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Sample records for equally complex ocular

  1. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  2. Equalizer complexity of mode division multiplexed coherent receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inan, B.; Spinnler, B.; Ferreira, F.; Lobato, A.; Adhikari, S.; Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Borne, van den D.; Hanik, N.; Jansen, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We show that OFDM requires the lowest equalizer complexity for crosstalk compensation in a mode-division-multiplexing receiver. For a 2000-km transmission distance and less than 10% ODFM-specific overhead, the modal dispersion must be below 12 ps/km

  3. Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.

  4. The NALP3/Cryopyrin-Inflammasome Complex is Expressed in LPS-Induced Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. González-Benítez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the inflammosome complex, NALP3 or NALP1 binds to ASC and activates caspase-1 which induces IL-1β. In murine LPS-induced ocular inflammation, the production of IL-1β is increased. We suggest that NALP3- or NALP1-inflammasome complex can be participating in the LPS-induced ocular inflammation. In this work, eye, brain, testis, heart, spleen, and lung were obtained from C3H/HeN mice treated with LPS for 3 to 48 hours, and the expression of NALP1b, NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 was determined. Infiltrated leukocytes producing IL-1β in the anterior chamber were found at 12-hour posttreatment. A high upregulated expression of NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 was found at the same time when infiltrated leukocytes were observed. NALP1b was not detected in the eye of treated mice. NALP3 was also overexpressed in heart and lung. These results suggest that NALP3-, but not NALP1-inflammosome complex, is participating in the murine LPS-induced ocular inflammation.

  5. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  6. Low complexity iterative MLSE equalization of M-QAM signals in extremely long rayleigh fading channels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburgh, HC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available long channels. Its computational complexity is linear in the data block length and approximately independent of the channel memory length, whereas conventional equalization algorithms have computational complexity linear in the data block length...

  7. Natamycin and Azithromycin are Synergistic in vitro against Ocular Pathogenic Aspergillus flavus species complex and Fusarium solani species complex Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haoyi; Zhou, Lutan; He, Yi; Gao, Chuanwen; Han, Lei; Xu, Yan

    2018-05-07

    The interaction of natamycin-azithromycin combination against 60 ocular fungal isolates was tested in vitro The combination produced 100% synergistic interactions when natamycin added azithromycin at 20, 40, 50 μg/ml against Aspergillus flavus species complex (AFSC) isolates and added azithromycin at 50 μg/ml against Fusarium solani species complex isolates. The combination with 50 μg/ml azithromycin enhanced natamycin's effect against AFSC isolates by reducing natamycin MICs from MIC 90 64μg/ml to MIC 90 0.031μg/ml. No antagonism was observed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Diclofenac sodium ion exchange resin complex loaded melt cast films for sustained release ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelli, Goutham R; Balguri, Sai Prachetan; Bhagav, Prakash; Raman, Vijayasankar; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the present study is to develop polymeric matrix films loaded with a combination of free diclofenac sodium (DFS free ) and DFS:Ion exchange resin complexes (DFS:IR) for immediate and sustained release profiles, respectively. Effect of ratio of DFS and IR on the DFS:IR complexation efficiency was studied using batch processing. DFS:IR complex, DFS free , or a combination of DFS free  +   DFS:IR loaded matrix films were prepared by melt-cast technology. DFS content was 20% w/w in these matrix films. In vitro transcorneal permeability from the film formulations were compared against DFS solution, using a side-by-side diffusion apparatus, over a 6 h period. Ocular disposition of DFS from the solution, films and corresponding suspensions were evaluated in conscious New Zealand albino rabbits, 4 h and 8 h post-topical administration. All in vivo studies were carried out as per the University of Mississippi IACUC approved protocol. Complexation efficiency of DFS:IR was found to be 99% with a 1:1 ratio of DFS:IR. DFS release from DFS:IR suspension and the film were best-fit to a Higuchi model. In vitro transcorneal flux with the DFS free  +   DFS:IR (1:1) (1 + 1) was twice that of only DFS:IR (1:1) film. In vivo, DFS solution and DFS:IR (1:1) suspension formulations were not able to maintain therapeutic DFS levels in the aqueous humor (AH). Both DFS free and DFS free  +   DFS:IR (1:1) (3 + 1) loaded matrix films were able to achieve and maintain high DFS concentrations in the AH, but elimination of DFS from the ocular tissues was much faster with the DFS free formulation. DFS free  +   DFS:IR combination loaded matrix films were able to deliver and maintain therapeutic DFS concentrations in the anterior ocular chamber for up to 8 h. Thus, free drug/IR complex loaded matrix films could be a potential topical ocular delivery platform for achieving immediate and sustained release characteristics.

  9. Low-complexity blind equalization for OFDM systems with general constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Dahman, Ala A.; Sohail, Muhammad Sadiq; Xu, Weiyu; Hassibi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm for blind equalization of data in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless systems with general constellations. The proposed algorithm is able to recover the transmitted data

  10. High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Nanou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.

  11. Low complexity iterative MLSE equalization in highly spread underwater acoustic channels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Myburgh, HC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available methods. The superior computational complexity of the proposed equalizer is due to the high parallelism and high level of neuron interconnection of its foundational neural network structure. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, much attention has been... are practically infeasible, as their computational complexities are exponentially related to the number of interfering symbols, rendering them computationally infeasible for UAC equaliza- tion. Attention has therefore been drawn to developing compu- tationally...

  12. Volterra equalization of complex modulation utilizing frequency chirp in directly modulated lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaohua; Yi, Xingwen; Zhang, Jing; Song, Yang; Zhu, Mingyue; Qiu, Kun

    2018-02-01

    We apply Volterra-based equalization for complex modulated optical signals utilizing the frequency chirp in DMLs. We experimentally demonstrate that the higher order Volterra filter is necessary in the higher speed transmissions. For further study, we isolate the adiabatic chirp by injection locking and realize the optical PM transmission. We make a comparison among IM, FM and PM with Volterra equalization, finding that PM and FM are more power insensitive and suitable for high speed, power limited fiber transmission. The performance can be further improved by exploiting the diversity gain.

  13. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  14. Complexity evaluation for the implementation of a pre-FFT equalizer in an OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Nix, AR

    2000-01-01

    A pre-FFT equalizer (PFE) has been shown to offer a significant throughput efficiency improvement when applied to an OFDM receiver. Alternatively, the PFE can be used to increase the maximum delay spread conditions under which the OFDM system can operate effectively. Due to the manner of its operation, the PFE requires the use of modified adaptation algorithms if iterative, decision directed, adaptation is required. The computational complexity required to implement a PFE and a suitable adapt...

  15. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  16. Complex energy eigenstates in a model with two equal mass particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiser, R J; Reula, D A; Moreschi, O M [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    1980-09-01

    The properties of a simples quantum mechanical model for the decay of two equal mass particles are studied and related to some recent work on complex energy eigenvalues. It consists essentially in a generalization of the Lee-Friedrichs model for an unstable particle and gives a highly idealized version of the K/sup 0/-anti K/sup 0/ system, including CP violations. The model is completely solvable, thus allowing a comparison with the well known Weisskopf-Wigner formalism for the decay amplitudes. A different model, describing the same system is also briefly outlined.

  17. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  18. Low-complexity blind equalization for OFDM systems with general constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm for blind equalization of data in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless systems with general constellations. The proposed algorithm is able to recover the transmitted data even when the channel changes on a symbol-by-symbol basis, making it suitable for fast fading channels. The proposed algorithm does not require any statistical information about the channel and thus does not suffer from latency normally associated with blind methods. The paper demonstrates how to reduce the complexity of the algorithm, which becomes especially low at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Specifically, it is shown that in the high SNR regime, the number of operations is of the order O(LN), where L is the cyclic prefix length and N is the total number of subcarriers. Simulation results confirm the favorable performance of the proposed algorithm. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues. PMID:27293123

  20. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  1. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  2. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  3. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to evaluate functions without disclosing the private inputs. Secure comparisons (testing equality and greater-than) are important primitives required by many MPC applications. We propose two equality tests for ℓ-bit values with O(1) online...

  4. From metamorphosis to maturity in complex life cycles: equal performance of different juvenile life history pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Hödl, Walter; Schaub, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Performance in one stage of a complex life cycle may affect performance in the subsequent stage. Animals that start a new stage at a smaller size than conspecifics may either always remain smaller or they may be able to "catch up" through plasticity, usually elevated growth rates. We study how size at and date of metamorphosis affected subsequent performance in the terrestrial juvenile stage and lifetime fitness of spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus). We analyzed capture-recapture data of > 3000 individuals sampled during nine years with mark-recapture models to estimate first-year juvenile survival probabilities and age-specific first-time breeding probabilities of toads, followed by model selection to assess whether these probabilities were correlated with size at and date of metamorphosis. Males attained maturity after two years, whereas females reached maturity 2-4 years after metamorphosis. Age at maturity was weakly correlated with metamorphic traits. In both sexes, first-year juvenile survival depended positively on date of metamorphosis and, in males, also negatively on size at metamorphosis. In males, toads that metamorphosed early at a small size had the highest probability to reach maturity. However, because very few toadlets metamorphosed early, the vast majority of male metamorphs had a very similar probability to reach maturity. A matrix projection model constructed for females showed that different juvenile life history pathways resulted in similar lifetime fitness. We found that the effects of date of and size at metamorphosis on different juvenile traits cancelled each other out such that toads that were small or large at metamorphosis had equal performance. Because the costs and benefits of juvenile life history pathways may also depend on population fluctuations, ample phenotypic variation in life history traits may be maintained.

  5. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  6. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  7. Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality in Academia – a Complex Combination in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Inger Keisu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its starting point two current trends in academia – the promotion of academic entrepreneurship and innovation and the promotion of gender equality – and discusses how different gender equality perspectives are interwoven, or not, into academia’s transformation processes towards entrepreneurial universities. On the basis of an analysis of 26 interviews conducted with personnel at two Swedish universities, the article investigates how concepts of academic entrepreneurship and innovation on the one hand and gender equality on the other hand are constructed and filled with meaning as well as how they are entangled and what effects are produced by this way of thinking and acting. Our analysis reveals tensions between the two policy goals, together with tensions within each goal. An overall conclusion is that articulations and ways of speaking about the policy goal of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were to some extent interwoven with the policy goal of gender equality, especially in the broader perspectives on academic entrepreneurship. However, the articulations of strategies and practice of the two policy goals essentially ran parallel, and were not entangled with one another. This is because strategies or substantial initiatives for merging gender equality into the agenda of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were lacking.

  8. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTION OF MYELOPIDUM UNDER ITS INCLUSION IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH PENETRATING OCULAR INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gavrilova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Examination of immunomodulatory actions and clinical efficiency of myelopidum when included into complex therapy that was carried out in 24 male patients with severe (stage 3 penetrating eye injury in the course of trauma treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein, lactoferrin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and activity of complement system were measured in peripheral blood, and concentrations of lactoferrin and IL-8 were determined in tears. An increase in lactoferrin, C-reactive protein, IL-1β, IL-8, and C5 complement component levels was detected during early post-traumatic period, as compared with data from the control group. As compared to effects of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs included into standard therapy, treatment with myelopidum has led to a more favorable clinical course of traumatic process, and resulted into more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect that was manifested by decrease in lactoferrin and C-reactive protein levels, reduction of IL-1β concentration, and C5 complement component activity. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 239-244.

  9. haematological changes accompanying prolonged ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    oral chloramphenicol provided the basis for comparison. 20 adult male rabbits were randomly but equally divided into two main groups based on the route of administration of the drug (i.e ocular or oral). In each group of ten rabbits equal number of rabbits were randomly divided into test (n=5) and control (n=5) subgroups.

  10. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  11. From equality to 'equality'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panov Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to lucid statement of a Serbian academician that the ideals of mankind have always been justice, freedom, virtues and that life was less noble, the work analyses whether there is both 'equality', as morosofo exist (stupid wise men, profitable altruists and evil humanists and admirers of freedom of monistic thinking. Is there a dialectics: from equality to 'equality'? At the time of profitable altruists, evil humanists and excellent actors of virtues, it is worthwhile to remember Nietzsche's attitude about the pose of morality: subordination to morality may be slavish, proud, sordid, and resigned. In theological literature it is said that both patriarchate and matriarchate are the same denial of thankful supplemental gifts to a man and a woman. There is no love and sacrifice in government. There is no fortune in slavery, but there is no happiness in mastery either. Can a 'hymn' of individualism, with empty concepts and legal formulations that encourage and sharpen the conflict of family members be an introductory tact of the dictatorship ballade? Is the projection of conflicts into a family and micro-environment a project against emotional solidarity, strength, independence, courage and will for freedom? If we cannot rely upon family are we strong enough to confront totalitarian in democratic?.

  12. Whole exome analysis identifies dominant COL4A1 mutations in patients with complex ocular phenotypes involving microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deml, B; Reis, L M; Maheshwari, M; Griffis, C; Bick, D; Semina, E V

    2014-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a developmental ocular malformation defined as complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a heterogenous disorder with numerous causative genes identified; however, about half the cases lack a molecular diagnosis. We undertook whole exome sequencing in an A/M family with two affected siblings, two unaffected siblings, and unaffected parents; the ocular phenotype was isolated with only mild developmental delay/learning difficulties reported and a normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband at 16 months. No pathogenic mutations were identified in 71 known A/M genes. Further analysis identified a shared heterozygous mutation in COL4A1, c.2317G>A, p.(Gly773Arg) that was not seen in the unaffected parents and siblings. Analysis of 24 unrelated A/M exomes identified a novel c.2122G>A, p.(Gly708Arg) mutation in an additional patient with unilateral microphthalmia, bilateral microcornea and Peters anomaly; the mutation was absent in the unaffected mother and the unaffected father was not available. Mutations in COL4A1 have been linked to a spectrum of human disorders; the most consistent feature is cerebrovascular disease with variable ocular anomalies, kidney and muscle defects. This study expands the spectrum of COL4A1 phenotypes and indicates screening in patients with A/M regardless of MRI findings or presumed inheritance pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ocular Straylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  14. Tuberculosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  15. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  16. Evaluation of High-Speed EML-based IM/DD links with PAM Modulations and Low-Complexity Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated up to 96 Gb/s/lambda PAM IM/DD transmissions with an EML and digital equalizations. Symbol-spaced FFE/DFEs with fewer than 10 taps are shown being sufficient for a high and stable performance over a 4 km SMF link....

  17. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  18. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  19. Peaks and troughs of three-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goumans, J.; Houben, M.M.J.; Dits, J.; Steen, J. van der

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR) ideally generates compensatory ocular rotations not only with a magnitude equal and opposite to the head rotation but also about an axis that is collinear with the head rotation axis. Vestibulo-ocular responses only partially fulfill this ideal

  20. Equalizer Complexity for 6-LP Mode 112 Gbit/s m-ary DP-QAM Space Division Multiplexed Transmission in Strongly Coupled Few-Mode-Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    12×12 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) adaptive digital signal processing (DSP). Time domain equalization (TDE) is realized to implement the linear adaptive MIMO module that is implemented in blind mode using conventional constant-modulusalgorithm (CMA) for finite impulse response (FIR) adaptive......We have quantified equalizer complexity for transmitting dual-polarized 6-LP modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b and LP02) of 112 Gbit/s m-ary QAM (m=4, 16, 32, 64, 256) single carrier signals over 20 km step-index few-mode fiber. The transmitted signals are strongly coupled and recovered using...

  1. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  2. Comparative Performance of Complex-Valued B-Spline and Polynomial Models Applied to Iterative Frequency-Domain Decision Feedback Equalization of Hammerstein Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Hong, Xia; Khalaf, Emad F; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Harris, Chris J

    2017-12-01

    Complex-valued (CV) B-spline neural network approach offers a highly effective means for identifying and inverting practical Hammerstein systems. Compared with its conventional CV polynomial-based counterpart, a CV B-spline neural network has superior performance in identifying and inverting CV Hammerstein systems, while imposing a similar complexity. This paper reviews the optimality of the CV B-spline neural network approach. Advantages of B-spline neural network approach as compared with the polynomial based modeling approach are extensively discussed, and the effectiveness of the CV neural network-based approach is demonstrated in a real-world application. More specifically, we evaluate the comparative performance of the CV B-spline and polynomial-based approaches for the nonlinear iterative frequency-domain decision feedback equalization (NIFDDFE) of single-carrier Hammerstein channels. Our results confirm the superior performance of the CV B-spline-based NIFDDFE over its CV polynomial-based counterpart.

  3. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar......In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck....... The symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  4. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantes

  5. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  6. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  7. [Descending ocular myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    1975-06-01

    The case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  8. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central

  9. Evaluating ocular blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Maram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that vascular impairment plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of various ocular diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal venous occlusive disease. Thus, qualitative and quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow (BF is a topic of interest for early disease detection, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the rapid improvement in technology, there are several invasive and noninvasive techniques available for evaluating ocular BF, with each of these techniques having their own limitations and advantages. This article reviews these important techniques, with a particular focus on Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT and OCT-angiography.

  10. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  11. THERAPY FOR OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROTHOVA, A; MEENKEN, C; BRINKMAN, CJ; BAARSMA, GS; BOENTAN, TN; DEJONG, PTVM; KLAASSENBROEKEMA, N; SCHWEITZER, CMC; TIMMERMAN, Z; DEVRIES, J; ZAAL, MJW; KIJLSTRA, A

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  12. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  13. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Brinkman, C. J.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Klaassen-Broekema, N.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  14. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  15. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  16. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  17. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  18. Dense SDM (12-core × 3-mode) transmission over 527 km with 33.2-ns mode-dispersion employing low-complexity parallel MIMO frequency-domain equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibahara, K.; Mizuno, T.; Takara, H.

    We demonstrate 12-core × 3-mode dense SDM transmission over 527 km graded-index multi-core few-mode fiber without mode-dispersion management. Employing low baud rate multi-carrier signal and frequency-domain equalization enables 33.2-ns DMD compensation with low computational complexity. © 2015 OSA...

  19. What Is an Ocular Migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... and retinal migraine, which could signal something serious. Migraine aura affecting your vision Ocular migraine sometimes describes ...

  20. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  1. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  2. Ocular straylight in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular

  3. Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Meenken, C.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.; de Vries, J.; Zaal, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n = 106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine,

  4. Kabuki Syndrome: a case report with severe ocular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mac Cord Medina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.

  5. Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronagh Byrne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The (inequality issues facing disabled people are extensive and long-enduring. The way(s in which equality is conceptualised has important consequences for understandings of disability. The ambiguity of what I call dis-equality theory is two-fold; the apparent failure of mainstream equality theorising in, firstly, embracing disability concepts at all, and secondly, in fully incorporating the logistics of disability, particularly in relation to the social construction of such. Practices of institutional and more complex forms of discrimination are part of those deeper structures of domination and oppression which maintain disabled people in positions of disadvantage. Everyday practices, in the ‘ordinary order of things’ (Bourdieu, 2000, continue to be misrecognised as natural and taken for granted. This article critically explores the complexity of dis-equality theorising utilising a Bourdieusian lens which explicitly incorporates complex and subtle forms of discrimination, and by examining the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’ approach to equality. I argue that the way forward for dis-equality theorising in today’s rights based era must be one that considers the nuances of the ‘rules of the game’ (Young, 1990 if it is to be effective in challenging the inequalities to which disabled people have long been subject.

  6. Sclerodermatomyositis, ocular manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F

    2017-07-01

    Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  9. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika O. U; Suma Job

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocu...

  10. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  11. Ocular candidiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C P; McKey, J; Spirn, M J; Maguire, J

    2008-04-01

    To review the epidemiology, diagnosis and changing treatment paradigm of ocular candidiasis, and report current prevalence rates and risk factors at one inpatient hospital. Retrospective review; systematic literature review. All Wills Eye Institute inpatient ophthalmology consultations from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between June 2006 and November 2006. All consultations for candidaemia were included. The outcome variables included chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, visual symptoms and Candida speciation. The ophthalmic literature was reviewed using PubMed. Keywords included Candida, candidaemia, chorioretinitis, vitritis and endophthalmitis. Bibliographies were manually searched. Three of the 38 consultations for candidaemia (7.9%) had chorioretinitis. There were no cases of vitritis or endophthalmitis. The presence of symptoms, or the inability to articulate symptoms, was significantly associated with risk of ocular candidiasis (p = 0.003). All three cases of chorioretinitis had positive blood cultures for Candida albicans (p = 0.089) and were treated with oral fluconazole. Various factors have led to the increasing prevalence of inpatient candidaemia. Risk factors for ocular involvement include albicans species and the presence of, or inability to articulate, visual symptoms. For those without abnormal findings on initial examination, a subsequent retinal examination should be performed in 2 weeks, particularly if new symptoms develop or if the patient is unable to relay symptoms. Patients with chorioretinitis should be treated with systemic antifungal agents. For those with vitritis or endophthalmitis, particularly if worsening on systemic therapy alone, intravitreal antifungal medications or early vitrectomy should be considered.

  12. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  13. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika O. U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocular signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated and followed up for an average period of 1 year. Detailed ocular examination included exophthalmometric measurements, ocular movements and Worth four-dot test. T3, T4, TSH, CT scan and antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies were done along with routine investigations. Study Design- Prospective cohort study. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between the level of serum T3 and severity of ocular findings. Majority of the cases were euthyroid with moderate ocular myopathy having multiple muscle involvement. Inferior rectus was affected most. CONCLUSION The ocular signs of hyperthyroidism in the present study seem to be mild. The severe eye changes like corneal involvement and optic nerve changes were less common.

  14. Clinical Analysis of 42 Cases of Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS is a severe ocular disease caused by ocular hypoperfusion due to stenosis or occlusion of the common or internal carotid arteries. OIS is easily misdiagnosed or undiagnosed given its asymptomatic onset and complicated ocular manifestations. The present study reviewed 42 patients with OIS, including 30 males (71.43%, 29 older patients (69.05%, >61 yrs, and 35 patients (83.33% with two or more systemic diseases. Only 6 patients had ocular symptoms as the initial signs upon visiting the Department of Ophthalmology of three hospitals (the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University; and the Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University. The ocular symptoms varied from visual deterioration to periorbital pain. Thirty-seven patients (88.10% complained of constitutional symptoms. Ocular manifestations were diverse and involved both anterior and posterior segments. We reported a case of corneal edema and corneal epithelium erosion in the ipsilateral eye due to internal carotid artery stenosis. As the clinical manifestations of OIS are complex, ophthalmologists must carefully examine patients to avoid a misdiagnosis or a failure to diagnose. The management of OIS requires cooperation with cardiologists and neurologists.

  15. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  16. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  17. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

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    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  18. Diabetes y enfermedad ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ojeda, Desireé

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión bibliográfica de la diabetes en relación con las diferentes patologías oculares a las que está asociada. La diabetes, es una enfermedad crónica que comporta un importante problema sanitario y social, que afecta a muchos órganos. De entre todos ellos, el ojo parece afectarse especialmente por los cambios de glucosa en sangre. Una vez entendida la estructura del ojo humano, el trabajo estudia las partes especialmente afectadas en pacientes ...

  19. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  20. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

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    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  1. Ocular leech infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  2. Crash and Burn: Ocular Injuries due to Fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravija; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2016-01-01

    To identify the patterns of ocular injury and to determine ocular morbidity resulting from the use of firecrackers. A prospective observational study of all patients presenting with ocular trauma consequent to fireworks usage in a tertiary eye care center in South India over a one-month period around the autumn festival of Diwali. We also reviewed the published literature from around the world reporting ocular injuries due to firecrackers. 49 patients were included in the study, out of which the vast majority (40/81%) were males. The mean age was 17 years. Almost an equal number of bystanders (24/48.9%) was affected as compared to people handling the fireworks (25/51%). 13 (26.53%) patients had open-globe injury whereas 33 (67.34%) patients had closed-globe injury. Twenty-two (44.8%) patients underwent surgical intervention. Eighteen (36.7%) patients had final vision less then 20/40 (range = 20/50 to No Perception of Light) with eight patients having no perception of light in the affected eye. Unregulated use of firecrackers can lead to significant ocular morbidity, mainly involving children, young males, and even innocent bystanders. A combination of public awareness and appropriate legislative laws should be formulated regarding the use of fireworks to decrease the load of needless blindness on society.

  3. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the volumetric relationship among human ocular, orbital and fronto-occipital cortical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael; Bruner, Emiliano; Queer, Sarah; Traynor, Sarah; Senjem, Jess

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on the visual system has focused on investigating the relationship among eye (ocular), orbital, and visual cortical anatomy in humans. This issue is relevant in evolutionary and medical fields. In terms of evolution, only in modern humans and Neandertals are the orbits positioned beneath the frontal lobes, with consequent structural constraints. In terms of medicine, such constraints can be associated with minor deformation of the eye, vision defects, and patterns of integration among these features, and in association with the frontal lobes, are important to consider in reconstructive surgery. Further study is therefore necessary to establish how these variables are related, and to what extent ocular size is associated with orbital and cerebral cortical volumes. Relationships among these anatomical components were investigated using magnetic resonance images from a large sample of 83 individuals, which also included each subject’s body height, age, sex, and uncorrected visual acuity score. Occipital and frontal gyri volumes were calculated using two different cortical parcellation tools in order to provide a better understanding of how the eye and orbit vary in relation to visual cortical gyri, and frontal cortical gyri which are not directly related to visual processing. Results indicated that ocular and orbital volumes were weakly correlated, and that eye volume explains only a small proportion of the variance in orbital volume. Ocular and orbital volumes were also found to be equally and, in most cases, more highly correlated with five frontal lobe gyri than with occipital lobe gyri associated with V1, V2, and V3 of the visual cortex. Additionally, after accounting for age and sex variation, the relationship between ocular and total visual cortical volume was no longer statistically significant, but remained significantly related to total frontal lobe volume. The relationship between orbital and visual cortical volumes remained significant for

  5. Analysis of the volumetric relationship among human ocular, orbital and fronto-occipital cortical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael; Bruner, Emiliano; Queer, Sarah; Traynor, Sarah; Senjem, Jess

    2015-10-01

    Recent research on the visual system has focused on investigating the relationship among eye (ocular), orbital, and visual cortical anatomy in humans. This issue is relevant in evolutionary and medical fields. In terms of evolution, only in modern humans and Neandertals are the orbits positioned beneath the frontal lobes, with consequent structural constraints. In terms of medicine, such constraints can be associated with minor deformation of the eye, vision defects, and patterns of integration among these features, and in association with the frontal lobes, are important to consider in reconstructive surgery. Further study is therefore necessary to establish how these variables are related, and to what extent ocular size is associated with orbital and cerebral cortical volumes. Relationships among these anatomical components were investigated using magnetic resonance images from a large sample of 83 individuals, which also included each subject's body height, age, sex, and uncorrected visual acuity score. Occipital and frontal gyri volumes were calculated using two different cortical parcellation tools in order to provide a better understanding of how the eye and orbit vary in relation to visual cortical gyri, and frontal cortical gyri which are not directly related to visual processing. Results indicated that ocular and orbital volumes were weakly correlated, and that eye volume explains only a small proportion of the variance in orbital volume. Ocular and orbital volumes were also found to be equally and, in most cases, more highly correlated with five frontal lobe gyri than with occipital lobe gyri associated with V1, V2, and V3 of the visual cortex. Additionally, after accounting for age and sex variation, the relationship between ocular and total visual cortical volume was no longer statistically significant, but remained significantly related to total frontal lobe volume. The relationship between orbital and visual cortical volumes remained significant for a

  6. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  7. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  8. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  9. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  11. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  12. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  13. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  14. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Venkatramani, Devendra V; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG. PMID:25449931

  15. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  16. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  17. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  18. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  19. Traumatismos oculares en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elizalde

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos oculares durante la práctica deportiva son relativamente frecuentes, pueden acontecer en el contexto de cualquier deporte y son muy variados, tanto en su origen, gravedad y forma de presentación clínica (traumatismos incisos, contusos o inciso-contusos. A pesar de que el diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado a cargo de un oftalmólogo especialista suele ayudar a mejorar el pronóstico de estos casos, es cierto que en algunas situaciones las lesiones oculares secundarias al traumatismo son clínicamente irreversibles. El autor revisa la repercusión clínica ocular de los accidentes deportivos con compromiso de la órbita, de los párpados, del segmento anterior y/o posterior del globo ocular, y de las vías ópticas. La mayoría de estas lesiones se pueden evitar optimizando el estado físico (y ocular antes de la práctica deportiva, y utilizando la técnica y el material adecuado para cada situación. Asimismo una buena educación deportiva desde la infancia y la utilización de gafas de protección ocular adaptadas a cada deporte juegan un papel esencial en la prevención de estos accidentes.

  20. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  1. Asynchronous LMS adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.; Modrie, D.; Otte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also operate in the asynchronous clock domain. Existing adaptation techniques for this equalizer involve an error sequence ek that

  2. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  3. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  4. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  5. Miastenia grave ocular Severe ocular myastenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaimir Estevéz Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad autoinmune de la unión neuromuscular que se caracteriza por la variabilidad de la debilidad muscular, que empeora o está provocada por el ejercicio del músculo o de los grupos musculares implicados, mientras que el descanso la mejora. La primera descripción de la enfermedad data de 1672, su relación con una afección del timo no se estableció hasta 1901. La enfermedad es poco frecuente, afecta a todas las etnias por igual, y no tiene predilección geográfica. Se reporta un paciente masculino de 28 años de edad atendido en el Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" por presentar visión doble, ptosis palpebral ligera en ojo derecho que empeora con el transcurso del día. Por el interrogatorio y el cuadro clínico se sospecha de una miastenia grave, se remite al clínico y el neurólogo. En los estudios realizados de neuroimágenes, tomografía y electroencefalograma no se encontraron alteraciones. Se decide valorar el caso con el servicio de Neuroftalmología de nuestro centro y por el Instituto de Neurología y es confirmado el diagnóstico.Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune illness of the neuromuscular joint that is characterized by the variability of the muscular weakness that worsens or caused by exercising of the muscle or the involved muscular groups; resting helps in improving the condition of the muscle. The first description of the illness dates back to 1672, but its linking to a thymus disorder was not discovered until 1901. This illness is not very frequent, affects equally to all the races, and it does not predominate in any particular geographic region. This paper presented a male patient aged 28 years who went to the Ophthalmologic Service at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology because he suffered from double vision, slight palpebral ptosis in his right eye that became worse as the day went by. After the

  6. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  7. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  8. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  9. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  10. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  11. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  12. 21 CFR 882.1790 - Ocular plethysmograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1790 Ocular plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An ocular plethysmograph is a device used to measure or detect volume changes in the eye produced...

  13. Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andonegui, J.

    2008-01-01

    Existe un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas que pueden presentar en algún momento de su evolución manifestaciones oculares. Estas alteraciones pueden provocar sintomatología por sí mismas, pueden ayudar a diagnosticar la enfermedad sistémica que las originó o pueden servir para monitorizar el curso evolutivo de la misma. Se destacan las principales características de una serie de enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a patología ocular que serán estudiadas en detalle a lo largo de esta monog...

  14. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  15. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  16. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  17. Quantification of ocular inflammation with technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizenblatt, J.; Caldeira, J.A.F.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Sao Paulo Univ., SP

    1991-01-01

    Histological and morphometric evaluation of ocular inflammation is difficult, particularly when there is extensive ocular involvement with abscess formation and necrosis. A quantitative imaging procedure applicable to humans would be important clinically. To establish such a procedure, turpentine-induced ocular inflammation was obtained by subconjunctival injection in the right eye of 55 rabbits. The left eye was used as control and injected with a volume of saline equal to the volume of turpentine in the right eye. Volumes of turpentine or saline were 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.2 and 0.6 ml, and the rabbits were divided into groups 1-5, according to these volumes. Imaging was performed 48 h after turpentine injection and 6 h after intravenous injection of 10 mCi of technetium 99m glucoheptonate ( 99m Tc-GH). An inflammatory reaction index (IRI), defined as the ratio of counts of the right eye divided by counts of the left eye, was used. IRIs were proportional to the degree of inflammation and allowed the distinction of 3 subgroups: One represented by group 4, one by group 5 and one by groups 1, 2 and 3. This method of quantification of ocular inflammatory processes using 99m Tc-GH is original, rapid, non-invasive, reproducible and safe, although unable to differentiate inflammatory processes caused by doses of turpentine which are very small and close to each other. It is conceivable that its application to humans will bring new insight into the ocular inflammatory process and response to therapy. (orig.)

  18. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  19. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  20. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  1. Ocular emergencies presenting to Menelik II Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Dereje; Bejiga, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Ocular conditions such as trauma, painful red eye of any cause, painless sudden visual loss and others are commonly seen as ocular emergencies, and can lead to ocular morbidity and visual loss. To determine types and causes of ocular emergencies seen at Menelik II hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October, 2007. Consecutive patients who presented with ocular emergencies at any time of the day were prospectively evaluated and registered on a formatted questionnaire. Evaluation of the patients included history of presenting illness, visual acuity testing intraocular pressure measurement on non-perforated and non-infected eyes, and complete eye examination in order to arrive at the diagnosis. A total of 26,400 patients attended Menelik II hospital during the study period. Of these, 758 (3%) were persons with an ocular emergency. The majority of patients (n=551; 72.7%) were male, with a male to female ratio of 2.7:1. The age group of 16 to 30 years was the most affected (47.9%), followed by those aged 15 years or younger (27.3%). Ocular trauma and ocular infections accounted for 75.6% and 13.1% of cases, respectively. Of the total ocular emergencies, open globe injuries constituted 171 (22.6%), corneal foreign bodies and abrasion 125 (16.5%), and open adnexal injuries 119 (15.7%). Metal and wood were the commonest work-related causes of ocular injuries in adults, with both together accounting for 60% of all ocular injuries. Children, on the other hand, sustained ocular injury while playing with others in 128 (22.3%) of cases. This study was able to provide a more complete picture to improve understanding of the nature and circumstances of ocular emergencies in Ethiopia. Ocular emergencies were dominated by ocular trauma, particularly affecting males and working-age adults. Public education and use of protective safety measures are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  2. Saccular impact on ocular torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    When someone is tilted laterally the sheer force on the maculae of the utriculus and the sacculus is described by the sine and the cosine of the angle of tilt, respectively. So both the sacculus and the utriculus are stimulated, but in the litera-ture ocular torsion is normally attributed to

  3. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  4. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  5. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  6. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  7. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  8. Entrepreneur for Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Focuses on the first Republican Governor of the state of Georgia during the period of race adjustment and national reconstruction after the American Civil War. Bullock led the way to business connections in creating a New South, but he was best known for his steadfast efforts at human equality fo...

  9. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  10. Fight For Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  11. Equal Rights Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ko Oudhof

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2000. How is the emancipation process of women in the Netherlands progressing? What has been achieved? Have women already achieved equality, and have men accepted the sharing of power and responsibility? Was the emancipation process mainly a phenomenon of

  12. Methotrexate for ocular inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Kempen, John H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for >or=28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation. Remission was seen in 43 patients, with 7.7% remitting within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that adding methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen not involving other noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs is moderately effective for management of inflammatory activity and for achieving

  13. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  14. Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: promoting more women in corporate decision making?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martín, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Equality is a broad and complex concept with various meanings (equal treatment, equal opportunities, formal equality, and substantive or de facto equality). Although there are strong similarities in the definition of key concepts related to equality, the EU and other international organisation have

  15. Light equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Reinecke, D.R.; Power, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical, radiographic film dodging technique has been developed that can restore lost image contrast on underexposed regions of radiographs. The device consists of a low-resolution x-ray camera and a scanning, light-exposure array. Both are controlled by a microcomputer. The theory of operation has been developed, and technical requirements for implementing light-equalization radiogrpahy have been defined. Initial clinical results with a prototype have been analyzed and compared with results of conventional films

  16. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  17. A simplified approach to fabrication of an ocular prosthesis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Amandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye is a vital organ and an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Enucleation of the eye is therefore normally followed by fabrication of an ocular prosthesis to improve esthetics. A less complex technique for fabrication of an ocular prosthesis is described in this report of two different cases.

  18. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  19. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  1. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  2. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythemato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S. Shoughy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  3. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  4. Ocular myasthenia gravis: Side effect of urografin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Modi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Diplopia and ptosis are common symptoms at the onset of ocular myasthenia gravis. It may occur due to the antibodies developed against various drugs. We are reporting a case of ocular myasthenia gravis which was developed in a patient post angiography which may be due to antibody developed against the dye used in angiography.

  5. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fabricio Lopes da; Mazoti, Luciana; Polati, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus). This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the lite...

  6. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  7. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  8. Equalization in Aeronautical Telemetry Using Multiple Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    such an interval is assumed, although we won’t complicate the notation to make this explicit. 3In the traditional TR-STBC system, ρ = 1/2 is included...linear, with or without noise whitening ) with the usual performance-complexity tradeoffs. Here, we apply the approximate MMSE equalizer introduced in

  9. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  10. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  11. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  12. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  13. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  14. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  15. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  16. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  17. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  18. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  19. OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy is commonly associated with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. There is paucity of studies on this in Nigeria. We decided to study/ determine the prevalence of ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of ...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1040 - Ocular esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular esthesiometer. 886.1040 Section 886.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... An ocular esthesiometer is a device, such as a single-hair brush, intended to touch the cornea to...

  1. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  2. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  3. The otolithic contribution to vertical ocular stability in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Draicchio, F; Ferraresi, A; Bruni, R

    1994-10-01

    enhancement of gain and reduction of phase lead at low frequency vestibular stimulation, resulting in similar vertical and horizontal gaze stability; 2) the equalization of the upward and downward responses of both vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic responses; 3) the reduction of the amplitude and frequency of vertical quick phases.

  4. Ocular and non-ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A

    2011-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604

  5. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  6. Dense SDM (12-Core × 3-Mode) Transmission Over 527 km With 33.2-ns Mode-Dispersion Employing Low-Complexity Parallel MIMO Frequency-Domain Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibahara, Kohki; Lee, Doohwan; Kobayashi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    We propose long-haul space-division-multiplexing (SDM) transmission systems employing parallel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) and transmission fiber with low differential mode delay (DMD). We first discuss the advantages of parallel MIMO FDE technique in...

  7. Can the hair follicle become a model for studying selected aspects of human ocular immune privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinori, Michael; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2011-06-23

    Immune privilege (IP) is important in maintaining ocular health. Understanding the mechanism underlying this dynamic state would assist in treating inflammatory eye diseases. Despite substantial progress in defining eye IP mechanisms, because of the scarcity of human ocular tissue for research purposes, most of what we know about ocular IP is based on rodent models (of unclear relevance to human eye immunology) and on cultured human eye-derived cells that cannot faithfully mirror the complex cell-tissue interactions that underlie normal human ocular IP in situ. Therefore, accessible, instructive, and clinically relevant human in vitro models are needed for exploring the general principles of why and how IP collapses under clinically relevant experimental conditions and how it can be protected or even restored therapeutically. Among the few human IP sites, the easily accessible and abundantly available hair follicle (HF) may offer one such surrogate model. There are excellent human HF organ culture systems for the study of HF IP in situ that instructively complement in vivo autoimmunity research in the human system. In this article, we delineate that the human eye and HF, despite their obvious differences, share key molecular and cellular mechanisms for maintaining IP. We argue that, therefore, human scalp HFs can provide an unconventional, but highly instructive, accessible, easily manipulated, and clinically relevant preclinical model for selected aspects of ocular IP. This essay is an attempt to encourage professional eye researchers to turn their attention, with appropriate caveats, to this candidate surrogate model for ocular IP in the human system.

  8. Ocular nonsuicidal self-injury in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comacchio, Francesco; Ricca, M; Martini, G; Cecchin, V; Zannin, Maria Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old male teen presented with unilateral episcleritis, unresponsive to topical and systemic corticosteroid therapy, without a history of ocular trauma or evidence for systemic diseases. The presence of foreign bodies in the conjunctival mucus of the hyperemic fornix has been noticed during one of the follow-up examinations. The toxicological analysis of conjunctival mucus revealed the presence of ethylene glycolmonomethyl ether and triethilene glicolebuthyl ether, used as solvents in nail polish removers and all-purpose cleaners. An unexpected etiology of chemical self-inflicted episcleritis was determined. The teen was admitted to a psychological assessment, after which a psychotherapeutic treatment was recommended. Episcleritis is characterized by the acute onset of ocular pain and redness, with a frequent recurrent and stressful course. Since it can be associated with life-threatening systemic vasculitides, a prompt, aggressive immunosuppressive therapy may be considered, both for the ocular inflammation and for the underlying systemic condition. Rarely episcleritis does not improve despite topical and systemic therapy, administered in a stepladder way. The reported teenager case needed a complex multidisciplinary approach to achieve the correct diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary treatments. In the case of recognized "nonsuicidal self-injury," a psychological evaluation is strongly recommended, to identify and address underlying neuropsychiatric problems.

  9. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  10. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  11. The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim V Farooq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asim V Farooq1, Arpeet Shah1, Deepak Shukla21Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are an important cause of morbidity. The majority of cases are believed to be associated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1, although HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV are also associated with various ocular diseases. The ability of some herpes viruses to infect various anatomic regions of the eye may be facilitated by entry processes that are cell-type specific, and in many cases may occur more frequently in the immunocompromised. The elimination of the role of herpesviruses in ocular disease remains elusive, as they often develop life-long latency in a large proportion of humans. Experimental vaccines for ocular HSV have shown some benefit in animal models, a result that has not been adequately demonstrated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, ocular involvement in VZV remains unpredictable, and CMV retinitis continues to be an important cause of blindness in those infected by HIV.Keywords: ocular herpes, viral entry, antivirals, epidemiology, seroprevalence, ocular lymphomas, viral vaccine

  12. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  13. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

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    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  14. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  15. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  16. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  17. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  18. Biometric and structural ocular manifestations of Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehle, Petra; Goergen, Barbara; Pilger, Daniel; Ruokonen, Peter; Robinson, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    Background To study biometric and structural ocular manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Methods Observational, retrospective, comparative cohort study in a tertiary referral center on 285 MFS patients and 267 controls. Structural and biometric ocular characteristic were compared. Results MFS eyes were longer (axial length 24.25 ± 1.74 mm versus 23.89 ± 1.31 mm, p < 0.001) and had a flatter cornea than control eyes (mean keratometry 41.78 ± 1.80 diopters (D) versus 43.05 ± 1.51 D, p < 0.001). Corneal astigmatism was greater and the central cornea was thinner in MFS eyes (530.14 ± 41.31 μm versus 547.02 ± 39.18 μm, p < 0.001). MFS eyes were more myopic than control eyes (spherical equivalent -2.16 ± 3.75 D versus -1.17 ± 2.58 D, p < 0.001). Visual acuity was reduced (0.13 ± 0.25 logMAR versus 0.05 ± 0.18 logMAR, p < 0.001) and intraocular pressure was lower in MFS eyes (14.6 ± 3.4 mmHg versus 15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.01). Iris transillumination defects (ITD) were significantly more common in MFS eyes (odds ratio for MFS in the presence of ITD, 3.7). Ectopia lentis (EL) was only present in MFS eyes (33.4%). History of retinal detachment was significantly more common in MFS eyes. Glaucoma was equally common in both groups. Conclusions ITD and EL are most characteristic findings in MFS. ITD and corneal curvature should be studied as diagnostic criteria for MFS. Visual acuity is reduced in MFS. MFS patients need regular eye exams to identify serious ocular complications. PMID:28931008

  19. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  20. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  1. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  2. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  4. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  5. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Makunyane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  6. Nanotherapies for the treatment of ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimondez-Troitiño, S; Csaba, N; Alonso, M J; de la Fuente, M

    2015-09-01

    The topical route is the most frequent and preferred way to deliver drugs to the eye. Unfortunately, the very low ocular drug bioavailability (less than 5%) associated with this modality of administration, makes the efficient treatment of several ocular diseases a significant challenge. In the last decades, it has been shown that specific nanocarriers can interact with the ocular mucosa, thereby increasing the retention time of the associated drug onto the eye, as well as its permeability across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we comparatively analyze the mechanism of action and specific potential of the most studied nano-drug delivery carriers. In addition, we present the success achieved until now using a number of nanotherapies for the treatment of the most prevalent ocular pathologies, such as infections, inflammation, dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mady

    2015-01-01

    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  8. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; Bădilă, Patricia; Miu, Jeni Cătălina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor.

  9. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  10. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.

  11. Ocular Problems of the Aging Military Aviator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    neuropathy 3 these ocular conditions seen in the older aviator and on Ocular trauma/angle recession 3 his flight status? Branch retinal vein occlusion 2...bifocals, Nutritional amblyopia (RPW) 1 trifocals, double segs, newer progressive lenses, contact Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis 1 lenses, and...In the Surveillance Only part of the program no drug therapy is DISCUSSION: Under present FAA regulations, the used but the flight surgeon must

  12. Equality in Sport for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadelmann, Patricia L.; And Others

    The subject of equal rights and opportunities for women in the field of physical education is discussed in nine articles. The major emphasis is on the legal aspects of sex discrimination. Defining equality, knowing the laws regarding enforcement, understanding the court procedures, and realizing the avenues for change are the essential tools…

  13. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  14. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  15. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  16. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  17. Equal opportunities group. His mission : accelerating equal opportunities at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    L. to r.: Michel Mayoud, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz, the Equal Opportunities Officer Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill, Elena Wildner, Anne-Sylvie Cerne, Karl-Heinz Kissler, the Chairman John Ellis and Eva-Maria Groniger-Voss

  18. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Banu T; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Dikbas, Oguz; Pekel, Hamiyet; Gonen, Mustafa S

    2009-12-29

    To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus) and cup to disc ratio (C/D), mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1(st), 3(rd )and 6(th )months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 +/- 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 +/- 3.85 mu initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 +/- 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 +/- 19.49 mu initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  19. Diagnostic tools in ocular allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Doan, S; Fauquert, J L; Bozkurt, B; Allegri, P; Marmouz, F; Rondon, C; Jedrzejczak, M; Hellings, P; Delgado, L; Calder, V

    2017-10-01

    Ocular allergy (OA) includes a group of common and less frequent hypersensitivity disorders frequently misdiagnosed and not properly managed. The diagnosis of OA is usually based on clinical history and signs and symptoms, with the support of in vivo and in vitro tests when identification of the specific allergen is required. To date, no specific test is available for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of the different forms of OA. The lack of recommendations on diagnosis of OA is considered a medical need not only for allergists but also for ophthalmologists. This position paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available tools for diagnosing OA to promote a common nomenclature and procedures to be used by different specialists. Questionnaires, sign and symptom grading scales, tests, and potential biomarkers for OA are reviewed. We also identified several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools to generate interest, increase understanding, and inspire further investigations. Tools, recommendations, and algorithms for the diagnosis of OA are proposed for use by both allergists and ophthalmologists. Several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools should be further improved by specific clinical research in OA. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  20. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  1. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  2. Ocularity Feature Contrast Attracts Attention Exogenously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eye-of-origin singleton, e.g., a bar shown to the left eye among many other bars shown to the right eye, can capture attention and gaze exogenously or reflexively, even when it appears identical to other visual input items in the scene and when the eye-of-origin feature is irrelevant to the observer’s task. Defining saliency as the strength of exogenous attraction to attention, we say that this eye-of-origin singleton, or its visual location, is salient. Defining the ocularity of a visual input item as the relative difference between its left-eye input and its right-eye input, this paper shows the general case that an ocularity singleton is also salient. For example, a binocular input item among monocular input items is salient, so is a left-eye-dominant input item (e.g., a bar with a higher input contrast to the left eye than to the right eye among right-eye-dominant items. Saliency by unique input ocularity is analogous to saliency by unique input colour (e.g., a red item among green ones, as colour is determined by the relative difference(s between visual inputs to different photoreceptor cones. Just as a smaller colour difference between a colour singleton and background items makes this singleton less salient, so does a smaller ocularity difference between an ocularity singleton and background items. While a salient colour difference is highly visible, a salient ocularity difference is often perceptually invisible in some cases and discouraging gaze shifts towards it in other cases, making its behavioural manifestation not as apparent. Saliency by ocularity contrast provides another support to the idea that the primary visual cortex creates a bottom-up saliency map to guide attention exogenously.

  3. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4-(5 of the EEA. The amendments were made in terms of the Employment Equity Amendment Act 47 of 2013, which came into effect on 1 August 2014 by presidential proclamation. Prior to section 6(4, the EEA did not contain a specific provision regulating equal pay claims. Claims could be brought in terms of section 6(1 of the EEA, which prohibits unfair discrimination on a number of grounds. The recent amendments to the EEA in the form of section 6(4-(5 (including the Employment Equity Regulations and the Code of Good Practice on Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in respect of equal pay claims is a response to the ILO's criticism of South Africa's failure to include specific equal pay provisions in the EEA. Section 6(4 of the EEA provides for three causes of action in respect of equal pay. They are as follows: (a equal pay for the same work; (b equal pay for substantially the same work; and (c equal pay for work of equal value. The first two causes of action are not difficult to understand as opposed to the third cause of action, which is complex. The ILO has recognised the complexity of the third cause of action, "equal pay for work of equal value". In Mangena v Fila South Africa 2009 12 BLLR 1224 (LC, the Labour Court remarked in the context of an equal pay for work of equal value claim that it does not have expertise in job grading and in the allocation of value to particular occupations. This article will deal with the third cause of action only, "equal pay for work of equal value". The

  4. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  5. Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Agramunt, Verónica H; Valero, María Adela

    2014-01-01

    techniques and neuroimaging useful for the diagnosis of neurological cases are exposed. Within fascioliasis infection indirectly causing ocular manifestations, case distribution and frequency are similarly analysed. A short analysis is devoted to clarify the first reports of a human eye infection. The affection of related and close organs is discussed by differentiating between cases of the dorsal spine, pulmonary manifestations, heart and vessel affection, findings in blood vessels, skin and dermatologic reactions, cases of ectopic mature flukes, and upper body locations. The clinical complexity of the puzzling polymorphisms, the disconcerting multifocality of the manifestations, and their changes along the evolution of the disease in the same patient, as well as the differences between the clinical pictures shown by different patients, are highlighted. The many syndromes involved are enumerated. The pathogenic and physiological mechanisms underlying neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis caused by ectopic flukes and the physiopathogenic processes indirectly affecting the central nervous system and causing genuine neurological, meningeal, psychiatric, and ocular manifestations are discussed. The diagnosis of neurological and ophthalmologic fascioliasis is analysed in depth, including clinical and paraclinical diagnosis, eosinophilia in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, differential diagnosis from other parasitic infections such as helminthiases and myiases, an update of human fascioliasis diagnosis, and fluke and/or fluke egg recovery by surgery. Diagnostic analyses with faecal and blood samples for fascioliasis patients are updated. Therapy for patients with major neurological manifestations includes both antiparasitic treatments and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Prognosis in fascioliasis patients with neurological manifestations is discussed, with emphasis on sequelae and fatal cases, and the care of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations is added

  6. Correlating Corneal Biomechanics and Ocular Biometric Properties with Lamina Cribrosa Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bartolomé, Francisco; Martínez de la Casa, Jose María; Camacho Bosca, Irene; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; Aguilar Munoa, Soledad; Martín Juan, Alberto; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    To examine interrelations between corneal biomechanics, ocular biometric variables and optic disc size (ODS), lamina cribosa depth (LCD) or thickness (LCT) in a healthy population. In a cross-sectional case-control study, the following measurements were made in 81 eyes of 81 participants: axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness using the optical biometer Lenstar LS900; and corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained in each participant. Mean ODS, mean LCD, and mean LCT were measured in 11 equally spaced horizontal B-scans, excluding the LC insertion area under Bruch's membrane and scleral rim. LCD was measured in 74 of 81 eyes (91.36%); LCT in 60/81 (75.3%); ODS in 81/81 (100%). CRF was poorly, but significantly, correlated with LCT (Pearson's R = 0.264; P = 0.045). IOPcc, IOPg, CH, and ocular biometrics variables were poorly (non-significantly) correlated with LCD, LCT, and ODS. CRF was poorly but directly correlated with LCT. No association was detected between CH or ocular biometric variables and ODS, LCD, or LCT.

  7. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  8. Ocular manifestations in bidi industry workers: Possible consequences of occupational exposure to tobacco dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Saurabh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and premature death but little is known about its deleterious effect on the ocular health of workers handling tobacco. The goal of this study was to identify probable effects of occupational tobacco exposure among south Indian bidi-industry workers. This study included 310 females (mean age, 34.8 ± 10.9 years actively involved in bidi-rolling presenting with eye symptoms to a tertiary eye care hospital. Results suggested that a wide spectrum of ocular complications exist among these workers. Common ocular symptoms were defective vision, dull-aching headache and eye irritation. The main ocular findings were papillary conjunctival hyperplasia, hyperpigmentation of ocular surface, punctate epithelial erosion or superficial punctate keratitis, cataract or pseudophakia and segmental optic atrophy. Abstaining from work, supplementation of Vitamin B complex rich in B 12 and appropriate surgical or medical management reversed visual loss due to corneal disease or cataract but was not effective in optic neuropathy.

  9. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  10. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  11. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  12. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  13. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E; Garcìa, Hector D; Monds, Kathryn; Cooper, Bonnie L; James, John T

    2012-07-20

    Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind's limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  14. Irritación ocular: Modelos alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza Vega Montalvo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo puede ser dañado accidentalmente por el uso de muchos productos de uso rutinario. Para facilitar la seguridad de los consumidores es necesario estimar el potencial de irritación ocular de estas sustancias químicas. Esta estimación está basada en los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo de Draize llevado a cabo en conejos. Sin embargo, avances en el desarrollo de la toxicología in vitro han permitido el uso de algunas alternativas para la evaluación del riesgo ocular; por lo que se presenta una revisión acerca de los diferentes métodos alternativos disponibles hasta el momento que permiten evaluar de una forma u otra los efectos tóxicos a nivel ocular.The eye may be accidentally damaged by many products of daily use. To guarantee the consumers’ safety it is necessary to estimate the eye irritation potential of these chemical substances. This estimation is based on the results obtained in the Draize rabbit eye irritation test. However, the advances attained in the development of in vitro toxicology have allowed the use of some alternatives to evaluate the ocular risk. Therefore, a review is made on the different alternative methods available up to now that make possible the evaluation in one way or another of the toxic effects at the ocular level.

  15. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  16. Ocular volume measured by CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Wei-Kom Chu

    1984-01-01

    Newer CT scans have greatly enhanced oculometric research and made it possible to measure ocular dimensions. With these measurements, ocular volume can be more accurately estimated to understand its relationship with age and sex. One hundred CT orbit scans with presumed normal eyes were used for the data base. The mean values and normal variations of ocular volumes at various ages in both sexes are presented. Rapid growth of the eyeball was noted during the first 24 months of age. It reached its peak between the ages of 18 and 30 years of age, after which there was a reduction. Results may be of help in recognizing eye abnormalities such as microophthalmus and macrophthalmia. (orig.)

  17. Ocular fibropapillomas of green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D E; Ginn, P E; Miller, T R; Bramson, L; Jacobson, E R

    1994-05-01

    Histologic evaluation of four eyes from three stranded juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Florida, USA revealed ocular fibropapillomas composed of an overlying hyperplastic epithelium, various amounts of a thickened, well vascularized, collagenous stroma, and a moderate-to-dense population of reactive fibroblasts. The histologic morphology of the ocular fibropapillomas varied depending on whether the eyelid, conjunctiva, limbus, or cornea was the primary site of tumor origin. Fibropapillomas arising from the limbus, conjunctiva, or eyelid tended to be polyploid or pedunculated with a high degree of arborization. They often filled the conjunctival fornices and extended externally to be ulcerated on the distal aspects. Corneal fibropapillomas were more sessile and multinodular with less arborization. Some corneal tumors consisted primarily of a broad fibrovascular stroma and mild epithelial hyperplasia, whereas others had a markedly hyperplastic epithelium supported by stalks of fibrovascular stromal tissue. In green turtles ocular fibropapillomas may be locally invasive and associated with severe blindness and systemic debilitation.

  18. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  19. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  1. Three Cases with Visual Hallucinations following Combined Ocular and Occipital Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Paradowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome is an underrecognized disease that involves visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients. We present the cases of three patients who experienced complex visual hallucinations following various pathomechanisms. In two cases, diagnosis showed coexistence of occipital lobe damage with ocular damage, while in the third case it showed occipital lobe damage with retrobulbar optic neuritis. Theories of pathogenesis and the neuroanatomical basis of complex visual hallucinations are discussed and supported by literature review.

  2. Ocular trauma: A tertiary hospital experience from Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham H Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a common presentation at Al-Nahdha Hospital. Although the majority of trauma cases were minor without any resultant visual disability, OGI could have been prevented with better ocular protection in the workplace.

  3. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  4. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  5. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  6. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  7. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  8. Ocular presentation of sarcoidosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, S; Trevathan, G E; Holland, J E; Kataria, Y P

    1983-12-01

    Ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis in children are the second most common occurrence after hilar adenopathy and pulmonary abnormalities. We present the case history of a 14-year-old black boy who presented with redness of the left eye, blurred vision, and decreased visual acuity. He was subsequently diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. All patients with uveitis or ocular findings suggestive of sarcoidosis should have a through medical examination and a chest x-ray. Those suspected of or proven to have sarcoidosis should have a complete ophthalmological examination. Sarcoidosis in children appears to be more frequent than previously estimated.

  9. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  10. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, support...

  11. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  12. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  13. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction or increase in ocular volume may indicate ocular pathology. Unfortunately the reference values utilized for ocular volume had been that of non-Africans. It is therefore pertinent to have a reference value of normal for Africans. Objective: To document the computer tomography (CT) scan measured ...

  14. Therapeutic targets of renin-angiotensin system in ocular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The RAS components are present in the extrarenal tissues including ocular tissue and have an imperative role in the ocular pathophysiology. The clinical studies are needed to show the role of therapeutic modalities targeting RAS in the treatment of different ocular disorders.

  15. Computed Tomography: Ocular Manifestations In Acute Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. ... was also performed to compare the difference of the ocular findings and sexes. ... Ocular findings were more in males and the severity of the ocular findings was .... Male. Female. Indications. Acute mild closed head injury. 12(15.0). 1(5.6).

  16. Pattern of Ocular Diseases among Computer users in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 subjects (1.3%) had monocular blindness with VA<3/60. 37 (3.3%) subjects had low vision with VA < 6/18-3/60. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were young people. Ocular disorders were encountered in computer users. Ocular health status of computer users can be improved through periodic ocular examination and ...

  17. Ocular Blood Flow Measurements in Healthy White Subjects Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Luft

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained.This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation. The mean blur rate (MBR, a measure of relative blood flow velocity, was obtained for different regions of the ONH. Eight parameters of ocular perfusion derived from the pulse-waveform analysis of MBR including blowout time (BOT and falling rate (FR were also recorded.Artifact-free LSFG images meeting the quality criteria for automated image analysis were obtainable in 93.8% without pupil dilation and in 98.8% with pharmacological pupil dilation. Measurements of MBR showed excellent repeatability with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.937 and were barely affected by pupil dilation. The majority of pulse-waveform derived variables exhibited equally high repeatability. MBR-related blood flow indices exhibited significant age dependence (p<0.001. FR (r = 0.747, p<0.001 and BOT (r = -0.714, p<0.001 most strongly correlated with age.LSFG represents a reliable method for the quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow in white subjects. Our data affirms that the LSFG-derived variables FR and BOT may be useful biomarkers for age-related changes in ocular perfusion.

  18. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  19. Polarized light microscopy for 3-dimensional mapping of collagen fiber architecture in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Brazile, Bryn; Voorhees, Andrew; Lathrop, Kira L; Sigal, Ian A

    2018-04-06

    Collagen fibers play a central role in normal eye mechanics and pathology. In ocular tissues, collagen fibers exhibit a complex 3-dimensional (3D) fiber orientation, with both in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) orientations. Imaging techniques traditionally applied to the study of ocular tissues only quantify IP fiber orientation, providing little information on OP fiber orientation. Accurate description of the complex 3D fiber microstructures of the eye requires quantifying full 3D fiber orientation. Herein, we present 3dPLM, a technique based on polarized light microscopy developed to quantify both IP and OP collagen fiber orientations of ocular tissues. The performance of 3dPLM was examined by simulation and experimental verification and validation. The experiments demonstrated an excellent agreement between extracted and true 3D fiber orientation. Both IP and OP fiber orientations can be extracted from the sclera and the cornea, providing previously unavailable quantitative 3D measures and insight into the tissue microarchitecture. Together, the results demonstrate that 3dPLM is a powerful imaging technique for the analysis of ocular tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  1. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…

  2. Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimere, Raphael Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the struggle for teacher salary equalization in Louisiana ended in success, but it was one chapter in a long struggle to gain the full citizenship that black teachers and their pupils dreamed would one day be theirs. (Author/AM)

  3. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  4. Ocular pulsation correlates with ocular tension: the choroid as piston for an aqueous pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Tsukahara, S; Hosaka, O; Adams, W

    1992-01-01

    In 26 random out-patients, including 13 treated glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives, the higher the ocular tension, the greater the pulse amplitude, by Alcon pneumotonometry, at a statistically significant level. In a single untreated hypertensive, when 2-hourly pneumotonometry was done for 24 h, the correlation was similar and significant. The higher the diastolic blood pressure, the higher the ocular pulsation, also significantly. Pulsation is suggested to be a pump, the choroid being the piston, contributing (1) to an increase in the outflow of aqueous humour and (2) to a homeostatic mechanism contributing to normalization of the intra-ocular pressure, wherein pulsation increases or decreases, as the intraocular pressure increases or decreases, respectively.

  5. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  6. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  7. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  8. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M.L.; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, C.N.; Heimel, J.A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Pennartz, C.M.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  9. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12949 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  10. Pattern of Ocular Injuries in Owo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwole Omolase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.

  11. Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacu, Stefan; Ségur-Eltz, Nikolaus; Stenng, Karin; Zehetmayer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. During this period (8 years) we identified 116 eyes of 102 patients. 67/102 (66%) of all injuries were caused by class II and III fireworks. Patients ranged between 4 and 83 years. Ocular injuries occurred more frequently in males (69, 68%) and affected the right eye in 53 patients (52.5%). Ocular firework injuries to minors (under the age of 18 years) occurred in 48 (49%). The most common types of injury were skin and corneal erosions and abrasions (32/116, 28%). 11/116 eyes (10%) had severe injuries. 8 of 11 severe injuries (72%) occurred in minors (<18 years). 2 patients (1.7%) developed permanent blindness. In 32/116 patients (28%), the ocular trauma resulted in visual impairment, mainly due to corneal scars or retinal pathologies. In all patients, the severity index was 1.4 +/- 0.8. In minors the severity index was 1.6 +/- 1.0, in adults 1.2 +/- 0.5 (p = 0.013). Injuries in minors were significantly more severe than those in adults. Possible preventive measures include legislation, education of minors and eye protection. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhartendu Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  13. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz; Seda Adıyeke; Gamze Türe; Ekrem Talay; Hakkı Özgür Konya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP), time of disappearance of hyphem...

  14. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  15. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  16. GSM Channel Equalization Algorithm - Modern DSP Coprocessor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drutarovsky

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents basic equations of efficient GSM Viterbi equalizer algorithm based on approximation of GMSK modulation by linear superposition of amplitude modulated pulses. This approximation allows to use Ungerboeck form of channel equalizer with significantly reduced arithmetic complexity. Proposed algorithm can be effectively implemented on the Viterbi and Filter coprocessors of new Motorola DSP56305 digital signal processor. Short overview of coprocessor features related to the proposed algorithm is included.

  17. Regularization in global sound equalization based on effort variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    . Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources......Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea...

  18. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  19. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  20. Nearly equal β* at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.; Billing, M.; Krishnagopal, S.; Rubin, D.; Siemann, R.; Welch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β * ) can produce tune shifts of 0.1 and very large luminosities. Further simulations show the same large vertical tune shifts even with very different horizontal and vertical emittances. Using a special CESR lattice with β h * = 32 cm, β v * = 20 cm, and zero horizontal and vertical dispersion at the interaction point, the author authors collided beams with horizontal emittance of 136 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad. There were experimental complications involving the damping partition numbers, a near miss at a parasitic crossing point, and small orbit offsets at the main collision point. They have done a detailed analysis of these complications and discuss their effects on the observed saturated tune shift of 0.045 ± 0.010

  1. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  2. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  3. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona Villa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  4. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  5. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  6. Near-minimum bit-error rate equalizer adaptation for PRML systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riani, J.; Beneden, van S.J.L; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Immink, A.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Receivers for partial response maximum-likelihood systems typically use a linear equalizer followed by a Viterbi detector. The equalizer tries to confine the channel intersymbol interference to a short span in order to limit the implementation complexity of the Viterbi detector. Equalization is

  7. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  8. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  9. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  10. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  11. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia Lt; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student's t-test. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19.

  12. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Manikandan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.

  13. Ocular manifestations of injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.

  14. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-01-01

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor con...

  15. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, D R; Maffrand, R A; De Lisa, I S; Pizzi, H L; Plaza Ontiveros, R G

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen cases of ocular toxocariasis attended in the Oftalmology Service of the Pediatric Hospital "Niño Jesús", from Córdoba; and in the Parasitology and Micology Cathedra of the Medicine Collegue of the University of Córdoba were studied from July 1993 till July 1995. The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets.

  16. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  17. Miastenia grave y miastenia grave ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Naranjo Fernández

    Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad caracterizada por debilidad y fatiga de los músculos voluntarios debido a una trasmisión anómala a nivel de la unión neuromuscular. La prevalencia es aproximadamente de 5 casos/100 000 personas. La miastenia grave puede ser bulbar, ocular o generalizada.Existen formas clínicas en la infancia como son la miastenia neonatal transitoria, la miastenia congénita y la miastenia juvenil. Los músculos oculares, faciales y bulbares son los más frecuentes afectados por la enfermedad. Cuando los síntomas se limitan a la musculatura cercana al ojo se denomina miastenia grave ocular. Una vez el oftalmólogo diagnostica o sospecha la miastenia grave, un neurólogo generalmente dirige la comprobación y tratamiento. El papel del oftalmólogo continúa siendo importante, además de chequear la motilidad y disfunción palpebral y proporcionar el alivio sintomático para estos desórdenes, debe estar alerta a la posibilidad de ambliopía.

  18. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  19. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-12-07

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of both liposomes and solution were well described by 2-compartmental pharmacokinetics with first-order absorption. The area under the curve of the aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of GCV liposomes was found to be 1.7-fold higher than that of GCV solution. Ocular tissue distribution of GCV from liposomes was 2 to 10 times higher in the sclera, cornea, iris, lens, and vitreous humor when compared with those observed after solution dosing. These results suggested that liposomes may hold some promise in ocular GCV delivery.

  20. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.N.; Hussain, M.; Shah, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality. (author)

  1. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. PAEDIATRIC OCULAR TRAUMA IN KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INTAN G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008. All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2% occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9% in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05. Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%. The majority of cases (103, 87.3% were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05. Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8% had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.

  3. Oculomotricidade e seus fundamentos Ocular motility: foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É também referida a função dos centros de comando para movimentos voluntários e reflexos, a dos núcleos oculomotores e a respectiva inervação aos músculos oculares externos. Numa segunda parte (fisiologia da musculatura ocular extrínseca são comentadas as atividades de contração e relaxamento e a importância da lei de Sherrington. Voltando-se ao conceito de posição primária do olhar e dos referenciais das rotações, menciona-se a diversidade de vários sistemas de medidas. Em seguida, são analisadas as ações musculares rotacionais com bases no plano de ação muscular e na distribuição anatômica dos músculos, levando a resultados em posição primária do olhar e nas outras. Os efeitos de fáscias e membranas intermusculares são também comentados, terminando-se com a concepção moderna sobre as ações musculares (ação simultânea de todos os músculos em quaisquer das posições oculares. Com os condicionantes da lei de Hering, desenvolve-se o conceito de posições diagnósticas (das disfunções oculomotoras, diferentemente do clássico: os músculos são considerados em pares, de acordo às suas ações predominantes ___ horizontais (retos horizontais, verticais (retos verticais ou torcionais (oblíquos. Em cada qual devem ser comparadas as ações em condições diametralmente opostas de fixação ocular e posições do olhar (por exemplo, supradextroversão na fixação com o olho direito e infralevoversão na fixa

  4. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  6. Non-Ocular Circadian Oscillators and Photoreceptors Modulate Long Term Memory Formation in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Eskin, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In Aplysia californica, memory formation for long-term sensitization (LTS) and for a more complex type of associative learning, learning that food is inedible (LFI), is modulated by a circadian clock. For both types of learning, formation of long-term memory occurs during the day and significantly less during the night. Aplysia eyes contain a well-characterized circadian oscillator that is strongly coupled to the locomotor activity rhythm. Thus, the authors hypothesized that the ocular circad...

  7. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  8. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  9. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA) to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4)-(5) of the EEA. The ame...

  10. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2017-06-29

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  11. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  12. Complex networks: when random walk dynamics equals synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriener, Birgit; Anand, Lishma; Timme, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Synchrony prevalently emerges from the interactions of coupled dynamical units. For simple systems such as networks of phase oscillators, the asymptotic synchronization process is assumed to be equivalent to a Markov process that models standard diffusion or random walks on the same network topology. In this paper, we analytically derive the conditions for such equivalence for networks of pulse-coupled oscillators, which serve as models for neurons and pacemaker cells interacting by exchanging electric pulses or fireflies interacting via light flashes. We find that the pulse synchronization process is less simple, but there are classes of, e.g., network topologies that ensure equivalence. In particular, local dynamical operators are required to be doubly stochastic. These results provide a natural link between stochastic processes and deterministic synchronization on networks. Tools for analyzing diffusion (or, more generally, Markov processes) may now be transferred to pin down features of synchronization in networks of pulse-coupled units such as neural circuits. (paper)

  13. Clinical and immunological assessment of therapeutic immunization with a subunit vaccine for recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Kim, Kay; Dubovi, Edward J; Mohammed, Hussni O; Felippe, M Julia B

    2016-12-25

    Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infections are common in domestic dogs and reactivation of latent virus may be associated with recurrent ocular disease. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ability of a subunit CHV-1 vaccine to stimulate peripheral CHV-1 specific immunity and prevent recurrent CHV-1 ocular disease and viral shedding. Mature dogs with experimentally-induced latent CHV-1 infection received a 2-dose CHV-1 vaccine series. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by corticosteroid administration in the prevaccinal, short-term postvaccinal (2 weeks post-vaccination), and long-term postvacccinal (34 weeks post-vaccination) periods. Immunological, virological, and clinical parameters were evaluated during each study period. Quantitative assessment of peripheral immunity included lymphocyte immunophenotyping, proliferation response, and interferon-γ production; and CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody production. In the present study, vaccination did not prevent development of ocular disease and viral shedding; however, there was a significant decrease in clinical ocular disease scores in the short-term postvaccinal period. Significant alterations in peripheral immunity detected in the dogs during the short-term and long-term postvaccinal periods included increased T and B lymphocyte subpopulation percentage distributions, increased lymphocyte expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, increased CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody titers, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, and decreased interferon-γ production. Vaccination of latently infected mature dogs with the selected subunit CHV-1 vaccine was not effective in preventing recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection and viral shedding induced by corticosteroid administration. The vaccine did induce long-term CHV-1 specific immunity and may decrease the severity of clinical ocular disease in the immediate postvaccinal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  15. Quality of life in purely ocular myasthenia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Since there has been no conclusive evidence regarding the treatment of ocular myasthenia, treatment guidelines were recently issued by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/European Neurological Society (EFNS/ENS). However, the therapeutic outcomes concerning the quality-of-life (QOL) of patients with ocular myasthenia are not yet fully understood. Methods We investigated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with purely ocular myasthenia in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in Japan. To evaluate the severity of ocular symptoms, we used the ocular-quantitative MG (QMG) score advocated by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. We used the Japanese translated version of the MG-QOL15, a self-appraised scoring system. Results Of 607 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with an observation-duration of illness ≥ 2 years, the cases of 123 patients (20%) were limited to ocular muscles (purely ocular myasthenia). During the entire clinical course, 81 patients experienced both ptosis and diplopia, 36 had ptosis alone, and six had diplopia alone. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and prednisolone were used in 98 and 52 patients, respectively. Treatment improved ocular symptoms, with the mean reduction in ocular-QMG score of 2.3 ± 1.8 points. However, 47 patients (38%) failed to gain minimal manifestation or a better status. Patients with unfavorable outcomes also self-reported severe QOL impairment. Multivariate analyses showed that the pretreatment ocular-QMG score was associated with unfavorable outcomes, but not associated with the patient’s QOL. Conclusion A treatment strategy designed in accord with a patient's ocular presentation must be considered in order to improve ocular symptoms and the patient's QOL. PMID:24996227

  16. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  17. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  18. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  19. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  20. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  1. Albinism: particular attention to the ocular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  2. Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joowon; Hwang, Yunji; Kang, Seungheon; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Jay; Seo, Jeongmin; Ahn, Hyojeong; Yoon, Sungjoon; Yun, Jun Pil; Lee, Yae Lim; Ham, Hyunsoo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Park, Sue K

    2016-08-01

    Smartphone use has dramatically increased in recent years. Smartphones may have adverse health effects, particularly on the eyes, because users stare at the screen for a much longer time than they do with ordinary mobile phones. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between smartphone use and ocular symptoms among adolescents. Information on smartphone use and ocular symptoms (blurring, redness, visual disturbance, secretion, inflammation, lacrimation and dryness) related to eye fatigue and strain from 715 adolescent subjects from three cities in Korea was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Ocular health was scored using number of ocular symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and p-values for ocular symptoms were calculated with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Higher prevalence rates for ocular symptoms were observed in groups with greater exposure to smartphones (p 2 hours daily and ≤2 hours continuously) and excessive/persistent use (>2 hours daily and >2 hours continuously) compared to shorter use (<2 hours daily) were associated with multiple ocular symptoms (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.39; OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.11-4.57, respectively). A higher lifetime exposure to smartphones was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.51-6.19; p = 0.001). Increasing exposure to smartphones can have a negative impact on ocular health in adolescents.

  3. Accelerated physical deterioration of in vitro ocular prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Linda N; Barceló Santana, Federico H; Jiménez Castillo, René; Benavides Ríos, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    La prótesis ocular es una modalidad de prótesis facial que va a reparar aloplásticamente las pérdidas parciales o totales y deformaciones diversas del globo ocular. Está claro que la mejor rehabilitación protésica se ha logrado con las prótesis oculares de resina acrílica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la absorción acuosa y solubilidad así como el grado de deterioro físico acelerado determinado como cambio de color de prótesis oculares caracterizadas y sin caracterizar. Se fabric...

  4. Efficient SDM-MIMO Stokes-space equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, F. J.Vaquero; Zanaty, A.; Pittala, F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel frequency-domain 6x6 MIMO Stokes-space equalizer and compare its performance to a 6x6 MIMO LMS architecture. This method is suited to overcome DSP complexity and laser linewidth issues in SDM transmission systems....

  5. Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    Equality is a central concept in the Western way of thinking and in health care. In ethics research within nursing science, equality is a key concept but the meaning of its contents is more or less presumptive. The purpose of this study was to define the concept of equality as a value of nursing ethics research. Data were collected through systematic literature review and analysed using deductive and inductive content analysis. Equality has been studied as a concept and in relation to ethical theories. In nursing ethics, research on equality on theoretical and functional level is presented. These levels consist of dimensions, i.e. themes, that equality is related to. The dimensions of the theoretical level are the equality of being, i.e. universal human value, and distributive equality, i.e. equal opportunities, circumstances and results. The dimensions of functional equality included themes such as critique of distributive equality, context, difference, power and care. Critique is aimed at incompatibility of theoretical level with practice. Context raises questions of each nursing situation in relation to equality. Variation within context is closely related to differences involving parties to nursing, and it is a starting point to questions of equality. Power is understood as comprising knowledge, skills and authority that create differences and questions of equality between nurses and patients and nurses and other professionals or students. Nursing as care always includes relationship between two or more persons and needs to be inspected from the point of view of equality. The concept of equality has been complex to achieve in practice. The dimensions of the levels of equality defined in this study provide an opportunity to reach a better understanding of equality in nursing ethics. There is still a great demand for more research on the concept of equality. © 2010 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Rehabilitación en pacientes con trauma ocular Rehabilitation of ocular trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ariel Ramos Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La rehabilitación en oftalmología tiene como función fundamental lograr el máximo aprovechamiento posible del resto visual. El traumatismo ocular es considerado una de las entidades nosológicas frecuentes que conllevan a una rehabilitación visual. Las causas que provocan este tipo de trauma son variadas y dentro de estas, las agresiones con intención de provocar daños con secuelas son muy frecuentes. Es objetivo de esta revisión puntualizar la importancia de la rehabilitación en pacientes con traumatismo ocular e incentivar el buen accionar de todos los oftalmólogos en cuanto a su atención.The main goal of rehabilitation in ophthalmology is to use as much as possible the residual vision. Ocular trauma is considered one of the common diseases that imply visual rehabilitation. The causes of eye injuries are varied; among them assaults with intent to cause damage are the most common. The objective of this article was to point out the importance of rehabilitation in patients with ocular trauma and to encourage all the ophthalmologists to act accordingly.

  7. The impact of combined oral contraceptives on ocular tissues: a review of ocular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections. COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.

  8. Germline BAP1 inactivation is preferentially associated with metastatic ocular melanoma and cutaneous-ocular melanoma families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ni Jenny Njauw

    Full Text Available BAP1 has been shown to be a target of both somatic alteration in high-risk ocular melanomas (OM and germline inactivation in a few individuals from cancer-prone families. These findings suggest that constitutional BAP1 changes may predispose individuals to metastatic OM and that familial permeation of deleterious alleles could delineate a new cancer syndrome.To characterize BAP1's contribution to melanoma risk, we sequenced BAP1 in a set of 100 patients with OM, including 50 metastatic OM cases and 50 matched non-metastatic OM controls, and 200 individuals with cutaneous melanoma (CM including 7 CM patients from CM-OM families and 193 CM patients from CM-non-OM kindreds.Germline BAP1 mutations were detected in 4/50 patients with metastatic OM and 0/50 cases of non-metastatic OM (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.059. Since 2/4 of the BAP1 carriers reported a family history of CM, we analyzed 200 additional hereditary CM patients and found mutations in 2/7 CM probands from CM-OM families and 1/193 probands from CM-non-OM kindreds (29% vs. 0.52%, p = .003. Germline mutations co-segregated with both CM and OM phenotypes and were associated with the presence of unique nevoid melanomas and highly atypical nevoid melanoma-like melanocytic proliferations (NEMMPs. Interestingly, 7/14 germline variants identified to date reside in C-terminus suggesting that the BRCA1 binding domain is important in cancer predisposition.Germline BAP1 mutations are associated with a more aggressive OM phenotype and a recurrent phenotypic complex of cutaneous/ocular melanoma, atypical melanocytic proliferations and other internal neoplasms (ie. COMMON syndrome, which could be a useful clinical marker for constitutive BAP1 inactivation.

  9. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  10. Analysis 1: SDG5, gender equal fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meryl J.

    2017-01-01

    What are the challenges in the path of achieving gender equality in fisheries and what should our priorities be? This article tries to identify these in the context of SDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality.

  11. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... States to celebrate the achievements of women and recommit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 167 August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality...

  12. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... celebrate the achievements of women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. [[Page 52586... Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 168...

  13. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  14. A STUDY OF OCULAR INJURIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Diddigam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Worldwide, ocular trauma is an important cause of eye morbidity and a leading cause of non-congenital monocular blindness among children. In general, children are more susceptible to eye injuries because of their immature motor skills, limited common sense, tendency to imitate adult behaviour without evaluating risks, lessened emotional control, relative ignorance, and natural curiosity. Adult supervision is extremely important in preventing accidents. 1 PATIENTS AND METHODS The material for this study consisted of paediatric patients below 15 years of age who presented with history of different types of ocular injuries during the period from March 2007 to February 2010. In all cases, a thorough history was obtained from patients and their parents regarding the circumstances leading to the injury, the exact nature of the event and the object causing the injury. All the patients were also subjected to complete ophthalmic examination and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS 34 (68% were males and 16 (32% were females. The average age was 10.9 years (range 1-15 years. The highest incidence of blunt injuries was seen in age group of 11-15 years (58%. 20 (40% injuries occurred during domestic and leisure activities, 7(14% injuries occurred at work, 13 (26% during sports, 6 (12% were due to assault and 4 (8% from RTAs. CONCLUSION Blunt trauma to the eye causes a wide variety of damage to ocular tissues. Anterior or posterior segments are preferentially involved. Males were observed to be at increased risk for an eye injury necessitating admission to hospital.

  15. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Ocular safety of Viagra, (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T

    1999-01-01

    To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from

  17. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  18. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  19. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP, time of disappearance of hyphema, cause of blunt injury, additional ocular findings, medical and/or surgical treatment, follow-up time, and visual outcome were noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.8±19.2 years. Males constituted the 83.3% of the whole group. Game-related injury (43.9% and work-related injury (22.7% were the most common causes of blunt trauma. The bead gun was the most common tool involved in injury. Angle recession was detected in 36 patients (54.5%. Development of secondary glaucoma was higher in the patients with angle recession (chi-square test, p<0.05. Commotio retinae was observed in 47% of patients. The mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.4±0.3, while at the last visit, it was 0.8±0.3. There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and final visual acuity (paired-samples t-test, p<0.001. Conclusion: Hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma is observed mostly in young men and children. The most common blunt ocular injuries are game-and work-related. Angle recession and commotio retinae are the main complications of blunt ocular trauma causing hyphema. In cases with blunt ocular trauma, the presence of hyphema makes it difficult to examine the anterior chamber angle and the fundus. It is important to perform these investigations at the earliest stage to manage the complications since commotio retinae and angle recession accompany many cases with hyphema. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 19-22

  20. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  1. Radiotherapy for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dahai; Sun Sanyuan; Zhuo Shichao; Wang Haiwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological and clinical characteristics of primary lymphoma of ocular adnexae, analyze the treatment results and discuss the methods to prevent radiation complications. Methods: From Feb. 1995 to Feb. 2004, 25 patients with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma were treated in the second hospital and the forth hospital of Xuzhou, including 11 males and 14 females. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically by biopsy in 19 patients and lumpectomy in 6 patients, including 22 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and 3 non-MALT lymphoma. According to the Ann Arbor Staging System, there were 21 patients with tumor in stage I E, 3 in stage II E and 1 in stage III E. The primary tumor was found in the eyelid or conjunctiva in 19 eyes and orbit in 9 eyes. Radiotherapy were given to 22 patients (25 eyes) by deep X-rays, 60 Co γ-rays or mixed beams. The total irradiation dose ranged from 30.0 to 57.6 Gy. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate and Logrank test was used to detect the difference between the different groups. Results: The 5-, 10-year accumulated survival rates (SR) of the whole group were 90% and 82%. The 10-year SR of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor and orbit tumor were 100% and 58% (P=0.032). The local control rates of the radiotherapy group and non-radiotherapy group were 92% and 33 % (P=0.006). The 10-year SR of patients with tumor completely removed and those with residues were 83% and 82% (P=0.907). The 10-year SR of MALT lymphoma and non-MALT lymphoma were 90.0% and 33.3% (P=0.009). After radiotherapy, 8 eyes (36%) had cataract formation and 7 eyes (28%) had xerophalmic symptoms. Conclusions: The results of radiothera- py for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma are satisactory. The prognosis of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor is better than those with orbit tumor. The vast majority of the primary ocular adnexal lymphomas are MALT lymphomas. The survival rate of

  2. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-26

    Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified no completed or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Although research has identified a wide

  3. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  4. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  5. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Wee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  6. What Physicists Mean By the Equals Sign in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornick, Kellianne; Alaee, Dina; Sayre, Eleanor; Franklin, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical syntax allows for the description of meaningful concepts in the physical sciences, and having nuanced proficiency in mathematical formalism is closely tied to communication and understanding of physical principles. The concept of equality is especially important, as it constrains and dictates the relationships between two equated expressions, and a student with detailed understanding of these relationships can derive physical meaning from syntactical expressions mediated by equals signs by knowing the ``meaning'' of equals signs. We delineate types of equals signs as used in undergraduate textbooks and develop a categorization scheme in order to investigate how equals signs are used paradigmatically and culturally in textbooks to convey physical meaning. We classify equals signs into general clusters (causal, definitional, assignment, balancing, and ``just math''), each cluster containing more detailed types. We investigate differences across various topics and between introductory and upper-division textbooks. We found that upper division textbooks are more likely to use balancing, definitional, and more complex kinds of assignment forms, while introductory texts have much higher frequencies of simple assignment and ``just math'' types.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  8. Temporal dynamics of ocular position dependence of the initial human vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L

    2006-04-01

    While an ideal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates ocular rotations compensatory for head motion, during visually guided movements, Listing's Law (LL) constrains the eye to rotational axes lying in Listing's Plane (LP). The present study was conducted to explore the recent proposal that the VOR's rotational axis is not collinear with the head's, but rather follows a time-dependent strategy intermediate between LL and an ideal VOR. Binocular LPs were defined during visual fixation in eight normal humans. The VOR was evoked by a highly repeatable transient whole-body yaw rotation in darkness at a peak acceleration of 2800 deg/s2. Immediately before rotation, subjects regarded targets 15 or 500 cm distant located at eye level, 20 degrees up, or 20 degrees down. Eye and head responses were compared with LL predictions in the position and velocity domains. LP orientation varied both among subjects and between individual subject's eyes, and rotated temporally with convergence by 5 +/- 5 degrees (+/-SEM). In the position domain, the eye compensated for head displacement even when the head rotated out of LP. Even within the first 20 ms from onset of head rotation, the ocular velocity axis tilted relative to the head axis by 30% +/- 8% of vertical gaze position. Saccades increased this tilt. Regardless of vertical gaze position, the ocular rotation axis tilted backward 4 degrees farther in abduction than in adduction. There was also a binocular vertical eye velocity transient and lateral tilt of the ocular axis. These disconjugate, short-latency axis perturbations appear intrinsic to the VOR and may have neural or mechanical origins.

  9. Clinical application of ocular trauma score for mechanical ocular injury in armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.

  10. Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunity Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Home About ODMEO Leadership Documents News Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Search Search ODMEO: Search Search ODMEO: Search Office of Diversity Management and Equal

  11. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  12. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  13. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  14. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  15. Motorcycle related ocular injuries in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of all cases of motorcycle related accidents with involvement of the eyes seen at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2005. The study was conducted to assess the severity of ocular trauma, ocular structures mostly affected and initial effect on visual acuity in such ...

  16. Orbital Roof Fractures as an Indicator for Concomitant Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-12

    Longoria 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 210-292-7141 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional ...risk for ocular and periocular injury. Laryngoscope. 2016 Feb;126 Suppl 4:S5·11. 3. Cook T. Ocular and periocular Injuries from orbital fractures

  17. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  18. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... ocular axial length measurements from which ocular volume can be calculated. ... The CT scans were performed in axial planes at a thickness of 3 mm and a .... dimension assessing capability, it gives anatomic details .... have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size.

  19. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...

  20. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  1. Hutchinson's sign as a marker of ocular involvement in HIVpositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A positive Hutchinsonfs sign indicates an increased risk of ocular involvement in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). We examined the sensitivity of Hutchinsonfs sign as an indicator of ocular involvement in a consecutive series of patients presenting with HZO. Methods. We conducted a descriptive ...

  2. Ocular Complications among Cases of Head Injury Seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injuries with ocular involvement are of great importance due to the visual morbidity and mortality which may result. Objective: To determine the pattern of ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in Memphys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: ...

  3. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features

  4. An Unusual Ocular Injury Following Facial Trauma: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report a case of an unusual ocular injury following a road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: A case report of a sixty – year – old female patient seen by the authors. The literature on ocular injures following facial trauma is reviewed. Results: An eye globe initially confirmed missing from its socket on clinical ...

  5. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  6. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  7. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  8. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  9. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  10. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  11. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  12. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  13. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of ddC as a topical antiviral for ocular adenovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Eric G; Yates, Kathleen A; Gordon, Y Jerold

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the antiviral activity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) in vitro against a panel of ocular adenovirus serotypes and in vivo in the ocular Ad5/NZW rabbit replication model. In vitro, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of ddC and cidofovir were determined using standard plaque-reduction assays. In vivo, 40 rabbits were topically inoculated in both eyes with Ad5 after corneal scarification. On day 1, the rabbits were equally divided into four topical treatment groups: 3% ddC; 2% ddC; 0.5% cidofovir; and saline. ddC and saline eyes were treated four times daily for 7 days, and cidofovir-treated eyes were treated twice daily for 7 days. Eyes were cultured for virus a multiple times over 2 weeks. The in vitro IC(50) for ddC ranged from 0.18 to 1.85 microg/mL, whereas those for cidofovir ranged from 0.018 to 5.47 microg/mL. ddC was more potent than cidofovir for seven of nine serotypes. In vivo, 3% ddC, 2% ddC, and 0.5% cidofovir significantly reduced the number of Ad5-positive cultures per total (days 1-14), mean Ad5 ocular titer (days 1-5), and duration of shedding (among other outcome measures) compared with the saline control. The 3% and 2% ddC treatments were significantly more efficacious than the 0.5% cidofovir treatment in the parameters listed above. ddC demonstrated potent antiadenovirus activity in vitro and in vivo. Systemic safety studies after topical ocular administration are needed to evaluate ddC as a topical antiviral treatment for adenoviral ocular infections in the target population.

  14. Coloboma ocular: alterações oculares e sistêmicas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelikis Patrick Frensel de Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar com a literatura o perfil dos pacientes portadores de colobomas oculares, bem como verificar a acuidade visual, alterações oculares associadas e alterações sistêmicas apresentadas pelos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 18 pacientes com diagnóstico de coloboma ocular matriculados no serviço de Visão Subnormal do Hospital São Geraldo da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HSG - HCUFMG. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, raça, história familiar de anomalias oculares, história gestacional, tipo de coloboma, localização, bilateralidade, presença de microftalmia ou anoftalmia, alterações oculares concomitantes, e associação com doenças sistêmicas e acuidade visual. RESULTADO: Dez (55,6% pacientes eram do sexo feminino, 15 (83,3% eram leucodérmicos. A idade variou de 4 a 57 anos, com média de 9,5 anos. Apenas 3 (16,7% apresentavam história familiar para coloboma. Todos apresentavam história gestacional negativa para qualquer intercorrência. Houve acometimento bilateral em 100% dos casos, com microftalmia presente em 6 (33,3% casos. O coloboma foi típico em 14 (77,8% pacientes, sendo o coloboma mais comum o retinocoroidal ocorrendo em 16 (88,9% pacientes. 50% dos pacientes apresentavam o coloboma como achado isolado, e a outra metade associado a alguma doença sistêmica. Em 14 (77,8% pacientes foi encontrado algum tipo de alteração ocular além do coloboma. CONCLUSÃO: O exame oftalmológico completo é muito importante tanto no diagnóstico quanto no prognóstico de pacientes com coloboma, visto que este pode estar associado a uma baixa visual importante, além de poder estar relacionados a diferentes anomalias ou síndromes.

  15. Cyclodextrin Enhances Corneal Tolerability and Reduces Ocular Toxicity Caused by Diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abdelkader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in refractive surgery and demand for cataract removal and lens replacement, the ocular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has increased. One of the most commonly used NSAIDs is diclofenac (Diclo. In this study, cyclodextrins (CDs, α-, β-, γ-, and HP-β-CDs, were investigated with in vitro irritation and in vivo ulceration models in rabbits to reduce Diclo toxicity. Diclo-, α-, β-, γ-, and HP-β-CD inclusion complexes were prepared and characterized and Diclo-CD complexes were evaluated for corneal permeation, red blood cell (RBCs haemolysis, corneal opacity/permeability, and toxicity. Guest- (Diclo- host (CD solid inclusion complexes were formed only with β-, γ-, and HP-β-CDs. Amphipathic properties for Diclo were recorded and this surfactant-like functionality might contribute to the unwanted effects of Diclo on the surface of the eye. Contact angle and spreading coefficients were used to assess Diclo-CDs in solution. Reduction of ocular toxicity 3-fold to16-fold and comparable corneal permeability to free Diclo were recorded only with Diclo-γ-CD and Diclo-HP-β-CD complexes. These two complexes showed faster healing rates without scar formation compared with exposure to the Diclo solution and to untreated groups. This study also highlighted that Diclo-γ-CD and Diclo-HP-β-CD demonstrated fast healing without scar formation.

  16. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  17. Advanced Equalization Techniques for Digital Coherent Optical Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria

    approach based on joint encoding and equalization technique, known as Turbo Equalization (TE). This scheme is demonstrated to be powerful in transmission impairments mitigation for high order modulations formats, such as 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), considered a key technology for high speed...... a lower complexity convolutional code compared to state of the art reports. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the strict constrains of spectral efficiency, this thesis shows the application of digital adaptive equalizer for reconfigurable and Ultra Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (U......-over-Fiber (RoF) transmission system for a stand alone case and mixed modulation mixed bit rates transmission scheme. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the flexibility, upgrade-ability and robustness offered by rising advanced digital signal processing techniques, for future high-speed, high...

  18. Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wei

    Full Text Available The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  19. Ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up highlights the role of DNA repair in protection from sun damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian P; Thompson, Amy H; Bishop, Rachel J; Clayton, Janine A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zein, Wadih M; Tamura, Deborah; Khan, Sikandar G.; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Inui, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Shin-Ichi; Emmert, Steffen; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Bradford, Porcia; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Clinical manifestations of XP include mild to extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting in inflammation and neoplasia in sun-exposed areas of the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surfaces. This report describes the ocular manifestations of XP in patients systematically evaluated in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. Design Retrospective Observational Case Series Participants Eighty-seven participants, aged 1.3 to 63.4 years, referred to the National Eye Institute for examination from 1964 to 2011. Eighty-three had XP, 3 had XP/Cockayne Syndrome complex, and 1 had XP/trichothiodystrophy complex. Methods Complete, age- and developmental stage-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity; eyelid, ocular surface and lens pathology; tear film and tear production measures; and cytological analysis of conjunctival surface swabs. Results Of the 87 patients, 91% had at least one ocular abnormality. The most common abnormalities were conjunctivitis (51%), corneal neovascularization (44%), dry eye (38%), corneal scarring (26%), ectropion (25%), blepharitis (23%), conjunctival melanosis (20%), and cataracts (14%). Thirteen percent of patients had some degree of visual axis impingement and 5% had no light perception in one or both eyes. Ocular surface cancer or a history of ocular surface cancer was present in 10% of patients. Patients with an acute sunburning skin phenotype were less likely to develop conjunctival melanosis and ectropion but more likely to develop neoplastic ocular surface lesions than non-burning patients. Some patients also showed signs of limbal stem cell deficiency. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reports the ocular status of the largest group of XP patients systematically examined at one facility over an extended period of time. Structural eyelid abnormalities, neoplasms of

  20. Ocular Drug Delivery Barriers—Role of Nanocarriers in the Treatment of Anterior Segment Ocular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, Rinda Devi; Chowdhury, Pallabitha; Al-Saedi, Zahraa H. F.; Karla, Pradeep K.; Boddu, Sai H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is challenging due to the presence of anatomical and physiological barriers. These barriers can affect drug entry into the eye following multiple routes of administration (e.g., topical, systemic, and injectable). Topical administration in the form of eye drops is preferred for treating anterior segment diseases, as it is convenient and provides local delivery of drugs. Major concerns with topical delivery include poor drug absorption and low bioavailability. To improve the bioavailability of topically administered drugs, novel drug delivery systems are being investigated. Nanocarrier delivery systems demonstrate enhanced drug permeation and prolonged drug release. This review provides an overview of ocular barriers to anterior segment delivery, along with ways to overcome these barriers using nanocarrier systems. The disposition of nanocarriers following topical administration, their safety, toxicity and clinical trials involving nanocarrier systems are also discussed. PMID:29495528

  1. Iontoforese no transporte ocular de drogas Iontophoresis for ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O método mais comum de administração de drogas no olho é por meio de colírios. Entretanto, por este método, não é possível atingir a concentração terapêutica nos fluidos e tecidos posteriores do olho. A administração sistêmica apresenta reduzido acesso ao segmento posterior do olho devido à presença das barreiras oculares. Injeções subconjuntivais e retrobulbares não são capazes de proporcionar níveis adequados da droga, e a injeção intravítrea é método invasivo, inconveniente e que apre-senta riscos de perfuração do bulbo ocular ou descolamento da retina. A iontoforese, no entanto, apresenta-se como alternativa para o transporte de doses terapêuticas de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho. A iontoforese é uma técnica que consiste na administração de drogas para o organismo através dos tecidos, utilizando um campo elétrico. O eletrodo ativo, que se encontra em contato com a droga, é colocado no local a ser tratado, e um segundo eletrodo, com a finalidade de fechar o circuito elétrico, é colocado em outro local do organismo. O campo elétrico facilita o transporte da droga, que deve se encontrar, preferencialmente, na forma ionizada. A iontoforese pode ser considerada como um método seguro e não invasivo de transporte de drogas para locais específicos do olho. Aplicada experimentalmente para o tratamento de doenças oculares, esta técnica tem evoluído muito nos últimos anos e, atualmente, testes clínicos de fase III encontram-se em andamento.The most traditional method of ocular drug delivery is through the use of eyedrops. However, by this method, the therapeutic concentration in deep ocular fluids and tissues can not be efficiently reached. Systemic administration presents poor access to the posterior segment of the eye due to ocular barriers. Subconjuntival and retrobulbar injections are not able to produce adequate levels of the drug, and intravitreal injection is an invasive and problematic

  2. Comparative ocular anatomy of the western lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Stefanie; McCulley, James P; Alvarado, Thomas P; Hogan, R Nick

    2007-01-01

    To examine the lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) eye and determine similarities to and differences between the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and the human eye. In addition, we compare our findings of G. g. gorilla to previous reports on the eye of this subspecies. A 13-year-old deceased male lowland gorilla and a 34-year-old deceased female lowland gorilla were included in the study. Gross and microscopic examinations of the formalin-fixed right eyeball of each gorilla were carried out. Globe dimensions of G. g. gorilla were similar to G. g. beringei and to humans. The limbal conjunctival epithelium and the choroid were densely pigmented. However, the distribution of the conjunctival pigment ring was different to that of G. g. beringei and the melanocytes of the choroid were unusually round. There were deep crypts in the anterior border layer of the iris, and the epithelium of the pars plana was uniquely irregular. Vertical corneal diameter was observed to be equal or greater than horizontal diameter in G. g. gorilla, which is in contrast to humans and to previous findings for G. g. beringei. Corneal thickness was closer to that of humans than to G. g. beringei. Posterior lens capsule thickness was noticeably greater than that of humans. Although some variation between the ocular anatomy of G. g. gorilla and G. g. beringei does exist, the gross and microscopic findings closely resemble each other in these two subspecies. In addition, the eye of Gorilla appears remarkably similar to the human eye. However, comparison of measurements with those in humans is somewhat limited because formalin-fixation can introduce tissue shrinkage and artifact.

  3. Headaches with ocular localization and involvement Cefaleas de localización y compromiso oculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.

  4. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  5. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  6. Prioritizing environmental justice and equality: diesel emissions in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Swor, Kathryn R; Nguyen, Nam P

    2014-04-01

    Existing environmental policies aim to reduce emissions but lack standards for addressing environmental justice. Environmental justice research documents disparities in exposure to air pollution; however, little guidance currently exists on how to make improvements or on how specific emission-reduction scenarios would improve or deteriorate environmental justice conditions. Here, we quantify how emission reductions from specific sources would change various measures of environmental equality and justice. We evaluate potential emission reductions for fine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in Southern California for five sources: on-road mobile, off-road mobile, ships, trains, and stationary. Our approach employs state-of-the-science dispersion and exposure models. We compare four environmental goals: impact, efficiency, equality, and justice. Results indicate potential trade-offs among those goals. For example, reductions in train emissions produce the greatest improvements in terms of efficiency, equality, and justice, whereas off-road mobile source reductions can have the greatest total impact. Reductions in on-road emissions produce improvements in impact, equality, and justice, whereas emission reductions from ships would widen existing population inequalities. Results are similar for complex versus simplified exposure analyses. The approach employed here could usefully be applied elsewhere to evaluate opportunities for improving environmental equality and justice in other locations.

  7. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  8. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  9. Use of Lumbar Punctures in the Management of Ocular Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, Ian; Reddy, Yaviche

    2018-01-01

    Ocular syphilis has become rare in the developed world, but is a common presentation to ophthalmology departments in South Africa. We investigated the proportion of patients diagnosed with ocular syphilis who went on to receive lumbar punctures, and determined the fraction of these who had cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. We aimed to determine whether the use of lumbar punctures in ocular syphilis patients was beneficial in picking up cases of neurosyphilis. Retrospective study of case notes of patients admitted to two district hospitals in Durban, South Africa, with ocular syphilis over a 20-month period. A total of 31 of 68 ocular syphilis patients underwent lumbar puncture, and of these, eight (25.8%) had findings suggestive of neurosyphilis. Lumbar puncture in ocular syphilis patients should continue to be a routine part of the investigation of these patients; a large proportion of ocular syphilis patients show cerebrospinal fluid findings suggestive of neurosyphilis, are at risk of the complications of neurosyphilis, and should be managed accordingly.

  10. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Klein-Theyer

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution.Prospective, observational, cohort study.Institutional.A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days.The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded.The visual analogue scale (VAS values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes or even increased (left eyes over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition.In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability.

  11. New nanomicelle curcumin formulation for ocular delivery: improved stability, solubility, and ocular anti-inflammatory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Guo, Chuanlong; Lin, Guiming; Wu, Xianggen

    2017-11-01

    A stable topical ophthalmic curcumin formulation with high solubility, stability, and efficacy is needed for pharmaceutical use in clinics. The objective of this article was to describe a novel curcumin containing a nanomicelle formulation using a polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (PVCL-PVA-PEG) graft copolymer. Nanomicelle curcumin was formulated and optimized and then further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity/in vivo ocular irritation, in vitro cellular uptake/in vivo corneal permeation, and in vitro antioxidant activity/in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy. The solubility, chemical stability, and antioxidant activity were greatly improved after the encapsulation of the PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelles. The nanomicelle curcumin ophthalmic solution was simple to prepare and the nanomicelles are stable to the storage conditions, and it had good cellular tolerance. Nanomicelle curcumin also had excellent ocular tolerance in rabbits. The use of nanomicelles significantly improved in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo corneal permeation as well as improved anti-inflammatory efficacy when compared with a free curcumin solution. These findings indicate that nanomicelles could be promising topical delivery systems for the ocular administration of curcumin.

  12. Gender Equality and the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Warth

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the commitment of businesses to promote gender equality within their organisations can be strengthened. A dual approach of encouraging voluntary measures and corporate social responsibility for gender equality on the one hand, and regulating and enforcing change through legislative reforms on the other hand are reviewed, focusing mainly on the European region. There are arguments for a business case for gender equality in terms of better financial performance and com...

  13. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  14. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  15. OCULAR PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Moshetova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. 

  16. Ocular Tuberculosis II: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the clinical importance of tuberculin skin tests (TST, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, chest computed tomography (CT and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TBC. However, both TST and IGRAs cannot distinguish between latent TBC infection and active disease. Another corroborative test in the diagnosis of intraocular TBC is the evaluation of the lungs by either chest radiography or CT. Direct evidence for the diagnosis can be obtained by examination of smears and staining for acid-fast organisms, cultures of intraocular tissue/fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nucleic acid amplification analysis. In recent years, guidelines have been suggested for the diagnosis of intraocular TBC. The current treatment of intraocular TBC consists of use of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide taken for a long period of time (total 9-15 months. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 182-90

  17. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  18. A Role for PPAR/ in Ocular Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bishop-Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The uses of highly selective PPAR/ ligands and PPAR/ knockout mice have shown a direct ability of PPAR/ to regulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo in animal models. PPAR/ ligands induce the proangiogenic growth factor VEGF in many cells and tissues, though its actions in the eye are not known. However, virtually, all tissue components of the eye express PPAR/. Both angiogenesis and in particular VEGF are not only critical for the development of the retina, but they are also a central component in many common pathologies of the eye, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, the most common causes of blindness in the Western world. This review, therefore, will discuss the recent evidence of PPAR/-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF release in the context of ocular disorders.

  19. Surgical management of advanced ocular adnexal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinely, J R; Koch, D D

    1992-06-01

    Ocular adnexal amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid deposition within the deep connective tissue layers of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and anterior orbit. Management of advanced cases has traditionally been unsatisfactory, with either no surgery offered because of fear of hemorrhage or an en bloc resection performed of the entire involved area. We present two cases of advanced periorbital amyloidosis successfully managed by preserving the anatomic planes of the eyelids and meticulously debulking the deposits with a spooned curette. Lax eyelid tendons and aponeuroses were simultaneously repaired, and no sacrifice of eyelid tissues was necessary. One patient remained asymptomatic for 2 years after surgery before developing early reaccumulation in the lower eyelids. The other patient required additional eyelid debulking and ptosis revision 8 months after surgery, but was in stable condition at follow-up 2 years after surgery. This technique offers safe, easily repeatable, nondestructive treatment for advanced periocular amyloidosis.

  20. Cerebral palsy characterization by estimating ocular motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jully; Atehortúa, Angélica; Moncayo, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a large group of motion and posture disorders caused during the fetal or infant brain development. Sensorial impairment is commonly found in children with CP, i.e., between 40-75 percent presents some form of vision problems or disabilities. An automatic characterization of the cerebral palsy is herein presented by estimating the ocular motion during a gaze pursuing task. Specifically, After automatically detecting the eye location, an optical flow algorithm tracks the eye motion following a pre-established visual assignment. Subsequently, the optical flow trajectories are characterized in the velocity-acceleration phase plane. Differences are quantified in a small set of patients between four to ten years.

  1. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaujalgi Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  2. Different techniques in fabrication of ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Pinar; Dilber, Erhan; Eraslan, Oguz

    2012-11-01

    Loss of an eye caused by cancer, trauma, or congenital defect creates a deep psychological impact on an individual's life especially social and professional life. Custom-made prosthesis, compared to stock prosthesis, provides a better fit to the eye socket, better cosmetic results, and less discomfort to the patient in the long term. The main objective of this article was to describe 3 different alternative and practical techniques of fabricating custom-made ocular prosthesis. An impression of anophthalmic socket was made with the addition of cured silicone-based precision impression material in all techniques. A master cast was prepared and duplicated with condensation silicone. A self-cure acrylic resin was polymerized in the silicone model and was fitted into the patient's eye socket. A digital photograph of the patient's iris was made using a digital camera and printed on good-quality photo paper in various shades and sizes in the first and the second techniques. Then the photo paper was coated with PVC so as not to allow any color flowing. The proper iris was then inserted to the acrylic base. The prosthesis was final processed using orthodontic heat polymerizing clear acrylic resin.In the other technique, after the trying-in process with wax pattern, an acrylic base was fabricated using heat polymerizing scleral acrylic resin. The prosthetic iris was fabricated from a transparent contact lens by painting the lens with watercolor paints and attaching it to an acrylic resin with tissue conditioner. The final process was made with heat polymerizing transparent acrylic resin. Custom-made prosthesis allows better esthetic and functional results to the patient in comparison to stock prosthesis. Further follow-up is necessary to check the condition and fit of the ocular prosthesis in such patients.

  3. Crohn’s Disease Ocular Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koev Kr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.

  4. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  5. Equal rights as the center of democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...

  6. The Role of Prosthesis Spacer for Ocular Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luiza Alencar De Andrade; Sampaio, Aline Araújo; Souza, Samilly Evangelista; Ferreira, Fernando José Rigolin; Buzzá, Edmur Pereira; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Celia Marisa

    2017-06-01

    Eye defects can lead to emotional, psychological, and social changes, impacting negatively the quality of life of the patient. When these structures cannot be satisfactorily repaired by reconstructive surgery, the prosthetic rehabilitation is the better treatment option to restore lost ocular anatomy and promote the social integration of the individual. The aim of this clinical report is to report and discuss a case of ocular prosthesis confection eviscerated patient with opening limitation eyelid and shortening of the distance between palpebral commissure, to obtain a more natural and comfortable to the patient ocular rehabilitation.

  7. An introduction to the mathematics of ocular kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E MacKenzie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The research surrounding ocular kinematics has widespread applications including the study of binocular vision, virtual reality and the detec-tion of ocular and neurologic pathologies. This field promises to have a significant impact on optometric diagnostic techniques. This paper in-troduces the terminology used in the description of eye rotations and explores a number of the mathematical approaches pertinent to the topic of ocular kinematics.

  8. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  9. Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi

    2014-10-23

    Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished, females and in those with co-morbid systemic illnesses. This study strongly suggests that prevention of childhood

  10. Simulations of simple Bovine and Homo sapiens outer cortex ocular lens membrane models with a majority concentration of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark; Wang, Eric; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-11-21

    The lipid composition of bovine and human ocular lens membranes has been probed, and a variety of lipids have been found including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) with cholesterol being present in particularly high concentrations. In this study, we use the all-atom CHARMM36 force field to simulate binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures as models of the ocular lens. High concentration of cholesterol, in combination with different and varying diversity of phospholipids (PL) and sphingolipids (SL), affect the structure of the ocular lens lipid bilayer. The following analyses were done for each simulation: surface area per lipid, component surface area per lipid, deuterium order parameters (S CD ), electron density profiles (EDP), membrane thickness, hydrogen bonding, radial distribution functions, clustering, and sterol tilt angle distribution. The S CD show significant bilayer alignment and packing in cholesterol-rich bilayers. The EDP show the transition from liquid crystalline to liquid ordered with the addition of cholesterol. Hydrogen bonds in our systems show the tendency for intramolecular interactions between cholesterol and fully saturated lipid tails for less complex bilayers. But with an increased number of components in the bilayer, the acyl chain of the lipids becomes a less important characteristic, and the headgroup of the lipid becomes more significant. Overall, cholesterol is the driving force of membrane structure of the ocular lens membrane where interactions between cholesterol, PL, and SL determine structure and function of the biomembrane. The goal of this work is to develop a baseline for further study of more physiologically realistic ocular lens lipid membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Webb, Helen

    2010-08-01

    Equality and diversity are central to education and health services, in terms of both employment and service delivery. Clinical teachers need to be able to support students and trainees around equality issues, have the confidence to challenge discriminatory practice and provide an inclusive and safe learning and teaching environment.

  12. The Many Faces of Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    The ideal of equality of opportunity plays an important role in contemporary social and political discourse, and it is one of the few ideals which most people, across the political spectrum, accept. In this article, I argue that the seemingly widespread agreement about the value of equal opportunity is more apparent than real. I distinguish…

  13. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  14. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  15. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  16. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  17. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 167 August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004--50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom #0... 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  18. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature...

  19. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...

  20. Chromostereopsis in "virtual reality" adapters with electrically tuneable liquid lens oculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine; Berzinsh, Janis

    2016-10-01

    Chromostereopsis can be sight and feel in "Virtual Reality" adapters, that induces the appearance of color dependant depth sense and, finally, combines this sense with the source conceived depth scenario. Present studies are devoted to investigation the induced chromastereopsis when using adapted "Virtual Reality" frame together with mobile devices as smartphones. We did observation of composite visual stimuli presented on the high spatial resolution screen of the mobile phone placed inside a portable "Virtual Reality" adapter. Separated for the left and right eyes stimuli consisted of two areas: a) identical for both eyes color chromostereopsis part, and b) additional conventional color neutral random-dot stereopsis part with a stereodisparity based on the horizontal shift of a random-dot segment in images for the left and right eyes, correspondingly. The observer task was to equalize the depth sense for neutral and colored stimuli areas. Such scheme allows to determine actual observed chromostereopsis disparity value versus eye stimuli color difference. At standard observation conditions for adapter with +2D ocular lenses for mobile red-blue stimuli, the perceptual chromostereopsis depth sensitivity on color difference was linearly approximated with a slope SChS ≈ 2.1[arcmin/(Labcolor difference)] for red-blue pairs. Additional to standard application in adapter the tuneable "Varioptic" liquid lens oculars were incorporated, that allowed stimuli eye magnification, vergence and disparity values control electrically.

  1. Ocular distribution of topically applied adrenaline in albino and pigmented rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtti, A.; Periviita, L.; Salminen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic absorption, ocular distribution and ocular metabolism in albino and pigmented rabbit of topically applied 1% [ 3 H]1-adrenaline eye drops was studied by liquid scintillation counting and thin layer chromatography. The effect of adrenaline on the pupillary diameter was also registered. The peak plasma level of adrenaline was reached at 150 min. The corneal adrenaline metabolism was substantial, but did not vary with the rabbit strain. At 30 min after instillation, the total adrenaline concentration of pigmented iris and ciliary body exceeded that of corresponding albino tissues. At 180 min the drug concentration of the iris and ciliary body did not differ between the rabbit strains. Th time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis was equal in both rabbit strains. Since neither total adrenaline concentration at 180 min nor the time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis differed between the rabbit strains, the higher initial adrenaline uptake by pigmented tissues is not explained by pigment binding. It is proposed that the increased initial binding of adrenaline by pigmented tissues is caused by a difference between pigmented and albino tissues in the number of adrenergic neurones; this is also supported by the literature. (author)

  2. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  3. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  4. 21 CFR 886.4610 - Ocular pressure applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4610 Ocular pressure applicator. (a... bulb, a dial indicator, a band, and bellows, intended to apply pressure on the eye in preparation for...

  5. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... A 25‑year‑old air force personnel (lance corporal) presented to our accident and emergency ... Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of. Terrorism ..... Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.; 2011. p.

  6. Ocular Dynamics of Bolus Ingestion of Eleis guineensis Sap (Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that ...

  7. ocular findings in children with cerebral palsy attending a tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of. Ilorin Teaching ... recognize faces or hand-held toys (Chen, Weinberg and Catalano ... palsy that is also blind/visually impaired pose a.

  8. Prognostic analysis of 216 cases with penetrating ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the factors of penetrating ocular injury, and to investigate the prognostic factors and treatment strategies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 ocular trauma patients(221 eyes, in our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011, was completed. RESULTS: The eyeball atrophy inevitably occurred in 13 eye wounds more than 30mm. Retinal prolapse of the eyes, 78%(35/45completed vitrectomy, 33%(15/45were eyeball atrophy. The 51%(20/39of subchoroidal hemorrhage eyes were eyeball atrophy. Retinal prolapse and subchoroidal hemorrhage increased the risk of ocular atrophy(PPCONCLUSION: Serious ocular trauma prognosis related to many factors. The retina prolapse and the subchoroidal hemorrhage were important prognosis testify. A scleral buckling condensation surgery and vitrectomy have a therapeutic effect, and can improve visual function.

  9. The importance of vitamin D in systemic and ocular wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Richer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is good for bones and teeth. It may also have a role in preventing and treating diabetes, certain cancers, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, hip fractures and ocular conditions such as age-related macular degeneration.

  10. Intraocular Inflammation Associated with Ocular Toxoplasmosis : Relationships at Initial Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Emilio M.; Holland, Gary N.; Stanford, Miles R.; Yu, Fei; Siu, Willie O.; Shah, Kayur H.; Loon, Ninette Ten Dam-Van; Muccioli, Cristina; Hovakimyan, Anna; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe characteristics of intraocular inflammation in eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis and to identify relationships between signs of inflammation, complications (including elevated intraocular pressure [IOP]), other disease features, and host characteristics. DESIGN: Multicenter,

  11. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in ... policy exists in Ghana for the occupational health and safety of ...... Cambridge,. UK:University Press.1963. 29.

  12. An Uncommon Case of Noninvasive Ocular Surface Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye, which gradually increased in size [Figure 1]. ... eye and no history of any ocular surgery in the past. ... carcinoma in situ (CIS), and invasive squamous cell ... author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

  13. Validation of farsi translation of the ocular surface disease index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The obtained F-OSDI showed acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This F-OSDI could be used for assessment of dry eye, ocular surface discomfort and quality of life in Iranian and Farsi speaking populations.

  14. Infection and Replication of Influenza Virus at the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Hannah M; Kumar, Amrita; Zeng, Hui; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Belser, Jessica A

    2018-04-01

    Although influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity. All viruses tested were able to replicate in primary human corneal epithelial cell monolayers subjected to aerosol inoculation. The temperature at which cells were cultured postinoculation minimally affected infectivity. Replication efficiency, in contrast, was reduced at 33°C relative to that at 37°C, and this effect was slightly greater for the conjunctivitis isolates than for the respiratory ones. With the exception of a seasonal H3N2 virus, the subset of viruses studied in multilayer corneal tissue constructs also replicated productively after either aerosol or liquid inoculation. Human tears significantly inhibited the hemagglutination of both ocular and nonocular isolates, but the effect on viral infectivity was more variable, with tears reducing the infectivity of nonocular isolates more than ocular isolates. These data suggest that most influenza viruses may be capable of establishing infection if they reach the surface of ocular cells but that this is more likely for ocular-tropic viruses, as they are better able to maintain their infectivity during passage through the tear film. IMPORTANCE The potential spread of zoonotic influenza viruses to humans represents an important threat to public health. Unfortunately, despite the importance of cellular and tissue tropism to pathogenesis, determinants of influenza virus tropism have yet to be fully

  15. Ocular manifestations of Gaucher disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Turizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with Gaucher disease (GD type 3b, with a homozygous GBA gene mutation (c.1448T > C p.L483P (L444P. Ocular findings characteristic of this mutation are described, including vitreous condensation and macular edema. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Colombia with these characteristics. A review of the ocular manifestations of this disease is also presented.

  16. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  17. Profile of ocular trauma in industries-related hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikala, P; Sadiqulla, Mohammed; Shivakumar, D; Prakash, K H

    2013-05-01

    Ocular trauma is a worldwide cause of visual morbidity, a significant proportion of which occurs in the industrial workplace and includes a spectrum of simple ocular surface foreign bodies, abrasions to devastating perforating injuries causing blindness. Being preventable is of social and medical concern. A prospective case series study, to know the profile of ocular trauma at a hospital caters exclusively to factory employees and their families, to co-relate their demographic and clinical profile and to identify the risk factors. Patients with ocular trauma who presented at ESIC Model hospital, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, from June 2010 to May 2011 were taken a detailed demographic data, nature and cause of injury, time interval between the time of injury and presentation along with any treatment received. Ocular evaluation including visual acuity, anterior and posterior segment findings, intra-ocular pressure and gonio-scopy in closed globe injuries, X-rays for intraocular foreign body, B-scan and CT scan were done. Data analyzed as per the ocular trauma classification group. The rehabilitation undertaken medically or surgically was analyzed. At follow-up, the final best corrected visual acuity was noted. A total of 306 cases of ocular trauma were reported; predominantly in 20-40 year age group (72.2%) and in men (75%). The work place related cases were 50.7%and of these, fall of foreign bodies led the list. Visual prognosis was poorer in road traffic accidents rather than work place injuries owing to higher occurrence of open globe injuries and optic neuropathy. Finally, 11% of injured cases ended up with poor vision. Targeting groups most at risk, providing effective eye protection, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  18. Hospital-based ocular emergencies: epidemiology, treatment, and visual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cindy A; Rogers-Martel, Melanie; Golas, Liliya; Chepurny, Anna; Martel, James B; Martel, Joseph R

    2014-03-01

    Ocular trauma is recognized as the leading cause of unilateral blindness. However, few studies to date have focused on the clinical features of hospital-based ocular emergencies. Effectiveness of trauma centers in treating ocular emergencies was compared with treatment in traditional community hospital emergency departments. Demographics, causes, and nature of ocular emergencies, as well as visual outcome in community hospitals emergency departments and trauma centers, were also examined. Records of 1027 patients with ocular emergencies seen between July 2007 and November 2010 at 3 community hospitals emergency departments and 2 hospitals with level II trauma centers were retrospectively examined. Unpaired t test and Pearson χ(2) test were used to determine statistical significance. The incidence of patients requiring ophthalmic intervention was 77.2 per 100 000 in the community hospitals and 208.9 per 100 000 in the trauma centers. Rates of ocular emergencies were higher in middle-aged, white men. Orbital fractures were found in 86% of all orbital contusion cases in trauma centers, whereas 66.7% of patients with fall injuries and open globe diagnoses resulted in legal blindness. The middle-aged, white men are more vulnerable to ocular injuries caused mainly by motor vehicle accidents. The ability of trauma centers to provide comparable increases in vision outcomes, despite treating more severe ocular emergencies, demonstrates the effectiveness of trauma centers. Patients diagnosed as having orbital contusions or who have fall injuries deserve careful evaluation because they are more likely to have more severe sight-threatening injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple ocular abnormalities associated with trisomy 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Seong, Gong Je; Shin, Joo Youn; Kim, Chan Yun

    2008-01-01

    Ocular features associated with trisomy 4p have rarely been described. The authors have experienced multiple ocular abnormalities (bilateral cataracts, posterior synechiae, and posterior segment changes) associated with this chromosomal abnormality. It was presumed that these intraocular findings might be associated with the previous inflammatory process. In the current case, the patient recovered some useful vision after surgical removal of cataracts and intraocular lens implantations in both eyes. A detailed ophthalmic examination for patients with the autosomal imbalance is recom-mended.

  20. INCIDENCE OF OCULAR TRAUMA IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.

  1. Clinical analysis on 159 cases of mechanical ocular trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yao Liu; Ya-Zhi Fan; Yu-Ping Zheng; Jian-Ming Wang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To provide the basis of security guidance and decreasing the incidence through a general investigation of the mechanical ocular trauma among all the common causes, occasions where getting hurt as well as the characteristics of the high-risk group, and by further analysis and monitoring of the clinical cases and follow-up visit, study the related key factors of influencing the prognosis statistically. METHODS: The data of the 159 cases with mechanical ocular trauma were recorded.RESULTS: ...

  2. Ocular myasthenia gravis in a setting of thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjeet Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis in conjunction with thyroid disorders, although rare, has been reported in the past. However, the similarity in the presentation of both the entities and the tendency of myasthenia gravis to get overlooked easily, even by experienced clinicians, necessitates a thorough knowledge, a strong consideration, and a vigilant approach, to aid in its diagnosis. We discuss a case of a female in a thyrotoxic state, with symptoms of ocular myasthenia gravis, and a brief overview of this entity.

  3. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meenken, C; Assies, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Holwerda-van der Maat, W G; van Schooneveld, M J; Delleman, W J; Kinds, G; Rothova, A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS--Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. RESULTS--In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features were optic nerve atrophy (83%), visual acuity of less than 0.1 (85%), strabismus, and microphthalmos. In 50% of cases we observed iridic abnormalities and about 40% develop...

  4. Plurality and equality in the Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimar Ramis-Salas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to present empirical evidence of the success generated as a result of the types of organization of the centres and the classrooms in the CA. The inclusion of the plurality of voices of families from very different origins allows for an education that based on the plurality and diversity manages to achieve a greater equality in the results of all children. Design/methodology/approach: the present article is based on 1 review of the scientific literature in journals selected in the Journal Citation Reports about the types of participation of migrant families and from cultural minorities and their effect on the education of their children; and 2 on the collection of testimonies of migrant and cultural minority families through qualitative techniques. Findings and Originality/value: empirical evidence is presented about how the types of management and organization of the families participation in the classroom and the school of Learning communities maximize the plurality of voices (migrant and cultural minority families and contribute to improve the results of the children of the social groups who are most underprivileged and who obtain a greater improvement in the results levelling them with those of the mainstream society. Research limitations/implications: complexity to achieve a climate of ideal egalitarian dialogue in the framework of the communicative research data collection techniques Social implications: the article emphasizes the fact that evidence based actions achieve social and educational transformation, contributing to respond to the objectives of Europe 2020 to achieve more inclusive societies. Originality/value: how through implementing certain forms of classroom and school organization based on the inclusion of the plurality of voices, we contribute evidence of the improvement of the management of the center and the transformation of the relations with the community, beyond the educational success.

  5. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  6. Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging in an Ocular Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kolomeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18% individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n=4, focal RPE defects (n=2, age-related macular degeneration (n=1, central serous retinopathy (n=1, and ocular trauma (n=1. Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.

  7. Fundus autofluorescence imaging in an ocular screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeyer, A M; Nayak, N V; Szirth, B C; Khouri, A S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe integration of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging into an ocular screening program. Methods. Fifty consecutive screening participants were included in this prospective pilot imaging study. Color and FAF (530/640 nm exciter/barrier filters) images were obtained with a 15.1MP Canon nonmydriatic hybrid camera. A clinician evaluated the images on site to determine need for referral. Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular pathology detected by color fundus and FAF imaging modalities were recorded. Results. Mean ± SD age was 47.4 ± 17.3 years. Fifty-two percent were female and 58% African American. Twenty-seven percent had a comprehensive ocular examination within the past year. Mean VA was 20/39 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Mean IOP was 15 mmHg bilaterally. Positive color and/or FAF findings were identified in nine (18%) individuals with diabetic retinopathy or macular edema (n = 4), focal RPE defects (n = 2), age-related macular degeneration (n = 1), central serous retinopathy (n = 1), and ocular trauma (n = 1). Conclusions. FAF was successfully integrated in our ocular screening program and aided in the identification of ocular pathology. Larger studies examining the utility of this technology in screening programs may be warranted.

  8. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  9. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  10. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-01-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  11. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  12. Ocular Injury in Cosmetic Laser Treatments of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony; Hui, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers.

  13. Fundus autofluorescence in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luz Leitão Guerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados do exame de autofluorescência do fundo de olho (AFF em pacientes vítimas de trauma ocular contuso. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, não intervencionista, realizado através da revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem. Os dados analisados foram: sexo, idade, lateralidade, etiologia do trauma, tempo decorrente entre o trauma e a realização do exame, acuidade visual, alterações na periferia da retina, diagnóstico fundoscópico e achados ao exame de AFF (realizada no aparelho Topcon TRC-50DX Retinal Camera. Resultados: Oito olhos de 8 pacientes foram estudados. A idade média foi de 27,6 anos (de 19 a 43 anos, o sexo masculino (n=7 foi mais acometido do que o feminino (n=1, agressão física foi a etiologia mais comum do trauma (n=3, seguido de acidente com fogos de artifício (n=2. Outras causas foram acidente automobilístico (n=1, trauma ocupacional com lixadeira (n=1 e pedrada (n=1. A acuidade visual variou de 20/80 a percepção luminosa. Epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática (EPT foi identificada em 5 casos, rotura de coroide em 3, hemorragia subretiniana em 3 e retinopatia de Purtscher em 1 caso. Hipoautofluorescência foi observada nos casos de rotura de coroide, hemorragia subretiniana recente, hemorragia intrarretiniana e em 2 casos de EPT. Hiperautofluorescência foi visualizada nos casos de hemorragia subretiniana em degradação, na borda de 2 casos de roturas de coroide e discretamente no polo posterior na retinopatia de Purtcher. Três casos de EPT apresentaram hipoautofluorescência com pontos hiperautofluorescentes difusos. Conclusão: O exame de AFF permite avaliar as alterações do segmento posterior do olho decorrentes do trauma ocular contuso de forma não invasiva, somando informações valiosas. Foram descritos achados do exame em casos de epiteliopatia pigmentar traumática, rotura de coroide, hemorragia sub-retiniana e retinopatia de Purtscher.

  14. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  15. Can we recognize horses by their ocular biometric traits using deep convolutional neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Szadkowski, Mateusz

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims at determining the viability of horse recognition by the means of ocular biometrics and deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs). Fast and accurate identification of race horses before racing is crucial for ensuring that exactly the horses that were declared are participating, using methods that are non-invasive and friendly to these delicate animals. As typical iris recognition methods require lot of fine-tuning of the method parameters and high-quality data, CNNs seem like a natural candidate to be applied for recognition thanks to their potentially excellent abilities in describing texture, combined with ease of implementation in an end-to-end manner. Also, with such approach we can easily utilize both iris and periocular features without constructing complicated algorithms for each. We thus present a simple CNN classifier, able to correctly identify almost 80% of the samples in an identification scenario, and give equal error rate (EER) of less than 10% in a verification scenario.

  16. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  17. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  18. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  19. Achados oculares em pacientes com mielomeningocele: 72 casos Ocular findings in 72 patients with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Fialho Cronemberger

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar as alterações oculares em pacientes com mielomeningocele. Material e Método: Realizado estudo retrospectivo em 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, descrevendo as alterações oculares presentes nessa população, além de correlacionar com a presença ou não de hidrocefalia. Resultados: Dos 72 pacientes com mielomeningocele, com idade variando de 5 meses a 18 anos, 64 (88,9% pacientes tinham hidrocefalia. Destes 64 pacientes, 36 (56,3% tinham estrabismo, sendo que 21 (58,3% eram endotrópicos, 13 (36,1% exotrópicos, 1 (2,8% exofórico e 1 (2,8% com estrabismo discinético. Do total dos 72 pacientes estudados 38 (52,8% eram estrábicos. A anisotropia foi encontrada em 16 (22,2% pacientes, sendo que em 14 (87,5% em A e em 2 (12,5% em V. Todos os 16 pacientes com anisotropia apresentavam hidrocefalia. O erro refrativo mais freqüente foi a hipermetropia encontrada em 64 (44,4% olhos. Atrofia óptica foi encontrada em 9 (12,5% pacientes. Conclusão: A mielomeningocele, associada a hidrocefalia, apresenta uma porcentagem de estrabismo maior do que o encontrado na população normal.Purpose: To study ocular findings in patients with meningomyelocele. Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients with myelomeningocele was performed to evaluate ocular motility disorders, refractive errors and indirect ophthalmoscopy findings. Results: In a group of 72 patients with myelomeningocele, aged 5 month -- 18 years, 64 (88.9% had hydrocephalus. Of this group of 64 patients, 36 (56.3% had strabismus, 21 (58.3% of whom were esotropic, and 13 (36.1% exotropic, 1 (2.8% exophoric and 1 (2.8% presented sometimes esotropia and sometimes exotropia. Of the total of 72 studied patients, 38 (52.8% had strabismus. Anisotropia was found in 16 (22.2% patients, 14 (87.5% with an A pattern and 2 (12.5% with a V pattern. The most frequent refractive error was hyperopia, found in 64 (44.4% eyes. All the 16 patients with anisotropia had hydrocephalus

  20. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular Conjunctival microbiota in patients with ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle. Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em meios sólidos de cultura (ágar sangue, chocolate e Sabouraud. RESULTADOS: No grupo A, 30 culturas (47,7% foram positivas e no grupo B, 6 (8,6%. Sete bactérias foram isoladas no grupo A e 4 no B. A análise estatística revelou associação significante entre a positividade dos cultivos e conjuntivite alérgica. CONCLUSÃO: Microbiota bacteriana foi mais freqüentemente encontrada nos pacientes com alergia ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate de presence of conjunctival aerobic microbiota in patients with ocular allergy as compared to a control group. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated from April to June 2001 and divided into 2 groups. Sixty-three patients with allergic conjunctivitis (without medication were in group A and 70 patients from the general outpatient clinic were in group B (control group. Samples from the conjunctival sac of the right eye were collected and cultured in solid media (blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. RESULTS: In group A, 30 cultures (47.7% were positive and 6 (8.6% in group B. Seven bacteria were isolated from group A and 4 from group B. Statistical analysis revealed significant association between positive cultures and allergic conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial microbiota was more frequently found in patients with ocular allergy.

  1. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  2. Assessment of vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implant by bone scintigraphy: compartive analysis of planar and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Park, Soon Ah

    1999-01-01

    Complete fibrovascular ingrowth within the hydroxyapatite ocular implant is necessary for peg drilling which is performed to prevent infection and to provide motility to the ocular prosthesis. We compared planar bone scintigraphy and SPECT for the evaluation of the vascularization within hydroxyapatite ocular implants. Seventeen patients (M:F=12:5, mean age: 50.4±17.5 years) who had received a coralline hydroxyapatite ocular implant after enucleation surgery were enrolled. Patients underwent Tc-99m MDP planar bone and SPECT imaging by dual head gamma camera after their implant surgery (interval: 197±81 days). Uptake on planar and SPECT images was graded visually as less than (grade 1), equal to (grade 2), and greater than (grade 3) nasal bridge activity. Quantitative ratio of implanted to non-implanted intraorbital activity was also measured. Vascularization within hydroxyapatite implants was confirmed by slit lamp examination and ocular movement. All but three patients were considered to be vascularized within hydroxyapatite implants. In visual analysis of planar image and SPECT, grade 1 was noted in 9/18 (50%) and 6/18 (33%), respectively. Grade 2 pattern 7/18 (39%) and 4/18 (22%), and grade 3 pattern was 2/18 (11%) and 8/18 (44%) respectively. When grade 2 or 3 was considered to be positive for vascularization, the sensitivity of planar and SPECT imaging were 60% (9/15) and 80% (12/15), respectively. In 3 patients with incomplete vascularization, both planar and SPECT showed grade 1 uptake. The orbital activity ratios on planar imaging were not significantly different between complete and incomplete vascularization (1.96±9.87 vs 1.17±0.08 , p>0.05), however, it was significantly higher on SPECT in patients with complete vascularization (8.44±5.45 vs 2.20±0.87, p<0.05). In the assessment of fibrovascular ingrowth within ocular implants by Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, SPECT image appears to be more effective than planar scintigraphy

  3. Q fever: a new ocular manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaondo P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available P Udaondo1,3, S Garcia-Delpech1,2, D Salom1,2, M Garcia-Pous1, M Diaz-Llopis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Nuevo Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; 3Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, Valencia, SpainAbstract: Q Fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ocular manifestations are rare in this infection. We describe the case of a man complaining of an intense retro-orbital headache, fever, arthralgia, and bilateral loss of vision, who showed an anterior uveitis accompanied by exudative bilateral inferior retinal detachment and optic disk edema. At the beginning, a Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH syndrome was suspected, but the patient was diagnosed with Q fever and treatment with doxycycline was initiated, with complete resolution after 2 weeks. We wondered if Q fever could unleash VKH syndrome or simulate a VKH syndrome by a similar immunological process.Keywords: Q fever, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome, panuveitis, exudative retinal detachment

  4. Brillouin microscopy: assessing ocular tissue biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyun; Chernyak, Dimitri

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic. The aim of this review is to overview the progress and discuss prospective applications of this new technology. Brillouin microscopy uses a low-power near-infrared laser beam to determine longitudinal modulus or mechanical compressibility of tissue by analyzing the return signal spectrum. Human clinical studies have demonstrated significant difference in the elastic properties of normal corneas versus corneas diagnosed with mild and severe keratoconus. Clinical data have also shown biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking treatment of keratoconus patients. Brillouin measurements of the crystalline lens and sclera have also been demonstrated. Brillouin microscopy is a promising technology under commercial development at present. The technique enables physicians to characterize the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues.

  5. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  6. Facial and Ocular Features of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Leoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of connective tissue affecting multiple organ systems. Identification of the facial, ocular and skeletal features should prompt referral for aortic imaging since sudden death by aortic dissection and rupture remains a major cause of death in patients with unrecognized Marfan syndrome. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial imaging test, and once a dilated aortic root is identified magnetic resonance or computed tomography should be done to assess the entire aorta. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is safe and has been demonstrated to improve life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Medical therapy for Marfan syndrome includes the use of beta blockers in older children and adults with an enlarged aorta. Addition of angiotensin receptor antagonists has been shown to slow the progression of aortic root dilation compared to beta blockers alone. Lifelong and regular follow up in a center for specialized care is important for patients with Marfan syndrome. We present a case of a patient with clinical features of Marfan syndrome and discuss possible therapeutic interventions for her dilated aorta.

  7. Delusion and bi-ocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2015-10-01

    The delusional experience is the result of a grave disjunction in the psyche whose outcome is not readily predictable. Examination of the specific mode of disjunction may help us understand the nature and radical character of delusion. I will present the therapy of a psychotic patient who after many years of analysis and progresses in his life continues to show delusional episodes although limited and contained. In his case, the two visions, one delusional and the other real, remain distinct and differentiated from each other because they both possess the same perceptual character, that of reality. He has a bi-ocular vision of reality and not a binocular one because his vision lacks integration, as would necessarily be the case if the two visions could be compared with each other. The principle of non-contradiction ceases to apply in delusion. A corollary of the failure of the principle of non-contradiction is that, if a statement and its negation are both true, then any statement is true. Logicians call this consequence the principle of explosion. For this reason, the distinction between truth, reality, improbability, probability, possibility and impossibility is lost in the delusional system, thus triggering an omnipotent, explosive mechanism with a potentially infinite progression. The paper presents some thoughts for a possible analytic transformation of the delusional experience. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  9. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  10. The ocular biometric differences of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Zengin, Mehmet Özgür; Cakmak, Harun; Evliçoglu, Gökhan Evren; Dündar, Sema Oruç; Omürlü, Imran Kurt; Unübol, Mustafa; Güney, Engin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in ocular biometric and keratometric characteristics in comparison with biometric measurements using the noncontact optical low coherence reflectometer (OLCR) (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit) on diabetic patients. The eyes of 170 patients were included in this study, including 81 diabetic and 89 nondiabetic subjects. Optical biometric measurements of diabetic and nondiabetic patients (between the ages of 25 and 85 years) who applied to the ophthalmology clinic were noted from March to June 2013. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were done for every subject. Biometric measurements were done using the noncontact OLCR device. Patient age ranged from 29 to 83 years. Subgroup analyses were done in diabetic patients according to their Hba1C levels. The minimum Hba1C value was 5.3, maximum was 12.4, and mean was 7.56 ± 1.48. The median duration of diabetes was 5 years (25th-75th percentile 3.00-11.75). Diabetic patients were found to have thicker lens and shallower anterior chamber in both eyes compared to nondiabetic control subjects. There were no statistical differences between the groups according to central corneal thickness, axial length, or keratometric values in both eyes. However, lens thicknesses were found to be thicker and anterior chamber depth values were found to be shallower in the diabetic group in both eyes. It may useful to determine eyeglasses prescription, refractive surgery calculation, lens selection, and previous cataract surgery according to biometric measurements after the regulation of blood glucose.

  11. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  12. Profile of ocular injury in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical profile of ocular injuries in children in a tertiary care center in Northern India.METHODS: This was a hospital based descriptive study. All children of ocular injuries up to 16y of age were included. Data regarding the socio-economic status, medical/surgical treatment, and condition at discharge were recorded. Follow-up to 3mo was done in the study. Initial and final visual acuity was recorded. Ocular Trauma Classification Group guidelines and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were used for the definitions and classifications of ocular trauma. Socio-economic status grading is done according to modified B.G. Prasad classification and Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale.RESULTS: Out of 42 children, male to female ratio was 3.6:1.Maximum number(50%of injuries occurred between 11-16y of age. Most of the children(59.52%belonged to lower socio-economic class and were from arural background. Ocular injuries occurred at home in 20(47.61%children followed by 6(14.28%each in school, playground, and street. Open globe injuries were seen in 19(45.24%children and 23(54.75%children had closed globe injuries. Injuries by wooden stick, stone, firework, fall, toy were 12(28.57%, 5(11.90%, 3(7.14%, 3(7.14%, and 2(4.76%. Seventeen(40.47%children required medical management and 25(59.53%were treated surgically.CONCLUSION:Male children in rural regions and of lower socio-economic background were more prone to ocular injuries. Children were more risk of ocular injuries at home. Wooden sticks and stone were the commonest cause of ocular injuries. Ocular morbidity and poor visual outcome were seen more in open globe injuries. Further population-based studies are required to reinforce findings of present study. Based on this, a long term strategy can be planned to prevent ocular injuries in children in this region.

  13. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  14. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  15. Teaching the Economics of Equal Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Arnola C.; Rhea, Jeanine N.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on equal opportunities--for education, pay, and with gender bias for individuals and business organizations. Suggests that business educators can expand the implications to include ethnic-based inequalities as well. (JOW)

  16. Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizer, S.M.; Amburn, E.P.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Greer, Trey; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. We report algorithms designed to

  17. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  18. Girls' Education and Gender Equality. Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Partnership for Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief fact sheet presents benefits of investing in gender equality, how the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) supports inclusive and equitable quality education, as well as the results it has achieved.

  19. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  20. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  1. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  2. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results...... and inspiration from a number of comparative research projects and networks. In the following I address three issues that have been central in academic debates: 1) The challenges from multiculturalism to gender equality, 2) gendering citizenship and migration and 3) Nordic feminist debates about diversity....... In the last section I argue that one solution to the new gender equality dilemma posed by increased diversity among women is a simultaneous re-framing of multiculturalism and gender equality....

  3. Causality, spin, and equal-time commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    We study the causality constraints on the structure of the Lorentz-antisymmetric component of the commutator of two conserved isovector currents between fermion states of equal momenta. We discuss the sum rules that follow from causality and scaling, using the recently introduced refined infinite-momentum technique. The complete set of sum rules is found to include the spin-dependent fixed-mass sum rules obtained from light-cone commutators. The causality and scaling restrictions on the structure of the electromagnetic equal-time commutators are discussed, and it is found, in particular, that causality requires the spin-dependent part of the matrix element for the time-space electromagnetic equal-time commutator to vanish identically. It is also shown, in comparison with the electromagnetic case, that the corresponding matrix element for the time-space isovector current equal-time commutator is required, by causality, to have isospin-antisymmetric tensor and scalar operator Schwinger terms

  4. Equality of Opportunity for Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...

  5. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    . Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...... into a contextualized approach to analyzing transnational intersectionality. This unique approach focuses on processes of institutionalization and mobilization, which are addressed in relation to the institutional setup of the EU, its policies and policymaking structures, as well as transnational civil society...

  6. Implementation of the Midway Image Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Guillemot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the detailed algorithm of the Midway Image Equalization giving to a pair of images the same histogram while maintaining as much as possible their previous gray dynamics. The midway equalization is primarily designed for gray level images, but can be applied channel-wise to color images. This method is easy to implement, fast to compute, fully automatic and requires no parameter.

  7. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  8. Marriage equality is a mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Ocular findings after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Al-Mohareb, Fahad; Ayas, Mouhab; Chaudhri, Naeem; Al-Sharif, Fahad; Al-Zahrani, Hazzaa; Mohammed, Said Y; Nassar, Amr; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2009-09-01

    To study the incidence, causes, and outcome of major ocular complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Retrospective, noncomparative, observational clinical study. The study included a total of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT in the period from 1997 to 2007 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Allogeneic HSCT. Patients with ocular complications were referred to the ophthalmology division for complete ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, tonometry, Schirmer test, biomicroscopy, and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Laboratory investigations were performed whenever indicated. The incidence and causes of major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT were determined. Visual acuity at 1 year after allogeneic HSCT was recorded. Major ocular complications occurred in 80 (13%) of 620 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. There were 36 male patients (45%) and 44 female patients (55%) with a mean age of 29 years and an age range of 9 to 65 years. Prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate in 69 patients, and cyclosporine, methotrexate and corticosteroids, or mycophenolate mofetil in 11 patients. The most frequently encountered ocular complications were chronic GVHD, dry eye syndrome without GVHD, corneal ulcers, cataract, glaucoma, cytomegalovirus retinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, and acquisition of allergic conjunctivitis from atopic donors. There was no correlation between the pattern of ocular complications and the transplanted stem cell source. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 year after transplantation was less than 20/200 in 13 patients (16%), less than 20/50 in 17 patients (21%), and better than 20/50 in 50 patients (63%). Ocular complications are common in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Early recognition and prompt treatment are important. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial

  10. Corporal punishment-related ocular injuries in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.

  11. Effects of malicious ocular laser exposure in commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakkamanil, Mathew M; Fielden, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Intentional malicious laser strikes on commercial pilots are committed by individuals who target a laser into airplane cockpits during takeoff and landing. Because laser exposure to pilots is a relatively new but growing occurrence, our study investigates the ocular effect of this laser exposure in pilots. Retrospective chart review by a single ophthalmologist. All commercial airline pilots (58 male, 3 female) who experienced a laser strike while flying between April 2012 and November 2014 who presented to our clinic were included. A retrospective chart review was performed in a retinal specialist's practice. Ocular assessment was performed within 3 days of laser exposure. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was conducted, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus examination, colour fundus photographs, and ocular coherence tomography. Sixty-four laser strike incidents involving commercial pilots were included. All pilots in the study experienced some degree of immediate ocular irritation or light sensitivity. No definite cases of ocular damage were attributed to laser strikes. No pilot had any functional ocular deficits. Our study revealed that laser strikes on aircraft did not result in permanent visual functional or structural deficits. However, laser strikes cause immediate visual effects, including glare, flash blindness, and ocular irritation that can interfere with a pilot's visual function. Given the widespread accessibility of high-power lasers and the rapid increase in incidents, laser strikes threaten to jeopardize aviation safety unless effective preventative measures are put in place. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Gravity on Ocular Lens Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Lucas J; Suheimat, Marwan; Verkicharla, Pavan K; Mallen, Edward A H; Atchison, David A

    2016-04-01

    We determined whether human ocular lens position is influenced by gravity. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were determined with a Haag-Streit Lenstar LS900 for right eyes of participants in two age groups, with a young group of 13 participants aged 18 to 21 years (mean, 21 years; SD, 1 year) and an older group of 10 participants aged 50 to 63 years (mean, 58 years; SD, 4 years). There were two sessions for each participant separated by at least 48 hours, with one session for the usual upright head position and one session for a downwards head position. In a session, testing was done for minimum accommodation followed by testing at maximum accommodation. A drop of 2% pilocarpine nitrate was instilled, and testing was repeated after 30 minutes under minimum and maximum accommodation conditions. Gravity, manipulated through head posture, affected ACD for young adult and older adult groups but mean effects were only small, ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 mm, and for the older group required the instillation of an accommodation-stimulating drug. Gravity had a weakly significant effect on LT for the young group without accommodation or a drug, but the effect was small at 0.04 ± 0.06 mm (mean ± SD, P = 0.04). There is a small but real effect of gravity on crystalline lens position, manifested as reduction in ACD at high levels of accommodative effort with the head in a downwards position. This provides evidence of the ability of zonules to slacken during strong accommodation.

  13. Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Yang, Paul; Khaderi, Khizer R; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetesmellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin M Nentwich; Michael W Ulbig

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the mostfrequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitusand the most common cause of blindness in the workingagepopulation. In the next 15 years, the number ofpatients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected toincrease significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 millionpeople in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to besuffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people withdiabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts foran increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e. , exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.

  15. Needs in omega 3 and ocular pathologies

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    Bretillon Lionel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth has regularly increased decade after decade, especially since the beginning of the 20th century: 15 years have been gained over the past 50 years. Changes in living and dietary habits during this time period have been associated with the development of various pathologies which represent a growing socioeconomic burden. Among age-related disorders, ocular diseases are the second most prevalent ones after 65 years. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment after the age of 50 years. Age is the prominent risk factor for AMD and is accompanied with both endogenous (including genetics and environmental factors, such as smoking habits and dietary factors (diet rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. AMD is characterized by the loss of cells at the most central area of the retina, called macula. The neural retina is a highly structured neurosensory tissue that is responsible for the transduction pathway. The transduction pathway is initiated in photoreceptors where the light stimulus is coded into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to neighboured neurons and transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is the cellular and metabolic interface between the neural retina and choriocapillaris through Bruch’s membrane. The close association between RPE and photoreceptors is one of the factors that promote the efficacy of RPE to, in the one hand, provide nutrients and oxygen to photoreceptors and, in the other hand, eliminate the metabolic debris originating from shedding of the outer segments. Epidemiological data suggest that dietary habits privileging the consumption of omega- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids participate to prevent from the development of AMD (Sangiovanni et al., 2009. The mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids remain unclear until now. The purpose of the present paper is to give a review on

  16. Screening athletes with Down syndrome for ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstein, Walter; Sinclair, Stephen H; North, Rachel V; Bekiroglu, N

    2010-02-01

    Persons with Down syndrome are well known to have a high prevalence of vision and eye health problems, many of which are undetected or untreated primarily because of infrequent ocular examinations. Public screening programs, directed toward the pediatric population, have become more popular and commonly use letter or symbol charts. This study compares 2 vision screening methods, the Lea Symbol chart and a newly developed interactive computer program, the Vimetrics Central Vision Analyzer (CVA), in their ability to identify ocular disease in the Down syndrome population. Athletes with Down syndrome participating in the European Special Olympics underwent an ocular screening including history, auto-refraction, colour vision assessment, stereopsis assessment, motility assessment, pupil reactivity, and tonometry testing, as well as anterior segment and fundus examinations to evaluate for ocular disease. Visual acuity was tested with the Lea chart and CVA to evaluate these as screening tests for detecting ocular disease as well as significant, uncorrected refractive errors. Among the 91 athletes that presented to the screening, 79 (158 eyes) were sufficiently cooperative for the examination to be completed. Mean age was 26 years +/-10.8 SD. Significant, uncorrected refractive errors (>/=1.00 spherical equivalent) were detected in 28 (18%) eyes and ocular pathology in 51 (32%) eyes. The Lea chart sensitivity and specificity were 43% and 74%, respectively, for detecting ocular pathology and 58% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. The CVA sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 86% for detecting pathology and 71% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. This study confirmed the findings of prior studies in identifying a significant presence of uncorrected refractive errors and ocular pathology in the Down syndrome population. Screening with the Lea symbol chart found borderline sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the test to be used

  17. Work-related ocular injuries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to

  18. Anomalias oculares em pacientes portadores de deficiência auditiva genética Ocular abnormalities in genetically deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para se verificar a prevalência de anomalias oculares em indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva de causa genética definitiva ou suspeita, este trabalho apresenta a avaliação oftalmológica de 97 indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva. Pacientes e Métodos: 97 indivíduos com diagnóstico definitivo ou suspeito de causa genética para disacusia foram submetidos a exame clínico oftalmológico completo; destes, 10 foram excluídos. Resultados: 42 (48,28% dos pacientes apresentaram uma ou mais anomalias oculares, 22 (25,29% pacientes apresentaram várias anormalidades oculares e quadro clínico compatíveis com síndromes genéticas estabelecidas. Conclusões: O exame oftalmológico é importante no diagnóstico sindrômico e etiológico de alguns quadros de disacusia, pois as alterações oculares podem ser a única anomalia associada à mesma.Purpose: In order to verify the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in patients who are deaf due to genetic causes, this paper presents the visual assessment of 97 deaf patients. Methods: 97 patients with definite or suspected diagno- sis of congenital and genetic deafness underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation; 10 patients were excluded. Results: 42 (48.28% patients presented one or more ocular abnormalities, 22 (25.29% patients presented several abnormalities and clinical manifestations of established genetic diseases. Conclusions: The ocular abnormalities may be the only clinical manifestations associated with deafness. Therefore the ophthalmological examination is a helpful tool for the etiological diagnosis of deafness.

  19. Managing equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Beverley

    2007-12-01

    cultural sensitivity, equality and human rights; performance management; and transparent human resource management processes. Managing a racially and culturally diverse workforce is complex and challenging for managers. There are no ready-made tools to show them how to do so. Achieving effective management of a culturally diverse workforce comes from an intrinsic motivation to develop the cultural competence to engage with them. This article, together with others in this special issue, provides a springboard for moving this agenda on. It offers managers a framework of themes, which they can draw on to develop their own best practice for managing racial equality and cultural diversity in the health workforce.

  20. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Amr; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the past two decades to become the standard of care for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT have been increasing in number and severity. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of ocular morbidity after allogeneic HSCT. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the ocular complications in patients developing GVHD following HSCT. Ocular complications secondary to GVHD are common and include dry eye syndrome, acquisition of ocular allergy from donors with allergic disorders. Eyelid changes may occur in GVHD leading to scleroderma-like changes. Patients may develop poliosis, madarosis, vitiligo, lagophthalmos, and entropion. The cornea may show filamentary keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcers, and peripheral corneal melting which may lead to perforation in severe cases. Scleritis may also occur which can be anterior or posterior. Keratoconjunctivis sicca appears to be the most common presentation of GVHD. The lacrimal glands may be involved with mononuclear cell infiltration of both the major and accessory lacrimal glands and decrease in tear production. Severe dry eye syndrome in patients with GVHD may develop conjunctival scarring, keratinization, and cicatrization of the conjunctiva. Therapy of GVHD includes systemic immunosuppression and local therapy. Surgical treatment in refractory cases includes surgical intervention to improve the manifestation of GVHD of the eye. This may include tarsorrhapy, prose lenses, punctal occlusions and corneal transplantation. PMID:24227989

  1. Nanocarriers in ocular drug delivery: an update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Sheetu; Paliwal, Rishi; Paliwal, Shivani Rai; Vyas, S P

    2009-01-01

    Controlled drug delivery to eye is one of the most challenging fields of pharmaceutical research. Low drug-contact time and poor ocular bioavailability due to drainage of solution, tear turnover and its dilution or lacrimation are the problems associated with conventional systems. In addition, anatomical barriers and physiological conditions of eye are also important parameters which control designing of drug delivery systems. Nanosized carriers like micro/nano-suspensions, liposome, niosome, dendrimer, nanoparticles, ocular inserts, implants, hydrogels and prodrug approaches have been developed for this purpose. These novel systems offer manifold advantages over conventional systems as they increase the efficiency of drug delivery by improving the release profile and also reduce drug toxicity. Conventional delivery systems get diluted with tear, washed away through the lacrimal gland and usually require administering at regular time intervals whereas nanocarriers release drug at constant rate for a prolonged period of time and thus enhance its absorption and site specific delivery. This review presents an overview of the various aspects of the ocular drug delivery, with special emphasis on nanocarrier based strategies, including structure of eye, its barriers, delivery routes and the challenges/limitations associated with development of novel nanocarriers. The recent progresses in therapy of ocular disease like gene therapy have also been included so that future options should also be considered from the delivery point of view. Recent progress in the delivery of proteins and peptides via ocular route has also been incorporated for reader benefit.

  2. Nanoparticles laden in situ gel for sustained ocular drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper availability of drug on to corneal surface is a challenging task. However, due to ocular physiological barriers, conventional eye drops display poor ocular bioavailability of drugs (< 1%. To improve precorneal residence time and ocular penetration, earlier our group developed and evaluated in situ gel and nanoparticles for ocular delivery. In interest to evaluate the combined effect of in situ gel and nanoparticles on ocular retention, we combined them. We are the first to term this combination as "nanoparticle laden in situ gel", that is, poly lactic co glycolic acid nanoparticle incorporated in chitosan in situ gel for sparfloxacin ophthalmic delivery. The formulation was tested for various physicochemical properties. It showed gelation pH near pH 7.2. The observation of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area for sparfloxacin nanoparticle laden in situ gel (SNG as compared to marketed formulation. SNG formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration as no radioactivity was observed in systemic circulation. The developed formulation was found to be better in combination and can go up to the clinical evaluation and application.

  3. Aberrant ocular architecture and function in patients with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Cristin; Zitzmann, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Kliesch, Sabine; Wistuba, Joachim; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Heiduschka, Peter

    2017-10-13

    Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the most common chromosomal disorder in men (47,XXY), is associated with numerous comorbidities. Based on a number of isolated case reports, we performed the first systematic and comprehensive evaluation of eye health in KS patients with a focus on ocular structure and vascularization. Twenty-one KS patients and 26 male and 38 female controls underwent a variety of non-invasive examinations investigating ocular morphology (examination of retinal thickness, optic nerve head, and cornea) and function (visual field testing and quantification of ocular vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography). In comparison to healthy controls, KS patients exhibited a smaller foveal avascular zone and a decreased retinal thickness due to a drastically thinner outer nuclear layer. The cornea of KS patients showed a decreased peripheral thickness and volume. In perimetry evaluation, KS patients required brighter stimuli and gave more irregular values. KS patients show an ocular phenotype including morphological and functional features, which is very likely caused by the supernumerary X chromosome. Thus, KS should not be limited to infertility, endocrine dysfunction, neurocognitive and psychosocial comorbidities. Defining an aberrant ocular morphology and function, awareness for possible eye problems should be raised.

  4. Ocular Motor Function in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Hossein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with bilateral weakness (BW have many difficulties in gaze stability that interfere with their normal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular motor functions in patients with BW to better understand the problem of gaze instability in these patients.   Materials and Methods: Patients were referred from the Otolaryngology Department for Vestibular Assessment to our clinic between November 2014 and March 2015. We assessed ocular motor function (gaze, saccade, and smooth pursuit in patients over the age of 18 years with BW, as verified by a caloric test.   Results: Seventy-eight patients completed all the tests. The mean age of patients was 51.9 (±15.9 years, and 47 (60% were female. Abnormal results were found in five (6.4%, 32 (41%, and seven (9% patients with respect to gaze, smooth pursuit, and saccade, respectively. There were positive but relatively weak relationships between age and ocular motor results.   Conclusion:  Patients with BW suffer from dizziness and unsteadiness. These patients have abnormal function in ocular motor (especially smooth pursuit tests. The ocular motor dysfunction is responsible for gaze instability in static positions such as standing.

  5. Design of an Implantable Device for Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular diseases, such as, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa require drug management in order to prevent blindness and affecting million of adults in USA and worldwide. There is an increasing need to develop devices for drug delivery to address ocular diseases. This study focuses on the design, simulation, and development of an implantable ocular drug delivery device consisting of micro-/nanochannels embedded between top and bottom covers with a drug reservoir made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS which is silicon-based organic and biodegradable polymer. Several simulations were carried out with six different micro-channel configurations in order to see the feasibility for ocular drug delivery applications. Based on the results obtained, channel design of osmotic I and osmotic II satisfied the diffusion rates required for ocular drug delivery. Finally, a prototype illustrating the three components of the drug delivery design is presented. In the future, the device will be tested for its functionality and diffusion characteristics.

  6. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

    2014-01-01

    The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598

  7. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Lee Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%. The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2% had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3% had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%. Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%. Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation.

  8. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%). The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2%) had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3%) had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%). Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%). Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation.

  9. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  10. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a

  11. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  12. Investigating equality: The poverty and riches indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    As noise is omnipresent, real-world quantities measured by scientists and engineers are commonly obtained in the form of statistical distributions. In turn, perhaps the most compact representation of a given statistical distribution is via the mean-variance approach: the mean manifesting the distribution’s ‘typical’ value, and the variance manifesting the magnitude of the distribution’s fluctuations about its mean. The mean-variance approach is based on an underlying Euclidean-geometry perspective. So very often real-world quantities of interest are non-negative sizes, and their measurements yield statistical size distributions. In this paper, and in the context of size distributions, we present an alternative to the Euclidean-based mean-variance approach: a mean-equality approach that is based on an underlying socioeconomic perspective. We establish two equality indices that score, on a unit-interval scale, the intrinsic ‘egalitarianism’ of size distributions: (i) the poverty equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very small “poor” sizes; (ii) the riches equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very large “rich” sizes. These equality indices, their properties, their computation, their application, and their connections to the mean-variance approach – are explored and described comprehensively.

  13. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  14. Troubling gender equality: Revisiting gender equality work in the famous Nordic model countries

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic...

  15. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  16. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks. The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has been trained by utilizing the error back-propagation algorithm. The weights of the network are updated in accordance with training of the network. This paper presents a very effective method for blind channel equalization, being more efficient than the pre-existing algorithms. The obtained results show a visible reduction in the noise content.

  17. Equal Work Require Equal Salary” – Part of the Principle of Equality Treatment between Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carmina Spiridon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlarging the provisions of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Convention no. 111 from 1958 regarding discrimination in the field of employing manpower and practicing profession, , has pointed out the effect of discrimination: to suppress or to prejudice the equal opportunities or treatment in the field of employing manpower and practicing profession.

  18. All are equal, but some are more equal than others: Managerialism and gender equality in higher education in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.; Deem, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary

  19. Equal task, equal exposure? Are men and women with the same tasks equally exposed to awkward working postures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Wal, B.G. van de; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Burdorf, A.; Mechelen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether men and woman with equal tasks perform these tasks in the same way. Video recordings of 37 male and 43 female workers in six task groups were observed, from which data regarding frequency and duration of exposure to awkward postures were derived. These

  20. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…