomalously cold (warm). A shorter and drier wet season is observed during El Niño events and negative rainfall anomalies are also significantly associated with a warm northern Atlantic in the austral autumn and a cold southern Atlantic in the spring. The northeastern Amazon rainfall anomalies are closely related with El Niño-southern oscillation during the whole year, whereas the relationships with the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies are mainly observed during the autumn. A time-space continuity is observed between El Niño-related rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon, those in the northern Amazon and south-eastern Amazon, and those in northern South America and in the Nordeste of Brazil.A reinforcement of certain rainfall anomalies is observed when specific oceanic events combine. For instance, when El Niño and cold SSTs in the southern Atlantic are associated, very strong negative anomalies are observed in the whole northern Amazon basin. Nonetheless, the comparison of the cluster and the composite analyses results shows that the rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon are not always associated with tropical SST anomalies.In the southern and western Amazon, significant tropical SST-related rainfall anomalies are very few and spatially variable. The precipitation origins differ from those of the northeastern Amazon: land temperature variability, extratropical perturbations and moisture advection are important rainfall factors, as well

  15. Diagnosis of cancer of the tongue and oral floor using plain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariji, Eiichiro; Kanda, Shigenobu

    1988-01-01

    CT images of 18 patients, diagnosed squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue or oral floor, were analyzed to assess the clinical importance of plain CT for primary sites. All cases were scanned on Somatom DR (Siemens) at the Department of Dental Radiology, Kyushu University Dental Hospital from 1985 to 1988. Results were as follows : 1, As descriptions of primary tumors mainly depended on their size in soft tissue, plain CT was useful only for advanced cases (T3, T4). 2, For cancer of the oral floor and advanced cases of cancer of the tongue, plain CT was useful to evaluate the bone invasion, especially in cases of lingual cortex of the anterior mandible. (author)

  16. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  17. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  18. Clinical study on N0-stage tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Yasubumi; Ando, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Makoto; Sangu, Yoshikuni; Ogiuchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the cases of N0-stage tongue cancer patients treated at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, between January 1980 and December 2000. Primary tongue cancers were treated by surgery (52%) and radiotherapy (48%). In principle, we did not perform elective neck dissection for N0-stage necks. Instead, a policy of careful observation was adopted for the management of N0-stage necks in patients with tongue cancer, and a radical neck dissection or modified radical neck dissection was performed in the event of a secondary neck metastasis. A local recurrence was confirmed in 25 patients. Twenty of the 25 local recurrences were successfully controlled by a therapy. The incidence of secondary neck metastasis was 4/46 (8%) for T1 patients, 21/48 (45%) for T2 patients, and 9/15 (60%) for T3/T4 patients. Overall, secondary neck metastases occurred in 34 out of 109 (32%) patients, and eventually 12 patients died from uncontrolled tumors. As for the distribution of involved lymph nodes, level I to level III nodes were involved in 30 (88%) patients, and level IV nodes were involved in 4 patients. (author)

  19. Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. S. Picciani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic tongue (GT and fissured tongue (FT are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG and healthy controls (HC and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasis and late psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. A follow-up was conducted in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV with GT to evaluate the progression of oral and cutaneous lesions. The FT and GT were more frequent in PG than in HC. The incidence of GT was higher in patients with early psoriasis and that of FT in late-psoriasis. There is association between psoriasis intensity and GT; and a higher monthly decrease of PASI score in patients without GT. The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity.

  20. Compressibility Analysis of the Tongue During Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unay, Devrim

    2001-01-01

    .... In this paper, 3D compression and expansion analysis of the tongue will be presented. Patterns of expansion and compression have been compared for different syllables and various repetitions of each syllable...

  1. Preferred chewing side-dependent two-point discrimination and cortical activation pattern of tactile tongue sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Akiko; Ono, Takashi; Miyamoto, Jun J; Honda, Ei-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Moriyama, Keiji

    2009-10-12

    Although tactile feedback from the tongue should contribute to habitual chewing, it is unclear how the sensation of the tongue and its projection to the central nervous system differ with regard to the preferred chewing side (PCS). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether the sensory threshold of the tongue differed according to the side and (2) whether the pattern of hemispheric cortical activation by tactile tongue stimulation differed, with special attention to the PCS. Twelve healthy adults participated in the study. The PCS was determined with a mandibular kinesiograph. In the behavioral study, the mean thresholds for two-point discrimination (TPD) in the anterior, canine and posterior regions on both sides of the tongue, and those between PCS and non-PCS in each region were statistically compared. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging study, tactile stimulation was delivered to either side of the tongue with acrylic balls via a mandibular splint. The runs were measured with a T2*-weighted gradient echo-type echo planar imaging sequence in a 1.5T scanner. Activated voxel numbers in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were statistically compared. The threshold of TPD increased in the order of the anterior, canine and posterior regions. Moreover, this threshold was significantly smaller on the PCS than on the non-PCS in both the canine and posterior regions. Moreover, the number of activated voxels in S1 contralateral to the PCS was significantly greater than that in S1 contralateral to the non-PCS. The present study shows that the PCS is associated with asymmetric tactile sensation and cortical activation of the tongue. The sensory acuity of the tongue on the PCS may play an important role in functional coupling between the jaw and tongue to maximize the efficiency of chewing.

  2. Equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Magalhaes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of radio occultation data from Voyager 2 have led to the discovery and characterization of an equatorial wave in the Uranus stratosphere. The observed quasi-periodic vertical atmospheric density variations are in close agreement with theoretical predictions for a wave that propagates vertically through the observed background structure of the stratosphere. Quantitative comparisons between measurements obtained at immersion and at emersion yielded constraints on the meridional and zonal structure of the wave; the fact that the two sets of measurements are correlated suggests a wave of planetary scale. Two equatorial wave models are proposed for the wave.

  3. The foreign-language effect: thinking in a foreign tongue reduces decision biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Hayakawa, Sayuri L; An, Sun Gyu

    2012-06-01

    Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue? It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. We discovered, however, that the opposite is true: Using a foreign language reduces decision-making biases. Four experiments show that the framing effect disappears when choices are presented in a foreign tongue. Whereas people were risk averse for gains and risk seeking for losses when choices were presented in their native tongue, they were not influenced by this framing manipulation in a foreign language. Two additional experiments show that using a foreign language reduces loss aversion, increasing the acceptance of both hypothetical and real bets with positive expected value. We propose that these effects arise because a foreign language provides greater cognitive and emotional distance than a native tongue does.

  4. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  5. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Gualerzi, Alice; Lodi, Giovanni; Sforza, Chiarella; Carrassi, Antonio; Donetti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group. A prospective blinded evaluation of tongue mucosal specimens processed for light microscopy was performed. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by investigating the expression of desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, and of occludin. Keratin 10 and keratin 14 (markers of epithelial differentiation) were also evaluated, as keratin 16 (marker for activated keratinocytes after epithelial injury). Apoptotic cascade was investigated by p53 and activated caspase-3 expression. The basal membrane integrity was analysed through laminin immunoreactivity. In both groups, a preserved three-dimensional architecture of the tongue was observed. Desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 epithelial distributions were similar in the desmosomes of patients and control subjects. Again, keratin 10 immunoreactivity and distribution pattern of keratin 14 in the epithelial compartment was similar in both groups. In control samples, keratin 16 immunoreactivity was scant throughout the epithelium with a punctuate and scattered cytoplasmic labelling. In contrast, in all BMS patients keratinocyte cytoplasm was homogeneously labelled for keratin 16, with a more intense staining than controls. Furthermore, keratin 16 staining progressively decreased proceeding towards the most superficial epithelial layers. The results of this study are consistent with and support the clinically normal features of oral mucosa in BMS, and suggest that keratin 16 may be involved in the cell mechanisms underlying the syndrome occurrence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  7. Reliability and validity of a tool to measure the severity of tongue thrust in children: the Tongue Thrust Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, S; Demir, N; Karaduman, A A

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale called Tongue Thrust Rating Scale (TTRS), which categorised tongue thrust in children in terms of its severity during swallowing, and to investigate its validity and reliability. The study describes the developmental phase of the TTRS and presented its content and criterion-based validity and interobserver and intra-observer reliability. For content validation, seven experts assessed the steps in the scale over two Delphi rounds. Two physical therapists evaluated videos of 50 children with cerebral palsy (mean age, 57·9 ± 16·8 months), using the TTRS to test criterion-based validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability. The Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS) and Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS) were used for criterion-based validity. All the TTRS steps were deemed necessary. The content validity index was 0·857. A very strong positive correlation was found between two examinations by one physical therapist, which indicated intra-observer reliability (r = 0·938, P reliability (r = 0·892, P validity of the TTRS. The TTRS is a valid, reliable and clinically easy-to-use functional instrument to document the severity of tongue thrust in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and carbon uptake during 2004 and 2005 in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, A. P.; Chai, F.

    2012-01-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific plays a great role in the global carbon budget due to its enhanced biological productivity linked to the equatorial upwelling. However, as confirmed by the Equatorial Biocomplexity cruises in 2004 and 2005, nutrient upwelling supply varies strongly, partly due...... and intraseasonal time scales. Here, high resolution Pacific ROMS-CoSiNE (Regional Ocean Modeling System-Carbon, Silicon, Nitrogen Ecosystem) model results were evaluated with in situ and remote sensing data. The results of model-data comparison revealed a good agreement in domain-average hydrographic....... In order to fully resolve the complexity of biological and physical interactions in the eastern equatorial Pacific, we recommended improving CoSiNE and other models by introducing more phytoplankton groups, variable Redfield and carbon to chlorophyll ratios, as well as resolving the Fe-Si co...

  9. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded by the National Institute of Biomedical ... significant step towards vastly improving the independence and quality of life of individuals with tetraplegia, and is ...

  11. Properties of the Equatorial Magnetotail Flanks ˜50-200 RE Downtail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Wang, C.-P.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    In space, thin boundaries separating plasmas with different properties serve as a free energy source for various plasma instabilities and determine the global dynamics of large-scale systems. In planetary magnetopauses and shock waves, classical examples of such boundaries, the magnetic field makes a significant contribution to the pressure balance and plasma dynamics. The configuration and properties of such boundaries have been well investigated and modeled. However, much less is known about boundaries that form between demagnetized plasmas where the magnetic field is not important for pressure balance. The most accessible example of such a plasma boundary is the equatorial boundary layer of the Earth's distant magnetotail. Rather, limited measurements since its first encounter in the late 1970s by the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft revealed the basic properties of this boundary, but its statistical properties and structure have not been studied to date. In this study, we use Geotail and Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) missions to investigate the equatorial boundary layer from lunar orbit (˜55 Earth radii, RE, downtail) to as far downtail as ˜200 RE. Although the magnetic field has almost no effect on the structure of the boundary layer, the layer separates well the hot, rarefied plasma sheet from dense cold magnetosheath plasmas. We suggest that the most important role in plasma separation is played by polarization electric fields, which modify the efficiency of magnetosheath ion penetration into the plasma sheet. We also show that the total energies (bulk flow plus thermal) of plasma sheet ions and magnetosheath ions are very similar; that is, magnetosheath ion thermalization (e.g., via ion scattering by magnetic field fluctuations) is sufficient to produce hot plasma sheet ions without any additional acceleration.

  12. A High Sensitivity IDC-Electronic Tongue Using Dielectric/Sensing Membranes with Solvatochromic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electronic tongue/taste sensor array containing different interdigitated capacitor (IDC sensing elements to detect different types of tastes, such as sweetness (glucose, saltiness (NaCl, sourness (HCl, bitterness (quinine-HCl, and umami (monosodium glutamate is proposed. We present for the first time an IDC electronic tongue using sensing membranes containing solvatochromic dyes. The proposed highly sensitive (30.64 mV/decade sensitivity IDC electronic tongue has fast response and recovery times of about 6 s and 5 s, respectively, with extremely stable responses, and is capable of linear sensing performance (R2 ≈ 0.985 correlation coefficient over the wide dynamic range of 1 µM to 1 M. The designed IDC electronic tongue offers excellent reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD of about 0.029. The proposed device was found to have better sensing performance than potentiometric-, cascoded compatible lateral bipolar transistor (C-CLBT-, Electronic Tongue (SA402-, and fiber-optic-based taste sensing systems in what concerns dynamic range width, response time, sensitivity, and linearity. Finally, we applied principal component analysis (PCA to distinguish between various kinds of taste in mixed taste compounds.

  13. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gerstl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  14. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  15. The incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2016-02-01

    This review determines the incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings based on a systematic evaluation of the available literature. MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through June 2014 to identify appropriate studies. The incidence of complications, as established by a dental professional associated with oral and peri-oral piercings, was evaluated in populations with lip and/or tongue piercings. The quality of the case-control studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For case series studies, the risk of bias was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence scale. An independent screening of 1580 unique titles and abstracts revealed 15 publications that met the eligibility criteria. The incidence of gingival recessions appeared to be 50% in subjects with lip piercings and 44% in subjects with a tongue piercing. Tooth injuries were observed in 26% individuals with lip piercings and in up to 37% of individuals with tongue piercings. Subjects with a lip piercing were 4.14 times (P = 0.005) more likely to develop gingival recession than those without a lip piercing. Subjects with a tongue piercing were more likely than non-pierced subjects to experience gingival recession (relative risk (RR) 2.77; P = 0.00001) and tooth injuries (RR 2.44; P = 0.003). Both lip and tongue piercings are highly associated with the risk of gingival recession, and tongue piercings are also associated with tooth injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  18. Simultaneous minimization of leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect for segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Que, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously minimize the leaf travel distance and the tongue-and-groove effect for IMRT leaf sequences to be delivered in segmental mode. The basic idea is to add a large enough number of openings through cutting or splitting existing openings for those leaf pairs with openings fewer than the number of segments so that all leaf pairs have the same number of openings. The cutting positions are optimally determined with a simulated annealing technique called adaptive simulated annealing. The optimization goal is set to minimize the weighted summation of the leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect. Its performance was evaluated with 19 beams from three clinical cases; one brain, one head-and-neck and one prostate case. The results show that it can reduce the leaf travel distance and (or) tongue-and-groove effect; the reduction of the leaf travel distance reaches its maximum of about 50% when minimized alone; the reduction of the tongue-and-groove reaches its maximum of about 70% when minimized alone. The maximum reduction in the leaf travel distance translates to a 1 to 2 min reduction in treatment delivery time per fraction, depending on leaf speed. If the method is implemented clinically, it could result in significant savings in treatment delivery time, and also result in significant reduction in the wear-and-tear of MLC mechanics

  19. Comparative Analysis of Tongue Indices between Patients with and without a Self-Reported Yin Deficiency: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Ryun; Choi, Woojin; Yeo, Inkwon; Nam, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that Yin-deficient patients have a reddened tongue with less coating. We screened 189 participants aged 20 to 49 years, complaining of headache. To classify patients in terms of Yin deficiency, we used two self-reporting Yin-deficiency questionnaires (Yin-Deficiency Questionnaire and Yin-Deficiency Scale) and diagnosis by a doctor. Based on the tests, a total of 33 subjects were assigned to a Yin-deficient group and 33 subjects were assigned to a nondeficient control group. Tongue images were acquired using a computerized tongue diagnostic system, for evaluating tongue indices. The tongue coating percentage and tongue redness were calculated as the mean a ⁎ value of both the whole tongue area (WT a ⁎ ) and the tongue body area (TB a ⁎ ). The tongue coating percentage of the Yin-deficient group (34.79 ± 10.76) was lower than that of the nondeficient group (44.13 ± 14.08). The WT a ⁎ value of the Yin-deficient group (19.39 ± 1.52) was significantly higher than that of the nondeficient group (18.21 ± 2.06). However, the difference in the TB a ⁎ value between the two groups was not significant. In conclusion, we verified that Yin-deficient patients had less tongue coating and tended to have a more reddish tongue than nondeficient patients.

  20. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  1. Clinical results of sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy for oral cancer. Relationship between SN localization and metastasis in tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Satoru; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Hino, Satoshi; Terakado, Nagaaki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Attempts were made to detect micrometastasis in N0 neck of oral cancer patients using sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy (SNB). We previously described our approach to identify SN using a radioisotope ( 99m Tc-Tin colloid)-guided and dye-guided method. Micrometastases were detected by means of serial sections and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen mRNA. In this study, we evaluated the radiolocalization of SN and identification of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer patients. The positive rate of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer was 35% and the diagnostic sensitivity of SNB was 95%. The SNB detected subclinical metastases in 4 of 10 N0 patients with tongue cancer. Moreover, in 3 of these 4 cases, all metastatic lymph nodes consisted with SNs. Postoperative cervical metastasis was observed in a patient whose SNB was negative. While more experience is needed, we believe the SN concept for tongue cancer is established, and practical application in clinical settings is anticipated. (author)

  2. Optimization and validation of the protocol used to analyze the taste of traditional Chinese medicines using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelin; Gao, Xiaojie; Liu, Ruixin; Wang, Junming; Wu, Zidan; Zhang, Lu; Li, Huiling; Gui, Xinjing; Kang, Bingya; Shi, Junhan

    2016-11-01

    Tools to define the active ingredients and flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are limited by long analysis times, complex sample preparation and a lack of multiplexed analysis. The aim of the present study was to optimize and validate an electronic tongue (E-tongue) methodology to analyze the bitterness of TCMs. To test the protocol, 35 different TCM concoctions were measured using an E-tongue, and seven replicate measurements of each sample were taken to evaluate reproducibility and precision. E-tongue sensor information was identified and classified using analysis approaches including least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), support vector machine (SVM), discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares (PLS). A benefit of this analytical protocol was that the analysis of a single sample took <15 min for all seven sensors. The results identified that the LS-SVM approach provided the best bitterness classification accuracy (binary classification accuracy, 100%; ternary classification accuracy, 89.66%). The E-tongue protocol developed showed good reproducibility and high precision within a 6 h measurement cycle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of an E-tongue being applied to assay the bitterness of TCMs. This approach could be applied in the classification of the taste of TCMs, and serve important roles in other fields, including foods and beverages.

  3. 198Au grain implantation for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yoshiharu; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy using 198 Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, 198 Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I–II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using 192 Ir pins because of an advanced age (≥75 years) or poor performance status (≥2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the 198 Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the 192 Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, 198 Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

  4. [Morphological changes in tongue cancer after cryosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X D; Mao, T Q

    1993-01-01

    Tca 8113 (human tongue cancer cell line) cell transplanted tumors in nude mice were treated with cryosurgery for three freeze-thaw cycles. Tumor samples were obtained by biopsies pre- and post-cryosurgery for morphological study. The results showed intercellular adhesion damage, nuclear pyknosis, cell death, etc. One week after, the deep parts of the frozen samples were similar to that of the untreated ones. Our study indicates the change of biomembrance may be also important as of nuclei in cell death and may play an important role in the treatment of cancer by cryochemistry.

  5. Ultrasound Imaging for Analyzing Lateral Tongue Movements during Mastication in Adults with Cerebral Palsy Compared with Adults without Oral Motor Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijn, Lianne; Weijers, Gert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Groen, Brenda E; de Korte, Chris L

    2015-06-01

    Described here is an ultrasound technique used to study tongue movements, particularly lateral tongue movements, during mastication. A method to analyze spatial and temporal tongue movements was developed, and the feasibility of using this method was evaluated. Biplane ultrasound images of tongue movements of four adults without oral motor disability and two adults with oral motor disability as a result of cerebral palsy, were acquired. Tongue movements were analyzed in the coronal and sagittal planes using B-mode and M-mode ultrasonography. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for manual tracing of tongue contours was good (ICC = 0.81 and 0.84, respectively). There were significant differences between the two adult groups in movement frequency in the horizontal direction in both coronal and sagittal planes. In the coronal plane, differences in movement frequency and range of vertical movement were detected. Data obtained from sagittal images, with the exception of vertical frequency, indicated no differences between the groups. The protocol developed in this study (using B-mode and M-mode) proved to be valid and reliable. By using this protocol with individuals with and without oral motor disability, we were able to illustrate the clinical application of our protocol to evaluation of differences in tongue movements during mastication. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional and socio-economic factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from Equatorial Guinea: results from a nationally representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernis Cristina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has traditionally been a major endemic disease in Equatorial Guinea. Although parasitaemia prevalence on the insular region has been substantially reduced by vector control in the past few years, the prevalence in the mainland remains over 50% in children younger than five years. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour for febrile illness at country level, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the EG National Malaria Control Programme. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of children 0 to 5 years old, using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample at the national level. It included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and thick and thin blood smears to determine the Plasmodium infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for parasitaemia, taking into account the cluster design. Results The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 50.9%; it was higher in rural (58.8% compared to urban areas (44.0%, p = 0.06. Age was positively associated with parasitemia (p Conclusion Results suggest that a national programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences between rural and urban communities in relation to risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour, integrate nutrition programmes, incorporate campaigns on the importance of early treatment, and target appropriately for bed nets to reach the under-fives.

  8. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.; Chiappini, M.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Tabacco, I. E. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Sez. Geofisica; Passerini, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-02-01

    During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99) Radio Echo Sounding (RES) system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George 5. Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  9. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99 Radio Echo Sounding (RES system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George V Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  10. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fadzilah, Noraziana; Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopatholo...

  11. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue with an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gregório Wrublevski; Pereira, Volnei David; Pereira Junior, José Antonio de Castro; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2012-01-01

    By definition, choristomas are normal tissues found in anomalous topography. The cartilaginous features of these lesions are rare in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. The majority of cartilaginous choristomas of the tongue—the primary site of emergence of the oropharynx—are associated with adipose, fibrous or bone tissues—apart from that, only a few of these were confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. The neoplasm exclusively composed of chondromatous tissue is extremely rare in the tongue. This paper reports the clinical, surgical and pathological characteristics of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman. PMID:23220826

  12. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; Van Sebille, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the

  13. [Three dimensional structure of the connective tissue papillae of the tongue in Suncus murinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miyata, K; Iwasaki, S; Takahashi, K

    1989-08-01

    The surface structure of the connective tissue papillae (CP) of Suncus murinus tongue was observed by SEM after fixing with Karnovsky's fixative and removal of the epithelial cell layer with 3N or 8N HCl. On the surface of the slender conical tongue, there are densely distributed filiform papillae among which fungiform papillae are seen sporadically. A pair of vallate papillae are situated in the posterior region of the tongue. Filiform papillae appear somewhat different externally depending on the dorsal surface of the anterior tongue. At the tip of the tongue, filiform papillae are of a slender conical shape and have a slight depression in the anterior basal portion. The CP of these is seen as a spherical protrusion on which a shallow groove runs in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle region, somewhat large filiform papillae contain CP having one or two small round head-like structures on each spherical protrusion. These head-like structures are increased in number in the posterior region. In the most posterior region of the anterior tongue, there are distributed large filiform papillae having several slender protrusions that surround a basal anterior depression. These large branched filiform papillae have a glove finger like CP. Small conical filiform papillae are distributed in the posterior marginal region of the anterior tongue which have CP of a horse-shoe like protrusion that opens in the anterior direction. Spherical fungiform papillae have CP which are thick columnar in shape with many lateral thin folds running vertically and having a round depression on the top of each. CP of the vallate papillae appear as a beehive like structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Wound healing with PRGF infiltration in CO(2) laser lesions of the tongue: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; López-Jornet, Pía; Jiménez-Torres, María José; Orduña-Domingo, Albina

    2009-06-01

    This study was done of the effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on the healing of tongue wounds induced by the CO(2) laser. A prospective blind study was made of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two groups after the creation of tongue lesions using the CO(2) laser. Nothing was applied to the resulting wounds in the first group, while PRGF was applied to the 30 wounds in the second group. Wound re-epithelialization and inflammation were measured after 7, 14, and 28 d. No significant differences were seen between the two groups in relation to wound re-epithelialization, and the group without PRGF actually showed significantly better resolution of the inflammatory process after 14 d (p = 0.036). After 28 d, the rat tongue wounds produced by the CO(2) laser showed complete healing, independently of PRGF application.

  15. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the posterior-lateral border of tongue: a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lisha; Janardhanan, Mahija; Suresh, Rakesh; Savithri, Vindhya

    2017-10-24

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant tumour of the major and minor salivary glands. Minor salivary glands are scattered in different areas of the oral cavity such as palate, retromolar area, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and tongue, but so far, only a few lingual MEC cases have been documented in the literature and most of the studies have shown a predilection for base and dorsum of the tongue. We report a rare case of MEC involving the posterior-lateral border of the tongue. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Simple physical-empirical model of the precipitation distribution based on a tropical sea surface temperature threshold and the effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Yakelyn R.; Takahashi, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The observed nonlinear relationship between tropical sea surface temperature (T_s) and precipitation ( P) on climate timescales, by which a threshold (T_c) must be exceeded by T_s in order for deep convection to occur, is the basis of a physical-empirical model (PEM) that we fitted to observational data and CMIP5 climate model output and used to show that, with essentially only two constant parameters (T_c and the sensitivity a_1 of P to T_s>T_c), it provides a useful first-order description of the climatological and interannual variability of the large-scale distribution of tropical P given T_s, as well as of the biases of the Global Climate Models (GCMs). A substantial limitation is its underestimation of the peak P in the convergence zones, as the necessary processes associated with the atmospheric circulation are not considered. The pattern of the intermodel correlation between the mean T_s-T_c for each GCM and the average P distribution is in agreement with the double ITCZ bias, featuring roughly zonally-symmetric off-equatorial maxima, rather than being regionally or hemispherically restricted. The inter-comparison of GCMs indicates a relationship between T_c with the near-equatorial low-level (850 hPa) tropospheric temperature, consistent with the interpretation that it is a measure of the convective inhibition (CIN). The underestimation of T_c is linked to the cold free tropospheric bias in the GCMs. However, the discrepancy among the observational datasets is a limitation for assessing the GCM biases from the PEM framework quantitatively. Under the RCP4.5 climate change scenario, T_c increases slightly more than the mean tropical T_s, implying a stabilizing trend consistent with the amplified free tropospheric warming relative to the surface. However, since a_1 increases by 10-50%/°C with the surface warming, its effect dominates and results in generally positive precipitation change (Δ P) in the equatorial regions. In the equatorial eastern

  17. Phase III trial of high and low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for early oral tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Fuchihata, Hajime; Furukawa, Souhei

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Oral tongue carcinomas are highly curable with radiotherapy. In the past, patients with tongue carcinoma have usually been treated with low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation. This Phase III study was designed to compare the treatment results obtained with LDR with those obtained with high dose rate (HDR) interstitial radiotherapy for tongue carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The criteria for patient selection for the Phase III study were: (a) presence of a T1T2N0 tumor that could be treated with single-plane implantation, (b) localization of tumor at the lateral tongue border, (c) tumor thickness of 10 mm or less, (d) performance status between O and 3, and (e) absence of any severe concurrent disease. From April 1992 through December 1993, 15 patients in the LDR group (70 Gy/4 to 9 days) and 14 patients in the HDR group (60 Gy/10 fractions/6 days) were accrued. The time interval between two fractions of the HDR brachytherapy was more than 6 h. Results: Local recurrence occurred in two patients treated with LDR brachytherapy but in none of the patients treated with HDR. One- and 2-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were both 86%, compared with 100% in the HDR group (p = 0.157). There were four patients with nodal metastasis in the LDR group and three in the HDR group. Local recurrence occurred in two of the four patients with nodal metastases in the LDR group. One- and 2-year nodal control rates for patients in the LDR group are were 85%, compared with 79% in the HDR group. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to traditional LDR brachytherapy for early tongue cancer and eliminate the radiation exposure for medical staffs

  18. Honey adulteration detection: voltammetric e-tongue versus official methods for physicochemical parameter determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Ropciuc, Sorina

    2018-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a voltammetric e-tongue (three electrodes: reference electrode (Ag/AgCl), counter electrode (glassy carbon electrode rod) and working electrode (Au, Ag, Pt and glass electrode)) for honey adulteration detection. For this purpose, 55 samples of authentic honey (acacia, honeydew, sunflower, Tilia and polyfloral) and 150 adulterated ones were analyzed. The adulteration was made using fructose, glucose, inverted sugar, hydrolyzed inulin syrup and malt wort at different percentages: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively. The e-tongue has been compared with the physicochemical parameters (pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and CIEL*a*b* parameters (L*, a* and b*)) in order to achieve a suitable method for the classification of authentic and adulterated honeys. The e-tongue and physicochemical parameters reached a 97.50% correct classification of the authentic and adulterated honeys. In the case of the adulterated honey samples, the e-tongue achieved 83.33% correct classifications whereas the physicochemical parameters only achieved 73.33%. The e-tongue is a fast, easy and accurate method for honey adulteration detection which can be used in situ by beekeepers and provide useful information on EC and free acidity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Laboratory results gained from cold worked type 316Ti under simulated PWR primary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrient, B.; Kilian, R.; Koenig, G.; Widera, M.; Wermelinger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of barrel bolts made from cold worked type 316Ti (German Material No. 1.4571 K) was observed in several S/KWU type PWRs. This mechanism was so far less understood for PWR primary conditions. Therefore an extended joint research program was launched by AREVA GmbH and VGB e.V. to clarify the specific conditions which contributed to the observed findings on barrel bolts. In the frame of this research program beneath the evaluation of the operational experience also laboratory tests on the general cracking behavior of cold worked type 316Ti material, which followed the same production line as for barrel bolt manufacturing in the eighties, with different cold work levels covering up to 30 % were performed to determine whether there is a specific susceptibility of cold worked austenitic stainless steel specimens to suffer IGSCC under simulated PWR primary conditions. All these slow strain rate tests on tapered specimens and component specimens came to the results that first, much higher cold work levels than used for the existing barrel bolts are needed for IGSCC initiation. Secondly, additional high active plastic deformation is needed to generate and propagate intergranular cracking. And thirdly, all specimens finally showed ductile fracture at the applied strain rates. (authors)

  20. Seasonal cycle of cross-equatorial flow in the central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the seasonal cycle of meridional currents in the upper layers of central equatorial Indian Ocean using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and other data over the period 2004-2013. The ADCP data set collected along 80.5°E is the most comprehensive collection of direct velocity measurements in the central Indian Ocean to date, providing new insights into the meridional circulation in this region. We find that mean volume transport is southward across the equator in the central Indian Ocean in approximate Sverdrup balance with the wind stress curl. In addition, mean westerly wind stress near the equator drives convergent Ekman flow in the surface layer and subsurface divergent geostrophic flow in the thermocline at 50-150 m depths. In response to a mean northward component of the surface wind stress, the maximum surface layer convergence is shifted off the equator to between 0.5° and 1°N. Evidence is also presented for the existence of a shallow equatorial roll consisting of a northward wind-driven surface drift overlaying the southward directed subsurface Sverdrup transport. Seasonal variations are characterized by cross-equatorial transports flowing from the summer to the winter hemisphere in quasi-steady Sverdrup balance with the wind stress curl. In addition, semiannually varying westerly monsoon transition winds lead to semiannual enhancements of surface layer Ekman convergence and geostrophic divergence in the thermocline. These results quantify expectations from ocean circulation theories for equatorial Indian Ocean meridional circulation patterns with a high degree of confidence given the length of the data records.

  1. An attempt of 'out-tongue method' to reduce taste dysfunction following head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Tateno, Atsushi; Kumashiro, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Ohno, Haruyoshi; Sato, Iisaku.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce taste dysfunction which lowers QOL of patients with head and neck carcinoma during and after radiation therapy, an 'out-tongue method' was attempted where patients put out their tongue during the irradiation. The attempt was done on 15 patients of the carcinoma, aging 42-83 years old. They received enough information and training of the method. The training was important for reproducibility. Irradiation with 35-61.2 (mean 52.9) Gy of the oral cavity was performed by linac with continuous monitoring for keeping the method. The volume of irradiated tongue was reduced to 1/3-2/3 level. The effect of the method was evaluated by 4-graded score: no change, fair (a small change in taste post radiation), moderate and severe (no taste). The method gave no change in 9 patients (60%), fair in 3 (20%), moderate in 3 (20%) and severe in 0 (0%). These results suggested that this method was useful. (K.H.)

  2. Early ultrastructural changes in the dorsal mucosa of rat tongue after irradiation, with special reference to the microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Hayato; Ito, Jusuke; Takano, Yoshiro.

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the acute effects of irradiation on the ultrastructural conformation of the dorsal mucosa of the rat tongue, with special reference to the changes in microvasculature. The proboscis of seventy rats were irradiated. The animals were then perfusion-fixed, followed by India ink-injection or resin casting at 3 to 7 days after irradiation. The bulk, frozen sections, or plastic embedded sections of the treated rat tongues were examined by light and electron microscopy. In the dorsal epithelium of the rat tongue, multi-nucleated cells appeared in the basal layer at 3 days after irradiation. At day 5, the thickness of the epithelial layer and connective tissue papillae decreased dramatically, concomitant with the shortening of the capillary loops. At day 7, lingual papillae and connective tissue papillae disappeared, leaving dissociated epithelial cells and numerous neutrophils migrating throughout the tissue. Subepithelial blood vessels displayed drastic dilation with a number of neutrophils adhering to the endothelial surface, but without ultrastructural abnormalities in its cellular components. Early changes in the dorsal mucosa of the irradiated rat tongue were limited to the basal epithelial cells, leading to a total disruption of the epithelial layer. Atrophic changes of the capillary loops is due to the loss of the connective tissue papillae. Dilation and conformational changes of the subepithelial capillaries appear to result from the inflammatory reaction, taking place secondarily to the loss of the epithelial barrier of the irradiated tongue. A difference in radiosensitivity among the epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cell components of the rat tongue in vivo is suggested. (author)

  3. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. Results: A total of 242 students responded. Dental technology students made up 52.5% of the respondents and dental therapist in training made up 47.5%. Majority (63.2% of the respondents considered the strength of tooth brush when purchasing a tooth brush and 78.9% use tooth brushes with medium strength. Seven-tenth (71.9% of the respondents brush their teeth twice daily and 52.1% brush for 3–5 minutes. About one-third (30.2% brush their teeth in front of a mirror. Chewing stick was used by 51.7% of respondents in addition to the use of tooth brush. Tongue cleaning was done by 94.2% with only 9.5% using a tongue cleaner. Only 20.2% reported regular snacks consumption. Nine-tenth (90.4% of respondents were previously involved in educating others, apart from their colleagues, on tooth brushing. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the dental therapy and technology students had satisfactory tooth-brushing behaviour. The zeal to educate others about proper tooth brushing revealed in this study suggests that the students may be helpful in oral health promotion.

  4. Error Biases in Inner and Overt Speech: Evidence from Tongue Twisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Martin; Brocklehurst, Paul H.; Moat, H. Susannah

    2011-01-01

    To compare the properties of inner and overt speech, Oppenheim and Dell (2008) counted participants' self-reported speech errors when reciting tongue twisters either overtly or silently and found a bias toward substituting phonemes that resulted in words in both conditions, but a bias toward substituting similar phonemes only when speech was…

  5. Fundamental Tongue Motions for Trumpet Playing: A Study Using Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Cine MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Hiroko; Chikui, Toru; Inadomi, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yoshiura, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Though the motions of structures outside the mouth in trumpet performance have been reported, the dynamics of intraoral structures remain unelucidated. This study explored the tongue's movement in trumpet playing using cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) and demonstrated the effects of intraoral anatomical structures on changes in pitch and dynamics. Cine MRI was applied to 18 trumpet players, who were divided into two groups (7 beginner, 11 advanced) based on their ability to play a certain high note. They were instructed to play a custom-made MRI-compatible simulated trumpet. Pitch-change tasks and dynamics-change tasks were assigned. The positions of the anatomical points and intraoral areas were identified on outlined images, and the changes associated with each task were evaluated. A forward and upward projection of the tongue was observed in the production of higher pitches, and there were no significant differences in all areas. In louder dynamics, a backward and downward bending of the tongue occurred, the tongue area became smaller (pcine MRI that certain tongue movements were associated with each task. Tongue protrusion in the production of higher pitch and bending in louder dynamics can be rationalized using acoustics theory and the movements of anatomical structures. These findings seem to be consistent regardless of the player's proficiency.

  6. Rehabilitation and nutritional support for sarcopenic dysphagia and tongue atrophy after glossectomy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Nao; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Fujii, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is related to long-term weight loss and reduced body mass index in patients with head and neck cancer. We describe a 76-y-old woman who had severe sarcopenic dysphagia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue for 17 mo after subtotal glossectomy due to tongue cancer and lost 14 kg during that period. Upon admission, the patient received diagnoses of malnutrition in the context of social or environmental circumstances with insufficient energy intake, loss of muscle mass, localized fluid accumulation, weight loss, and sarcopenia due to reduced skeletal muscle mass (skeletal muscle index protein intake to 70.3 g/d by supplying sufficient excess energy, and provided physical therapy and dysphagia rehabilitation to improve sarcopenia, atrophy of the reconstructed tongue, and dysphagia. After 20 mo of treatment, she was considered to be no longer malnourished (11 kg weight gain) and without sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index 4.01 cm 2 /m 2 ), and the volume of the reconstructed tongue was increased. Sarcopenia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue may cause dysphagia after glossectomy due to tongue cancer. Additionally, nutritional support and rehabilitation could improve such dysphagia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  9. Phase calibration approaches for radar interferometry and imaging configurations: equatorial spread F results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more radar systems with multiple-receiver antennas are being used to study the atmospheric and ionospheric irregularities with either interferometric and/or imaging configurations. In such systems, one of the major challenges is to know the phase offsets between the different receiver channels. Such phases are intrinsic to the system and are due to different cable lengths, filters, attenuators, amplifiers, antenna impedance, etc. Moreover, such phases change as function of time, on different time scales, depending on the specific installation. In this work, we present three approaches using natural targets (radio stars, meteor-head and meteor trail echoes that allow either an absolute or relative phase calibration. In addition, we present the results of using an artificial source (radio beacon for a continuous calibration that complements the previous approaches. These approaches are robust and good alternatives to other approaches, e.g. self-calibration techniques using known data features, or for multiple-receiver configurations constantly changing their receiving elements. In order to show the good performance of the proposed phase calibration techniques, we present new radar imaging results of equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities. Finally we introduce a new way to represent range-time intensity (RTI maps color coded with the Doppler information. Such modified map allows the identification and interpretation of geophysical phenomena, previously hidden in conventional RTI maps, e.g. the time and altitude of occurrence of ESF irregularities pinching off from the bottomside and their respective Doppler velocity.

  10. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  11. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  12. The D1 parameter for the equatorial F1 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the effort at improving the representation of the F1 equatorial ionospheric region in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. The D1 parameter has been proposed for describing the F1 layer. We have therefore produced a maiden table of D1 parameter for an equatorial station. Diurnal and seasonal effects were considered. (author)

  13. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  14. Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability in partially ionized plasma and the equatorial spread - F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Das, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the collisional gravitation induced Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability in the equatorial F region is investigated taking into account the finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the complete ion inertial term in ion equation of motion. A special class of coherent weakly nonlinear modes as solutions to the wave equation describing R-T instability driven modes is obtained. The leading nonlinear effects in the wave equation are found to appear through Vsub(L), the ion diamagnetic drift which essentially gives the FLR corrections. It is shown that the R-T modes in the equatorial F region can evolve into coherent, nonlinear, almost sinusoidal, stationary wave structures. These structures are found to travel with a constant phase velocity and to have slightly distorted sinusoidal shapes. These results seem to have a good agreement with many of the recent rocket and satellite observations of the equatorial spread F irregularities. (author)

  15. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  18. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low latitude regimes especially east of the dateline where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high nutrient low chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited in part by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Paci...

  19. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eliminating malodor. The authors of the General Dentistry article feel that future research is necessary to determine what role undetected odorants may play in oral malodor, as well as more well designed, randomized clinical trials to compare the effectiveness of tongue scrapers, ...

  20. Data for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabell Immohr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data, which can be applied for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors. Contained data is related to the research article “Impact of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in oral liquids on E-Tongue Measurements” (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.045; (L.I. Immohr, R. Turner, M. Pein-Hackelbusch, 2016 [1]. Sensor responses were obtained from 10 subsequent measurements and four different concentrations of quinine hydrochloride by electronic tongue (TS-5000Z, Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan measurements. Based on the data for the pre-performance testing, which were calculated based on the fluctuation range of the sensor responses around the median, stability criteria and required preconditions cycles were defined.

  1. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  2. Planck 2015 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC so...

  3. [Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Zeng, Chang-chun; Cai, Xiu-yu; Guo, Rong-ping; Nie, Guang; Jin, Ying

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the optical data of tongue color of different syndromes in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) were detected by optical spectrum colorimetry, and the chromaticity of tongue color was compared and analyzed. The tongue color characteristics of different syndromes in PHC and the relationship between different syndromes and tongue color were also investigated. Tongue color data from 133 eligible PHC patients were collected by optical spectrum colorimetry and the patients were divided into 4 syndrome groups according to their clinical features. The syndrome groups were liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD), accumulation of damp-heat (ADH), deficiency of liver and kidney yin (DLKY), and qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS). The variation characteristics of chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength, excitation purity and the distribution in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) LAB uniform color space were measured. At the same time, the differences of overall chromatism, clarity, chroma, saturation and hue were also calculated and analyzed. PHC patients in different syndrome groups exhibited differences in chromaticity coordinates. The dominant wavelength of QSBS was distinctly different from that of the other 3 syndromes. Excitation purity in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (Pcolorimetry technology. Different syndromes in PHC exhibit distinct chromatisms of tongue color through the calculation and analysis of chromaticity parameters of CIE, combined with colorimetric system and CIE LAB color space, and these are consistent with the characteristics of clinical tongue color. Applying optical spectrum colorimetry technology to tongue color differentiation has the potential to serve as a reference point in standardizing traditional Chinese medicine syndrome classification in PHC.

  4. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  5. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  6. Radiotherapy for tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Teshima, Teruki; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Nose, Takayuki; Tanaka, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiotherapy for tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years is studied, retrospectively. Some reports say young tongue cancer patient has worse prognosis. We investigate treatment results of them treated in our department, compared with elder patients. Materials and Methods: Our department registered 1289 patients with tongue cancer during 26 years between Jan. 1967 and Dec. 1992. One hundred and eighty-eight patients were under 40 years old. One hundred and forty-eight patients were primarily treated by radiotherapy. Follow-up terms are among 2 and 25 years (median; 15 years). They consisted of 99 males and 49 females. They were divided into 3 age groups, 3 teenagers, 39 twenties, and 106 thirties. The youngest was 18 years old. T and N categories were T1: 33, T2: 77, T3: 34, T4: 4, N0: 111, N1: 25, N2: 4, and N3: 8 patients, respectively. One hundred and twenty patients were treated only with radiotherapy. Twenty-four and 4 patients were treated with chemotherapy and surgery adding to radiotherapy respectively. Radiotherapy consisted of 29 external, 60 brachytherapy, and 59 both. One hundred and nineteen brachytherapies consisted of Ir: 66, Ra: 50, Ir+Ra: 1, and Au: 2. Eighty-one patients with T1 or2N0M0 treated only by radiotherapy were compared with the similar 454 patients more and equal to 40 years old. Results: The 5-and 10-year survival rates of 148 patients were 69% and 65%, respectively. The 5-and 10-year local control rates were 77% and 76%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of T1, T2, T3, and T4 patients were 90%, 70%, 50%, and 43%, respectively. The corresponding 10-year survival rates were 81%, 66%, 50%, and 43%, respectively. The 5-year local control rates were 87%, 79%, 71%, and 25%, respectively. With respect to T1 or 2N0M0 patients, the 5-and 10-year local control rates were 80% and 75% under 40 years old, 77% and 73% over 40 years old patients. (p=0.99) The 5-and 10-year cause-specific survival rates were 79% and 72

  7. Role of the meridional dipole of SSTA and associated cross-equatorial flow in the tropical eastern Pacific in terminating the 2014 El Niño development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Kai; Chen, Lin; Hong, Chi-Cherng; Li, Tim; Chen, Cheng-Ta; Wang, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In the boreal spring of 2014, the oceanic and atmospheric conditions were favorable for an El Niño's development. It was predicted that in 2014, a super El Niño or at least a regular El Niño with normal magnitude, would initiate. However, the growth rate of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the equatorial eastern Pacific suddenly declined in the boreal summer. The physical processes responsible for the termination of the 2014 El Niño were addressed in this study. We hypothesized that a meridional dipole of SSTA, characterized by a pronounced warm SSTA over the eastern North Pacific (ENP) and cold SSTA over the eastern South Pacific (ESP), played a crucial role in blocking the 2014 El Niño's development. The observational analysis revealed that the meridional dipole of SSTA and the relevant anomalous cross-equatorial flow in the tropical eastern Pacific, induced anomalous westward ({u^' }0) currents in the equatorial eastern Pacific, leading to negative anomalous zonal advection term (- {u^' }partial \\overline T /partial xpartial \\overline T /partial znegative SSTA tendency in the boreal summer, and thus killed off the budding 2014 El Niño. The idealized numerical experiments further confirmed that the 2014 El Niño's development could be suppressed by the meridional dipole of SSTA, and both the ENP pole and ESP pole make a contribution.

  8. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  9. Tongue and taste organ development in the ontogeny of direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Lissamphibia: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzik, Karolina A; Żuwała, Krystyna; Kerney, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The latest research on direct developing caecilian and anuran species indicate presence of only one generation of taste organs during their ontogeny. This is distinct from indirect developing batrachians studied thus far, which possess taste buds in larvae and anatomically distinct taste discs in metamorphs. This study is a description of the tongue and taste organ morphology and development in direct developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Plethodontidae) using histology and electron microscopy techniques. The results reveal two distinct stages tongue morphology (primary and secondary), similar to metamorphic urodeles, although only one stage of taste organ morphology. Taste disc sensory zones emerge on the surface of the oropharyngeal epithelium by the end of embryonic development, which coincides with maturation of the soft tongue. Taste organs occur in the epithelium of the tongue pad (where they are situated on the dermal papillae), the palate and the inner surface of the mandible and the maxilla. Plethodon cinereus embryos only possess taste disc type taste organs. Similar to the direct developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui (Eleutherodactylidae), these salamanders do not recapitulate larval taste bud morphology as an embryo. The lack of taste bud formation is probably a broadly distributed feature characteristic to direct developing batrachians. J. Morphol. 277:906-915, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Locally advanced cancer of the tongue base: new method of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaderenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients are characterized by locally advanced tumors in 70–80 % of cases at presentation, so possibility of cure and surgical treatment is limited. Total glossectomy, tongue base resection is associated with severe and permanent disability. Such surgical procedures lead to severe dysphagia, alalia and social maladjustment. Enumerated issues motivated us to develop new method of surgical treatment  of locally advanced base of tongue cancer.Objective is to introduce new opportunities of surgical treatment of locally advanced cancer of the tongue base.Materials and methods. Glossectomy is accomplished in 5 patients suffering from tongue cancer and admitted to N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology. Swallowing and speech is preserved in all 5 cases.Results. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the cut out muscle flap has a different innervation from different cranial nerves involved in the rate of swallowing, so there is not just a mechanical movement of the epiglottis, but also the control of swallowing by the central nervous system. The reduction of injury and operation time in the proposed method is due to the fact that tissues directly contacting with the defect are used to preserve swallowing and speech. The proposed muscle flap has various sources of blood supply, which improves its nutrition and reduces the risk of complications, and healing occurs in a shorter time in comparison with the prototype. All of the above reduces the duration of hospitalization for an average of 7–9 days.Conclusion. The developed surgical technique allows to achieve early rehabilitation; patients are able to breathe effortlessly, swallow and speak. There is no need in permanent tracheostoma and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. All patients remains socially active. 

  11. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  12. Recurrent tongue tip constriction in a captive giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Clauss, Marcus; Feige, Karsten; Thio, Tanja; Isenbügel, Ewald; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2007-03-01

    A male giant anteater (Myrmecophage tridactyla) was treated twice for tongue tip constrictions. Clinical signs were partial anorexia, soft stool, bleeding from the mouth, and intermittent lingual discomfort. In the first presentation, wood fibers constricting the distal part of the tongue were detected by endoscopy and were removed. In the second presentation, bands of collagenous fibers were identified and resected. Dietary elements were responsible for both cases: elongated wood fibers were present in peat, which was included as a supplement to improve stool consistency, and collagenous fibers originated from fascias of lean meat, which served as a protein source in this diet. Preventive measures included sieving of the peat to eliminate long fibers and grinding of the meat, respectively, prior to diet presentation. A homogenous diet, utilizing cellulose rather than peat and dry cat food rather than meat, will avoid tongue tip constriction as described in these cases.

  13. The physical and theoretical basis of solar-terrestrial relationships 1. Equatorial locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-07-01

    The theory of solar-terrestrial relationships developed earlier by the author is extended to incorporate expressions that represent the non-linear responses of the earth-atmosphere system to incoming solar radiation in a more detailed manner. Application of the extended theory to equatorial locations leads to new and interesting features that are consistent with past observations. It also predicts the existence of new oscillations in the equatorial atmosphere whose causative physical processes are given and explained. Non-equatorial locations are treated along similar lines in Part 2 of the series. (author). 44 refs

  14. Expression of FGFs during early mouse tongue development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, W.; Procházka, Jan; Procházková, Michaela; Klein, O.D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 81-87 ISSN 1567-133X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tongue * FGF * Expression * Papilla Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2016

  15. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  16. Usefulness of fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced MR imaging of tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shumei; Fuchihata, Hajime; Yoon, Sukja; Furukawa, Souhei; Kawai, Tadahiko; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the fat suppression technique for magnetic resonance imaging of oral tongue cancer. One hundred and fourteen patients underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). All patients were clinically diagnosed as having oral tongue cancer shown to be squamous cell carcinoma histopathologically. We used two types of CT and six types of MRI scanning: plain CT, contrast enhanced CT, conventional T1w, conventional PDw, conventional T2w, fat-suppressed (FATS) T1w, Gd-enhanced conventional T1w, and Gd-enhanced FATS T1w images. The focus of our study was Gd-enhanced FATS T1w imaging. Tumor detection rates were as follows: Gd-enhanced FATS T1w MRI, 86.8%; conventional T2w MRI, 71.9%; conventional PDw MRI, 65.8%; Gd-enhanced conventional T1w MRI, 47.4%; contrast enhanced CT, 36.8%; T1w MRI, 20.2%; CT, 10.5%. There were 59 cases in which tumors were detected by Gd-enhanced FATS T1w MRI but not detected by contrast enhanced CT. Gd-enhanced FATS T1w MRI was the best for the tumor detection and Gd-enhanced conventional T1w MRI was not useful in the diagnosis of the tongue cancer. CT imaging must not be the first choice for tumor detection in tongue cancer patients. (author)

  17. Morphology of the tongue and characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the tongue, its extrinsic muscles, and the characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca. We used fifteen specimens from the Wild Animals Sector of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. In this species, the tongue is divided into three regions: root, body, and apex. The latter is delimited by the lingual frenum, which has the aspect of fibrous membrane. We also identified a median groove and a prominence on its dorsal surface. The extrinsic tongue muscles are the styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and milohyoid, the latter two are inserted into the hyoid apparatus. As for the presence of lingual papillae, we observed five papillae types in all specimens: filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate, and conic. The filiform papillae are distributed throughout the apex surface and tongue body. They are caudally inclined throughout the body, until they are modified in the root region and form the conic papillae. The fungiform papillae are distributed in a large amount on the lingual apex, between the filiform papillae. This papilla type has a mushroom-like shape. Only two vallate papillae are located in the caudal portion of the lingual root, and they have an oval shape and are surrounded by a deep groove. The foliate papillae are observed in parallel grooves or slots located in the lateral portion of the tongue, between the vallate papillae and half of the intermolar prominence. In the tongue root, body, and apex we observed keratinized squamous stratified epithelium lining both the lingual papillae and the surface between them.

  18. Effect of geomagnetic storm conditions on the equatorial ionization anomaly and equatorial temperature anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Gaurav; Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the geomagnetic storm on the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and equatorial temperature anomaly (ETA) has been studied using the atomic oxygen dayglow emissions at 577.7 nm (OI 557.7 nm) and 732.0 nm (OII 732.0 nm). For the purpose of this study, four intense geomagnetic storms during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 have been considered. This study is primarily based on the results obtained using photochemical models with necessary inputs from theoretical studies and experimental observations. The latest reaction rate coefficients, quantum yields and the corresponding cross-sections have also been incorporated in these models. The volume emission rate of airglow emissions has been calculated using the neutral densities from NRLMSISE-00 and charged densities from IRI-2012 model. The modeled volume emission rate (VER) for OI 557.7 nm shows a positive correlation with the Dst index at 150 km and negative correlation with Dst at 250 and 280 km altitudes. Latitudinal profile of the greenline emission rate at different altitudes show a distinct behaviour similar to what has been observed in EIA with crests on either sides of the equator. The EIA crests are found to show poleward movement in the higher altitude regions. The volume emission rate of 732.0 nm emission shows a strong enhancement during the main phase of the storm. The changes observed in the airglow emission rates are explained with the help of variations induced in neutral densities and parameters related to EIA and ETA. The latitudinal variation of 732.0 nm emission rate is correlated to the variability in EIA during the storm period.

  19. Radiotherapy of early tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Imai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of treatment for early mobile tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years. Methods and Materials: Between January 1967 and September 1992, 70 patients less than 40 years old (young age group) with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial radiotherapy at the Osaka University Hospital (OUH). All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up (median: 13 years). External radiotherapy (median: 30 Gy) was combined in 25 cases. The treatment results were compared with those for two older age groups (middle age: 40-64 years old; old age: 65 years old or more). Results: The 5-year probability of cause-specific survival (CSS) rate for the young age group was 80%, which was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 71% for old age. However, male patients of young age showed significantly worse rates than those of middle and old age (p = 0.02). The 5-year local control rate for the young age group was 78%. It was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 70% for old age. The incidence of regional lymph node metastasis was 32% for T1, 48% for T2, 56% for males, and 24% for females. The regional failure rate of young males was significantly higher than those of the two older groups: 32% for middle and 22% for old age (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The overall treatment results for patients with early tongue cancer less than 40 years old were not worse than those of older age groups. However, male gender was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and CSS

  20. Social networks, leisure activities and maximum tongue pressure: cross-sectional associations in the Nagasaki Islands Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Higashi, Miho; Takamura, Noboru; Tamai, Mami; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Kadota, Koichiro; Sato, Shimpei; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Koyama, Zenya; Saito, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takahiro

    2017-12-06

    Social environment is often associated with health outcomes, but epidemiological evidence for its effect on oral frailty, a potential risk factor for aspiration, is sparse. This study aimed to assess the association between social environment and tongue pressure, as an important measure of oral function. The study focused on family structure, social networks both with and beyond neighbours, and participation in leisure activities. A population-based cross-sectional study. Annual health check-ups in a rural community in Japan. A total of 1982 participants, all over 40 years old. Anyone with missing data for the main outcome (n=14) was excluded. Tongue pressure was measured three times, and the maximum tongue pressure was used for analysis. A multivariable adjusted regression model was used to calculate parameter estimates (B) for tongue pressure. Having a social network involving neighbours (B=2.43, P=0.0001) and taking part in leisure activities (B=1.58, P=0.005) were independently associated with higher tongue pressure, but there was no link with social networks beyond neighbours (B=0.23, P=0.77). Sex-specific analyses showed that for men, having a partner was associated with higher tongue pressure, independent of the number of people in the household (B=2.26, P=0.01), but there was no association among women (B=-0.24, P=0.72; P-interaction=0.059). Having a social network involving neighbours and taking part in leisure activities were independently associated with higher tongue pressure. Marital status may be an important factor in higher tongue pressure in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  2. Equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 magnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; Jensen, J. W.; Kikuchi, T.; Abdu, M. A.; Chau, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] We use radar measurements from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory, magnetometer observations from the Pacific sector and ionosonde data from Brazil to study equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 geomagnetic storm. Our data show very large eastward and westward daytime electrojet current perturbations with lifetimes of about an hour (indicative of undershielding and overshielding prompt penetration electric fields) in the Pacific equatorial region during the November...

  3. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  4. Control of tongue movements in speech: The Equilibrium point Hypothesis perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Perrier , Pascal; Loevenbruck , Hélène; Payan , Yohan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper , the application of the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis— originally proposed by Feldman for the control of limb movements— to speech control is analysed . In the first part , physiological data published in the literature which argue in favour of such control for the tongue are presented and the possible role of this motor process in a global control model of the tongue is explicated . In the second part , using the example of the acoustic variability associated with vowel reducti...

  5. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Planck early results. XXIII. The first all-sky survey of Galactic cold clumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the statistical properties of the Cold Clump Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), the first all-sky catalogue of cold objects, in terms of their spatial distribution, dust temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We have combined Planck and IRAS data to extract 10342 cold sources...... dark clouds where the latter have been catalogued. These cold clumps are not isolated but clustered in groups. Dust temperature and emissivity spectral index values are derived from their spectral energy distributions using both Planck and IRAS data. The temperatures range from 7K to 19K...

  7. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M.; Larson, Charles; Mittal, Bharat B; Pierce, Marge; Zecker, Steven; Kennelty, Korey; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness and decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Methods and Materials 21 patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation were assessed before and after treatment and matched with 21 healthy control participants who did not receive chemoradiation. Each participant was given a questionnaire to rate dysphagia symptoms. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing was used to determine swallowing efficiency; the Saxon test measured salivary flow rate; and the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used for oral tongue maximum and endurance measures. Results Results revealed significantly lower tongue endurance measures for patients post-treatment as compared to controls (p=.012). Salivary flow rates also were lower compared to pre-treatment (p=.000) and controls (p=.000). Simple linear regression analyses showed that change in salivary flow rate was predictive of change in swallow efficiency measures from pre- to post-treatment for 1mL thin liquid (p=.017), 3mL nectar-thick liquid (p=.026), and 3mL standard barium pudding (p=.011) boluses. Conclusions Based on these findings, it appears that chemoradiation treatment affects tongue endurance and salivary flow rate and these changes may impact swallow efficiency. These factors should be considered when planning treatment for dysphagia. PMID:27492408

  8. Instability of equatorial protons in Jupiter's mid-magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, T.G.; Schardt, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Two different models for the distribution function are fit to the Jovian protons seen by Pioneer 10 inbound. The models reproduce the observed energy and angular distributions. These models are then used to assess the collisionless mirror instability. Because of the pancake proton angular distributions in the equatorial ring current region, the ring current particle population appears to be mirror unstable at times, with instability growth rates of approx.10 min. Such a time is consistent with observed proton flux autocorrelation times. An instability such as this (there are other candidates) may be responsible for the previously established proton flux flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the equatorial region

  9. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  10. Age-related effect of cell death on fiber morphology and number in tongue muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzien, Heidi; Hare, Allison J; Leverson, Glen; Connor, Nadine P

    2018-01-01

    Multiple pathways may exist for age-related tongue muscle degeneration. Cell death is one mechanism contributing to muscle atrophy and decreased function. We hypothesized with aging, apoptosis, and apoptotic regulators would be increased, and muscle fiber size and number would be reduced in extrinsic tongue muscles. Cell death indices, expression of caspase-3 and Bcl-2, and measures of muscle morphology and number were determined in extrinsic tongue muscles of young and old rats. Significant increases in cell death, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were observed in all extrinsic tongue muscles along with reductions in muscle fiber number in old rats. We demonstrated that apoptosis indices increase with age in lingual muscles and that alterations in apoptotic regulators may be associated with age-related degeneration in muscle fiber size and number. These observed apoptotic processes may be detrimental to muscle function, and may contribute to degradation of cranial functions with age. Muscle Nerve 57: E29-E37, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Radiotherapy of tonsillar and base of the tongue carcinoma. Prediction of local control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak-Kregar, S.; Baris, G.; Lebesque, J. V.; Balm, A. J.; Hart, A. A.; Hilgers, F. J.

    1993-01-01

    119 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region (68) and the base of the tongue (51), who received external radiotherapy with curative intent between 1966 and 1984, are analysed with respect to overall treatment results, local tumour control and prognostic factors. Radiation doses

  12. Gross morphometric study of the eyeball and tongue of the Nigerian local dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igado, Olumayowa Olawumi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the morphometry of two sense organs, the eyeball and tongue, of the Nigerian local dog (11 males, 14 females), all aged 2 years and above. The samples were grouped according to gender and weight (up to 12 kg or above that weight). The average values obtained for the weights of the left and right eyeballs and the tongue were 3.77 +/- 0.51 g, 3.68 +/- 0.74 g and 2.96 +/- 0.38 g respectively, while the length of the tongue, its thickness and width at the root and apex were 14.20 +/- 2.29 cm, 0.87 +/- 0.30 cm, and 0.21 +/- 0.05 cm respectively. The circumferences of the eyeballs (antero-posterior, mediolateral and peri-orbital) were all found to be higher in females, except the antero-posterior circumference of left eye, in spite of heavier eyeballs in males. Also, the females showed a wider rima oris and higher values for most of the tongue measurements. A positive correlation existed between the weight of the animal and that of the head and tongue, while a negative correlation was observed between the body weight and the weight of the eyeballs. This report highlights the presence of sexual dimorphism and mild lateral asymmetry in this rarely reported breed of dog. The data obtained from this study may find application in feeding physiology, ophthalmic clinical manipulations and comparative anatomy.

  13. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way.

  14. A four-dimensional motion field atlas of the tongue from tagged and cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L.; Stone, Maureen; Wedeen, Van J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Woo, Jonghye

    2017-02-01

    Representation of human tongue motion using three-dimensional vector fields over time can be used to better understand tongue function during speech, swallowing, and other lingual behaviors. To characterize the inter-subject variability of the tongue's shape and motion of a population carrying out one of these functions it is desirable to build a statistical model of the four-dimensional (4D) tongue. In this paper, we propose a method to construct a spatio-temporal atlas of tongue motion using magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired from fourteen healthy human subjects. First, cine MR images revealing the anatomical features of the tongue are used to construct a 4D intensity image atlas. Second, tagged MR images acquired to capture internal motion are used to compute a dense motion field at each time frame using a phase-based motion tracking method. Third, motion fields from each subject are pulled back to the cine atlas space using the deformation fields computed during the cine atlas construction. Finally, a spatio-temporal motion field atlas is created to show a sequence of mean motion fields and their inter-subject variation. The quality of the atlas was evaluated by deforming cine images in the atlas space. Comparison between deformed and original cine images showed high correspondence. The proposed method provides a quantitative representation to observe the commonality and variability of the tongue motion field for the first time, and shows potential in evaluation of common properties such as strains and other tensors based on motion fields.

  15. Strain Map of the Tongue in Normal and ALS Speech Patterns from Tagged and Diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L; Stone, Maureen; Reese, Timothy G; Atassi, Nazem; Wedeen, Van J; El Fakhri, Georges; Woo, Jonghye

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurological disease that causes death of neurons controlling muscle movements. Loss of speech and swallowing functions is a major impact due to degeneration of the tongue muscles. In speech studies using magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to capture internal tongue muscle fiber structures in three-dimensions (3D) in a non-invasive manner. Tagged magnetic resonance images (tMRI) are used to record tongue motion during speech. In this work, we aim to combine information obtained with both MR imaging techniques to compare the functionality characteristics of the tongue between normal and ALS subjects. We first extracted 3D motion of the tongue using tMRI from fourteen normal subjects in speech. The estimated motion sequences were then warped using diffeomorphic registration into the b0 spaces of the DTI data of two normal subjects and an ALS patient. We then constructed motion atlases by averaging all warped motion fields in each b0 space, and computed strain in the line of action along the muscle fiber directions provided by tractography. Strain in line with the fiber directions provides a quantitative map of the potential active region of the tongue during speech. Comparison between normal and ALS subjects explores the changing volume of compressing tongue tissues in speech facing the situation of muscle degradation. The proposed framework provides for the first time a dynamic map of contracting fibers in ALS speech patterns, and has the potential to provide more insight into the detrimental effects of ALS on speech.

  16. The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne M.; Claxton, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the presence of a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state--the sense that a word is in memory when its retrieval fails--is used as a heuristic for inferring that an inaccessible word has characteristics that are consistent with greater word perceptibility. When reporting a TOT state, people judged an unretrieved word as more likely to…

  17. Relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia in older rehabilitation inpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kotomi Sakai,1,2 Enri Nakayama,2 Haruka Tohara,3 Keiji Kodama,4 Takahiro Takehisa,5 Yozo Takehisa,6 Koichiro Ueda2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 3Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Department of Gerontology and Gerodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Hakuai Memorial Hospital, Tokushima, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia (NRS.Patients and methods: A total of 201 older inpatients aged ≥65 years (70 men, median age: 84 years, interquartile range: 79–89 years consecutively admitted for rehabilitation were included in this cross-sectional study. The main factors evaluated were the presence of NRS diagnosed by malnutrition using the Mini-Nutrition Assessment – Short Form, sarcopenia based on the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, tongue strength, and lip strength. Other factors such as age, sex, comorbidity, physical function, cognitive function, and oral intake level were also assessed.Results: In all, 78 (38.8% patients were allocated to the NRS group, and 123 (61.2% patients were allocated to the non-NRS group. The median tongue strength and lip strength (interquartile range were significantly lower in the NRS group (tongue: 22.9 kPa [17.7–27.7 kPa] and lip: 7.2 N [5.6–9.8 N] compared with the non-NRS group (tongue: 29.7 kPa [24.8–35.1 kPa] and lip: 9.9 N [8.4–12.3 N], P<0.001 for both. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NRS was independently associated with tongue strength (odds ratio [OR] =0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.98, P=0.012 and lip

  18. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail from 10 to 40 earth radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical study of IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetotail magnetic field measurements near the equatorial plane reveals new information about various aspects of magnetospheric structure. More magnetic flux crosses the equatorial plane on the dawn and dusk flanks of the tail than near midnight, but no evidence is found for a dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field sector polarity. Field magnitudes within 3 earth radii of the equatorial plane near dawn are more than twice as large as those near dusk for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii. The frequency of occurrence of southward fields is greatest near midnight, and such fields are seen almost twice as often for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii as for Xsm beyond -20 earth radii. This latter result supports the idea that the midnight region of the tail between 10 and 20 is a special location where neutral lines are particularly apt to form. Such a neutral line will approach nearest the earth in the midnight and premidnight region, where substorms are thought to have their onset.

  19. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    with each other. In general, the living coccolithophores in the surface and subsurface waters show considerable variation in cell numbers and distribution patterns. Cell densities reached a maximum of up to 300 x 10 coccospheres/l in the upwelling area of the equatorial Atlantic. Here, Emiliania huxleyi...

  20. Continuous day-time time series of E-region equatorial electric fields derived from ground magnetic observatory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alken, P.; Chulliat, A.; Maus, S.

    2012-12-01

    The day-time eastward equatorial electric field (EEF) in the ionospheric E-region plays an important role in equatorial ionospheric dynamics. It is responsible for driving the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current system, equatorial vertical ion drifts, and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Due to its importance, there is much interest in accurately measuring and modeling the EEF. However, there are limited sources of direct EEF measurements with full temporal and spatial coverage of the equatorial ionosphere. In this work, we propose a method of estimating a continuous day-time time series of the EEF at any longitude, provided there is a pair of ground magnetic observatories in the region which can accurately track changes in the strength of the EEJ. First, we derive a climatological unit latitudinal current profile from direct overflights of the CHAMP satellite and use delta H measurements from the ground observatory pair to determine the magnitude of the current. The time series of current profiles is then inverted for the EEF by solving the governing electrodynamic equations. While this method has previously been applied and validated in the Peruvian sector, in this work we demonstrate the method using a pair of magnetometers in Africa (Samogossoni, SAM, 0.18 degrees magnetic latitude and Tamanrasset, TAM, 11.5 degrees magnetic latitude) and validate the resulting EEF values against the CINDI ion velocity meter (IVM) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite. We find a very good 80% correlation with C/NOFS IVM measurements and a root-mean-square difference of 9 m/s in vertical drift velocity. This technique can be extended to any pair of ground observatories which can capture the day-time strength of the EEJ. We plan to apply this work to more observatory pairs around the globe and distribute real-time equatorial electric field values to the community.

  1. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  2. Nutritional status and its correlates in Equatorial Guinean preschool children: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Estefanía; Descalzo, Miguel Angel; Roche, Jesús; Sánchez, Ignacio; Molina, Laura; Lwanga, Magdalena; Bernis, Cristina; Villamor, Eduardo; Baylin, Ana

    2008-03-01

    In Equatorial Guinea, as a result of the recent growth of the oil industry, there is an opportunity to address important public health problems through public and private initiatives. To propose effective nutrition and public health strategies, it is important first to have reliable information on the nutritional status of the population and the underlying factors affecting it. To assess the nutritional status and the prevalence of anemia among Equatoguinean children in a nationally representative sample and to identify the risk factors associated with the nutritional problems detected. The study was a cross-sectional survey using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample. The survey included a sociodemographic, health, and dietary questionnaire and measurement of hematocrit and anthropometric features, from which nutritional indicators based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) standards were calculated. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analysis. A total of 552 children aged 0 to 60 months were surveyed. The overall prevalence of stunting (hemoglobin hemoglobin education, should be undertaken.

  3. Redox Conditions and Related Color Change in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments: IODP Site U1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, W. E.; Gussone, N. C.; Hathorne, E. C.; Kimoto, K.; Delaney, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    This study was prompted by a 65 m thick brown-green color change in deep-sea sediments of IODP Site U1334 (0-38 Ma, 4799 m water depth) that corresponds to its equatorial crossing (caused by the Northward movement of the pacific plate). Green sediment is a visual indicator of reducing conditions in sediment due to enhanced organic matter deposition and burial. Here we use geochemical redox indicators to characterize the effect of equatorial upwelling on bottom water. The modern redox signal is captured in porewater profiles (nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate) while trace metal Enrichment Factors (EF) in bulk sediment (manganese, uranium, molybdenum, rhenium) normalized to the detrital component (titanium) record redox state at burial. To measure export productivity we also measure biogenic barium. Porewater profiles reveal suboxic diagenesis; profiles follow the expected sequence of nitrate, manganese oxide, and iron oxide reduction with increasing depth. Constant sulfate (~28 μM) implies anoxia has not occurred. Bulk sediment Mn EF are enriched (EF > 1) throughout the record (Mn EF = 15-200) while U and Mo enrichment corresponds to green color and equatorial proximity (U EF = 4-19; Mo EF = 0-7). Constant Mn enrichment implies continuous oxygenation. Uranium and Mo enrichment near the equator represents suboxic conditions also seen in the porewater. Low Re concentrations (below detection) provide additional evidence against anoxia. A comparison of Mn EF from total digestions to samples treated with an additional reductive cleaning step distinguishes between Mn-oxides and Mn-carbonates, indicating oxygenated and reducing conditions respectively. Mn-carbonate occurrence agrees with U and Mo EF; conditions were more reducing near the equator. Bio-Ba shows significant variability over this interval (22-99 mmol g-1). Our geochemical results indicate that bottom waters became suboxic at the equator as a result of equatorial upwelling-influenced increases in organic

  4. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  5. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  6. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  7. The problem of preserving the mother tongue of Tuvans of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna M. Yusha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes the modern language situation, relevant for Tuvans in China in the conditions of diverse ethnic community and multilingualism. Mother tongue for Tuvans in China is Tuvan. Chinese Tuvan is considered one of the foreign dialects of modern Tuvan language. Up to the present time this native language has been spoken orally without a national written language. The article characterizes the status of Tuvan language, defines its functions, level of language competence and speech culture of Chinese Tuvans and analyzes the problems of preservation of the mother tongue. Article exposes the four zones of distribution of Tuvan language and reveals the relation between the functionality of Tuvan speech and the region of residence, economic and cultural type and age of native speakers. The lexical and phonetic features relevant for the dispersed groups are determined. The current educational system for Tuvan children, who are taught in Mongolian or Kazakh schools, is briefly described. Tuvans, being in the multilingual environment, are natural polylingua. They, in addition to their native language, have a good command of others (Mongolian and Kazakh, and allow language changes in their native speech tracing back to interactions with the languages of neighboring peoples. This possibly can be one of the initial signs of the loss of their native language. The processes of language interference occurring in the speech of carriers of Tuvan language are shown under the influence of the languages of neighboring, numerically exceeding peoples. The role of the mobile phone and the Internet in the modern life of the Tuvans is described. Tuvan users of mobile communications transmit voice messages in their mother tongue, and written messages - in Chinese with hieroglyphics. If Uighurs and Kazakhs have developed computer keyboard programs in their native language, Tuvans are leaking this possibility and are forced to write and read only in other languages

  8. Range expansion drives dispersal evolution in an equatorial three-species symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotard, Guillaume; Debout, Gabriel; Dalecky, Ambroise; Guillot, Sylvain; Gaume, Laurence; McKey, Doyle; Kjellberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent climatic oscillations have produced dramatic changes in species distributions. This process has been proposed to be a major evolutionary force, shaping many life history traits of species, and to govern global patterns of biodiversity at different scales. During range expansions selection may favor the evolution of higher dispersal, and symbiotic interactions may be affected. It has been argued that a weakness of climate fluctuation-driven range dynamics at equatorial latitudes has facilitated the persistence there of more specialized species and interactions. However, how much the biology and ecology of species is changed by range dynamics has seldom been investigated, particularly in equatorial regions. We studied a three-species symbiosis endemic to coastal equatorial rainforests in Cameroon, where the impact of range dynamics is supposed to be limited, comprised of two species-specific obligate mutualists--an ant-plant and its protective ant--and a species-specific ant parasite of this mutualism. We combined analyses of within-species genetic diversity and of phenotypic variation in a transect at the southern range limit of this ant-plant system. All three species present congruent genetic signatures of recent gradual southward expansion, a result compatible with available regional paleoclimatic data. As predicted, this expansion has been accompanied by the evolution of more dispersive traits in the two ant species. In contrast, we detected no evidence of change in lifetime reproductive strategy in the tree, nor in its investment in food resources provided to its symbiotic ants. Despite the decreasing investment in protective workers and the increasing investment in dispersing females by both the mutualistic and the parasitic ant species, there was no evidence of destabilization of the symbiosis at the colonization front. To our knowledge, we provide here the first evidence at equatorial latitudes that biological traits associated with dispersal are

  9. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 and matrix metalloproteinase-25 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Laura K; Häyry, Valtteri; Hagström, Jaana; Sorsa, Timo; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Keski-Säntti, Harri; Haukka, Jari; Mäkitie, Antti A; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the clinical course of early-stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is challenging. As matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor survival in many cancers, we examined MMP-7 and MMP-25 in oral tongue SCC. We used tissue microarray (TMA) technique and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of MMP-7 and MMP-25 in 73 patients with stage I to II oral tongue SCC and compared their immunoexpressions with clinical data. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP-7 and MMP-25 expression in 90% (n = 63 of 70) and 90% (n = 64 of 71) of the tumors, respectively. MMP-7 protein expression was associated with presence of occult cervical metastases (odds ratio [OR], 3.67; p = .013), increased invasion depth (OR, 4.60; p = .005), and higher tumor grade (OR, 3.30; p = .007). MMP-7 expression was predictive for poor outcome (p = .021). Immunostaining of MMP-25 did not correlate with any clinical parameters. We conclude that MMP-7, but not MMP-25, expression may have prognostic significance in early-stage oral tongue SCC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Post sunset equatorial spread-F at Kwajalein and interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Chandra, H.; Janardhan, P.; Reinisch, B. W.; Bisoi, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We connect the time sequence of changes in the IMF-Bz to the development of spread-F at an equatorial station Kwajalein on three different nights in November 2004, one during a geomagnetic quiet period and other two during geomagnetic disturbed periods. The chosen days show clear and smooth variations of IMF-Bz without any large fluctuations thereby enabling one to correlate changes in equatorial spread-F with corresponding changes in IMF-Bz. It is shown that a slow and continuous increase in the IMF-Bz over a duration of few hours has a similar effect on the equatorial ionosphere as of a sudden northward turning of the IMF-Bz in causing an electric field through the polar region and then to the equator. We conclude that the Spread-F at equatorial and low latitudes are due to echoes from ionization irregularities that arise due to the plasma instabilities generated by an eastward electric field on the large plasma density gradient in or below the base of the F-layer during any period of the night time along with the gravity driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  12. Sensitivity of equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean watermasses to the position of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Latif, Mojib; Legutke, Stephanie

    2000-09-01

    The sensitivity of the thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean pycnoclines to a model's representation of the Indonesian Straits connecting the two basins is investigated. Two integrations are performed using the global HOPE ocean model. The initial conditions and surface forcing for both cases are identical; the only difference between the runs is that one has an opening for the Indonesian Straits which spans the equator on the Pacific side, and the other has an opening which lies fully north of the equator. The resulting sensitivity throughout much of the upper ocean is greater than 0.5°C for both the equatorial Indian and Pacific. A realistic simulation of net Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport (measured in Sverdrups) is not sufficient for an adequate simulation of equatorial watermasses. The ITF must also contain a realistic admixture of northern and southern Pacific source water.

  13. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  14. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle...

  15. Tissue-Point Motion Tracking in the Tongue from Cine MRI and Tagged MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Suo, Yuanming; Murano, Emi Z.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate tissue motion tracking within the tongue can help professionals diagnose and treat vocal tract--related disorders, evaluate speech quality before and after surgery, and conduct various scientific studies. The authors compared tissue tracking results from 4 widely used deformable registration (DR) methods applied to cine magnetic…

  16. Application of interstitial radiotherapy for cancers of the tongue and oral caving mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, O.A.; Vakhramova, M.P.; Razorenova, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with new procedures of interstitial, complex and combined treatment of cancer of the tongue and mucosa of fundus of the oral cavity with time space-differentiated doses of radiation. If indicated, cervical lymph nodes undergo surgery at the final stage of therapy. Interstitial radiotherapy has proved a highly-effective radical component of said treatment for cancers of the tongue and oral cavity

  17. Studies on Tongue of Reptilian Species Psammophis sibilans, Tarentola annularis and Crocodylus niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I.H; Sabry, Dalia A; Khalifa, Soad A; Abou-El-Naga, Amora M; Foda, Yosra A

    2011-01-01

    Three different reptilian species Psammophis sibilans (Order Ophidia), Tarentola annularis (Order Squamata and Crocodylus niloticus (Order Crocodylia) are used in the present study. Their tongue is removed and examined morphologically. Their lingual mucosa examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as processed for histological investigation. Gross morphological studies revealed variations of tongue gross structure being elongated with bifurcated end in P. sibilans or triangula...

  18. Relationship between halitosis and periodontal disease - associated oral bacteria in tongue coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amou, T; Hinode, D; Yoshioka, M; Grenier, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between halitosis and oral bacteria in tongue coating (TC) and saliva samples from patients with halitosis, and to evaluate the effect of tongue cleaning on halitosis. Ninety-four participants complaining of oral malodour were included in the study. Organoleptic (OR) values, volatile sulphur compound (VSC) concentrations determined by gas chromatography and TC scores were used as clinical parameters of halitosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to determine the numbers of periodontal disease-associated oral bacteria. There was a significant correlation between TC scores and OR values, methylmercaptan (CH3 SH) concentrations and VSC concentrations (Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient test, P periodontal disease-associated oral bacteria in TCs are closely related to halitosis and that tongue cleaning may be an effective method for improving halitosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  20. Sensitivity of population smoke exposure to fire locations in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Patrick S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Chew, Boon Ning; Mao, Yuhao H.

    2015-02-01

    High smoke concentrations in Equatorial Asia, primarily from land conversion to oil palm plantations, affect a densely populated region and represent a serious but poorly quantified air quality concern. Continued expansion of the oil palm industry is expected but the resulting population exposure to smoke is highly dependent on where this expansion takes place. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to map the sensitivity of smoke concentrations in major Equatorial Asian cities, and for the population-weighted region, to the locations of the fires. We find that fires in southern Sumatra are particularly detrimental, and that a land management policy protecting peatswamp forests in Southeast Sumatra would be of great air quality benefit. Our adjoint sensitivities can be used to immediately infer population exposure to smoke for any future fire emission scenario.

  1. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  2. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue.

  3. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepageran Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of base of tongue tuberculosis following pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient presented to us with chief complaints of sore throat and pain on swallowing for period of 3 months. On examination with 70 degree telescope, we observed an ulcer on right side of base of tongue. The edges of the ulcer appeared to be undermined with whitish slough at the centre of the ulcer. Examination of neck showed a multiple small palpable middle deep cervical lymph nodes on right side of neck. Biopsy of the ulcer was taken, which showed granulomatous inflammation, suggestive of tuberculosis. Laboratory investigations revealed a raise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum for acid fast bacilli was strongly positive. Chest X ray was performed for patient showed multiple areas of consolidation. Patient was referred to chest clinic for further management of tuberculosis and was started on anti-tuberculous drugs. In conclusion tuberculosis of oral cavity is rare, but should be considered among one of the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions and biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

  4. TongueToSpeech (TTS): Wearable wireless assistive device for augmented speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nicholas; Piccinini, Giacomo; Kerr, Kevin; Esmailbeigi, Hananeh

    2017-07-01

    Speech is an important aspect of human communication; individuals with speech impairment are unable to communicate vocally in real time. Our team has developed the TongueToSpeech (TTS) device with the goal of augmenting speech communication for the vocally impaired. The proposed device is a wearable wireless assistive device that incorporates a capacitive touch keyboard interface embedded inside a discrete retainer. This device connects to a computer, tablet or a smartphone via Bluetooth connection. The developed TTS application converts text typed by the tongue into audible speech. Our studies have concluded that an 8-contact point configuration between the tongue and the TTS device would yield the best user precision and speed performance. On average using the TTS device inside the oral cavity takes 2.5 times longer than the pointer finger using a T9 (Text on 9 keys) keyboard configuration to type the same phrase. In conclusion, we have developed a discrete noninvasive wearable device that allows the vocally impaired individuals to communicate in real time.

  5. Spatial correlation of the ionsphere total electron content at the equatorial anomaly crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial correlation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at the equatorial anomaly crest was studied by recording Faraday rotation angle of the ETS-II geostationary satellite at Lunping and Kaohsiung whose subionospheric points are located at 23.0 0 N, 121.0 0 N, and 20.9 0 N, 121.1 0 E, respectively, and are about 280 km apart. The results show that the spatial correlation of TEC at the equatorial crest region is smaller than that at other places. The day-to-day variabilities of TEC differences between two subionospheric points are quite large. The day-to-day variabilities of the fountain effect seem to play an important role

  6. Discriminating aging and protein-to-fat ratio in Cheddar cheese using sensory analysis and a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkowitz, Jackie B; Ross, Carolyn F; Diako, Charles; Smith, Denise M

    2018-03-01

    capability for early detection or identification of problems in a batch of cheese during aging. Results suggest taste quality of cheese may be monitored using the electronic tongue with greater sensitivity than a trained panel, and may be more objective, rapid, and cost effective than human panelists. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertical structure and characteristics of 23-60 day (zonal) oscillations over the tropical latitudes during the winter months of 1986 - Results of equatorial wave campaign-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavarao, R.; Suhasini, R.; Sridharan, R.; Krishnamurthy, B. V.; Nagpal, O. P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of the equatorial wave campaign-II, a meteorological rocket study which was part of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program. The equatorial wave campaign-II was conducted from Shar, India (13.7 deg N, 80.2 deg E) from January 15-February 28, 1986. By means of high altitude balloon and the RH-200 meteorological rocket, winds were measured from ground level up to 60 km altitude once each day during the 45-day period. The oscillation frequencies of the deviations in the east-west component of the winds from their mean at each 1-km height interval are obtained by the maximum entropy method. The phases and amplitudes of these frequencies are determined by use of the least squares method on the wind variation time series. Enhanced wave activity is shown to take place in the troposphere and lower mesosphere. The tropospheric waves observed suggest themselves to be Rossby waves of extratropical origin penetrating to tropical latitudes. The observed stratospheric/mesospheric waves appear to emanate from a source around the stratopause.

  8. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery.

  9. Anthropogenic 236U recorded in annually banded coral skeleton at Majuro atoll, the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Eto, Asuka; Takahashi, Yoshio; Steier, Peter; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Historical 236 U/ 238 U atom ratio and concentration of 236 U were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in skeletons of dated modern coral core sample collected from Majuro atoll, equatorial Pacific, to reconstruct anthropogenic 236 U inputs to the Equatorial Pacific. The maximum hydrogen bomb-pulses of 236 U/ 238 U and 236 U concentration, 2.83x10 -9 and 1.85x10 7 atom/g, in an annually resolved coral core were captured in 1954 (Operation Castle at Bikini and Enewetok atolls). The values were abruptly decreased in a few years, and they have been gradually decreased over time. Our results allow studies of not only the present distribution pattern, but gives access to the temporal evolution of 236 U in surface seawater of North Equatorial Current which is introduced to the Japan Sea and the North West Pacific Ocean as Kuroshio and Tsushima currents over the past decades. (author)

  10. Prediction of lymphatic metastasis based on gene expression profile analysis after brachytherapy for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mogushi, Kaoru; Miura, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Noda, Shuhei; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The management of lymphatic metastasis of early-stage oral tongue carcinoma patients is crucial for its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of lymphatic metastasis after brachytherapy (BRT) for early-stage tongue carcinoma based on gene expression profiling. Patients and methods: Pre-therapeutic biopsies from 39 patients with T1 or T2 tongue cancer were analyzed for gene expression signatures using Codelink Uniset Human 20K Bioarray. All patients were treated with low dose-rate BRT for their primary lesions and underwent strict follow-up under a wait-and-see policy for cervical lymphatic metastasis. Candidate genes were selected for predicting lymph-node status in the reference group by the permutation test. Predictive accuracy was further evaluated by the prediction strength (PS) scoring system using an independent validation group. Results: We selected a set of 19 genes whose expression differed significantly between classes with or without lymphatic metastasis in the reference group. The lymph-node status in the validation group was predicted by the PS scoring system with an accuracy of 76%. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling using 19 genes in primary tumor tissues may allow prediction of lymphatic metastasis after BRT for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

  11. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  12. Mother-tongue training in school as a determinant of global language proficiency: A Belgian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Marcel

    1988-12-01

    Experimental models of education that incorporate the mother tongue of immigrant children into the structure of their curricula constitute obvious cases-in-point for assessing the validity of bilingual or multilingual education for such children. The present case study of one such model, the so-called `Foyer Bicultural Education Project' of Brussels, is intended to shed some light on the relationship between formal mother-tongue training and the development of global language proficiency in minority-language children. Since this particular case-in-point involves three languages — Italian (the mother tongue), Flemish and French — it is especially interesting with regard to the validity of the so-called `interdependence principle', as formulated by Cummins (1979). The findings presented here confirm Cummins' principle that the development of literacy in the mother tongue is a determinant of global language proficiency in minority-language children.

  13. Predatory behavior inTupinambis teguixin (Sauria: Teiidae). I. Tongue-flicking responses to chemical food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanosky, A A; Iriart, D E; Mercolli, C

    1993-02-01

    Black tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguixin) have the ability to detect food odors and discriminate between them and nonfood odors. This was tested by offering chemical stimuli on cotton-tipped applicators to the animals. Stimuli were from two plant and two animal species known to be principal items in these lizards' diets, demineralized water as an odorless control, and eaude-cologne as an odorous control lacking feeding or social importance. Tongueflick attack score, latency to attack, preattack tongue-flicks, and number of attacks were analyzed. The results clearly demonstrated that this species responds to chemical food stimuli, but does not respond to odorless nonfood stimuli. Responses differed among food types. There were no sex differences. These results are in agreement with the prediction that lizards having forked tongues and an active foraging mode rely on chemical cues for feeding.

  14. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part I: hypothetical boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A baroclinic shallow-water model is developed to investigate the effect of the orientation of the eastern ocean boundary on the behavior of equatorial Kelvin waves. The model is formulated in a spherical polar coordinate system and includes dissipation and non-linear terms, effects which have not been previously included in analytical approaches to the problem. Both equatorial and middle latitude response are considered given the large latitudinal extent used in the model. Baroclinic equatorial Kelvin waves of intraseasonal, seasonal and annual periods are introduced into the domain as pulses of finite width. Their subsequent reflection, transmission and dissipation are investigated. It is found that dissipation is very important for the transmission of wave energy along the boundary and for reflections from the boundary. The dissipation was found to be dependent not only on the presence of the coastal Kelvin waves in the domain, but also on the period of these coastal waves. In particular the dissipation increases with wave period. It is also shown that the equatorial β-plane approximation can allow an anomalous generation of Rossby waves at higher latitudes. Nonlinearities generally have a small effect on the solutions, within the confines of this model.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling · Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents

  15. Fostering children’s music in the mother tongue in early childhood education: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian Kalinde

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence that the use of a familiar language has on learning has long been explored with suggestions that a child’s mother tongue is the most suited initial language of instruction in school. In Zambia, however, this is not the case as the majority of people think that young children should learn to speak in English as soon as possible because this is the language of education. As a result, songs in English dominate the singing repertoire in pre-schools even when children have not mastered sufficient English vocabulary. Singing songs in English, just as teaching children in a language they do not understand, has been shown to hamper learning. The theoretical lens of indigenous African education underpins the study in order to investigate how music in the mother tongue in a cultural context can foster educational aims. Research participants included an expert in Zambian indigenous children’s songs who also acted as resource person and led 18 children aged between 5 and 6 years in sessions of music in their mother tongue. The findings of the study revealed that educational implications of children’s participation in music in the mother tongue can be found in the way in which they are organised, the activities they involve and in the music elements that characterise them.

  16. The right to mother tongue education: a multidisciplinary, normative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (4) of the National Education Policy Act (1996), the Department of Education recognises the benefits to be derived from mother-tongue education and commits itself to an additive approach to bilingualism within the education system.

  17. Mucocele in the Base of the Tongue Mimicking a Thyroglossal Duct Cyst: A Very Rare Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Joon Ho; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Jae Kyun; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin; Yang, Hoon Shik

    2016-01-01

    Mucoceles are one of the most common benign soft tissue masses of the oral cavity. When they occur in the tongue, the ventral surface is the usual location. Mucoceles at the base of the tongue are extremely rare and must be differentiated from intralingual thyroglossal duct cysts. We present a case of a mucocele on the base of the tongue, which was incidentally found on a cervical spinal magnetic resonance image. We include a review of the literature on image findings, pathologic type, differential diagnosis, clinical symptoms, and treatment of oral mucoceles

  18. Primary B cell lymphoma of the tongue base: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, Achour; Asma, Achour; Haifa, Regaieg; Nesrine, Abdessayed; Yosra, Ben Youssef; Badreddine, Sriha; Abderrahim, Khelif

    2016-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma’s of the tongue is very rare and accounts for 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Clinical features are non-specific ulcerative lesions that do not heal. In the literature, the majority of cases are diffuse large B cell type however, T cell phenotype also may occur. We describe a 77 years old man, who presented with an ulcerative mass in the left margin of the tongue the diagnosis diffuse large B cell lymphoma was confirmed. The patient is actually on treatment R-mini CEOP and has favorable evolution. PMID:28292136

  19. Protective Role of Emodin in Reducing The Gamma Rays Induced Hazardous Effects On The Tongue of Diabetic or Normoglycaemic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, M.G.; Kazem, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radio protectors. There is a need for natural prospective radio protectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation for treating malignant neoplasms. The study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of emodin in reducing the severity of gamma rays-induced hazardous damage in the tongue of normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Sixty-four male mice were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups: control group received vehicle, emodin group received daily emodin dose of 4g/kg orally for a week, diabetes mellitus (DM) group in which DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, emodin + DM received emodin for a week + STZ treatment, irradiated group submitted to 4 Gy of gamma rays and received vehicle for a week, gamma rays + DM group received gamma rays + STZ treatment, gamma rays + emodin group received gamma rays + emodin for a week, and gamma rays + DM + emodin group received gamma rays + STZ treatment + emodin for a week. Tongue and serum of mice were biochemically examined for screening gamma radiation and diabetic damages and the efficacy of emodin in ameliorating these damaging effects. The levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols (TT) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), were assessed in tongue tissues. Tongue antioxidant enzymes; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), were measured and serum glucose level was estimated. The results revealed alterations of the levels of cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in tongue and the level of glucose in serum of gamma irradiated diabetic mice were ameliorated in mice groups received emodin treatment. The results suggest that emodin treatment (4 g

  20. Tissue kinetics in mouse tongue mucosa during daily fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Emmendoerfer, H.; Weber-Frisch, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to quantify cell flux between the distinct layers of the epithelial lining of the ventral surface of mouse tongue during daily fractionated radiotherapy. In tongue epithelium of untreated mice, the minimum residence time of cells in the germinal layer is 2-3 days. Migration through the functional layers requires an additional 2-3 days before labelled cells are observed in the most superficial layer of nucleated cells. A plateau in LI is observed for several days post-labelling in control epithelium, indicating an equilibrium between loss and proliferation of labelled cells. During fractionated radiotherapy, the minimum time from division to occurrence of labelled cells in the stratum lucidum is less than 2 days, and hence significantly shorter than in control epithelium. In contrast to untreated epithelium, no plateau in the germinal layer LI is seen, indicating that frequently both labelled daughters from dividing labelled cells are being lost from this compartment. In conclusion, the present data support a recently described model of radiation-induced accelerated repopulation in squamous epithelia, which postulates that the majority of damaged cells undergoes abortive divisions resulting in two differentiating daughters. (Author)

  1. A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Paquita; Torri, Giuseppe; Muller, Caroline; Chandra, Arunchandra

    2017-11-01

    Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day, ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in computer capabilities has promoted exploration of how precipitation-induced cold pool processes modify the convective spectrum and life cycle. This contribution surveys current understanding of such cold pools over the tropical and subtropical oceans. In shallow convection with low rain rates, the cold pools moisten, preserving the near-surface equivalent potential temperature or increasing it if the surface moisture fluxes cannot ventilate beyond the new surface layer; both conditions indicate downdraft origin air from within the boundary layer. When rain rates exceed ˜ 2 mm h^{-1}, convective-scale downdrafts can bring down drier air of lower equivalent potential temperature from above the boundary layer. The resulting density currents facilitate the lifting of locally thermodynamically favorable air and can impose an arc-shaped mesoscale cloud organization. This organization allows clouds capable of reaching 4-5 km within otherwise dry environments. These are more commonly observed in the northern hemisphere trade wind regime, where the flow to the intertropical convergence zone is unimpeded by the equator. Their near-surface air properties share much with those shown from cold pools sampled in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Cold pools are most effective at influencing the mesoscale organization when the atmosphere is moist in the lower free troposphere and dry above, suggesting an optimal range of water vapor paths. Outstanding questions on the relationship between cold pools, their accompanying moisture distribution and cloud cover are detailed further. Near-surface water vapor rings are documented in one model inside but

  2. Cold urticaria. Dissociation of cold-evoked histamine release and urticara following cold challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keahey, T M; Greaves, M W

    1980-02-01

    Nine patients with acquired cold urticaria were studied to assess the effects of beta-adrenergic agents, xanthines, and corticosteroids on cold-evoked histamine release from skin in vivo. The patients, in all of whom an immediate urticarial response developed after cooling of the forearm, demonstrated release of histamine into the venous blood draining that forearm. Following treatment with aminophylline and albuterol in combination or prednisone alone, suppression of histamine release occurred in all but one patient. In some patients, this was accompanied by a subjective diminution in pruritus or buring, but there was no significant improvement in the ensuing edema or erythema. In one patient, total suppression of histamine release was achieved without any effect on whealing and erythema in response to cold challenge. Our results suggest that histamine is not central to the pathogenesis of vascular changes in acquired cold urticaria.

  3. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  4. Effects of the equatorial ionosphere on L-band Earth-space transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionosphere scintillation can effect satellite telecommunication up to Ku-band. Nighttime scintillation can be attributed to large-scale inhomogeneity in the F-region of the ionosphere predominantly between heights of 200 and 600 km. Daytime scintillation has been attributed to sporadic E. It can be thought of as occurring in three belts: equatorial, high-latitude, and mid-latitude, in order of severity. Equatorial scintillation occurs between magnetic latitudes +/- 25 degrees, peaking near +/- 10 degrees. It commonly starts abruptly near 2000 local time and dies out shortly after midnight. There is a strong solar cycle dependence and a seasonal preference for the equinoxes, particularly the vernal one. Equatorial scintillation occurs more frequently on magnetically quiet than on magnetically disturbed days in most longitudes. At the peak of the sunspot cycle scintillation depths as great as 20 dB were observed at L-band.

  5. Marriage, Sexuality and Moral Responsibility among the Tongu Mafi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... practices of the Tongu Mafi people of Ghana reveals that marriage rites and ... religious values and practices with the larger Ewe community. However, the ...... cooking responsibilities. ... of 'dirty money' and source of wealth.

  6. Yellow Tongue Coating is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus Among Japanese Non-smoking Men and Women: The Toon Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomooka, Kiyohide; Saito, Isao; Furukawa, Shinya; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-28

    Yellow tongue coating is one of the clinical signs for diabetes mellitus according to traditional East Asian medicine. Few reports have been available on the association between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. We examined that association among population samples of non-smoking men and women. The study subjects were Japanese non-smoking men (n = 315) and women (n = 654) aged 30-79 years who resided in Toon city and participated in the Toon Health Study from July 2011 through November 2014. Tongue coating was assessed by a nationally licensed acupuncturist and classified into three categories of white (normal), light yellow, and yellow. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test to confirm the presence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. The associations between yellow tongue coating and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, drinking status, and physical activity. The multivariable odds ratios of diabetes mellitus were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-2.67) for light yellow tongue coating and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.16-4.30) for yellow tongue coating compared with white tongue coating. The respective multivariable odds ratios of prediabetes were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.80-1.61) and 1.43 (95% CI, 0.96-2.12). Yellow tongue coating was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and tended to be associated with that of prediabetes among Japanese non-smoking men and women.

  7. Division of tongue tie: review of practice through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, R W

    2012-10-01

    Recent NICE guidance declared that evidence regarding surgical division of tongue tie was adequate to support the use of the procedure, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance. This work aimed to carry out a retrospective review of those patients who have previously undergone tongue tie division through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service. We further aimed to identify the referral patterns, indications for, and outcomes following, division.

  8. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  9. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  10. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Takeshi, E-mail: kamitani@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi, E-mail: kawanami-01@mac.com [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yoshio, E-mail: yymatsuo@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Masato, E-mail: ymasato@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yamasaki, Yuzo, E-mail: yyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamanouchi, Torahiko, E-mail: tora0228@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: h-yabu@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa, E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko, E-mail: nakatora@qent.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  11. Customized mouthpieces designed to reduce tongue mucositis in carbon-ion radiotherapy for tumors of the nasal and paranasal sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mouthpieces are used to fix the positions of the lower jaw and teeth during carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. We used a customized mouthpiece to reduce radiation mucositis by displacing the tongue. Acute radiation mucositis gradually increased for the palate and tongue after approximately six irradiation fractions (maximal mean grade: palate, 2.5 during radiation fractions 15; tongue, 0.8 during radiation fractions 12 and 13. The mean grade of mucositis was significantly lower for the tongue than for the palate from irradiation fraction six until two weeks after irradiation.

  12. Sub-kilometer Simulation of Equatorial Plasma Bubble and Comparison with Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Stolle, C.; Su, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPB from a space weather point of view. The development of EPB is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPB which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. Recent upgrade of the HIRB model has made it possible to conduct the simulation with sub-kilometer grid spacing. The simulation results can be compared with various in situ satellite observations such as plasma drift velocity, plasma density, magnetic field, and their structures and power spectra, e.g. from the C/NOFS, ROCSAT, CHAMP, or Swarm missions. Our initial results show encouraging agreement between model results and observational data.

  13. Equatorial electrojet as part of the global circuit: a case-study from the IEEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kobea

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400-0600 UT coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800-0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h'F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ∆H variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.Keywords. Equatorial electrojet · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Electric fields and currents · Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric disturbances

  14. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal-longitudinal variability of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Burke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare seasonal and longitudinal distributions of more than 8300 equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs observed during a full solar cycle from 1989-2000 with predictions of two simple models. Both models are based on considerations of parameters that influence the linear growth rate, γRT, of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the context of finite windows of opportunity available during the prereversal enhancement near sunset. These parameters are the strength of the equatorial magnetic field, Beq, and the angle, α, it makes with the dusk terminator line. The independence of α and Beq from the solar cycle phase justifies our comparisons.

    We have sorted data acquired during more than 75000 equatorial evening-sector passes of polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites into 24 longitude and 12 one-month bins, each containing ~250 samples. We show that: (1 in 44 out of 48 month-longitude bins EPB rates are largest within 30 days of when α=0°; (2 unpredicted phase shifts and asymmetries appear in occurrence rates at the two times per year when α≈0°; (3 While EPB occurrence rates vary inversely with Beq, the relationships are very different in regions where Beq is increasing and decreasing with longitude. Results (2 and (3 indicate that systematic forces not considered by the two models can become important. Damping by interhemispheric winds appears to be responsible for phase shifts in maximum rates of EPB occurrence from days when α=0°. Low EPB occurrence rates found at eastern Pacific longitudes suggest that radiation belt electrons in the drift loss cone reduce γRT by enhancing E-layer Pedersen conductances. Finally, we analyze an EPB event observed during a magnetic storm at a time and place where α≈-27°, to illustrate how electric-field penetration from

  16. Westward equatorial electrojet during daytime hours. [relation to geomagnetic horizontal field depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of the depression of the geomagnetic horizontal field during the daytime hours of magnetically quiet days at equatorial stations is described. These events are generally seen around 0700 and 1600 LT, being more frequent during the evening than the morning hours. The evening events are more frequent during periods of low solar activity and in the longitude region of weak equatorial electrojet currents. The latitudinal extent of the phenomenon is limited to the normal equatorial electrojet region, and on some occasions the phenomenon is not seen at both stations, separated by only a few hours in longitude. During such an event, the latitudinal profile of the geomagnetic vertical field across the equator is reversed, the ionospheric drift near the equator is reversed toward the east, the q type of sporadic E layer is completely absent, and the height of the peak ionization in the F2 region is decreased. It is suggested that these effects are caused by a narrow band of current flowing westward in the E region of the ionosphere and within the latitude region of the normal equatorial electrojet, due to the reversal of the east-west electrostatic field at low latitudes.

  17. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  18. Design of a microfluidic cell using microstereolithography for electronic tongue applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacesko, Stefany L.; Ji, Taeksoo; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present design, fabrication and integration of a micro fluidic cell for use with the electronic tongue. The cell was machined using microstereo lithography on a Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) liquid monomer. The wet cell was designed to confine the liquid under test to the sensing area and insure complete isolation of the interdigital transducers (IDTs). The electronic tongue is a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) device. Shear horizontally polarized Love-waves are guided between transmitting and receiving IDTs, over a piezoelectric substrate, which creates an electronic oscillator effect. This device has a dual delay line configuration, which accounts for the measuring of both mechanical and electrical properties of a liquid, simultaneously, with the ability to eliminate environmental factors. The data collected is distinguished using principal components analysis in conjunction with pre-processing parameters. The experiments show that the micro fluidic cell for this electronic tongue does not affect the losses or phase of the device to any extent of concern. Experiments also show that liquids such as Strawberry Hi-C, Teriyaki Sauce, DI Water, Coca Cola, and Pepsi are distinguishable using these methods.

  19. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on ... All the students in Year 1Б4 were included in the study. .... agents which are beneficial for prevention and treatment.

  20. Deformable image registration for cone-beam CT guided transoral robotic base-of-tongue surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaungamornrat, S; Liu, W P; Otake, Y; Uneri, A; Siewerdsen, J H; Taylor, R H; Wang, A S; Nithiananthan, S; Schafer, S; Tryggestad, E; Richmon, J; Sorger, J M

    2013-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) offers a minimally invasive approach to resection of base-of-tongue tumors. However, precise localization of the surgical target and adjacent critical structures can be challenged by the highly deformed intraoperative setup. We propose a deformable registration method using intraoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to accurately align preoperative CT or MR images with the intraoperative scene. The registration method combines a Gaussian mixture (GM) model followed by a variation of the Demons algorithm. First, following segmentation of the volume of interest (i.e. volume of the tongue extending to the hyoid), a GM model is applied to surface point clouds for rigid initialization (GM rigid) followed by nonrigid deformation (GM nonrigid). Second, the registration is refined using the Demons algorithm applied to distance map transforms of the (GM-registered) preoperative image and intraoperative CBCT. Performance was evaluated in repeat cadaver studies (25 image pairs) in terms of target registration error (TRE), entropy correlation coefficient (ECC) and normalized pointwise mutual information (NPMI). Retraction of the tongue in the TORS operative setup induced gross deformation >30 mm. The mean TRE following the GM rigid, GM nonrigid and Demons steps was 4.6, 2.1 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The respective ECC was 0.57, 0.70 and 0.73, and NPMI was 0.46, 0.57 and 0.60. Registration accuracy was best across the superior aspect of the tongue and in proximity to the hyoid (by virtue of GM registration of surface points on these structures). The Demons step refined registration primarily in deeper portions of the tongue further from the surface and hyoid bone. Since the method does not use image intensities directly, it is suitable to multi-modality registration of preoperative CT or MR with intraoperative CBCT. Extending the 3D image registration to the fusion of image and planning data in stereo-endoscopic video is anticipated to

  1. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P cold or heat tolerance had relationships with cold tolerance index, T max, and amplitude ( P cold tolerance classified through a standardized survey could be a good index to predict physiological cold tolerance.

  2. Range expansion drives dispersal evolution in an equatorial three-species symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Léotard

    Full Text Available Recurrent climatic oscillations have produced dramatic changes in species distributions. This process has been proposed to be a major evolutionary force, shaping many life history traits of species, and to govern global patterns of biodiversity at different scales. During range expansions selection may favor the evolution of higher dispersal, and symbiotic interactions may be affected. It has been argued that a weakness of climate fluctuation-driven range dynamics at equatorial latitudes has facilitated the persistence there of more specialized species and interactions. However, how much the biology and ecology of species is changed by range dynamics has seldom been investigated, particularly in equatorial regions.We studied a three-species symbiosis endemic to coastal equatorial rainforests in Cameroon, where the impact of range dynamics is supposed to be limited, comprised of two species-specific obligate mutualists--an ant-plant and its protective ant--and a species-specific ant parasite of this mutualism. We combined analyses of within-species genetic diversity and of phenotypic variation in a transect at the southern range limit of this ant-plant system. All three species present congruent genetic signatures of recent gradual southward expansion, a result compatible with available regional paleoclimatic data. As predicted, this expansion has been accompanied by the evolution of more dispersive traits in the two ant species. In contrast, we detected no evidence of change in lifetime reproductive strategy in the tree, nor in its investment in food resources provided to its symbiotic ants.Despite the decreasing investment in protective workers and the increasing investment in dispersing females by both the mutualistic and the parasitic ant species, there was no evidence of destabilization of the symbiosis at the colonization front. To our knowledge, we provide here the first evidence at equatorial latitudes that biological traits associated

  3. Deglacial Western Equatorial Pacific pCO2 Reconstruction Using Boron Isotopes of Planktonic Foraminiferas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Sagawa, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamazaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the last deglaciation (ca. 19 - 11 ka), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of the atmosphere increased by 80 μatm. Many paleoceanographers point out that the ocean had played an important role in atmospheric CO2 rise, since the ocean have 60 times larger capacity to store carbon compared to the atmosphere. However, evidence on where carbon was transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere is still lacking, hampering our understanding of global carbon cycles in glacial-interglacial timescales. Boron isotope of skeletons of marine calcifying organisms such as corals and foraminiferas can pin down where CO2 source/sink existed, because boron isotopes of marine calcium carbonates is dependent on seawater pH, from which pCO2 of the past seawater can be reconstructed. In previous studies using the boron isotope teqnique, Martinez-Boti et al. (2015, Nature) and Kubota et al. (2014, Scientific Reports) revealed that central and eastern parts of the equatorial Pacific acted as a CO2 source (i.e., CO2 emission) during the last deglaciation, suggesting the equatorial Pacific's contribution to atmospheric CO2 rise. However, some conflicting results have been confirmed in a marine sediment record from the western part of the equatorial Pacific (Palmer & Pearson, 2003, Science), making the conclusion elusive. In this presentation, we will show new results of Mg/Ca, oxygen isotope, and boron isotope measurements during the last 35 ka on two species of surface dwelling foraminiferas (Globigerinoides ruber and G. sacculifer) which was hand-picked separatedly from a well-dated marine sediment core recovered from the West Caroline Basin (KR05-15 PC01) (Yamazaki et al., 2008, GRL). From the new records, we will discuss how the equatorial Pacific behaved during the last deglaciation and how it related to the global carbon cycles.

  4. Error-Free Text Typing Performance of an Inductive Intra-Oral Tongue Computer Interface for Severely Disabled Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S; Bentsen, Bo; Gaihede, Michael; Lontis, Eugen R

    2017-11-01

    For severely paralyzed individuals, alternative computer interfaces are becoming increasingly essential for everyday life as social and vocational activities are facilitated by information technology and as the environment becomes more automatic and remotely controllable. Tongue computer interfaces have proven to be desirable by the users partly due to their high degree of aesthetic acceptability, but so far the mature systems have shown a relatively low error-free text typing efficiency. This paper evaluated the intra-oral inductive tongue computer interface (ITCI) in its intended use: Error-free text typing in a generally available text editing system, Word. Individuals with tetraplegia and able bodied individuals used the ITCI for typing using a MATLAB interface and for Word typing for 4 to 5 experimental days, and the results showed an average error-free text typing rate in Word of 11.6 correct characters/min across all participants and of 15.5 correct characters/min for participants familiar with tongue piercings. Improvements in typing rates between the sessions suggest that typing ratescan be improved further through long-term use of the ITCI.

  5. Disruption of Saturn's quasi-periodic equatorial oscillation by the great northern storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Guerlet, Sandrine; Orton, Glenn S.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Fouchet, Thierry; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Li, Liming; Flasar, F. Michael; Gorius, Nicolas; Morales-Juberías, Raúl

    2017-11-01

    The equatorial middle atmospheres of the Earth1, Jupiter2 and Saturn3,4 all exhibit a remarkably similar phenomenon—a vertical, cyclic pattern of alternating temperatures and zonal (east-west) wind regimes that propagate slowly downwards with a well-defined multi-year period. Earth's quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) (observed in the lower stratospheric winds with an average period of 28 months) is one of the most regular, repeatable cycles exhibited by our climate system1,5,6, and yet recent work has shown that this regularity can be disrupted by events occurring far away from the equatorial region, an example of a phenomenon known as atmospheric teleconnection7,8. Here, we reveal that Saturn's equatorial quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) (with an 15-year period3,9) can also be dramatically perturbed. An intense springtime storm erupted at Saturn's northern mid-latitudes in December 201010-12, spawning a gigantic hot vortex in the stratosphere at 40° N that persisted for three years13. Far from the storm, the Cassini temperature measurements showed a dramatic 10 K cooling in the 0.5-5 mbar range across the entire equatorial region, disrupting the regular QPO pattern and significantly altering the middle-atmospheric wind structure, suggesting an injection of westward momentum into the equatorial wind system from waves generated by the northern storm. Hence, as on Earth, meteorological activity at mid-latitudes can have a profound effect on the regular atmospheric cycles in Saturn's tropics, demonstrating that waves can provide horizontal teleconnections between the phenomena shaping the middle atmospheres of giant planets.

  6. Tongues of periodicity in a family of two-dimensional discontinuous maps of real Moebius type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Gardini, Laura; Puu, Toenu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth discontinuous map representing the so-called 'relative dynamics' of an Hicksian business cycle model. The main features of the dynamics occur in the parameter region in which no fixed points at finite distance exist, but we may have attracting cycles of any periods. The bifurcations associated with the periodicity tongues of the map are studied making use of the first-return map on a suitable segment of the phase plane. The bifurcation curves bounding the periodicity tongues in the parameter plane are related with saddle-node and border-collision bifurcations of the first-return map. Moreover, the particular 'sausages structure' of the bifurcation tongues is also explained

  7. A bacterial acyl aminoacyl peptidase couples flexibility and stability as a result of cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, Stefania; Ferrari, Cristian; Barbiroli, Alberto; Pesce, Alessandra; Lotti, Marina; Nardini, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Life in cold environments requires an overall increase in the flexibility of macromolecular and supramolecular structures to allow biological processes to take place at low temperature. Conformational flexibility supports high catalytic rates of enzymes in the cold but in several cases is also a cause of instability. The three-dimensional structure of the psychrophilic acyl aminoacyl peptidase from Sporosarcina psychrophila (SpAAP) reported in this paper highlights adaptive molecular changes resulting in a fine-tuned trade-off between flexibility and stability. In its functional form SpAAP is a dimer, and an increase in flexibility is achieved through loosening of intersubunit hydrophobic interactions. The release of subunits from the quaternary structure is hindered by an 'arm exchange' mechanism, in which a tiny structural element at the N terminus of one subunit inserts into the other subunit. Mutants lacking the 'arm' are monomeric, inactive and highly prone to aggregation. Another feature of SpAAP cold adaptation is the enlargement of the tunnel connecting the exterior of the protein with the active site. Such a wide channel might compensate for the reduced molecular motions occurring in the cold and allow easy and direct access of substrates to the catalytic site, rendering transient movements between domains unnecessary. Thus, cold-adapted SpAAP has developed a molecular strategy unique within this group of proteins: it is able to enhance the flexibility of each functional unit while still preserving sufficient stability. Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession number 5L8S. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue’s Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Diyana Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye’s ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue’s multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black, deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.

  9. Asymmetric Response of the Equatorial Pacific SST to Climate Warming and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Luo, Yiyong [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Garuba, Oluwayemi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wan, Xiuquan [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China

    2017-09-01

    The response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to heat fluxes of equal amplitude but opposite sign is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Results show a strong asymmetry in SST changes. In the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), the warming responding to the positive forcing exceeds the cooling to the negative forcing; while in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP), it is the other way around and the cooling surpasses the warming. This leads to a zonal dipole asymmetric structure, with positive values in the east and negative values in the west. A surface heat budget analysis suggests that the SST asymmetry is mainly resulted from the oceanic horizontal advection and vertical entrainment, with both of their linear and nonlinear components playing a role. For the linear component, its change appears to be more significant over the EEP (WEP) in the positive (negative) forcing scenario, favoring the seesaw pattern of the SST asymmetry. For the nonlinear component, its change acts to warm (cool) the EEP (WEP) in both scenarios, also favorable for the development of the SST as