WorldWideScience

Sample records for equalizer bead technology

  1. Three new potential ovarian cancer biomarkers detected in human urine with equalizer bead technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Yip, Tai-Tung

    2008-01-01

    samples were aliquotted and frozen at -80 degrees until the time of analysis. The urine was fractionated using equalizer bead technology and then analyzed with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Biomarkers were purified and identified using combinations...... of chromatographic techniques and tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Benign and malignant ovarian cancer cases were compared; 21 significantly different peaks (p...OBJECTIVE: To examine whether urine can be used to measure specific ovarian cancer proteomic profiles and whether one peak alone or in combination with other peaks or CA125 has the sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between ovarian cancer pelvic mass and benign pelvic mass. METHODS...

  2. Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Beads served both as ornaments and as a medium of exchange, and the Indians manufactured them from such natural sources as bones, stones, beans, nuts, animal teeth, and polished antlers. Even after the introduction of European glass beads, the Indians continued to make their favorite beads from the natural sources. (DS)

  3. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  4. The Fate of Equality in a Technological Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The meaning of equality has been radically altered since the Enlightenment. In the 18th century, equality acquired political and economic meanings specifically in the contexts of democracy and capitalism. Today, the context in which equality is understood and practiced is technology as our most immediate and compelling environment. Moreover, the…

  5. Can Technology Help Promote Equality of Educational Opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian; Berger, Dan; Hart, Cassandra; Loeb, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This chapter assesses the potential for several prominent technological innovations to promote equality of educational opportunities. We review the history of technological innovations in education and describe several prominent innovations, including intelligent tutoring, blended learning, and virtual schooling.

  6. A flow cytometric assay technology based on quantum dots-encoded beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiqiao; Liu Tiancai; Cao Yuancheng; Huang Zhenli; Wang Jianhao; Li Xiuqing; Zhao Yuandi

    2006-01-01

    A flow cytometric detecting technology based on quantum dots (QDs)-encoded beads has been described. Using this technology, several QDs-encoded beads with different code were identified effectively, and the target molecule (DNA sequence) in solution was also detected accurately by coupling to its complementary sequence probed on QDs-encoded beads through DNA hybridization assay. The resolution of this technology for encoded beads is resulted from two longer wavelength fluorescence identification signals (yellow and red fluorescent signals of QDs), and the third shorter wavelength fluorescence signal (green reporting signal of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)) for the determination of reaction between probe and target. In experiment, because of QDs' unique optical character, only one excitation light source was needed to excite the QDs and probe dye FITC synchronously comparing with other flow cytometric assay technology. The results show that this technology has present excellent repeatability and good accuracy. It will become a promising multiple assay platform in various application fields after further improvement

  7. PROMOTING EQUALITY THROUGH ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, A SOCIOECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria NEAGU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed paper is to identify a possible cost benefit evaluation of assistive technologies in the context of promoting equal opportunities in life. Equal opportunities represent more than just ensuring an equitable framework for all individuals; equality represents recognition and respect for all individuals no matter the differences among us. The paper debates the issues of equality in the context of assistive technologies advance. The use of assistive technology was found to be predictive of enjoyment of human rights and increased capabilities for those with special needs. Because promoting equality among individuals necessitates more than doing nothing it is obvious that we should think of evaluating the costs and the benefits of such actions taking into consideration socio and economic aspects. The topic has a novelty and an applicability character mostly for our country.

  8. Antibody-integrated and functionalized graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, produced using ammonia gas plasma technology, for capturing Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the single and most important causative agent of foodborne infections, especially involving foods such as eggs, milk and meat. To prevent infection, a reliable surveillance system is required that can quickly and sensitively detect Salmonella. Here, we describe the development of antibody-integrated magnetic beads that are functionalized by a novel strategy using ammonia gas plasma. Ammonia plasma, produced by a radio frequency (RF) power supply, was allowed to react with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, resulting in the introduction of amino groups. An anti-Salmonella antibody was then anchored by sulfide groups present on the protein surface to the amino groups of the magnetic beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The potential usefulness of these magnetic beads for capturing Salmonella was examined as follows. The beads were incubated with Salmonella in liquid medium and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of Salmonella to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction and a direct culture assay. Our findings indicate that the capture and concentration of Salmonella using the antibody-integrated magnetic beads was more efficient than commercial Dynabeads® anti-Salmonella, which are conventionally used for concentrating Salmonella from liquid cultures. We believe this novel bead technology will contribute to the enhanced detection of Salmonella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward equality of biodiversity knowledge through technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Monika; Collen, Ben

    2015-10-01

    To help stem the continuing decline of biodiversity, effective transfer of technology from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries is required. Biodiversity technology as defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a complex term, encompassing a wide variety of activities and interest groups. As yet, there is no robust framework by which to monitor the extent to which technology transfer might benefit biodiversity. We devised a definition of biodiversity technology and a framework for the monitoring of technology transfer between CBD signatories. Biodiversity technology within the scope of the CBD encompasses hard and soft technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, or make use of genetic resources, and that relate to all aspects of the CBD, with a particular focus on technology transfer from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries. Our proposed framework introduces technology transfer as a response indicator: technology transfer is increased to stem pressures on biodiversity. We suggest an initial approach of tracking technology flow between countries; charting this flow is likely to be a one-to-many relationship (i.e., the flow of a specific technology from one country to multiple countries). Future developments should then focus on integrating biodiversity technology transfer into the current pressure-state-response indicator framework favored by the CBD (i.e., measuring the influence of technology transfer on changes in state and pressure variables). Structured national reporting is important to obtaining metrics relevant to technology and knowledge transfer. Interim measures, that can be used to assess biodiversity technology or knowledge status while more in-depth indicators are being developed, include the number of species inventories, threatened species lists, or national red lists; databases on publications and project funding may provide measures of international cooperation. Such a

  10. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF or chorionic villus (CV samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.

  11. The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C

    2018-04-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading ( N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled. Paradoxically, the sex differences in the magnitude of relative academic strengths and pursuit of STEM degrees rose with increases in national gender equality. The gap between boys' science achievement and girls' reading achievement relative to their mean academic performance was near universal. These sex differences in academic strengths and attitudes toward science correlated with the STEM graduation gap. A mediation analysis suggested that life-quality pressures in less gender-equal countries promote girls' and women's engagement with STEM subjects.

  12. Enabling Equal Access to Molecular Diagnostics: What Are the Implications for Policy and Health Technology Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  14. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  15. Early upper paleolithic shell beads at Üçağızlı Cave I (Turkey): technology and the socioeconomic context of ornament life-histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Kuhn, Steven L; Güleç, Erksin

    2013-05-01

    Ten early Upper Paleolithic layers in Üçağızlı Cave I (41-29 uncalibrated ky BP) on the Hatay coast of southern Turkey preserve a rich and varied record of early Upper Paleolithic life, including the production and use of large numbers of shell ornaments. This study examines shell bead production, use, and discard in relation to site function and the diversity of on-site human activities. Four factors are expected to contribute to variation in the ornament assemblages, one environmental and three behavioral. The behavioral factors relate to winnowing for quality as a function of distance from the raw material source, changes in the size of user groups, and symbol standardization. The accumulation rates for shell beads, bones, and stone tools paralleled one another through time, indicating that ornament discard followed the pulse of daily life at this site. All stages of manufacture and use are well represented in each assemblage, and half or more of the ornaments show evidence of extended use. Changes in the local marine environment do not explain much of the variation in the assemblages, pointing instead to behavioral causes. The richness of shell types that were collected as raw material correlates to greater exploitation of edible marine shellfish and greater occupation intensity. Much of this variation in the ornament raw material was eliminated during the manufacture stage, almost certainly reflecting the influence of cultural norms. A focus on basket-shaped shells changed remarkably little over thousands of years, despite significant changes in other domains of technology. This last result suggests that beads were the most irreducible and conservative elements of more complex design traditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of plutonium and uranium by the resin bead-mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.; Smith, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the resin bead method and the techniques employed in its application to isotopic analysis of Pu and U in highly radioactive solutions of spent reactor fuel will be described. The method, developed primarily for safeguards analyses, may also be applied to isotopic measurement for assessing nuclear fuel cycle technology. Satisfactory analyses of both elements can be obtained from a single resin bead when the initial dissolver solution has a U/Pu ratio in the range of 50 to 300. Optimum bead loadings are 1 to 3 ng Pu and U; these loadings are obtained if the concentration of the solution is adjusted to about 1 μg U per bead before the beads are introduced. Isotopic composition measurements of NBS standards using this technique indicate a precision of +- 0.5% for minor isotopes in the 1% concentration range and +- 0.1% for major isotopes in the 50% range. Analyses of a synthetic dissolver solution give an accuracy for the isotope dilution measurement of Pu and U of less than or equal to 0.5% with an internal precision of 0.9% and 0.6% for Pu and U, respectively

  18. Dithiothreitol-based protein equalization technology to unravel biomarkers for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J E; López-Fernández, H; Diniz, M S; Baltazar, Pedro M; Pinheiro, Luís Campos; da Silva, Fernando Calais; Carrascal, Mylène; Videira, Paula; Santos, H M; Capelo, J L

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the benefits of dithiothreitol (DTT)-based sample treatment for protein equalization to assess potential biomarkers for bladder cancer. The proteome of plasma samples of patients with bladder carcinoma, patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and healthy volunteers, was equalized with dithiothreitol (DTT) and compared. The equalized proteomes were interrogated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Six proteins, namely serum albumin, gelsolin, fibrinogen gamma chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, Ig alpha-2 chain C region and haptoglobin, were found dysregulated in at least 70% of bladder cancer patients when compared with a pool of healthy individuals. One protein, serum albumin, was found overexpressed in 70% of the patients when the equalized proteome of the healthy pool was compared with the equalized proteome of the LUTS patients. The pathways modified by the proteins differentially expressed were analyzed using Cytoscape. The method here presented is fast, cheap, of easy application and it matches the analytical minimalism rules as outlined by Halls. Orthogonal validation was done using western-blot. Overall, DTT-based protein equalization is a promising methodology in bladder cancer research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A String of Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Kelly C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she designed a math activity she called Beads to use in conjunction with their school's 100th day celebration. Beads has provided her kindergarten class with many opportunities to practice a variety of math skills - counting, patterning, sorting, comparing, making sets, predicting, identifying numerals,…

  20. Assessing Impact of Technology Based Digital Equalizer Programme on Improving Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subrata; Mohapatra, Sanjay; Sundarakrishnan, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the impact of the Digital Equalizer program (DE Program) in terms of student learning outcomes of students in subjects like science, mathematics and geography after 8 months of implementing the DE program in 283 schools across 30 districts of Odisha, India. This study was a inter group and intra group…

  1. Integration of antibody by surface functionalization of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads using ammonia gas plasma technology for capturing influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-05-01

    Antibody-integrated magnetic beads have been functionalized for influenza A virus capture. First, ammonia plasma produced by a radio frequency power source was reacted with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads to introduce amino groups. Anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin antibody was then anchored by its surface sulfide groups to the amino groups on the beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate. After incubation with influenza A virus, adsorption of the virus to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inoculation of chicken embryonated eggs, indicating that virus infectivity is maintained and that the proposed method is useful for the enhanced detection and isolation of influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  3. From equality to 'equality'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panov Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to lucid statement of a Serbian academician that the ideals of mankind have always been justice, freedom, virtues and that life was less noble, the work analyses whether there is both 'equality', as morosofo exist (stupid wise men, profitable altruists and evil humanists and admirers of freedom of monistic thinking. Is there a dialectics: from equality to 'equality'? At the time of profitable altruists, evil humanists and excellent actors of virtues, it is worthwhile to remember Nietzsche's attitude about the pose of morality: subordination to morality may be slavish, proud, sordid, and resigned. In theological literature it is said that both patriarchate and matriarchate are the same denial of thankful supplemental gifts to a man and a woman. There is no love and sacrifice in government. There is no fortune in slavery, but there is no happiness in mastery either. Can a 'hymn' of individualism, with empty concepts and legal formulations that encourage and sharpen the conflict of family members be an introductory tact of the dictatorship ballade? Is the projection of conflicts into a family and micro-environment a project against emotional solidarity, strength, independence, courage and will for freedom? If we cannot rely upon family are we strong enough to confront totalitarian in democratic?.

  4. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...

  5. Fiscal 1998 industrial science and technology R and D theme (University coordination type). Research report on R and D of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads; 1998 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 result on the entrusted research 'R and D of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads' based on 'Industrial science and technology R and D system.' As for development of technologies for analyzing chemical- biomolecule complexes using submicron affinity beads, for molecule design of DNA to be connected with cisplatin, telomere DNA was employed as a target DNA of cisplatin, and cisplatin-modified DNA (Pt-DNA) was synthesized. Reaction condition for Pt-DNA connected beads was established, and affinity beads with Pt-DNA were prepared. As for development of organic receptor refining technology, proteins bound to cisplatin-DNA were preliminarily analyzed, showing that the Pt-DNA is a proper target chemical substance. It is the first evidence that certain proteins recognize cisplatin-damaged telomere DNA. In addition, introduction of the equipment for developing analysis technology of binding domains, development of technology to create organic receptors with new functions, and general research on the titled technologies were carried out. (NEDO)

  6. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research on acceleration of improving the base for biological resource information, and development of a technology to measure gene information (development of the DNA measuring technology using bead arrays); 1998 nendo seibutsu shigen joho kiban seibi kasokuka kenkyu idenshi joho no keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bizu array wo mochiita DNA keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is necessary in the field of post-genoms to know statistical correlation between DNA orientation information and clinical data, which helped growth of DNA probe arrays (DNA chips). However, it is difficult in patent point of view to develop chips in Japan. On the other hand, a movement has begun to use beads fixed with DNA probes in place of DNA chips demarcated on the surface of solids. This is a method to investigate hybridized DNA by means of fluorescent detection, in which each bead retaining the DNA probes is colored to make identification of the retained probes possible, and hybridizing reaction is performed in aqueous solution. Hitachi has developed a DNA measuring technology using bead arrays. The bead array has probe fixing beads of about 100 {mu} m laid sequentially inside a capillary, wherein the array can be used to inspect a large number of genes. Thus, this method can be a DNA measuring technology which is inexpensive, and high in reproducibility. These features lead to a belief that the technology is suitable for gene inspection devices used in the process of medicine development and at the clinical sites. (NEDO)

  7. Sangadzhi Kononov, Buddhist Prayer Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Prayer beads have special dividers that divide the beads into 7, 21 and 33. Apart from using in prayers, the Kalmyks also keep beads as amulets that are believed to have strong energy. After prayers, old people often bless their children and grandchildren with their beads. Such beads are also kept in families from one generation to the next. Sangadzhi believes that prayer beads store inside them the energy of mantras that have been read with them. There is an interesting story about the pray...

  8. The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoet, G; Geary, DC

    2018-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading ( N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled. P...

  9. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  10. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkyo, M; Tahara, T; Imajyo, Y

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  11. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  12. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Energy use rationalization related technology practicalization); 1998 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsunado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kankei gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the effort to develop chemical substance/bioreceptor analysis technology using submicron beads, polystyrene core/polyglycidyl methacrilate beads are used in a study started about a detachable spacer using newly developed fixation technology. In the development of bioaffinity chemical substance refining technology, two kinds of sugars and several kinds of aromatic aldehydes serve as building blocks in the construction of a library, and studies are made of analyses using liquid chromatography and mass spectrography. In the development of novel substance creation technology based on information on the analysis of chemical substance/bioreceptor, in an effort at developing technologies for creating novel function provided chemical substances, heterocyclic compounds, alkaloids, and sugar compounds are selected and their syntheses in the liquid phase and solid phase are studied, which is again for the construction of a library. (NEDO)

  14. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  15. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  16. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  17. Confocal nanoscanning, bead picking (CONA): PickoScreen microscopes for automated and quantitative screening of one-bead one-compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Buehler, Christof; Uhl, Volker; Schmied, Mario; Müller, Jürgen; Kottig, Karsten; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase combinatorial chemistry provides fast and cost-effective access to large bead based libraries with compound numbers easily exceeding tens of thousands of compounds. Incubating one-bead one-compound library beads with fluorescently labeled target proteins and identifying and isolating the beads which contain a bound target protein, potentially represents one of the most powerful generic primary high throughput screening formats. On-bead screening (OBS) based on this detection principle can be carried out with limited automation. Often hit bead detection, i.e. recognizing beads with a fluorescently labeled protein bound to the compound on the bead, relies on eye-inspection under a wide-field microscope. Using low resolution detection techniques, the identification of hit beads and their ranking is limited by a low fluorescence signal intensity and varying levels of the library beads' autofluorescence. To exploit the full potential of an OBS process, reliable methods for both automated quantitative detection of hit beads and their subsequent isolation are needed. In a joint collaborative effort with Evotec Technologies (now Perkin-Elmer Cellular Technologies Germany GmbH), we have built two confocal bead scanner and picker platforms PS02 and a high-speed variant PS04 dedicated to automated high resolution OBS. The PS0X instruments combine fully automated confocal large area scanning of a bead monolayer at the bottom of standard MTP plates with semiautomated isolation of individual hit beads via hydraulic-driven picker capillaries. The quantification of fluorescence intensities with high spatial resolution in the equatorial plane of each bead allows for a reliable discrimination between entirely bright autofluorescent beads and real hit beads which exhibit an increased fluorescence signal at the outer few micrometers of the bead. The achieved screening speed of up to 200,000 bead assayed in less than 7 h and the picking time of approximately 1 bead

  18. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YulongWang; ChuanshanZhao; TaoZhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind ofretro-reflective material, is widely used in reflectivefabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it israrely used in coated paper. The retro-reflectivetheory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect ofsize of micro-bead, dosage of binder and differentcolor layers on reflective properties of coated paperare discussed in this article. The results show that itsretro-reflective efficiency is good, equally toreflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead isused in coated paper.

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Wang; Chuanshan Zhao; Tao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind of retro-reflective material, is widely used in reflective fabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it is rarely used in coated paper. The retro-reflective theory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect of size of micro-bead, dosage of binder and different color layers on reflective properties of coated paper are discussed in this article. The results show that its retro-reflective efficiency is good, equally to reflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead is used in coated paper.

  1. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  2. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  3. Self-organizing magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Kovacs, Alexander; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Özelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We developed a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics and discrete particle dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. The simulation takes into account the viscous drag of the blood flow, magnetostatic interactions between the magnetic beads and gradient forces from external aligned magnets. We developed a particle–particle particle–mesh method for effective computation of the magnetic force and torque acting on the particles. - Highlights: ► We propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells. ► Flexible ways are important to get a high probability of catching cancer cells. ► The beads make it possible to tune the geometry in size position and shape.

  4. bEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    While there are a great variety of digital musical interfaces available to the working musician, few offer the level of immediate, nuanced and instinctive interaction that one finds in an acoustic shaker. bEADS is a prototype of a digital musical instrument that utilises the gestural vocabulary...... associated with shaken idiophones and expands on the techniques and sonic possibilities associated with them. By using a bespoke physically informed synthesis engine, in conjunction with accelerometer and pressure sensor data, an actuated handheld instrument has been built that allows for quickly switching...... between widely differing percussive sound textures. The prototype has been evaluated by three experts with different levels of involvement in professional music making....

  5. The Path of New Information Technology Affecting Educational Equality in the New Digital Divide--Based on Information System Success Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-01-01

    New information technology (new IT) plays an increasingly important role in the field of education, which greatly enriches the teaching means and promotes the sharing of education resources. However, because of the New Digital Divide existing, the impact of new IT on educational equality has yet to be discussed. Based on Information System Success…

  6. FUZZY REGRESSION MODEL TO PREDICT THE BEAD GEOMETRY IN THE ROBOTIC WELDING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.S. Sung; I.S. Kim; Y. Xue; H.H. Kim; Y.H. Cha

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid development in computer technology, which has in turn led todevelop the fully robotic welding system using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. However, therobotic welding system has not been achieved due to difficulties of the mathematical model andsensor technologies. The possibilities of the fuzzy regression method to predict the bead geometry,such as bead width, bead height, bead penetration and bead area in the robotic GMA (gas metalarc) welding process is presented. The approach, a well-known method to deal with the problemswith a high degree of fuzziness, is used to build the relationship between four process variablesand the four quality characteristics, respectively. Using these models, the proper prediction of theprocess variables for obtaining the optimal bead geometry can be determined.

  7. An integrated open-cavity system for magnetic bead manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nimeh, F T; Salem, F M

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are increasingly used in biomedical assays to manipulate, transport, and maneuver biomaterials. We present a low-cost integrated system designed in bulk CMOS to manipulate and separate biomedical magnetic beads. The system consists of 8 × 8 coil-arrays suitable for single bead manipulation, or collaborative multi-bead manipulation, using pseudo-parallel executions. We demonstrate the flexibility of the design in terms of different coil sizes, DC current levels, and layout techniques. In one array module example, the size of a single coil is 30 μm × 30 μm and the full array occupies an area of 248 μm × 248 μm in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The programmable DC current source supports 8 discrete levels up to 1.5 mA. The total power consumption of the entire module is 9 mW when running at full power.

  8. Asymmetric proteome equalization of the skeletal muscle proteome using a combinatorial hexapeptide library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Rivers

    Full Text Available Immobilized combinatorial peptide libraries have been advocated as a strategy for equalization of the dynamic range of a typical proteome. The technology has been applied predominantly to blood plasma and other biological fluids such as urine, but has not been used extensively to address the issue of dynamic range in tissue samples. Here, we have applied the combinatorial library approach to the equalization of a tissue where there is also a dramatic asymmetry in the range of abundances of proteins; namely, the soluble fraction of skeletal muscle. We have applied QconCAT and label-free methodology to the quantification of the proteins that bind to the beads as the loading is progressively increased. Although some equalization is achieved, and the most abundant proteins no longer dominate the proteome analysis, at high protein loadings a new asymmetry of protein expression is reached, consistent with the formation of complex assembles of heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal elements and other proteins on the beads. Loading at different ionic strength values leads to capture of different subpopulations of proteins, but does not completely eliminate the bias in protein accumulation. These assemblies may impair the broader utility of combinatorial library approaches to the equalization of tissue proteomes. However, the asymmetry in equalization is manifest at either low and high ionic strength values but manipulation of the solvent conditions may extend the capacity of the method.

  9. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  10. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  11. Analytical and statistical consideration on the use of the ISAG-ICAR-SNP bovine panel for parentage control, using the Illumina BeadChip technology: example on the German Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Ekkehard; Brenig, Bertram

    2015-02-05

    Parentage control is moving from short tandem repeats- to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) systems. For SNP-based parentage control in cattle, the ISAG-ICAR Committee proposes a set of 100/200 SNPs but quality criteria are lacking. Regarding German Holstein-Friesian cattle with only a limited number of evaluated individuals, the exclusion probability is not well-defined. We propose a statistical procedure for excluding single SNPs from parentage control, based on case-by-case evaluation of the GenCall score, to minimize parentage exclusion, based on miscalled genotypes. Exclusion power of the ISAG-ICAR SNPs used for the German Holstein-Friesian population was adjusted based on the results of more than 25,000 individuals. Experimental data were derived from routine genomic selection analyses of the German Holstein-Friesian population using the Illumina BovineSNP50 v2 BeadChip (20,000 individuals) or the EuroG10K variant (7000 individuals). Averages and standard deviations of GenCall scores for the 200 SNPs of the ISAG-ICAR recommended panel were calculated and used to calculate the downward Z-value. Based on minor allelic frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian population, one minus exclusion probability was equal to 1.4×10⁻¹⁰ and 7.2×10⁻²⁶, with one and two parents, respectively. Two monomorphic SNPs from the 100-SNP ISAG-ICAR core-panel did not contribute. Simulation of 10,000 parentage control combinations, using the GenCall score data from both BeadChips, showed that with a Z-value greater than 3.66 only about 2.5% parentages were excluded, based on the ISAG-ICAR recommendations (core-panel: ≥ 90 SNPs for one, ≥ 85 SNPs for two parents). When applied to real data from 1750 single parentage assessments, the optimal threshold was determined to be Z = 5.0, with only 34 censored cases and reduction to four (0.2%) doubtful parentages. About 70 parentage exclusions due to weak genotype calls were avoided, whereas true exclusions (n = 34) were

  12. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  13. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar......In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck....... The symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  14. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  15. Modeling of welded bead profile for rapid prototyping by robotic MAG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong; ZHU Sheng; WANG Tao; WANG Wanglong

    2009-01-01

    As a deposition technology, robotic metal active gas(MAG) welding has shown new promise for rapid prototyping (RP) of metallic parts. During the process of metal forming using robotic MAG welding, sectional profile of single-pass welded bead is critical to formed accuracy and quality of metal pans. In this paper, the experiments of single-pass welded bead for rapid prototyping using robotic MAG welding were carried out. The effect of some edge detectors on the cross-sectional edge of welded bead was discussed and curve fitting was applied using leat square fitting. Consequently, the mathematical model of welded bead profile was developed. The experimental results show that good shape could be obtained under suitable welding parameters. Canny operawr is suitable to edge detection of welded bead profile, and the mathematical model of welded bead profile developed is approximately parabola.

  16. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  17. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  18. StoryBeads: Preserving indigenous knowledge through tangible interaction design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitsma, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in technology adoption. The study resulted in a recording device that fits the target group’s oral tradition and is based on a concept in which oral stories are recorded and associated with tangible beads that can be incorporated into traditional beadwork...

  19. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  20. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Heng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen.

  1. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Ahn, Doyeol [Institute of Quantum Information Processing and Systems, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong, Dongdaemun, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo, E-mail: dahn@uos.ac.kr [Research Center for Time-domain Nano-functional Devices and School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam, Sungbuk, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  2. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Psyllium on the Viability of Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Alginate-Polyl Lysine Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Jaleh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Maghsoodi, Maryam; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique. Beads were characterized in terms of size, encapsulation efficiency, integrity and bacterial survival in harsh conditions. Results: Beads with narrow size distribution ranging from 1.85 ± 0.05 to 2.40 ± 0.18 mm with encapsulation efficiency higher than 96% were achieved. Psyllium concentrations in beads did not produce constant trend in bead sizes. Surface topography by SEM showed that substitution of psyllium enhanced integrity of obtained beads. Psyllium successfully protected the bacteria against acidic condition and lyophilization equal to alginate in the beads. Better survivability with beads of alginate/psyllium-poly-l-lysine was achieved with around 2 log rise in bacterial count in acid condition compared to the corresponding single coat beads. Conclusion: Alginate/psyllium (1:2) beads with narrow size distribution and high encapsulation efficiency of the bacteria have been achieved. Presence of psyllium produced a much smoother and integrated surface texture for the beads with sufficient protection of the bacteria against acidic condition as much as alginate. Considering the health benefits of psyllium and its prebiotic activity, psyllium can be beneficially replaced in part for alginate in probiotic coating.

  4. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  5. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  6. Investigation on rare earth magnets recycling by organophosphoric extractant encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Kain, V.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a basic requirement of the electronics and new industries including green technology. In the present work an organophosphoric extractant encapsulating polyethersulfone (PES) beads has been developed and employed for dysprosium (Dy) separation from aqueous stream. Polyethersulfonic beads encapsulating PC88A were prepared by phase inversion method. During the synthesis of the beads, preparatory parameters were also optimized to obtain best suited beads which were subsequently characterized for their encapsulation capacity and micro structural investigation. The results obtained in the present investigation suggested that PES/PVAJPC88A composite beads could be used for separation of rare earths from aqueous medium obtained from the solubilisation of magnetic scrap materials

  7. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agua, F.; Conde, J.F.; Kobylińska, U.; Kobyliński, Z.; García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemical and microstructural characterisation of such beads. The research was carried out by binocular microscope observations, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry. The main objective was to attain information on the production technology and conservation state of these beads. The results indicated that all them were produced with soda lime silicate glass, even though two groups can be separated: (i) beads containing high MgO percentages made from plant ashes as an alkaline source, and (ii) beads containing low MgO percentages made from natron as an alkaline source. As regards decorations, opaque white was obtained from tin oxide, turquoise blue from Cu2+-ions, and opaque yellow from lead antimonate. Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe. (Author)

  8. Fiscal 1999 industrial science and technology R and D (industrial-academic) project report. R and D on technologies for creating bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Development of practical technologies for energy saving); 1999 nendo biryushi riyogata seimeitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kankei gijutsu jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 R and D result on technologies for creating bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads. By improving particle production, favorable SGNEGDE particles for drug fixation were produced on a scale 10 times as large as previous one. Various functional groups were obtained for particles immobilizing ligands. Magnetic purification was attempted by using new magnetic polymer particles. Synthesis of particle unsusceptible to non- specific bonds, and analysis of its modified surface properties were attempted. Reversible attachable-detachable surface coat was obtained by immobilizing boric acid to glycol group on affinity latex SG particles. The experiment result on affinity latex for detecting one-point mismatched DNAs showed the dependence of DNA hybridization on shearing resistance. To construct the library of new substances reacting with bio-receptors, solid phase synthesis of anti- tumor heterocyclic compounds was analyzed. The library of the pharmacology of new lead compound such as sugar moiety was also constructed. Study was made on attachment of alkaloid to a solid phase, synthetic reaction on a solid phase and library construction. (NEDO)

  9. Magnetic composite beads for sorption of cesium ions from aqueous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, A.K.; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic separation of metal ions is one of the promising methods due to simple, fast, efficient and cost effective technology. Highly selective magnetic sorbents can be designed by immobilizing functional groups in magnetic carrier which binds to the target specific ions. In the present work chitosan-(3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS)- copperferrocyanide (CFC) composite beads have been synthesized for sorption of 137 Cs ions from aqueous streams. Physical characterization of the best resulted polymer beads was carried out by SEM-EDX and VSM technique. Sorption of Cs ions in the various magnetic polymer beads were studied in different aqueous condition by 137 Cs (662 KeV) radiotracer assay

  10. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansenová Maňásková, S.; van Belkum, A.; Endtz, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; van Wamel, W.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens

  11. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  12. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bée, Agnès, E-mail: agnes.bee@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Obeid, Layaly, E-mail: lghannoum@hotmail.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala, E-mail: mbolantenaina@yahoo.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France); Welschbillig, Mathias, E-mail: welschbillig@certinergysolutions.com [CertiNergy Solutions, 33 avenue du Maine, BP 195, 75755 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Talbot, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.talbot@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9–12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3–12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay. - Highlights: • A magsorbent based on magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in chitosan beads was prepared and characterized. • Clay played significant role for the removal of a cationic dye. • The magnetic beads exhibit a maximum adsorption capacity of 82 mg/g for methylene blue. • The pH range of the maximum adsorption extends from [9–12] to [3–12] by increasing the amount of clay. • The magsorbent could be magnetically removed from solution.

  13. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during the pinch-off of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth; Basaran, Osman

    2009-11-01

    Breakup of liquid filaments is omnipresent in nature and technology. When a filament formed by placing a drop of syrup between a thumb and a forefinger is stretched by pulling apart the two fingers, it resembles a thinning cylinder. If the same experiment is repeated with saliva, the filament's morphology close to pinch-off resembles that of beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) morphology only occurs for viscoelastic fluids, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear and controversial. The physics of formation of BOAS structures is probed here by simulation which reveals that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main drops (beads) but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the satellite bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived, stable beaded filament. The new simulations also show the formation of second-generation sub-satellite beads in certain cases, as observed experimentally but not, heretofore, predicted theoretically.

  14. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during break-up of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep P.; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael T.; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth H.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-08-01

    Break-up of viscoelastic filaments is pervasive in both nature and technology. If a filament is formed by placing a drop of saliva between a thumb and forefinger and is stretched, the filament's morphology close to break-up corresponds to beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) structures occurs only for viscoelastic fluids, the underlying physics remains unclear and controversial. The physics leading to the formation of BOAS structures is probed by numerical simulation. Computations reveal that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main beads but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived beaded structure. We also show for the first time theoretically that yet smaller, sub-satellite beads can also form as seen in experiments.

  15. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  16. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles embedded into reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads for efficient chromium (VI) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Yuling; Fu, Wenyang; Cao, Jiazhen; Zhang, Jiao; Ma, Hanbo; Jiang, Guangming

    2017-11-15

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe 0 NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe 0 NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads (Fe@GA beads) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe 0 NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate gel followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the beads finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe 0 NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of beads. We demonstrate that these Fe@GA beads show a robust performance in aqueous Cr(VI) removal. With a optimized Fe and alginate content, Fe@GA bead can achieve a high Cr(VI) removal efficiency and an excellent mechanical strength. The initial Cr(VI) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and especially solution pH are all critical factors to control the Fe@GA beads performance in Cr(VI) removal. Fitness of the pseudo second-order adsorption model with data suggests adsorption is the rate-controlling step, and both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm are suitable to describe the removal behavior. The possible Cr(VI) removal path by Fe@GA beads is put forward, and the synergistic effect in this ternary system implies the potentials of Fe@GA beads in pollutant removal from water body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  18. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  19. A 6.25 Gb/s equalizer in 0.18 μm CMOS technology for high-speed SerDes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingke; Hu Qingsheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 0.18 μm CMOS 6.25 Gb/s equalizer for high speed backplane communication. The proposed equalizer is a combined one consisting of a one-tap feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and a two-tap half-rate decision feedback equalizer (DFE) in order to cancel both pre-cursor and post-cursor ISI. By employing an active-inductive peaking circuit for the delay line, the bandwidth of the FFE is increased and the area cost is minimized. CML-based circuits such as DFFs, summers and multiplexes all help to improve the speed of DFEs. Measurement results illustrate that the equalizer operates well when equalizing 6.25 Gb/s data is passed over a 30-inch channel with a loss of 22 dB and consumes 55.8 mW with the supply voltage of 1.8 V. The overall chip area including pads is 0.3 × 0.5 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Rapid Detection of Enterobacter Sakazakii in milk Powder using amino modified chitosan immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinglian; Wang, Dongfeng

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan immunomagnetic beads (CIBs) were first prepared through converting hydroxyl groups of natural polymer material-chitosan into amino groups using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as modification agent and then coupling with polyclonal antibodies of Enterobacter sakazakii using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The beads before coupling with antibodies were characterized by magnetic property measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD technologies. In the assay a natural polysaccharide-chitosan, which has good biological and chemical properties such as non-toxicity, biocompatibility and high chemical reactivity was first used for synthesis of immunomagnetic beads. The detection method first established in this paper that combined the beads with chromogenic medium together to rapid detect E. sakazakii in milk powder could greatly improve the detection specificity and working efficiency. The beads exhibited a maximum capturing capacity of 1×10 6 cfu/g with the detection sensitivity of 4cfu/g. The results demonstrate that the assay is a straightforward, specific and sensitive alternative for rapid detection of E.sakazakii in food matrix. The total analysis time was as little as about 25h, which greatly shorten the detection time. The method can provides new ideas not only to preparation technique of immunomagnetic beads but to imunne detection technique in food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  2. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  3. Studies on Benzo-DODA encapsulated polymeric beads for separation of Pu from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.K.; Panja, S.; Kumar, M.; Ruhela, R.; Tripathi, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Hubli, R.C.; Bajaj, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel contains a few mg of Pu per litre of waste volume. Therefore, there is a need for selective separation of Pu from above solution as well as other such acidic waste streams. The widely used technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes is liquid-liquid extraction.Though, such technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, they have marked limitations involving the losses of extractant in aqueous phase, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. These limitations have necessitated the exploration of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. In this regard it is thought that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may solve some of the problems. Benzodioxodiamide (BenzoDODA) is a recently reported extractant for the separation of plutonium from radioactive waste, containing nitric acid. BenzoDODA extractant encapsulated polymeric beads were prepared by phase inversion technique and found to be quite stable as no significant structural deformation or leaching out of the extractant was observed in 4.0 M HNO 3 solution, up to studied equilibration time of 8 days. These beads have been characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM techniques to gain insight into their structure and morphology. Morphology and porosity of the beads, as studied by the SEM analysis, indicate that the surface of the beads is quite rough, and has enough porosity. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the synthesized composite beads shows a weight loss of ∼74% during the heating from room temperature to 120℃, due to the loss of water present in the swollen beads. Such high water content also confirms that the beads have enough porosity for efficient exchange of metal ions.The synthesized beads were evaluated, for their ability to absorb Pu from acidic solution. The kinetics measurement showed that about 45 min of

  4. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  5. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  6. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  7. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  9. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated...... that the sedimentation flux is proportional to the bead concentration and has a power law relation to the fluid flow rate. The mechanisms for the bead accumulation are investigated and it is found that gravitational sedimentation dominates the bead accumulation, whereas the stability of the sedimented beads against...

  10. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  11. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  12. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  13. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  14. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Glass bead making techniques and their mass production will help the individual ... communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which ..... Surface of most of the new beads were rough ... tourism potential to be developed further to.

  15. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  16. Study on the etched carnelian beads unearthed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Etched carnelian beads originated in the Indus Civilization;this kind of ornaments and its manufacturing techniques were spread to the whole Eurasia Continent.The etched carnelian beads unearthed in China can be classified into four types,the comparisons of which to their foreign counterparts may reveal their different sources and diffusion routes.The etched carnelian beads and their glass imitations unearthed in China had influences to the making of the glass "eye beads" in

  17. Asynchronous LMS adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.; Modrie, D.; Otte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also operate in the asynchronous clock domain. Existing adaptation techniques for this equalizer involve an error sequence ek that

  18. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  19. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  20. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.

  1. Controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads for functional biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, X.J.A.; Schellekens, A.J.; van Ommering, K.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a rotating magnetic field can be used to apply a controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads which leads to a tunable bead rotation frequency in fluid. Smooth rotation is obtained for field rotation frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the bead rotation frequency. A

  2. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  3. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  4. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  5. Friction of N-bead macromolecules in solution: Effects of the bead-solvent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, Alexander; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The role of the bead-solvent interaction has been studied for its influence on the dynamics of an N-bead macromolecule which is immersed into a solution. Using a Fokker-Planck equation for the phase-space distribution function of the macromolecule, we show that all the effects of the solution can be treated entirely in terms of the friction tensors which are assigned to each pair of interacting beads in the chain. For the high-density as well as for the critical solvent, the properties of these tensors are discussed in detail and are calculated by using several (realistic) choices of the bead-solvent potential. From the friction tensors, moreover, an expression for the center-of-mass friction coefficient of a (N-bead) chain macromolecule is derived. Numerical data for this coefficient for 'truncated' Lennard-Jones bead-solvent potential are compared with results from molecular dynamic simulations and from the phenomenological theoretical data as found in the literature

  6. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  7. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  8. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingxiao [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Xin, E-mail: xding@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling, E-mail: lingling_tian@nus.edu.sg [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  9. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  10. Aptamer-Modified Magnetic Beads in Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Thomas; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic beads (MBs) are versatile tools for the purification, detection, and quantitative analysis of analytes from complex matrices. The superparamagnetic property of magnetic beads qualifies them for various analytical applications. To provide specificity, MBs can be decorated with ligands like aptamers, antibodies and peptides. In this context, aptamers are emerging as particular promising ligands due to a number of advantages. Most importantly, the chemical synthesis of aptamers enables straightforward and controlled chemical modification with linker molecules and dyes. Moreover, aptamers facilitate novel sensing strategies based on their oligonucleotide nature that cannot be realized with conventional peptide-based ligands. Due to these benefits, the combination of aptamers and MBs was already used in various analytical applications which are summarized in this article. PMID:29601533

  11. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  12. RF Bead Pull Measurements of the DQW

    CERN Document Server

    Jaume, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This report was written within the framework of the CERN Summer Student Program. It is focused on the Radio Frequency study of the Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity [1] considered for the crab-crossing scheme of the LHC Luminosity upgrade [2]. HFSS simulation [3] and Bead-Pull Measurements technique were used for the characterization of the higher-order terms of the main deflecting mode.

  13. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  14. Characterization of some tin-contained ancient glass beads found in China by means of SEM-EDS and raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghui; Liu, Song; Su, Bomin; Zhao, Hongxia; Fu, Qiang; Dong, Junqing

    2013-02-01

    A total of nine tin-contained ancient glass beads were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. These glass beads dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD were excavated from the Xinjiang and Guangxi provinces of China. Two kinds of tin-based opacifiers/colorants included crystalline cassiterite (SnO(2)) and lead-tin yellow types II were first found in these soda lime glass beads. The tentative chronology of the tin-based opacifiers/colorants used in ancient glasses from China and the West was compared. In addition, several transition metal ions colorants were also found in these beads. The detailed study of the glassy matrices, crystalline inclusions, and the microstructural heterogeneities for these glass beads has revealed some valuable information to trace the possible making technology and provenances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations. - Highlights: • DDA was used to study the relationship between the number of beads forming gratings and ratio of first and zeroth order diffraction intensities. • A very flexible modeling program was developed to design complicated objects for DDA. • Material and spatial effects of bead distribution on surfaces were studied. • It has been shown that bead enhanced grating biosensor can be useful for fast detection of small amounts of biomolecules. • Experimental results qualitatively support the simulations and thus open a way to optimize the grating biosensors.

  16. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  17. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  18. Entrepreneur for Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Focuses on the first Republican Governor of the state of Georgia during the period of race adjustment and national reconstruction after the American Civil War. Bullock led the way to business connections in creating a New South, but he was best known for his steadfast efforts at human equality fo...

  19. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  20. Fight For Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  1. Equal Rights Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ko Oudhof

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2000. How is the emancipation process of women in the Netherlands progressing? What has been achieved? Have women already achieved equality, and have men accepted the sharing of power and responsibility? Was the emancipation process mainly a phenomenon of

  2. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  3. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承志; 李原芳; 黄新华; 范美坤

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5’ -NH2 and 5’ -Tex/3’ -NH2 modified terminus on 10 um carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the preseni paper. it was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentra-tion of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  4. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5′-NH2 and 5′-Tex/3′-NH2 modified terminus on 10 m m carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the present paper. It was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentration of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  5. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location...... of the bead relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple beads also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic beads does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present...... a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for beads magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy...

  6. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, J.

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm 3 /second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics [fr

  7. “Terrorism plus Canada in the 1960’s equals hell frozen over”: Learning about the October Crisis with computer technology in the Canadian classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lévesque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role and impact of a digital history program (the Virtual Historian© on students’ historical thinking and reasoning about a controversial episode in Canadian history. The purpose was to examine whether the use of the Virtual Historian©, a web-based inquiry program to teach Canadian history, improves the learning of a key episode in the school curriculum (French-English relations and the October Crisis, 1970. Using a quasi-experimental design, two Ontario Grade 10 classes were assigned to a treatment group (Virtual Historian© and comparison group (classroom lessons on the topic. Findings indicate that using the Virtual Historian© can significantly increase students’ understanding of the subject-matter and their ability to think and write historically more than classroom inquiry-based lessons. Résumé : Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude quasi-expérimentale menée auprès de deux groupes d’élèves ontariens de la 10e année inscrit au cours d’histoire du Canada. L’étude avait pour but d’examiner le rôle et l’impact des technologies de l’information et des communications (TIC, et plus particulièrement d’un nouveau didacticiel en histoire canadienne, l’historien virtuel©, sur l’apprentissage d’un épisode marquant de l’histoire scolaire (la Crise d’octobre, 1970. Les résultats de l’étude indiquent que les élèves du groupe expérimental (l’historien virtuel© ont développé une meilleure compréhension de l’histoire et de la Crise d’octobre que ceux du groupe de comparaison (enseignement en classe.

  8. Light equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Reinecke, D.R.; Power, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical, radiographic film dodging technique has been developed that can restore lost image contrast on underexposed regions of radiographs. The device consists of a low-resolution x-ray camera and a scanning, light-exposure array. Both are controlled by a microcomputer. The theory of operation has been developed, and technical requirements for implementing light-equalization radiogrpahy have been defined. Initial clinical results with a prototype have been analyzed and compared with results of conventional films

  9. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe, E-mail: fmondaini@if.ufrj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Petrópolis, 25.620-003, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  10. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2014-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  11. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  12. Análisis de la igualdad de oportunidades de género en la ciencia y la tecnología: Las carreras profesionales de las mujeres científicas y tecnólogas Analysis of equal gender opportunity in science and technology: The professional careers of women scientists and technologists Analysis of equal gender opportunity in science and technology. The professional careers of women scientists and technologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz Illescas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objeto: Analizar la igualdad de oportunidades de género en el ámbito de la Ciencia y la Tecnología con el objetivo de conocer la trayectoria laboral de las mujeres científicas, así como las principales dificultades que han asumido en su carrera profesional en la promoción, la retribución y la conciliación de la vida personal y laboral. Analizar, también, la situación de esas mujeres en otros países. Los resultados constatan la desigualdad de género en la trayectoria de las carreras profesionales dedicadas a la ciencia o la tecnología. El objetivo final de este estudio es conocer las aportaciones de las mujeres que han desarrollado su carrera profesional en el ámbito de las ciencias, al más alto nivel de capacitación, así como las propuestas y acciones dirigidas a jóvenes científicas que les permita alcanzar la equidad de género en sus organizaciones.Diseño/metodología/enfoque: Tras el planteamiento teórico, se ha diseñado una metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa con una muestra representativa de mujeres científicas y tecnólogas de la Asociación de Mujeres Investigadoras y Tecnólogas (AMIT.Aportaciones y resultados: Se evidencia el menor número de mujeres en el ámbito científico. Se aporta que el porcentaje de científicas en España permite ser optimista en comparación con otros países para desarrollar una carrera científica o técnica. Los resultados muestran la existencia de discriminación de género y quedan iniciativas a emprender que las científicas han analizado, aportando vías de reflexión en este ámbito.Originalidad/Valor añadido: El artículo permite el avance en el conocimiento de la igualdad de oportunidades de género y proporciona vías de reflexión en este ámbito ayudando a las jóvenes científicas a desarrollar entornos de trabajo que permitan alcanzar la plena igualdad de oportunidades de género.Object: To analyze gender equality in the field of Science and Technology with the aim of

  13. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  14. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50

  15. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  16. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  17. Towards Hypoxia-responsive Drug-eluting Embolization Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Koorosh; Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L

    2017-05-30

    Drug release from chemoembolization microspheres stimulated by the presence of a chemically reducing environment may provide benefits for targeting drug resistant and metastatic hypoxic tumours. A water-soluble disulfide-based bifunctional cross-linker bis(acryloyl)-(l)-cystine (BALC) was synthesised, characterised and incorporated into a modified poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) hydrogel beads at varying concentrations using reverse suspension polymerisation. The beads were characterised to confirm the amount of cross-linker within each formulation and its effects on the bead properties. Elemental and UV/visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the incorporation of BALC within the beads and sizing studies showed that in the presence of a reducing agent, all bead formulations increased in mean diameter. The BALC beads could be loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride and amounts in excess of 300mg of drug per mL of hydrated beads could be achieved but required conversion of the carboxylic acid groups of the BALC to their sodium carboxylate salt forms. Elution of doxorubicin from the beads demonstrated a controlled release via ionic exchange. Some formulations exhibited an increase in size and release of drug in the presence of a reducing agent, and therefore demonstrated the ability to respond to an in vitro reducing environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concepts for increasing gentamicin release from handmade bone cement beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hermawan N; van der Mei, Henny C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Soegijoko, Soegijardjo; Van Horn, Jim R; Busscher, Hendrik; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Commercial gentamicin-loaded bone cement beads (Septopal) constitute an effective delivery system for local antibiotic therapy. These beads are not available in all parts of the world, and are too expensive for frequent use in others. Thus, orthopedic surgeons worldwide make

  19. Beaded Fiber Mats of PVA Containing Unsaturated Heteropoly Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Shang Bin WEN; Chen SHAO; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing unsaturated heteropoly salt was prepared for the first time. IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM photographs characterized the beaded fiber mats.The viscoelasticity and the conductivity of the solution were the key factors that influence the formation of the beaded fiber mats.

  20. Optimization of weld bead geometry of MS plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The considered specimen was checked to harmonize the optimum setting between input factors, for example, welding current, open circuit voltage, and thickness of plate, with respect to obtaining prosperous weld strength as well as bead geometry quality characteristics, for example, tensile strength, bead width, ...

  1. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2017-01-01

    -regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels...

  2. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  3. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  4. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongjian; BAI Shu; SUN Yan

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization. Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads. The effects of reaction conditions, such as crosslinking time, the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOtt concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated. The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. The capacity for copper ions is as high as 40mg/g. The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  5. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjina; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin.Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization.Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads.The effects of reaction conditions,such as crosslinking time,the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOH concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated.The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde.The capacity for copper ions in as high as 40mg/g,The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  6. Bead magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic beads are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the beads is provided by the sensor bias current and the complex magnetic susceptibility...... spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The complex magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic bead suspension is injected, it scales with the bead concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The complex magnetic susceptibility...... signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented beads....

  7. Graphene Oxide Conjugated Magnetic Beads for RNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Baek, Ahruem; Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Sang Hun; Rho, Won-Yeop; Chung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Dong-Eun; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2017-08-04

    A magnetic material that consists of silica-coated magnetic beads conjugated with graphene oxide (GO) was successfully prepared for facile ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction. When the GO-modified magnetic beads were applied to separate the RNA from the lysed cell, the cellular RNAs were readily adsorbed to and readily desorbed from the surface of the GO-modified magnetic beads by urea. The amount of RNA extracted by the GO-modified magnetic beads was ≈170 % as much as those of the control extracted by a conventional phenol-based chaotropic solution. These results demonstrate that the facile method of RNA separation by using GO-modified magnetic beads as an adsorbent is an efficient and simple way to purify intact cellular RNAs and/or microRNA from cell lysates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oxytetracycline removal from water by novel microbial embedding gel beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Pan, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chenshan; Zhang, Zongpeng; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    As a common antibiotic in aquatic environment, excessive oxytetracycline (OTC) is urgent to be removed due to its great biological toxicity. Compared with the traditional activated sludge, microbial embedding can enhance the treating efficiency. In this study, novel microbial embedding gel beads were produced with the additional agent of cyclodextrin (CD). Results show that CD could increase the mass transfer of OTC into gel beads, possibly because of its strong affinity for organic matters. In terms of OTC biodegradation, gel beads with CD were comparable to gel beads without CD, while the former’s sucrose removal efficiency was higher than the latter. The biodegradation of OTC only occurred in the presence of sucrose. The respiration test also confirmed these findings. Overall, the produced novel gel beads modified with CD could improve the removal performance of OTC.

  9. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  10. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  11. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    . In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  12. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S

    2017-11-06

    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 Used to Synthesize Magnetic Sodium Alginate Hydrogel Beads for the Removal of Basic Blue 159 from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Ghajarieh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are a main source of pollutants in textile plant effluents. Due to their molecular structure, they are usually toxic, carcinogenous, and persistent in the environment. The aim of the present work was to explore the removal of basic blue159 (BB159 using magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. Magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads were initially synthesized  accoriodng to Rocher method using CaCl2 as a crosslink agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was then employed to examine the functional groups on the surface of the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. In a third stage, the magnetic properties of the beads were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and the magnetic parameters were calculated. Subsequently, the effects of such parameters as adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration of dye, and contact time were evaluated on the BB159 removal efficiency of the adsorbent used. Finally, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and B.E.T models were exploited to study the adsorption isotherm of BB159 onto the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. It was found that the magnetic sodium alginate beads possess both –COO and –OH groups that play important roles in the adsorption of the positively charged BB159 dye. A saturation magnetization equal to 21/8(emu/g was obtained for the sodium alginate beads/nano Fe3O4. Results also revealed that the highest dye removal from aqueous solutions was achieved at pH=11 in 120 minutes for 9 grams of the adsorbent. The study indicated that BB159 removal using the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads as the adsorbent obeys the Langmuir model. Moreover, it was shown that the efficiency of the process for BB159 removal from aqueous solutions was satisfactory (85%.

  14. Inhibitive Effect of antibiotic-loaded beads to cure chronic osteomyelitis in developing country : Hand-made vs commercial beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hcrmawan N.; Van Horn, Jim R.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Soegijoko, Sooegijardjo; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle; Ibrahim, F; Osman, NAA; Usman, J; Kadri, NA

    2007-01-01

    Local antibiotic-loaded beads have been approved for standard treatment of orthopaedic pathogens, especially chronic osteomyelitis. Septopal (R), the only commercial local antibiotic bead available on the market, is expensive and contains only gentamicin. This study aimed to compare the in vitro

  15. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A Phos-tag-based magnetic-bead method for rapid and selective separation of phosphorylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunehiro, Masaya; Meki, Yuma; Matsuoka, Kanako; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Kinoshita, Eiji; Koike, Tohru

    2013-04-15

    A simple and efficient method based on magnetic-bead technology has been developed for the separation of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated low-molecular-weight biomolecules, such as nucleotides, phosphorylated amino acids, or phosphopeptides. The phosphate-binding site on the bead is an alkoxide-bridged dinuclear zinc(II) complex with 1,3-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propan-2-olate (Phos-tag), which is linked to a hydrophilic cross-linked agarose coating on a magnetic core particle. All steps for the phosphate-affinity separation are conducted in buffers of neutral pH with 50 μL of the magnetic beads in a 1.5-mL microtube. The entire separation protocol for phosphomonoester-type compounds, from addition to elution, requires less than 12 min per sample if the buffers and the zinc(II)-bound Phos-tag magnetic beads have been prepared in advance. The phosphate-affinity magnetic beads are reusable at least 15 times without a decrease in their phosphate-binding ability and they are stable for three months in propan-2-ol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  18. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  19. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  20. Effect of patterned micro-magnets on superparamagnetic beads in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S S; Deng, Y L; Zhao, L B; Zhao, X-Z; Chan, H L W

    2008-01-01

    The trapping response of patterned micro-magnets (PMMs) was studied based on the parameters affecting superparamagnetic beads in microfluidic channels. Using replica moulding and electroplating technologies, the PMMs were fabricated on the microchannel bottom, which generated sufficient magnetic forces to bias the moments of magnetic particles in a flowing stream. A simplified physical principle was used to analyse the relative velocity of the magnetic particle in the confined space of a microchannel. The results revealed that the magnetic force contributed to the fluidic flow rate as well as to the hydrodynamic drag force. The relative velocity of magnetic particles was dependent on the frequency under an external magnetic field driven by an alternate current (ac) source. It showed that the magnetic gradient induced hysteresis characteristics of the transmission spectrum, associated with the interaction of superparamagnetic beads and magnetic field

  1. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  2. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  3. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  4. Calcium Pectinate Beads Formation: Shape and Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-Beng Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between process variables and the size and shape of pectin solution droplets upon detachment from a dripping tip as well as Ca-pectinate beads formed after gelation via image analysis. The sphericity factor (SF of the droplets was generally smaller than 0.05. There was no specific trend between the SF of the droplets and the pectin concentration or the dripping tip radius. The SF the beads formed from high-concentration pectin solutions and a small dripping tip was smaller than 0.05. The results show that the Reynolds number and Ohnesorge number of the droplets fall within the operating region for forming spherical beads in the shape diagram, with the exception to the lower boundary. The lower boundary of the operating region has to be revised to Oh = 2.3. This is because the critical viscosity for Ca-pectinate bead formation is higher than that of Ca-alginate beads. On the other hand, the radius of the droplets and beads increased as the dripping tip radius increased. The bead radius can easily be predicted by Tate’s law equation.

  5. Ecohydraulics of Strings and Beads in Bedrock Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling beads on a string when viewed in planform. The beads are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the beads are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and beads can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas beads provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and beads can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and beads. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.

  6. New miRNA labeling method for bead-based quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranchi Gerolamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that act as crucial regulators of gene expression. Different methods have been developed for miRNA expression profiling in order to better understand gene regulation in normal and pathological conditions. miRNAs expression values obtained from large scale methodologies such as microarrays still need a validation step with alternative technologies. Results Here we have applied with an innovative approach, the Luminex® xMAP™ technology validate expression data of differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high throughput arrays. We have developed a novel labeling system of small RNA molecules (below 200 nt, optimizing the sensitive cloning method for miRNAs, termed miRNA amplification profiling (mRAP. The Luminex expression patterns of three miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27a and miR-199a in seven different cell lines have been validated by TaqMan miRNA assay. In all cases, bead-based meas were confirmed by the data obtained by TaqMan and microarray technologies. Conclusions We demonstrate that the measure of individual miRNA by the bead-based method is feasible, high speed, sensitive and low cost. The Luminex® xMAP™ technology also provides flexibility, since the central reaction can be scaled up with additional miRNA capturing beads, allowing validation of many differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from microarrays in a single experiment. We propose this technology as an alternative method to qRT-PCR for validating miRNAs expression data obtained with high-throughput technologies.

  7. Controlled ice nucleation using freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae encapsulated in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Tessier, Shannon N; Swei, Anisa; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    The control of ice nucleation is of fundamental significance in many process technologies related to food and pharmaceutical science and cryobiology. Mechanical perturbation, electromagnetic fields and ice-nucleating agents (INAs) have been known to induce ice nucleation in a controlled manner. But these ice-nucleating methods may suffer from cumbersome manual operations, safety concerns of external fields, and biocompatibility and recovery issues of INA particles, especially when used in living systems. Given the automatic ice-seeding nature of INAs, a promising solution to overcome some of the above limitations is to engineer a biocomposite that accommodates the INA particles but minimizes their interactions with biologics, as well as enabling the recovery of used particles. In this study, freeze-dried Pseudomonas syringae, a model ice-nucleating agent, was encapsulated into microliter-sized alginate beads. We evaluated the performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads to initiate ice nucleation in water and aqueous glycerol solution by investigating factors including the size and number of the beads and the local concentration of INA particles. In the aqueous sample of a fixed volume, the total mass of the INA particles (m) was found to be the governing parameter that is solely responsible for determining the ice nucleation performance of the bacterial hydrogel beads. The freezing temperature has a strong positive linear correlation with log 10 m. The findings in this study provide an effective, predictable approach to control ice nucleation, which can improve the outcome and standardization of many ice-assisted process technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  9. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.

    2002-01-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  10. Random glycopeptide bead libraries for seromic biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA...... to other tumor glycoforms by on-bead enzymatic glycosylation reactions with recombinant glycosyltransferases. Hence, we have developed a high-throughput flexible platform for rapid discovery of O-glycopeptide biomarkers and the method has applicability in other types of assays such as lectin...

  11. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  12. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  13. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  14. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  15. Efficient functionalization of poly(styrene) beads immobilized metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three types of new bead-shaped heterogeneous nanoparticle (NP) catalysts were synthesized by sim- plified procedures .... and Ag+-doped titanium. Therefore, removal ..... References. 1. Storhoff J J, Elghanian R, Mucic R C, Mirkin C A and.

  16. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shih-Hao; Chiang, Hung-Wei; Hsieh, Min-Chien; Chang, Yen-Di; Yeh, Po-Fan; Tsai, Jui-che; Shieh, Wung-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  17. Standard specification for beaded process glass pipe and fittings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers chemically resistant, low expansion Type-I borosilicate glass, Class A, (see Specification E 438) used to manufacture beaded end flanged-glass pipe and fittings for pressure and vacuum applications.

  18. Influence of recycled polystyrene beads on cement paste properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroufi Maroua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the requirements of sustainable development, there is a growing interest towards reducing the energy consumption in the construction and rehabilitation of buildings and the promotion of recycling waste in building materials. The use of recycled polystyrene beads in cement-based materials composition constitutes a solution to improve the insulation in buildings. This allows also limiting landfill by reusing the polystyrene waste. The aim of this study is to compare some properties and performances of a cement paste containing polystyrene beads to a reference paste designed with only the same cement. An experimental campaign was conducted and the obtained results showed that adding recycled polystyrene beads to a cement paste improves its hygro-thermal properties. Further studies are however necessary to better understand the real role of the polystyrene beads in the heat and mass transfers.

  19. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Yassine, Omar; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20

  20. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids by PNA hybridization directed co-localization of fluorescent beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    )avidin-coated fluorescent beads, differing in size and color [green beads (1 µm) and red beads (5.9 µm)], thereby allowing distinct detection of each PNA probe by conventional fluorescence microscopy. These two PNA beads showed easily detectable co-localization when simultaneously hybridizing to a target nucleic acid...

  2. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  3. Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.

  4. Bioethanol Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilised St1 Yeast System: Effects of Size of Beads, Ratio and Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masniroszaime Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized yeast-cell technology posses several advantages in bioethanol production due to its potential to increase the ethanol yield by eliminating unit process used. Thus, process expenses in cell recovery and reutilization can be minimised. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of three parameters (substrate concentrations, size of alginate beads and ratio of volume of beads to volume of medium on local isolated yeast (ST1 which immobilized using calcium alginate fermentation system. The most affected ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilised ST1 yeast system were ratio of volume of the beads to the volume of substrate and concentration of LBS. Highest theoretical yield, 78% was obtained in ST1-alginate beads with the size of beads 0.5cm, ratio volume of beads to the volume of LBS media 0.4 and 150g/l concentration of LBS.ABSTRAK: Teknologi sel yis pegun memiliki beberapa kelebihan dalam penghasilan bioetanol kerana ia berpotensi meningkatkan pengeluaran etanol dengan menyingkirkan unit proses yang digunakan. Maka, proses pembiayaan dalam perolehan sel dan penggunaan semula boleh dikurangkan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh tiga parameter (kepekatan substrat, saiz manik alginat dan nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu bahantara ke atas sel tempatan terasing (local isolated yeast (ST1 yang dipegun menggunakan sistem penapaian kalsium alginat. Penghasilan etanol yang paling berkesan dengan menggunakan sistem yis ST1 kalsium alginat-pegun adalah dengan kadar nisbah isipadu manik terhadap isipadu substrat dan kepekatan LBS. Kadar hasil teori tertinggi iaitu 78% didapati menerusi manik alginat-ST1 dengan saiz manik 0.5cm, nisbah isipadu 0.4 terhadap perantara LBS dan kepekatan LBS sebanyak 150g/l. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  6. Usability of human Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for mouse DNA methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needhamsen, Maria; Ewing, Ewoud; Lund, Harald; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Harris, Robert Adam; Kular, Lara; Jagodic, Maja

    2017-11-15

    The advent of array-based genome-wide DNA methylation methods has enabled quantitative measurement of single CpG methylation status at relatively low cost and sample input. Whereas the use of Infinium Human Methylation BeadChips has shown great utility in clinical studies, no equivalent tool is available for rodent animal samples. We examined the feasibility of using the new Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for studying DNA methylation in mouse. In silico, we identified 19,420 EPIC probes (referred as mEPIC probes), which align with a unique best alignment score to the bisulfite converted reference mouse genome mm10. Further annotation revealed that 85% of mEPIC probes overlapped with mm10.refSeq genes at different genomic features including promoters (TSS1500 and TSS200), 1st exons, 5'UTRs, 3'UTRs, CpG islands, shores, shelves, open seas and FANTOM5 enhancers. Hybridization of mouse samples to Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChips showed successful measurement of mEPIC probes and reproducibility between inter-array biological replicates. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of mEPIC probes for data exploration such as hierarchical clustering. Given the absence of cost and labor convenient genome-wide technologies in the murine system, our findings show that the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip platform is suitable for investigation of the mouse methylome. Furthermore, we provide the "mEPICmanifest" with genomic features, available to users of Infinium Human MethylationEPIC arrays for mouse samples.

  7. Commercial glass beads as TLDs in radiotherapy produced by different manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S. M.; Bates, N. M.; Jupp, T.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    While commercial jewellery glass beads offer the basis of novel radiotherapy TL dosimetry (Jafari et al. 2014a,b,c, 2015a,b), detailed study of TL variation is required for the products from various manufacturers. Investigation is made for glass beads from four manufacturers from four countries: China (Rocaille), Japan (Mill Hill), Indonesia (TOHO™) and Czech Republic (Czech). Sample composition was determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray unit coupled to a scanning electron microscope. Values of mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, as a function of photon energy were then calculated for photons of energy 1 keV to 10 MeV, using the National Institute of Standards and Technology XCOM program. Radiation and energy response were determined using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 80 kVp to 6 MV (TPR20/10=0.670). All bead types showed TL to be linear with dose (R2>0.999). Glow curve dosimetric peaks reached a maximum value at 300 °C for the Toho and 290 °C for the Czech and Mill Hill products but was between 200-250 °C for the Rocaille product. Radiation sensitivity following mass normalisation varied within an order of magnitude; Toho samples showed the greatest and Rocaille the least sensitivity. For the Toho, Czech, Rocaille and Mill Hill samples the energy responses at 80 kVp were 5.0, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.3 times that obtained at 6 MV. All four glass bead types offer potential use as TL dosimeters over doses commonly applied in radiotherapy. Energy response variation was <1% at 6 MV but significant variation was found for photon beam energies covering the kV range; careful characterisation is required if use at this range is intended.

  8. Development of simple immunoradiometric assays using avidin coupled to polystyrene beads as a common solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyotsna, N.; Singh, Y.; Chouthkanthiwar, V.; Paradkar, S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the preparation and application of avidin coupled polystyrene beads as a common solid phase for use in immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs). The assay system is based on two matched commercial monoclonal antibodies, of which, the capture antibody is biotinylated using biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the detection antibody is radiolabeled with 125 I by conventional Chloramine-T method. Avidin was immobilized on the polystyrene beads through a primary coat of bovine serum albumin using glutaraldhyde activation method. Various factors, such as concentration of reagents, incubation time, etc. were optimised to obtain a simple assay protocol consisting of only two pipetting steps, namely, that of a mixture of the two labelled antibodies (radiolabelled and biotinylated) and of the standard or sample. The advantage of the Avidin-Biotin system is the improved sensitivity, economy of antibody and the possibility to use a common solid phase in assays for different analytes. Using the polystyrene beads along with the novel decanting device, it has been possible to achieve the convenience of the 'coated-tube' technology without the expensive automation necessary for large scale preparation of antibody coated tubes. This protocol has been successfully applied to Prolactin, LH and FSH assays. The sensitivity of the Prolactin assay is 8μIU/mL (0.3 ng/mL), that of the FSH assay is 1mIU/mL and that of the LH assay is 0.9 mIU/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations were <10%. Shelf life of the avidin coupled beads was found to be about 8 months and that of the biotin labelled antibodies up to 18 months. (author)

  9. Effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Iori; Sato, Keigo; Mera, Hisashi; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2017-06-01

    With the aim to utilize human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown in large scale for regenerative medicine, effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of hMSCs were studied. hMSCs could attach and grew on surface-type microcarriers of Cytodex 1, whereas almost no cell elongation and growth were observed on porous type microcarriers of Cytopores. The percentages of aggregated Cytodex 1 microcarriers at an agitation rate of 60 and 90 rpm were lower than that at 30 rpm, which was the lowest agitation rate necessary for the suspension of Cytodex 1 microcarriers, and the cells grew fastest at 60 rpm. hMSC could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by the beads-to-beads method at both 30 and 60 rpm without trypsinization. However, agitation at 60 rpm resulted in a markedly lower percentage of aggregated microcarriers not only before but also after subcultivation. The percentages of CD90- and CD166-positive cells among cells grown on Cytodex 1 at 60 rpm (91.5 and 87.6 %) were comparable to those of cells grown in the pre-culture on dishes. In conclusion, hMSCs could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by beads-to-beads method maintaining the expressions of the cell surface antigens CD90 and CD166, while adjusting agitation rate could decrease the microcarrier aggregation.

  10. Development of colonic 5-ASA beads

    OpenAIRE

    Iruín Nazabal, Ana; Fernández Arévalo, María Mercedes; Álvarez Fuentes, Josefa; Holgado Villafuerte, María Ángeles

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies prove that the number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease is increasing all over the world due to contamination, industrialization and changes in the style of live. Some studies have shown that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), an anti-inflammatory agent, must be the election treatment for these pathologies. In recent years, the production of microparticles systems seems to be equally promising to develop dosage forms in order to reduce the dosage frequency (1...

  11. Diffusion of Acetic Acid Across Oil/Water Interface in Emulsification-Internal Gelation Process for Preparation of Alginate Gel Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-dong; YU Wei-ting; LIN Jun-zhang; MA Xiao-jun; YUAN Quan

    2007-01-01

    Alginate has been widely used in cell microencapsulation and drug delivery systems in the form of gel beads or microcapsules. Although an alternative novel emulsification-internal gelation technology has been established and both the properties and the potential applications of the beads in drug delivery systems have been studied, the mechanism has not been well understood compared with the traditional droplet method( external gelation technology). On the basis of our previous knowledge that the novel technology is composed of complicatedly consecutive processes with multistep diffusion and re action, and the diffusion of acetic acid across oil/water interface being the prerequisite that determines the occurrence and rate for the reactions and the structures and properties of final produced gel beads, a special emphasis was placed on the diffusion process. With the aid of diffusion modeling and simple experimental design, the diffusion rate constant and diffusion coefficient of acetic acid across oil/water interface were determined to be in the orders of magnitude of 10-6 and 10-16, respectively. This knowledge will be of particular importance in understanding and interpreting the formation, structure of the gel beads and the relationship between the structure and properties and guiding the preparation and quality control of the gel beads.

  12. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  13. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  14. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  15. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Use of antibiotic beads to salvage infected breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Rami D; Ingargiola, Michael; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-10-01

    When an implant becomes infected, implant salvage is often performed where the implant is removed, capsulectomy is performed, and a new implant is inserted. The patient is discharged with a PICC line and 6-8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. This method has variable success and subjects the patient to long-term systemic antibiotics. In the 1960s, the use of antibiotic-impregnated beads for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was described. These beads deliver antibiotic directly to the site of the infection, thereby eliminating the complications of systemic IV antibiotics. This study aimed to present a case series illustrating the use of STIMULAN calcium sulfate beads loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin to increase the rate of salvage of the infected implant and forgo IV antibiotics. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who were treated at Mount Sinai Hospital for implant infection with salvage and antibiotic beads. Twelve patients were identified, 10 of whom had breast cancer. Comorbidities included hypertension, smoking, and immunocompromised status. Infections were noted anywhere from 5 days to 8 years postoperatively. Salvage was successful in 9 out of the 12 infected implants using antibiotic bead therapy without home IV antibiotics. The use of antibiotic beads is promising for salvaging infected breast implants without IV antibiotics. Seventy-five percent of the implants were successfully salvaged. Of the three patients who had unsalvageable implants, one was infected with antibiotic-resistant Rhodococcus that was refractory to bead therapy and one was noncompliant with postoperative instructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  18. A general method for bead-enhanced quantitation by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Martin; Jaensson, Elin A.; Orozco, Aaron F.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Corry, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry provides accurate relative cellular quantitation (percent abundance) of cells from diverse samples, but technical limitations of most flow cytometers preclude accurate absolute quantitation. Several quantitation standards are now commercially available which, when added to samples, permit absolute quantitation of CD4+ T cells. However, these reagents are limited by their cost, technical complexity, requirement for additional software and/or limited applicability. Moreover, few studies have validated the use of such reagents in complex biological samples, especially for quantitation of non-T cells. Here we show that addition to samples of known quantities of polystyrene fluorescence standardization beads permits accurate quantitation of CD4+ T cells from complex cell samples. This procedure, here termed single bead-enhanced cytofluorimetry (SBEC), was equally capable of enumerating eosinophils as well as subcellular fragments of apoptotic cells, moieties with very different optical and fluorescent characteristics. Relative to other proprietary products, SBEC is simple, inexpensive and requires no special software, suggesting that the method is suitable for the routine quantitation of most cells and other particles by flow cytometry. PMID:17067632

  19. Equality in Sport for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadelmann, Patricia L.; And Others

    The subject of equal rights and opportunities for women in the field of physical education is discussed in nine articles. The major emphasis is on the legal aspects of sex discrimination. Defining equality, knowing the laws regarding enforcement, understanding the court procedures, and realizing the avenues for change are the essential tools…

  20. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  1. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  2. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  3. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hee Chul; Jang, Bohyun; Song, Myeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used standard treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not suitable candidates for curative treatments. The rationale for TACE is that intra-arterial chemotherapy using lipiodol and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by selective vascular embolization, results in a strong cytotoxic effect as well as ischemia (conventional TACE). Recently, drug-eluting beads (DC Beads®) have been developed for transcatheter treatment of HCC to deliver higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent and to prolong contact time with the tumor. DC Beads® can actively sequester doxorubicin hydrochloride from solution and release it in a controlled sustained fashion. Treatment with DC Beads® substantially reduced the amount of chemotherapeutic agent that reached the systemic circulation compared with conventional, lipiodol-based regimens, significantly reducing drug-related adverse events. In this article, we describe the treatment response, survival, and safety of TACE used with drug-eluting beads for the treatment of HCC and discuss future therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833376

  4. Surface imprinted beads for the recognition of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F; Speghini, Adolfo; Bossi, Alessandra

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of poly-aminophenylboronic acid (ABPA) imprinted beads for the recognition of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) is reported. In order to create homogeneous recognition sites, covalent immobilisation of the template HSA was exploited. The resulting imprinted beads were selective for HSA. The indirect imprinting factor (IF) calculated from supernatant was 1.6 and the direct IF, evaluated from the protein recovered from the beads, was 1.9. The binding capacity was 1.4 mg/g, which is comparable to commercially available affinity materials. The specificity of the HSA recognition was evaluated with competitive experiments, indicating a molar ratio 4.5/1 of competitor was necessary to displace half of the bound HSA. The recognition and binding of the imprinted beads was also tested with a complex sample, human serum and targeted removal of HSA without a loss of the other protein components was demonstrated. The easy preparation protocol of derivatised beads and a good protein recognition properties make the approach an attractive solution to analytical and bio-analytical problems in the field of biotechnology.

  5. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  6. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by aliginate beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Jian Long [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yizhou [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian (China)

    2017-04-15

    The adsorption of uranium (VI) by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI) adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI), and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI) by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI) onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  7. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  9. Equal opportunities group. His mission : accelerating equal opportunities at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    L. to r.: Michel Mayoud, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz, the Equal Opportunities Officer Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill, Elena Wildner, Anne-Sylvie Cerne, Karl-Heinz Kissler, the Chairman John Ellis and Eva-Maria Groniger-Voss

  10. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  11. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  12. Bead-based screening in chemical biology and drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    libraries for early drug discovery. Among the various library forms, the one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library, where each bead carries many copies of a single compound, holds the greatest potential for the rapid identification of novel hits against emerging drug targets. However, this potential has not yet...... been fully realized due to a number of technical obstacles. In this feature article, we review the progress that has been made towards bead-based library screening and applications to the discovery of bioactive compounds. We identify the key challenges of this approach and highlight key steps needed......High-throughput screening is an important component of the drug discovery process. The screening of libraries containing hundreds of thousands of compounds requires assays amanable to miniaturisation and automization. Combinatorial chemistry holds a unique promise to deliver structural diverse...

  13. The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Utami, Safira; Hamdani, Herman; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Praseptiangga, Danar; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to produce fine chitosan particles from a crab shell waste by beads-milling method by two different concentration of PEG as dispersing agent (150 and 300 wt. %). The characterization was performed to obtain the size and size distribution, the characteristics of functional groups and the degree of deacetylation. The results showed that the chitosan fine particles was obtained with a milling time 120 minutes with the best concentration of PEG 400 150 wt. %. The average particle size of the as-prepared suspension is 584 nm after addition of acetic acid solution (1%, v/v). Beads milling process did not change the glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine content on chitosan structure which is indicated by degree of deacetylation higher than 70%. It was concluded that beads milling process can be applied to prepare chitosan fineparticles by proper adjustment in the milling time, pH and dosage of dispersing agent.

  14. Development of multifunctional chitosan beads for fluoride removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Sairam Sundaram, C. [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609 609, Puducherry (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-08-15

    Chitosan beads (CB) which have negligible defluoridation capacity (DC) have been chemically modified by introducing multifunctional groups, viz., NH{sub 3}{sup +} and COOH groups by means of protonation and carboxylation in order to utilize both amine and hydroxyl groups for fluoride removal. The protonated cum carboxylated chitosan beads (PCCB) showed a maximum DC of 1800 mg F{sup -}/kg whereas raw chitosan beads displayed only 52 mg F{sup -}/kg. Sorption process was found to be independent of pH and slightly influenced in the presence of other common anions. The fluoride sorption on modified forms was reasonably explained by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorbents were characterised by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The suitability of PCCB has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  15. Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronagh Byrne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The (inequality issues facing disabled people are extensive and long-enduring. The way(s in which equality is conceptualised has important consequences for understandings of disability. The ambiguity of what I call dis-equality theory is two-fold; the apparent failure of mainstream equality theorising in, firstly, embracing disability concepts at all, and secondly, in fully incorporating the logistics of disability, particularly in relation to the social construction of such. Practices of institutional and more complex forms of discrimination are part of those deeper structures of domination and oppression which maintain disabled people in positions of disadvantage. Everyday practices, in the ‘ordinary order of things’ (Bourdieu, 2000, continue to be misrecognised as natural and taken for granted. This article critically explores the complexity of dis-equality theorising utilising a Bourdieusian lens which explicitly incorporates complex and subtle forms of discrimination, and by examining the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’ approach to equality. I argue that the way forward for dis-equality theorising in today’s rights based era must be one that considers the nuances of the ‘rules of the game’ (Young, 1990 if it is to be effective in challenging the inequalities to which disabled people have long been subject.

  16. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  17. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  18. The Surface Imprinted Polystyrene Beads Prepared via Emulsion Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiang CHENG; Guang Ling PEI; Ling Gang ZENG; Li Yong ZHANG; Chao LIU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the surface imprinted cross-linked polystyrene beads were prepared via suspension polymerization with styrene (St), divinylbezene (DVB), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA1788), the mixture of Span 85 and xylene or the mixture of Span 85 and paraffin as monomer, cross-linking agent, dispersion stabilizer and templates, respectively. The results indicate that there are dense cavities on the surface of beads, and the diameter and density of cavity are related with the composition and amount of emulsion template. The forming mechanism of cavity from thermodynamics and dynamics was proposed.

  19. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Intarasiri, S; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  20. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-01-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx∕∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300–600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T∕m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm di...

  1. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  2. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  3. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  4. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  5. Comparison of pre-processing methods for multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Tanja K; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Lüking, Angelika; Zucht, Hans-Dieter; Schulz-Knappe, Peter

    2016-08-11

    High throughput protein expression studies can be performed using bead-based protein immunoassays, such as the Luminex® xMAP® technology. Technical variability is inherent to these experiments and may lead to systematic bias and reduced power. To reduce technical variability, data pre-processing is performed. However, no recommendations exist for the pre-processing of Luminex® xMAP® data. We compared 37 different data pre-processing combinations of transformation and normalization methods in 42 samples on 384 analytes obtained from a multiplex immunoassay based on the Luminex® xMAP® technology. We evaluated the performance of each pre-processing approach with 6 different performance criteria. Three performance criteria were plots. All plots were evaluated by 15 independent and blinded readers. Four different combinations of transformation and normalization methods performed well as pre-processing procedure for this bead-based protein immunoassay. The following combinations of transformation and normalization were suitable for pre-processing Luminex® xMAP® data in this study: weighted Box-Cox followed by quantile or robust spline normalization (rsn), asinh transformation followed by loess normalization and Box-Cox followed by rsn.

  6. Synthesis of potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate encapsulated polymeric beads for extraction of Cs from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagare, Anant B.; Singh, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Manmohan; Shinde, Vaishali S.

    2016-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the major radionuclides formed during the fission of 235 U in nuclear reactors. It is a main source of radiation in High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) generated after the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Separation of Cs from HLLW, decreases radiation exposure throughout the vitrification process and avoids thermal deformation of conditioned waste matrix during storage. Therefore, there is a necessity for selective separation of Cs from HLLW and other such acidic waste streams. The liquid-liquid extraction is widely used as a technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes. Such technologies play an important role in all the bulk separation processes, but they have noticeable limitations, such as difficulty in handling, losses of extractant in aqueous phase, secondary waste generation, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. Due to these limitations it is necessary to explore the advance, more capable and exactly feasible alternatives. In this respect it is assumed that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may resolve some of these limitations. The metal hexacyanoferrates (HCFs) are preferred as Cs extractant over the other materials due to their selectivity and high capacity to remove cesium from aqueous radioactive wastes. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel potasium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoHCF) encapsulated polyether sulphone beads, and its use as a cesium sorbent material

  7. Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads after 5 years of implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, D; van de Belt, H; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    In infected joint arthroplasty, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved through temporary implantation of non-biodegradable gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads. Despite their antibiotic release, these beads act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferentially adhere, grow

  8. Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery in some prominent areas in Ghana is a means to exposing the area for metal and ceramic artists and other related fields of discipline such as aesthetics and criticism to complement their form of ... Keywords: livelihood, vitreous, glass bottles, furnace, threading ...

  9. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  10. Collection Development: From Beads to Bangles (Jewelry Making)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Jewelry making began exploding as a hobby about ten years ago, largely because the flush economy gave individuals more leisure time and disposable income. Jewelry classes, bead stores, and special events have multiplied like craft shows at Christmas time. While the recent economic downturn has slowed the growth of the hobby, it is still as popular…

  11. Evaluation of double drop beads pavement edge lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Double Drop Bead (DDB) edge lines used on ALDOT-maintained highways. It compares DDB to three other pavement marking types in terms of service lives, life-cycle costs, and both dry-night retroreflectivity and wet...

  12. Superparamagnetic beads in rotating magnetic fields: microfluidic experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Toonder, J.M.J.; Bokdam, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Mason number, ratio of viscous and magnetic force, on suspended superparamagnetic micro sized beads was investigated experimentally. Microfluidic experiments were performed in a set-up that generates a rotating homogeneous magnetic field. In the presence of a magnetic field, the

  13. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  14. Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris cells in repeated lead adsorption/desorption cycles. Alginate beads and immobilized with algal cells were more effective and suitable than free cells. Consistently high lead removal (>90%) and recovery (about 100%) were achieved. Lead adsorption was mainly ...

  15. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. ... engine will not be transformed into the motion of the vehicle. It provides the only point of contact between ..... Popular Mechanic 162 (6): 62. http://books.google.

  16. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  17. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  18. Ionically crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Fe 3+ crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. ► Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. ► AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. ► Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe 3+ -crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe 3+ ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  19. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  20. Influence of Immobilized Biomolecules on Magnetic Bead Plug Formation and Retention in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken, Rachel L.; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes in the formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs in a capillary during electrophoresis were studied, and it was demonstrated that these effects were due to the type of biological molecule immobilized on the surface of these beads. Three biological molecules, an antibody, an oligonucleotide and alkaline phosphatase, were attached to otherwise identical streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-avidin binding in order to isolate differences in bead immobilization in a magnetic field resulting from the type of biological molecule immobilized on the bead surface. Alkaline phosphatase also was attached to the magnetic beads using epoxy groups on the bead surfaces (instead of avidin-biotin binding) to study the impact of immobilization chemistry. The formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs were studied quantitatively using light scattering detection of magnetic particles eluting from the bead plugs and qualitatively using microscopy. Both the type of biomolecule immobilized on the magnetic bead surface and the chemistry used to link the biomolecule to the magnetic bead impacted the formation and retention of the bead plugs. PMID:22437880

  1. Magnetization of large polystyrene peptide beads for capturing and expanding cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Jan; Lau, D.H.; Song Aimin; Wang Xiaobing; Liu Ruiwu; Lam, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described for preparation of large magnetic polystyrene beads coupled with peptide ligands for surface receptors of lung cancer cells. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using these magnetic peptide beads for capturing and enriching lung cancer cells spiked into blood. These magnetic peptide beads potentially can be used to efficiently isolate cancer cells from body fluids

  2. DTDGA impregnated XAD-16 beads for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Kanagare, Anant B.; Bairwa, K.K.; Manmohan Kumar; Bajaj, Parma N.; Ruhela, Ritesh; Singh, Ajoy K.; Hubli, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study DTDGA extractant impregnated XAD16 polymeric beads (DTDGA- XAD16) were synthesized by wet chemical method and the beads were characterized by various techniques viz. FT-IR, Optical microscopy, SEM and TGA. The DTDGA-XAD 16 beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from high level waste solutions (HLW)

  3. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  4. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  5. Thermoelectric Cooling-Aided Bead Geometry Regulation in Wire and Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and arc-based additive manufacturing (WAAM is a rapidly developing technology which employs a welding arc to melt metal wire for additive manufacturing purposes. During WAAM of thin-walled structures, as the wall height increases, the heat dissipation to the substrate is slowed down gradually and so is the solidification of the molten pool, leading to variation of the bead geometry. Though gradually reducing the heat input via adjusting the process parameters can alleviate this issue, as suggested by previous studies, it relies on experience to a large extent and inevitably sacrifices the deposition rate because the wire feed rate is directly coupled with the heat input. This study introduces for the first time an in-process active cooling system based on thermoelectric cooling technology into WAAM, which aims to eliminate the difference in heat dissipation between upper and lower layers. The case study shows that, with the aid of thermoelectric cooling, the bead width error is reduced by 56.8%, the total fabrication time is reduced by 60.9%, and the average grain size is refined by 25%. The proposed technique provides new insight into bead geometry regulation during WAAM with various benefits in terms of geometric accuracy, productivity, and microstructure.

  6. Process and device for fabrication of ice beads and application to abrasive blasting with ice beads for surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnier, M.; Manificat, A.; Perroud, P.

    1989-01-01

    A device is described for cleaning and decontamination by abrasive blasting with ice beads. It comprises a water injector, with many holes, at the top of a column feeded with cold gas where solidification of water droplets begins, solidification is completed in a cooling liquids, ice is extracted by a screw and pushed to the projection nozzle with cold gas [fr

  7. Direct identification of on-bead peptides using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic barcoding system for high-throughput bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Koh, Yul; Geun Cha, Myeong; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kyeong, San; Kim, Jaehi; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Chang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyunmi; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kim, Jong-Ho; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Hong Jeong, Dae; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-05-28

    Recently, preparation and screening of compound libraries remain one of the most challenging tasks in drug discovery, biomarker detection, and biomolecular profiling processes. So far, several distinct encoding/decoding methods such as chemical encoding, graphical encoding, and optical encoding have been reported to identify those libraries. In this paper, a simple and efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) barcoding method using highly sensitive SERS nanoparticles (SERS ID) is presented. The 44 kinds of SERS IDs were able to generate simple codes and could possibly generate more than one million kinds of codes by incorporating combinations of different SERS IDs. The barcoding method exhibited high stability and reliability under bioassay conditions. The SERS ID encoding based screening platform can identify the peptide ligand on the bead and also quantify its binding affinity for specific protein. We believe that our SERS barcoding technology is a promising method in the screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries for drug discovery.

  8. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  9. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  10. Strategies for enumeration of circulating microvesicles on a conventional flow cytometer: Counting beads and scatter parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Enjeti, Anoop K; Baqar, Sara; Ekinci, Elif I; Liu, Dorothy; Thorne, Rick F; Lincz, Lisa F

    2018-01-01

    Enumeration of circulating microvesicles (MVs) by conventional flow cytometry is accomplished by the addition of a known amount of counting beads and calculated from the formula: MV/μl = (MV count/bead count) × final bead concentration. We sought to optimize each variable in the equation by determining the best parameters for detecting 'MV count' and examining the effects of different bead preparations and concentrations on the final calculation. Three commercially available bead preparations (TruCount, Flow-Count and CountBright) were tested, and MV detection on a BD FACSCanto was optimized for gating by either forward scatter (FSC) or side scatter (SSC); the results were compared by calculating different subsets of MV on a series of 74 typical patient plasma samples. The relationship between the number of beads added to each test and the number of beads counted by flow cytometry remained linear over a wide range of bead concentrations ( R 2 ≥ 0.997). However, TruCount beads produced the most consistent (concentration variation = 3.8%) calculated numbers of plasma CD41 + /Annexin V + MV, which were significantly higher from that calculated using either Flow-Count or CountBright ( p beads by FSC and 0.16 μm beads by SSC, but there were significantly more background events using SSC compared with FSC (3113 vs. 470; p = 0.008). In general, sample analysis by SSC resulted in significantly higher numbers of MV ( p beads provided linear results at concentrations ranging from 6 beads/μl to 100 beads/μl, but TruCount was the most consistent. Using SSC to gate MV events produced high background which negatively affected counting bead enumeration and overall MV calculations. Strategies to reduce SSC background should be employed in order to reliably use this technique.

  11. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…

  12. Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimere, Raphael Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the struggle for teacher salary equalization in Louisiana ended in success, but it was one chapter in a long struggle to gain the full citizenship that black teachers and their pupils dreamed would one day be theirs. (Author/AM)

  13. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  14. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  15. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  16. Comparison of high pressure homogenization and stirred bead milling for the production of nano-crystalline suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakach, Mostafa; Authelin, Jean-René; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Lakkireddy, Harivardhan Reddy

    2018-05-19

    Currently, the two technologies primarily used for the manufacturing of nano-crystalline suspensions using top down process (i.e. wet milling) are high pressure homogenization (HPH) and stirred bead milling (SBM). These two technologies are based upon different mechanisms, i.e., cavitation forces for HPH and shear forces for stirred bead milling. In this article, the HPH and SBM technologies are compared in terms of the impact of the suspension composition the process parameters and the technological configuration on milling performances and physical quality of the suspensions produced. The data suggested that both HPH and SBM are suitable for producing nano-crystalline suspensions, although SBM appeared more efficient than HPH, since the limit of milling (d 50 ) for SBM was found to be lower than that obtained with HPH (100 nm vs 200 nm). For both these technologies, regardless of the process parameters used for milling and the scale of manufacturing, the relationship of d 90 versus d 50 could be described by a unique master curve (technology signature of milling pathway) outlining that the HPH leads to more uniform particle size distribution as compared to SBM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Induced movement of the magnetic beads and DNA-based dumbbell in a micro fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, B.; Ghai, R.; Dimitrov, K.

    2007-12-01

    We have explored controlled movement of magnetic beads and a dumbbell structure composed of DNA, a magnetic and a non-magnetic bead in a micro fluidic channel. Movement of the beads and dumbbells is simulated assuming that a net force is described as a superposition between the magnetic and hydrodynamic drag forces. Trajectories of beads and dumbbells are observed with optical light microscopy. The experimentally measured data show a good agreement with the simulations. This dynamical approach offers the prospect to stretch the DNA within the dumbbell and investigate its conformational changes. Further on, we demonstrate that short sonication can reduce multiple attachments of DNA to the beads.

  18. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  19. Compositional characterization of sintered (U,Th)O2 pellets by EDXRF using fused bead specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, S.; Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Fused bead specimens were used for analyzing sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The bead specimens of calibration mixtures U 3 O 8 and ThO 2 were made by fusing them in Lithium Tetraborate/Metaborate fusion mixtures using a fusion bead machine. The EDXRF spectra of these beads were used for making calibration plot for U% determination in (U+Th) amounts. Using these calibration plots and EDXRF spectra of bead of sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets, U% in these pellets was successfully determined. (author)

  20. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of removal characteristics for uranium by immobilization of diphosil powder into alginate bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. J.; Kang, I. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical wastes containing small amounts of uranium can not be disposed of them as industrial wastes. Especially for the removal of uranium, In this study, the method of immobilizing Diphosil powder within alginate beads is adopted to make a bead from powdered resin. Sodium alginate bead itself showed a capability to uptake uranium to above 60%, but the value was decreased to below 30% after equilibrium. The rate of uranium adsorption increased with increasing content of Diphosil in sodium alginate bead. Diphosil resin itself showed very fast uptake of uranium from early stages, and then the rates were leveled off. Diphosil bead showed a improved capability to uptake uranium considering Diphosil content in the bead, and a considerable potential for further applications of a continuous process by using a bead form of Diphosil

  2. Separation of yttrium using carbon nanotube doped polymeric beads impregnated with D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid impregnated polyethersulfone based composite beads in combination with additives such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been prepared by non-solvent phase inversion method. The synthesized beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. Effect of additives on bead morphology, solvent impregnation capacity, extractability and stability has been examined to compare their suitability for yttrium recovery from acidic medium. Microstructural investigation as well as experimental findings confirmed the role of additives in modifying the pore structures in beads, responsible for varied degree of yttrium extraction. Further the role of metal ion concentration in aqueous phase on its recovery by polymeric beads was also evaluated. Among the tested beads PES/D2EHPA/MWCNT/PVA beads were found to be superior for Y(Ill) extraction. (author)

  3. Bead Capture and Release on a Magnetic Sensor in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.

    Planar Hall effect magnetic sensors for detection of biological agents using surface treated magnetic beads are integrated with a fluid injection system. The response of the sensors is used to evaluate bead capture rates for different bead concentrations c and fluid flow rates Q, and to monitor...... subsequent removal of the beads. It is found that the capture rate scales directly with c and that it depends linearly on Q. At low Q the capture rate is only partially due to gravitational sedimentation of beads. At higher Q an additional term proportional to Q becomes important, which is attributed...... to capture of beads by the magnetic fields near the sensor. It is shown that beads can be washed off the sensor surface....

  4. On the occurrence of ‘bead lightning’ phenomena in long laboratory sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayanganie, S.P.A., E-mail: amilavayanganie@gmail.com [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Cooray, V.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hettiarachchi, Pasan; Diaz, Oscar [Lightning Research Group, The Ångström Laboratory Division of Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernando, M. [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka)

    2016-02-22

    The formation of bead lightning, where the lightning channel appears to break up into luminous fragments, is still an object of speculation. Here we report similar observations in laboratory discharges. Analysis of time resolved photographs shows that the discharge channel exhibits a ‘bead pattern’ in the decaying stage of the discharge and the occurrence of loops in the channel sections where the bead pattern is observed. This result presents the first evidence that the rapid cooling of non-uniform channel sections could lead to the formation of beads. It is suggested that periodically occurring non-uniform channel sections could explain the bead pattern of lightning discharges. - Highlights: • For the first time, the occurrence of bead patterns in the channel of laboratory sparks was reported. • Depending on the geometry some regions of the channel decays faster than the other sections. • A possible mechanism for the occurrence of beads in decaying states of lightning flashes is proposed.

  5. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karklins, K.; Kottman, J.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.-F.; Aufreiter, S.; Kenyon, I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic Beads For Teaching Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic beads (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic beads function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.

  7. Methodological Study of Cell Separation with Domestic Immunomagnetic Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To establish the method of cell separation with domestic immuomagnetic beads, three methods were investigated. Direct method, SPA method and Biotin-Avidin method were applied to separate cell strain Hut-78 and CD4 positive cells. Separation rate of strain Hut-78 was more than 90 % in direct method. Detachment rate with papain was over 95 %. Cell activity was well retained. SPA method and Biotin-Avidin methods were also effective, but the direct method was superior to the other two techniques. Before separated by the direct method, CD4 positive cells constituted 46.4 %±6.4 % of mononuclear cells (MNC), but in eliminated suspension there was only 6.2 %±2.3 % CD4 positive cells left. In the separated part, 80.6 %±7.2 % of the cells combined with the beads. It is concluded that the direct method in separating cells had high sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Bead perturbation measurement for the KEK linac cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Shoji; Swenson, D.A.

    1975-03-01

    The axial electric field in the KEK linac cavity is measured by a bead perturbation method. The beat signal of around 1 kHz is generated with the rf signals from the cavity in self-excitation and from a signal generator whose output frequency is fixed. The period of the beat signal is measured by a counter in order to detect the small change in the resonant frequency of the cavity due to a bead perturbation. The counting data are transferred to a mini-computer after each period of the beat signal. The average fields of each gap are calculated in the computer and they are displayed on a storage oscilloscope. It takes about 50 seconds to complete the whole process of the measurement. The measuring system and the results obtained are described in this paper. (auth.)

  9. Plasticity of an Amorphous Assembly of Elastic Gel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, D.; Knaebel, A.; Lequeux, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the rheological properties of an assembly of swollen gel beads in a lack of solvent. The system is an amorphous assembly of packed soft spheres in a given volume. We have studied the plastic behavior of the system, and interpreted it in terms of bead rearrangements within the assembly. Nous avons étudié les propriétés rhéologiques d'un assemblage de billes de gel gonflées en défaut de solvant. Le système est donc une assemblée amorphe de sphères molles écrasées à volume total constant. Nous avons étudié divers aspects du comportement plastique et nous l'avons interprété en termes de réorganisations de billes dans l'assemblage.

  10. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Beads-Synthesis, Evaluation and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tongchang

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptors designed for the selective recognition of template molecules. These polymers have been applied in analytical separations, as chemical sensors and in drug delivery system due to their low cost and high stability. In recent years MIP beads, especially those with good selectivity in aqueous solution, have become attractive as they can be potentially used as selective adsorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) and chromatographic...

  11. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  13. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  14. Nearly equal β* at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.; Billing, M.; Krishnagopal, S.; Rubin, D.; Siemann, R.; Welch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β * ) can produce tune shifts of 0.1 and very large luminosities. Further simulations show the same large vertical tune shifts even with very different horizontal and vertical emittances. Using a special CESR lattice with β h * = 32 cm, β v * = 20 cm, and zero horizontal and vertical dispersion at the interaction point, the author authors collided beams with horizontal emittance of 136 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad. There were experimental complications involving the damping partition numbers, a near miss at a parasitic crossing point, and small orbit offsets at the main collision point. They have done a detailed analysis of these complications and discuss their effects on the observed saturated tune shift of 0.045 ± 0.010

  15. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Jose R., E-mail: correa@fq.uh.cu [Department of General Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Bordallo, Eduardo [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Canetti, Dora [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Leon, Vivian [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Otero-Diaz, Luis C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Negro, Carlos [Chemical Engineering Department, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gomez, Adrian [Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Saez-Puche, Regino [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l{sup -1} with ammonia at 25 and 70 {sup o}C. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  16. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, H; Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥106 were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S21 transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the...

  17. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZLAN Kamari; WAN SAIME Wan Ngah; LAI KEN Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively higher than chitosan-EGDE for both acid dyes. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.

  18. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  19. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  20. Standardization of a cytometric p24-capture bead-assay for the detection of main HIV-1 subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbah, Mélanie; Onkar, Sayali; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Vanpouille, Christophe; Biancotto, Angélique; Bonar, Lydia; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Kijak, Gustavo; Michael, Nelson; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence

    2016-04-01

    The prevailing method to assess HIV-1 replication and infectivity is to measure the production of p24 Gag protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since fluorescent bead-based technologies offer a broader dynamic range and higher sensitivity, this study describes a p24 capture Luminex assay capable of detecting HIV-1 subtypes A-D, circulating recombinant forms (CRF) CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, which together are responsible for over 90% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. The success of the assay lies in the identification and selection of a cross-reactive capture antibody (clone 183-H12-5C). Fifty-six isolates that belonged to six HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were successfully detected with p-values below 0.021; limits of detection ranging from 3.7 to 3 × 104 pg/ml. The intra- and inter-assay variation gave coefficient of variations below 6 and 14%, respectively. The 183-bead Luminex assay also displayed higher sensitivity of 91% and 98% compared to commercial p24 ELISA and a previously described Luminex assay. The p24 concentrations measured by the 183-bead Luminex assay showed a significant correlation (R=0.92, passay leverages the advantages of the Luminex platform, which include smaller sample volume and simultaneous detection of up to 500 analytes in a single sample, and delivers a valuable tool for the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  2. Detection of HLA Antibodies in Organ Transplant Recipients – Triumphs and Challenges of the Solid Phase Bead Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines the development of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody detection assays and their use in organ transplantation in both antibody screening and crossmatching. The development of sensitive solid phase assays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, and in particular the bead-based technology has revolutionized this field over the last 10–15 years. This revolution however has created a new paradigm in clinical decision making with respect to the detection of low level pretransplant HLA sensitization and its clinical relevance. The relative sensitivities of the assays used are discussed and the relevance of conflicting inter-assay results. Each assay has its advantages and disadvantages and these are discussed. Over the last decade, the bead-based assay utilizing the Luminex® fluorocytometer instrument has become established as the “gold standard” for HLA antibody testing. However, there are still unresolved issues surrounding this technique, such as the presence of denatured HLA molecules on the beads which reveal cryptic epitopes and the issue of appropriate fluorescence cut off values for positivity. The assay has been modified to detect complement binding (CB) in addition to non-complement binding (NCB) HLA antibodies although the clinical relevance of the CB and NCB IgG isotypes is not fully resolved. The increase sensitivity of the Luminex® bead assay over the complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch has permitted the concept of the “virtual crossmatch” whereby the crossmatch is predicted to a high degree of accuracy based on the HLA antibody specificities detected by the solid phase assay. Dialog between clinicians and laboratory staff on an individual patient basis is essential for correct clinical decision making based on HLA antibody results obtained by the various techniques. PMID:28018342

  3. Universal approach for selective trace metal determinations via sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve using renewable hydrophobic bead surfaces as reagent carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    involves the use of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) beads containing pendant octadecyl moieties (C18-PS/DVB), which are preimpregnated with a selective organic metal chelating agent prior to the automatic manipulation of the beads in the microbore conduits of the LOV unit. By adapting this approach...

  4. Preparation of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Beads Under Microwave Irradiation and Properties of Urease Immobilized onto the Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zupei; FENG Yaqing; MENG Shuxian; ZHANG Weihong

    2005-01-01

    The glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads were prepared under microwave irradiation and urease was immobilized onto the beads. The activity and the yield of enzyme activity of the immobilized urease were 10.83 U/g carrier and 47.7%, respectively. The optimum conditions of immobilization were 1% of glutaraldehyde volume fraction, 10 mg/g of urease/beads weight ratio, 24 h of the processing time and pH 6.5 of the reaction medium for immobilization. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and compared with those of the free enzyme. The optimum pH values were 6.5 and 7.0 for the immobilized and free urease, respectively. The optimum temperature was 60 ℃ for the free urease, while it shifted to 65 ℃ for the immobilized enzyme. The Michaelis constant K m was 9.1 mmol/L for the immobilized and 12.5 mmol/L for the free urease. The immobilized urease retained 40% of its initial enzyme activity even after 10 repeated uses. The immobilized urease stored at 4 ℃ retained 46% of its initial activity even after 35 d.

  5. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B., E-mail: hpaula@ufc.br [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S. [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  6. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B.; Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10 -15 m 2 /s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  7. On-chip immunomagnetic separation of bacteria by in-flow dynamic manipulation of paramagnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakil; Noh, Jong Wook; Hoyland, James; de Oliveira Hansen, Roana; Erdmann, Helmut; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2016-11-01

    Every year, millions of people all over the world fall ill due to the consumption of unsafe food, where consumption of contaminated and spoiled animal origin product is the main cause for diseases due to bacterial growth. This leads to an intense need for efficient methods for detection of food-related bacteria. In this work, we present a method for integration of immunomagnetic separation of bacteria into microfluidic technology by applying an alternating magnetic field, which manipulates the paramagnetic beads into a sinusoidal path across the whole microchannel, increasing the probability for bacteria capture. The optimum channel geometry, flow rate and alternating magnetic field frequency were investigated, resulting in a capture efficiency of 68 %.

  8. Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

    2001-09-15

    We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

  9. Elution of Clindamycin and Enrofloxacin From Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Beads In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Heidi; Boothe, Dawn M; Bennett, R Avery

    2015-11-01

    To compare the in vitro elution characteristics of clindamycin and enrofloxacin from calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads containing a single antibiotic, both antibiotics, and each antibiotic incubated in the same eluent well. Experimental in vitro study. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads were formed by mixing with clindamycin and/or enrofloxacin to create 4 study groups: (1) 160 mg clindamycin/10 beads; (2) 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; (3) 160 mg clindamycin + 160 mg enrofloxacin/10 beads; and (4) 160 mg clindamycin/5 beads and 160 mg enrofloxacin/5 beads. Chains of beads were formed in triplicate and placed in 5 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4 and room temperature) with constant agitation. Antibiotic-conditioned PBS was sampled at 14 time points from 1 hour to 30 days. Clindamycin and enrofloxacin concentrations in PBS were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Eluent concentrations from clindamycin-impregnated beads failed to remain sufficiently above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for common infecting bacteria over the study period. Enrofloxacin eluent concentrations remained sufficiently above MIC for common wound pathogens of dogs and cats and demonstrated an atypical biphasic release pattern. No significant differences in elution occurred as a result of copolymerization of the antibiotics into a single bead or from individual beads co-eluting in the same eluent well. Clindamycin-impregnated beads cannot be recommended for treatment of infection at the studied doses; however, use of enrofloxacin-impregnated beads may be justified when susceptible bacteria are cultured. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Comparison of four supports for adsorption of reactive dyes by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-e; HU Yong-you

    2007-01-01

    Four materials, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and chitosan (CTS), were prepared as supports for entrapping fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The adsorption of synthetic dyes, reactive brilliant blue KN-R, and reactive brilliant red K-2BP, by these immobilized gel beads and plain gel beads was evaluated. The adsorption efficiencies of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by CTS immobilized beads were 89.1% and 93.5% in 12 h, respectively. The adsorption efficiency by Na-CMC immobilized beads was slightly lower than that of mycelial pellets. But the dye culture mediums were almost completely decolorized in 48 h using the above-mentioned two immobilized beads (exceeding 95%). The adsorption efficiency by SA immobilized beads exceeded 92% in 48 h. PVA-SA immobilized beads showed the lowest adsorption efficiency, which was 79.8% for reactive brilliant red K-2BP and 92.5% for reactive brilliant blue KN-R in 48 h. Comparing the adsorption efficiency by plain gel beads, Na-CMC plain gel beads ranked next to CTS ones. SA and PVA-SA plain gel beads hardly had the ability of adsorbing dyes. Subsequently, the growth of mycelia in Na-CMC and SA immobilized beads were evaluated. The biomass increased continuously in 72 h. The adsorption capacity of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by Na-CMC immobilized beads was 78.0 and 86.7 mg/g, respectively. The SEM micrographs show that the surface structure of Na-CMC immobilized bead is loose and finely porous, which facilitates diffusion of the dyes.

  11. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  12. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  13. Safeguards Analytical Laboratory evaluation program. Part 1. Resin bead mass spectrometry. Part 2. Results of a resin bead field experiment-Tastex-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.; Smith, D.H.; Carter, J.A.; Musick, W.R.; Donohue, D.L.; Deron, S.; Asakura, Y.; Kagami, K.; Irinouchi, S.; Masui, J.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this report covers background of resin bead spectrometry and the new batch resin bead method. In the original technique, about ten anion resin beads in the nitrate form were exposed to the diluted sample solution. The solution was adjusted to be a 8 M HNO 3 and to have about 1 μg U per bead. Up to 48 hours of static contact between beads and solution was required for adsorption of 1 to 3 ng Pu and U per bead to be achieved. Under these conditions, contamination was a problem at reprocessing facilities. The new batch techniques reduces the risk of contamination by handling one hundred times more U in the final diluted sample which is exposed to a proportionately larger number of beads. Moreover, it only requires ten minutes adsorption time to provide about 1000 purified samples for mass spectrometry. The amounts of Pu and U adsorbed versus time were determined and results are tabulated. The second part of this report briefly summarizes results of resin bead field tests completed at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan. Both methods, the original small-sample resin bead and the batch technique, were investigated on spent fuel solutions. Beads were prepared at PNC and distributed to IAEA and ORNL along with dried residues for conventional mass spectrometric analysis at IAEA. Parallel measurements were made at PNC using their normal measuring routines. The U and Pu measurements of all resin and those of PNC are in excellent agreement for the batch method. Discrepancies were noted in the U measurements by the original method

  14. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  15. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  16. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  17. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  18. Blind equalization for underwater communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, K.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Underwater wireless (sensor) networks would vastly improve man's ability to explore and exploit remote aquatic environments. Despite underwater sensor and vehicle technology being relatively mature, underwater communications is still a major challenge. The most challenging characteristics of the

  19. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  20. Magnetic measurements of suspended functionalised ferromagnetic beads under DC applied fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos V, Luis; Llandro, Justin; Lee, Dongwook; Mitrelias, Thanos; Palfreyman, Justin J.; Hayward, Thomas J.; Cooper, Jos; Bland, J.A.C.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.; Arroyo C, Juan L.; Lees, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to obtain the hysteresis loops of magnetic beads (Spherotech Inc.) in liquid suspension is presented. The magnetic measurements were taken in a DC Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS-SQUID sensor). Samples were based on ferromagnetic beads (surface-functionalized NH 2 , mean diameter 4.32 μm) prepared in three conditions: dry, suspended in sucrose solution and in suspension after functionalization with fluorophore. Special small containers (1.3 cm long) made of non magnetic plastic were designed to hold the beads in liquid. The results indicate that the bead's remnant magnetization is half of the value at maximum applied field in all cases. However, due to the additional degrees of rotational freedom, beads suspended in a liquid do not present coercivity. The use of ferromagnetic beads and magnetic elements of different architectures for applications in bioassays is also discussed.

  1. CMOS continuous-time adaptive equalizers for high-speed serial links

    CERN Document Server

    Gimeno Gasca, Cecilia; Aldea Chagoyen, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the design of adaptive equalization solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology for high-speed serial links. Since continuous-time equalizers offer various advantages as an alternative to discrete-time equalizers at multi-gigabit rates, this book provides a detailed description of continuous-time adaptive equalizers design - both at transistor and system levels-, their main characteristics and performances. The authors begin with a complete review and analysis of the state of the art of equalizers for wireline applications, describing why they are necessary, their types, and their main applications. Next, theoretical fundamentals of continuous-time adaptive equalizers are explored. Then, new structures are proposed to implement the different building blocks of the adaptive equalizer: line equalizer, loop-filters, power comparator, etc.  The authors demonstrate the design of a complete low-power, low-voltage, high-speed, continuous-time adaptive equalizer. Finally, a cost-...

  2. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  3. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Withers, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood. Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number of projections for satisfactory TV-regularized reconstruction increased almost linearly with the gradient sparsity. This establishes a quantitative guideline from which one may predict how few projections to acquire based on expected sample sparsity level as an aid in planning of dose- or time-critical experiments. The results are expected to hold for samples of similar characteristics, i.e. consisting of few, distinct phases with relatively simple structure. Such cases are plentiful in porous media, composite materials, foams, as well as non-destructive testing and metrology. For samples of other characteristics the proposed methodology may be used to investigate similar relations.

  4. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim; Lee, Pat M.; Lee, Kong H.

    2008-01-01

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  5. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  6. Equilibrium modeling of mono and binary sorption of Cu(II and Zn(II onto chitosan gel beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaj Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work are in-depth experimental studies of Cu(II and Zn(II ion removal on chitosan gel beads from both one- and two-component water solutions at the temperature of 303 K. The optimal process conditions such as: pH value, dose of sorbent and contact time were determined. Based on the optimal process conditions, equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum sorption capacities equaled: 191.25 mg/g and 142.88 mg/g for Cu(II and Zn(II ions respectively, when the sorbent dose was 10 g/L and the pH of a solution was 5.0 for both heavy metal ions. One-component sorption equilibrium data were successfully presented for six of the most useful three-parameter equilibrium models: Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Koble-Corrigan, Hill and Toth. Extended forms of Langmuir-Freundlich, Koble-Corrigan and Sips models were also well fitted to the two-component equilibrium data obtained for different ratios of concentrations of Cu(II and Zn(II ions (1:1, 1:2, 2:1. Experimental sorption data were described by two kinetic models of the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. Furthermore, an attempt to explain the mechanisms of the divalent metal ion sorption process on chitosan gel beads was undertaken.

  7. Salt and divalent cations affect the flexible nature of the natural beaded chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, J

    1977-01-01

    Cl or 0.6M NaCL, and is compact in 0.01 M NaCl solutions if histone H 1 is present. Even high concentrations of urea did not alter the fundamental beaded structure, consisting of 110A beads of 200 base pair content, each joined by thin DNA bridges of 50 base pairs. The physical bead observed by EM...

  8. Fabrication of micromagnetic beads with molecular recognition/electron-transfer peptides for the sensing of ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu, E-mail: kzsuga@maebashi-it.ac.jp [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan); Kuramitz, Hideki [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan); Shinohara, Hiroki [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Electrochemical sensing of ovalbumin (OVA) was performed using magnetic beads with OVA recognition (RNRCKGTDVQAW)/electron-transfer (YYYYC) peptides. The focus of this study was to construct a highly sensitive and regenerative tool for OVA detection based on the interaction between a protein and peptide-1(RNRCKGTDVQAWYYYYC). The peptide-1 was introduced to the bead through four types of cross-linking reagents. Magnetic beads of different sizes with N-(6-maleimidocaproyloxy)sulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-EMCS) were also prepared. An oxidation peak due to tyrosine residues at 0.65 V depended on the distance of the electron-transfer peptide from the bead surface and on the surface area of the magnetic beads that contacted the electrode surface. The response of the electro-transfer peptide moiety was decreased because the protein was accumulated via the recognition peptide on the beads. When using Sulfo-EMCS and beads that were 6.0–6.9 μm in diameter, the calibration curve of OVA was linear and ranged from 8.0 × 10{sup −13} to 2.0 × 10{sup −11} M. To regenerate the magnetic beads, the measurements were achieved after removal of the OVA using a denaturing reagent. When OVA was added to fetal bovine serum containing a complex matrix, OVA was recovered at a rate of 98–100%. Consequently, these magnetic beads could be a powerful tool for the sensing of OVA in real samples. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin recognition/electron-transfer peptides were immobilized on magnetic beads. • The accumulation of the protein through the peptides on the beads caused the change of electrode response. • The magnetic beads could be reused for sensing of ovalbumin.

  9. [Development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyuan; Chen, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The article describes the development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument. The main application of the instrument is to capture tubercle bacillus from sputum. It is a pretreatment instrument and provides a new platform to help doctors to diagnose bacillary phthisis. Not only could it be used for tubercle bacillus capturing, but also for gene, protein and cell separating and purification. Because the controller of the instrument is 16-bit single chip microcomputer, the cost could be greatly reduced and it will be widely used in China.

  10. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  11. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  12. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  13. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  14. Effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eng-Seng Chan; Tek-Kaun Lim; Wan-Ping Voo; Ravindra Pogaku; Beng Ti Tey; Zhibing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness when compressed at high speed. The alginate beads were formulated using different types and concentrations of alginate and gelling cations and were produced using an extrusiondripping method. Single wet beads were compressed at a speed of 40 mm/min, and their elastic limits were investigated, and the corresponding force versus displacement data were obtained. The Young's moduli of the beads were determined from the force versus displacement data using the Hertz's contact mechanics theory. The alginate beads were found to exhibit plastic behavior when they were compressed beyond 50% with the exception of copper-alginate beads for which yield occured at lower deformation.Alginate beads made of higher guluronic acid contents and gelling cations of higher chemical affinity were found to have greater stiffness. Increasing the concentration of alginate and gelling ions also generated a similar effect. At such a compression speed, the values of Young's modulus of the beads were found to be in the range between 250 and 900 kPa depending on the bead formulation.

  15. Enhancing the antimony sorption properties of nano titania-chitosan beads using epichlorohydrin as the crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2017-07-15

    Antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by USEPA. We have earlier reported the synthesis of nano-titania impregnated epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan (TA-Cts-Epi) beads, in a format suitable for large scale applications with high sorption capacity for antimony. To understand the sorption mechanism, and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinking density on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. Epichlorohydrin effected significant changes in physical and sorption properties of the beads. The antimony sorption capacity of the TA-Cts-Epi beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3g non-crosslinked titania-chitosan beads (TA-Cts-NCL) with 6.4mmol epichlorohydrin was 493μmol/g, while those crosslinked with 0.64mmol showed a capacity of 133μmol/g. Whereas, TA-Cts-NCL beads showed a capacity of 75μmol/g. The increase in uptake capacity with increase in crosslinking demonstrated the active involvement of the epichlorohydrin moieties in antimony binding leading to enhanced sorption. Apart from altering the stability, swelling behaviour and sorption kinetics of the beads, crosslinking significantly increased the uptake of the anionic species via electrostatic interactions. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads prepared without TiO 2 also showed similar behaviour. The results demonstrated the involvement of chitosan, TiO 2 and epichlorohydrin in sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads-the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The bead motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t 0 ) β . Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial bead-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to bead coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and bead size (0.5-4.5 μm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the bead as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of bead internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the bead to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the bead couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the bead size and bead coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller beads and beads coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion complexes (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the bead is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and bead size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after bead addition, smaller beads are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the

  17. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...

  18. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  19. Development of polysulfonic composite beads for extraction and separation of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, K.K.; Singh, D.K.; Singh, H.; Varshney, L.

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extraction technology has been extensively applied to the practical separation of rare earth metals. Among the extractants commonly employed at present, di(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) and 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (PC-88A) are known to have advantages of high separation efficiency for rate earth metals and of low solubility in water. However, separation via solvent extraction requires multistage cycles of extraction and back extraction in order to attain favorable separation. Novel adsorbents such as solvent impregnated resins (SIRS), metal-imprinted polymers and microcapsules containing extractants might have wide applicability due to their characteristics having respective advantages of solvent extraction and the ion-exchange technique. In the present work, polymeric composite material impregnating extractants such as D2EHPA, PC88A and DNPPA were prepared and tested for rare earths recovery from chloride medium. Exploratory tests were conducted with Yttrium (taking as representative of rare earths) to evaluate the suitability of the composite beads having D2EHPA, PC88A and DNPPA. Preparation of beads comprises of following steps. Initially, a polymer solutions containing suitable amount of polymer (5 to 15% with 1% water soluble additive) in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) was prepared. The above prepared solutions were then mixed with organophosphorus type of extractant namely D2EHPA, PC88A and di nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA). This polymer solution was gradually dropped drop wise into the water bath through a syringe needle. In the preparation, the temperature of the water was kept constant using a thermostatic unit. As as polymeric drop comes in contact with water due to phase inversion, polysulfonic microcapsules impregnated with the extractant were obtained, these microcapsules were immersed and stabilized in the water bath for 24 h

  20. The bead on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    2017-01-01

    The bead on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the bead as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.

  1. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  2. Analysis 1: SDG5, gender equal fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meryl J.

    2017-01-01

    What are the challenges in the path of achieving gender equality in fisheries and what should our priorities be? This article tries to identify these in the context of SDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality.

  3. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... States to celebrate the achievements of women and recommit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 167 August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality...

  4. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... celebrate the achievements of women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. [[Page 52586... Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 168...

  5. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  7. Porous chitosan beads of superior mechanical properties for the covalent immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Marwa I

    2017-12-01

    Porous chitosan beads of superior mechanical properties were produced via a two stepped treatment process. First, the chitosan ionotropic gelation solution was supplemented with Na 2 CO 3 , which acted as a porogen. Afterwards, the beads were chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This treatment also caused the produced porous chitosan beads to acquire higher observed activities of immobilized β-d-galactosidase (β-gal). The observed activities of the β-gal immobilized onto the 0.2M and the 0.35M Na 2 CO 3 treated beads were 1.63 and 1.91 fold respectively, higher than the activity offered by the control beads. Nevertheless, both the control beads and the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 beads caused the optimum pH range of β-gal to shift from 4.6-5.1 to ∼2.7-5. The enzyme's optimum temperature shifted from 55 to 60°C after its immobilization onto the control chitosan beads whereas the β-gal immobilized onto the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 chitosan beads exhibited a temperature optimum of 55-60°C. The reusability study revealed the superiority of the 0.2M Na 2 CO 3 treated beads which retained 59.1% of their initial activity during the 13th enzymatic cycle. On the other hand, the control chitosan beads were fragmented and lost their activity after only four enzymatic cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  9. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  10. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  11. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Wee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  12. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  13. Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunity Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Home About ODMEO Leadership Documents News Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Search Search ODMEO: Search Search ODMEO: Search Office of Diversity Management and Equal

  14. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  15. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  16. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  17. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  18. Fabrication of magnetic alginate beads with uniform dispersion of CoFe2O4 by the polydopamine surface functionalization for organic pollutants removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Lu, Haijun; Zhang, Yun; He, Fu; Jing, Lingyun; He, Xinghua

    2016-12-01

    A simple and efficient method for production of magnetic composites by decorating CoFe2O4 with polydopamine (PDA) through oxidative polymerization of dopamine was conducted. Further, magnetic alginate beads with porous structure containing well-dispersed CoFe2O4-PDA were fabricated by ionic crosslinking technology. The resulting SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometer, vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption potential of SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads for organic dyes including Methylene Blue (MB), Crystal Violet (CV) and Malachite Green (MG) was evaluated. SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads exhibited excellent adsorption performances due to the composite effect, large surface area and porous structure. Organic dyes could be removed from water solution with high efficiency in a wide pH range of 4.0-9.0. Moreover, it exhibited much higher adsorptivity towards MB and CV with the maximum adsorption capacities of 466.60 and 456.52 mg/g, respectively, which were much higher than that of MG (248.78 mg/g). Ca-electrolyte had obvious adverse effects on MB and CV adsorption than MG. FTIR and XPS demonstrated that carboxylate, catechol, hydroxyl and amine groups might be involved in adsorption of organic dyes. The characteristics of wide pH range, high adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation would make SA@CoFe2O4-PDA beads as effective adsorbent for removal of organic dyes from wastewater.

  19. Use of magnetic beads for Gram staining of bacteria in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdankhah, S P; Sørum, H; Larsen, H J; Gogstad, G

    2001-12-01

    A Gram staining technique was developed using monodisperse magnetic beads in concentrating bacteria in suspension for downstream application. The technique does not require heat fixation of organisms, electrical power, or a microscope. Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were identified macroscopically based on the colour of the suspension. The bacteria concentrated on magnetic beads may also be identified microscopically.

  20. OBT analysis method using polyethylene beads for limited quantities of animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Stuart, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products for cases where the amount of water recovered by combustion is limited by sample size or quantity. In the method, the amount of water recovered after combustion is enhanced by adding tritium-free polyethylene beads to the sample prior to combustion in an oxygen bomb. The method reduces process time by allowing the combustion water to be easily collected with a pipette. Sufficient water recovery was achieved using the polyethylene beads method when 2 g of dry animal tissue or animal product were combusted with 2 g of polyethylene beads. Correction factors, which account for the dilution due to the combustion water of the beads, are provided for beef, chicken, pork, fish and clams, as well as egg, milk and cheese. The method was tested by comparing its OBT results with those of the conventional method using animal samples collected on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. The results determined that the polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used. - Highlights: • Polyethylene beads method for OBT determination in animal tissues and animal products were determined. • The method reduces process time. • The polyethylene beads method added no more than 25% uncertainty when appropriate correction factors are used

  1. Magnetic nanoparticle-loaded alginate beads for local micro-actuation of in vitro tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Awatef M; Wilson, Otto C; Dahal, Bishnu; Philip, John; Luo, Xiaolong; Raub, Christopher B

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) self-align and transduce magnetic force, two properties which lead to promising applications in cell and tissue engineering. However, the toxicity of MNPs to cells which uptake them is a major impediment to applications in engineered tissue constructs. To address this problem, MNPs were embedded in millimeter-scale alginate beads, coated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan, and loaded in acellular and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-seeded collagen hydrogels, providing local micro-actuation under an external magnetic field. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess nanoparticle diffusion from the bead. Phase contrast microscopy and digital image correlation were used to track collagen matrix displacement and estimate intratissue strain under magnetic actuation. Coating the magnetic alginate beads with glutaraldehyde-chitosan prevents bulk diffusion of nanoparticles into the surrounding microenvironment. Further, the beads exert force on the surrounding collagen gel and cells, resulting in intratissue strains of 0-10% tunable with bead dimensions, collagen density, and distance from the bead. Cells seeded adjacent to the embedded beads are subjected to strain gradients without loss of cell viability over two days culture. This study describes a simple way to fabricate crosslinked magnetic alginate beads to load in a collagen tissue construct without direct exposure of the construct to nanoparticles. The findings are significant to in vitro studies of mechanobiology in enabling precise control over dynamic mechanical loading of tissue constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustained multiple organ ischaemia after transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woon; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Nam, Soon Woo; Jang, Jeong Won; Jung, Hyun Suk; Shin, Yu Ri; Park, Eun Su; Shim, Dong Jae

    2018-02-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with drug-eluting beads (DC beads) may enhance drug delivery to tumours and reduce systemic toxicity. TACE with DC beads leads to significantly fewer serious side-effects compared with conventional TACE. A 66-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complained of continuous abdominal pain 1 month after TACE with DC beads. At the time of TACE, angiography revealed severe stenosis of both hepatic arteries. The diagnostic work up on admission suggested severe bile duct injury with regional bile duct dilatation, segmental liver and spleen infarction, necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as gastric and duodenal ulcers. The pathology specimens of the duodenum contained DC beads that had passed through small vessels in the connective tissue. The patient's condition appeared to improve after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment and supportive care, but new multifocal liver and spleen infarction subsequently developed. After 2 months, he was well enough to be discharged. His HCC partially responded to the TACE with DC beads but eventually progressed and he died after 11 months. The present case report highlights unexpected ongoing multiple organ ischaemia in a 66-year-old man treated for HCC using TACE with DC beads. The use of TACE with DC beads should be carefully considered in patients with vascular strictures or aberrant blood supply.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW-BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. Yang; J. Chen; D.N. He; X. Y. Ruan

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory anddepending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system, a simplifiedmethod to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental methodin cup-shaped drawing process. The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement. It shows the method is effective.

  4. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  5. Preparation of chitosan/amino multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite beads for bilirubin adsorption in hemoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wenhui; Chen, Jian; Han, Wenyan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yue; Wang, Weichao; Cheng, Guanghui; Ou, Lailiang; Yu, Yaoting

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan-carbon nanotube composite beads combines the advantages of chitosan in forming a stable biocompatible framework and carbon nanotube that provide nanometer effects (high strength and high specific surface area etc.). In this study, chitosan/amino multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CS/AMWCNT) composite beads was prepared by phase-inversion method, in which CS and AMWCNT was crosslinked by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). The CS/AMWCNT nanocomposite beads produced has been characterized by BET, SEM, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy which exhibited enhanced thermal stability due to the incorporation of AMWCNT. Mechanical test results showed that mechanical strength of the CS/AMWCNT composite beads was significantly enhanced when comparing to unmodified chitosan beads, the breakage percentage decreased from 34.1% to 0.67%. The adsorption capacity for bilirubin was measured in PBS and BSA solutions, and the CS/AMWCNT composite beads with 5 wt% AMWCNT showed much higher adsorption capacity (12.7 mg/g in PBS and 7.6 mg/g in BSA) to bilirubin than chitosan beads (8.5 mg/g in PBS and 4.2 mg/g in BSA). Our nanocomposite beads with excellent hemocompatibility has a high potential application in blood purification as an efficient adsorbent for bilirubin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 96-103, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tunable bead-on-string microstructures fabricated by mechano-electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Ningbin; Huang Yongan; Deng Huixu; Yin Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, bead-on-string microstructures are fabricated by the mechano-electrospinning (MES) process in a continuously tunable manner. The thin jet is pulled onto the substrate by the stable electric field force and tunable mechanical drawing force, and then the bead-on-string structures are generated by means of the force exerted on the jet, which changes from capillary force and resisting viscosity force to friction force at the contact point in the horizontal direction. In a stable bead-on-string formation process, one cycle can be divided into three stages from the point of view of the jet behaviour: being anchored, being stretched, and skipping. The bead size and the bead gap are continuously tunable through the MES process. The fabrication mechanisms of the bead-on-string microstructure are uncovered through theoretical analysis and experimental characterization. When a critical velocity is achieved, the jet directly falls on the substrate without accumulation since the mechanical drawing force in the horizontal direction overtakes the capillary force, which leads the bead-on-string microstructures to a continuous fibre line. It is a flexible and highly controllable method to fabricate bead-on-string microstructures.

  7. Concanavalin A immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads for prostate specific antigen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idil, Neslihan; Perçin, Işık; Karakoç, Veyis; Yavuz, Handan; Aksöz, Nilüfer; Denizli, Adil

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (mPGMA) beads for prostate specific antigen (PSA) binding and to study binding capacities of the beads using lectin-glycoprotein interactions. Firstly, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and then, beads were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. Con A molecules were both covalently immobilized onto the beads directly and through the spacer arm (1,6-diaminohexane-HDMA). The total PSA and free PSA binding onto the mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads were higher than that of the mPGMA-Con A beads. Maximum PSA binding capacity was observed as 91.2 ng/g. Approximately 45% of the bound PSA was eluted by using 0.1 M mannose as elution agent. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be reused without a remarkable decrease in the binding capacities after 5 binding-desorption cycles. Serum fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be useful for the detection of PSA and suggested as a model system for other glycoprotein biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo cleansing efficacy of biodegradable exfoliating beads assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Duangweang, K; Kreepoke, J; Tansirikongkol, A

    2017-11-01

    The plastic microbeads, used in many cleansers, will be banned in cosmetic and personal care products within 2017 since they are non-degradable and can disturb the living organisms in water reservoirs. Various choices of biodegradable beads are commercially available, but their efficacy has not been proven yet. This study aimed to compare the cleansing efficacy in dirt and sebum removal aspects of three types of exfoliating beads. The gel scrubs with polyethylene (PE) beads, mannan beads or wax beads, were formulated and evaluated for their stability. The in vivo evaluation was done in 38 healthy volunteers and the skin irritation, efficacy for dirt and sebum removal were measured by Mexameter ® , Colorimeter ® , and Sebumeter ® , respectively. The selected gel scrubs did not cause an irritation in any volunteers. The differences in dirt residues between before and after scrubbing were not statistically significant among three gel scrubs and the similar result was also reported in the sebum removal study. All gel scrubs demonstrated the comparable cleansing efficacy in term of dirt and sebum removal. Thus, mannan beads and wax beads may be replaced non-biodegradable PE beads to achieve the similar cleansing effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Capture of DNA in microfluidic channel using magnetic beads: increasing capture efficiency with integrated microfluidic mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Dufva, Hans Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hybridization of target DNA in solution with probe DNA on magnetic beads immobilized on the channel sidewalls in a magnetic bead separator. The hybridization is carried out under a liquid flow and is diffusion limited. Two systems are compared: one with a straight microfluidic...... place on the surface in a microfluidic system....

  10. On-chip measurement of the Brownian relaxation frequency of magnetic beads using magnetic tunneling junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, M.; Sogne, E.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the detection of the Brownian relaxation frequency of 250 nm diameter magnetic beads using a lab-on-chip platform based on current lines for exciting the beads with alternating magnetic fields and highly sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors with a superparamagnetic free...

  11. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  12. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  13. Polymerized serum albumin beads for use as slow-release adjuvants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.E.D.

    1987-02-01

    Experimental vaccines have been made by covalently bonding virus particles into polymerized rabbit serum albumin beads. Using Nodamura virus as a model antigen, these model vaccines induced specific humoral antibody production, comparable with that achieved using Freund's adjuvants. Virus specific antibodies were also induced when Nodamura virus was covalently attached to the bead surface using different crosslinkers. However, when poliovirus type 2 (Sabin strain) was polymerized into beads, the levels of neutralizing antibodies were insignificant compared with control aqueous vaccines. The synthetic immunostimulator, muramyl dipeptide, was included with bead vaccines in an attempt to potentiate the immune response. Immunostimulation is achieved by a slow release of antigen coinciding with the gradual breakdown of bead structure. Methods used include radio-iodination and radioimmunoassay. 65 figs., 6 tabs., 173 refs

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  15. Predicting of bead undercut defects in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jing XU; Chuan-song WU; De-gang ZOU

    2008-01-01

    In the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, when the welding speed reaches a certain threshold, there will be an onset of weld bead undercut defects which limit the further increase of the welding speed. Establishing a mathematical model for high-speed GMAW to predict the tendency of bead undercuts is of great significance to pre-vent such defects. Under the action of various forces, the transferred metal from filler wire to the weld pool, and the geometry and dimension of the pool itself decide if the bead undercut occurs or not. The previous model simpli-fied the pool shape too much. In this paper, based on the actual weld pool geometry and dimension calculated from a numerical model, a hydrostatic model for liquid metal surface is used to study the onset of bead undercut defects in the high-speed welding process and the effects of dif-ferent welding parameters on the bead undercut tendency.

  16. Speciation-dependent studies on removal of arsenic by iron-doped calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the differential attitude of Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads towards As(III) and As(V) compounds so that speciation-dependent environmentally sustainable methodologies can be developed for removal of arsenic from contaminated water. Throughout the experiment, 76 As has been used as precursor of stable arsenic. The affinity of As(V) towards the Fe-CA beads is greater than that of As(III). Removal efficiency of Fe-CA beads for As(V) increases with increasing number of beads and longer shaking times. At pH 3, 30 Fe-CA beads remove As(V) completely from a solution containing 20 mg kg -1 As(V). The technique has been successfully applied to the ground water collected from an arsenic-contaminated area

  17. Hierarchically templated beads with tailored pore structure for phosphopeptide capture and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Celina; Torsetnes, Silje B.; Jensen, Ole N.

    2017-01-01

    Two templating approaches to produce imprinted phosphotyrosine capture beads with a controllable pore structure are reported and compared with respect to their ability to enrich phosphopeptides from a tryptic peptide mixture. The beads were prepared by the polymerization of urea-based host monomers...... and crosslinkers inside the pores of macroporous silica beads with both free and immobilized template. In the final step the silica was removed by fluoride etching resulting in mesoporous polymer replicas with narrow pore size distributions, pore diameters ≈ 10 nm and surface area > 260 m2 g-1. The beads displayed...... pronounced phosphotyrosine affinity and selectivity in binding tests using model peptides in acetonitrile rich solutions with a performance surpassing solution polymerized bulk imprinted materials. Tests of the beads for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of twelve proteins revealed both...

  18. Formulation of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanopowder into Hybrid Beads for Dye Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel prepared zinc oxide nanopowder was immobilized onto alginate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer blend to fabricate novel biocomposite beads. Various physicochemical characterization techniques have been utilized to identify the crystalline, morphological, and chemical structures of both the fabricated zinc oxide hybrid beads and their corresponding zinc oxide nanopowder. The thermal stability investigations demonstrate that ZnO nanopowder stability dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500 rpm. Moreover, these hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media (pH < 7 especially within the pH range of 2–7. Finally, the applicability of the formulated ZnO hybrid beads for C.I. basic blue 41 (BB41 decolorization from aqueous solution was examined.

  19. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm....... Brownian relaxation is measured for six different magnetic bead types and their hydrodynamic diameters are determined. The hydrodynamic diameters are found to be within 40% of the nominal bead diameters. We discuss the applicability of the different bead types for volume-based biosensing with respect...... to sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors....

  20. Parallel RNA extraction using magnetic beads and a droplet array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu; Chen, Chun-Hong; Gao, Weimin; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-02-21

    Nucleic acid extraction is a necessary step for most genomic/transcriptomic analyses, but it often requires complicated mechanisms to be integrated into a lab-on-a-chip device. Here, we present a simple, effective configuration for rapidly obtaining purified RNA from low concentration cell medium. This Total RNA Extraction Droplet Array (TREDA) utilizes an array of surface-adhering droplets to facilitate the transportation of magnetic purification beads seamlessly through individual buffer solutions without solid structures. The fabrication of TREDA chips is rapid and does not require a microfabrication facility or expertise. The process takes less than 5 minutes. When purifying mRNA from bulk marine diatom samples, its repeatability and extraction efficiency are comparable to conventional tube-based operations. We demonstrate that TREDA can extract the total mRNA of about 10 marine diatom cells, indicating that the sensitivity of TREDA approaches single-digit cell numbers.

  1. A dynamic bead-based microarray for parallel DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochol, R D; Lin, L; Casavant, B P; Dueck, M E; Lee, L P

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed and constructed by means of micromachining processes to integrate both microfluidic mixing of mobile microbeads and hydrodynamic microbead arraying capabilities on a single chip to simultaneously detect multiple bio-molecules. The prototype system has four parallel reaction chambers, which include microchannels of 18 × 50 µm 2 cross-sectional area and a microfluidic mixing section of 22 cm length. Parallel detection of multiple DNA oligonucleotide sequences was achieved via molecular beacon probes immobilized on polystyrene microbeads of 16 µm diameter. Experimental results show quantitative detection of three distinct DNA oligonucleotide sequences from the Hepatitis C viral (HCV) genome with single base-pair mismatch specificity. Our dynamic bead-based microarray offers an effective microfluidic platform to increase parallelization of reactions and improve microbead handling for various biological applications, including bio-molecule detection, medical diagnostics and drug screening

  2. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  3. Effect of Heat Input on Geometry of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Bead on Low Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manas Kumar; Hazra, Ritesh; Mondal, Ajit; Das, Santanu

    2018-05-01

    Among different weld cladding processes, gas metal arc welding (GMAW) cladding becomes a cost effective, user friendly, versatile method for protecting the surface of relatively lower grade structural steels from corrosion and/or erosion wear by depositing high grade stainless steels onto them. The quality of cladding largely depends upon the bead geometry of the weldment deposited. Weld bead geometry parameters, like bead width, reinforcement height, depth of penetration, and ratios like reinforcement form factor (RFF) and penetration shape factor (PSF) determine the quality of the weld bead geometry. Various process parameters of gas metal arc welding like heat input, current, voltage, arc travel speed, mode of metal transfer, etc. influence formation of bead geometry. In the current experimental investigation, austenite stainless steel (316) weld beads are formed on low alloy structural steel (E350) by GMAW using 100% CO2 as the shielding gas. Different combinations of current, voltage and arc travel speed are chosen so that heat input increases from 0.35 to 0.75 kJ/mm. Nine number of weld beads are deposited and replicated twice. The observations show that weld bead width increases linearly with increase in heat input, whereas reinforcement height and depth of penetration do not increase with increase in heat input. Regression analysis is done to establish the relationship between heat input and different geometrical parameters of weld bead. The regression models developed agrees well with the experimental data. Within the domain of the present experiment, it is observed that at higher heat input, the weld bead gets wider having little change in penetration and reinforcement; therefore, higher heat input may be recommended for austenitic stainless steel cladding on low alloy steel.

  4. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  5. Floating-bioadhesive gastroretentive Caesalpinia pulcherrima-based beads of amoxicillin trihydrate for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

    2016-01-01

    An oral dosage form containing floating bioadhesive gastroretentive microspheres forms a stomach-specific drug delivery system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori. To prepare and evaluate controlled release floating bioadhesive gastroretentive chitosan-coated amoxicillin trihydrate-loaded Caesalpinia pulcherrima galactomannan (CPG)-alginate beads (CCA-CPG-A), for H. pylori eradication. CCA-CPG-A beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation, using 2(3) factorial design with quantity of drug, combination of CPG with sodium alginate and concentration of calcium chloride as variables. Beads facilitated mucoadhesion to gastric mucosa with floating nature caused by chitosan coating for wide distribution throughout GIT. Developed beads were evaluated for characteristics like beads size-morphology, entrapment efficiency, DSC, XRD, FTIR, swelling ratio, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, in vitro floating and in vitro H. pylori growth inhibition studies. CCA-CPG-A beads were studied in Wistar rats for in vivo gastric mucoadhesion, in vivo H. pylori growth inhibition studies using PCR amplification of isolated DNA, rapid urease test. Developed beads possess drug release of 79-92%, entrapment efficiency of 65-89%, mucoadhesion of 61-89%. In vivo mucoadhesion study showed more than 85% mucoadhesion of beads even after 7th hour. In vitro-in vivo growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of H. pylori. CPG-alginate and chitosan in beads interacts with gastric mucosubstrate surface for prolonged gastric residence with floating bioadhesion mechanism for H. pylori eradication in rats. Floating bioadhesive CCA-CPG-A beads offer a promising drug delivery system for H. pylori eradication at lower dose, reduced adverse effect and enhance bioavailability.

  6. Antimony sorption properties of chitosan - nano TiO2 composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Routine decontamination campaigns of nuclear reactors are generally effective in removing various radionuclides such as cobalt, caesium, etc., and bring down the radiation field. However, during some of the decontamination campaigns, the radiation field at some surfaces was seen to have actually gone up. This was found to be due to lack of removal of antimony isotopes by the regular ion exchange resins used, which subsequently deposited over out of core surfaces leading to increased radiation field on those surfaces. Thus there exists a need for efficient antimony removal system. We have synthesised nano titania impregnated - epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads, which were found to have high sorption capacity for antimony. The beads, which were synthesised in formats suitable for large scale (column mode) applications, were shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorbent exhibited complete removal of antimony from its aqueous solutions of concentration ranging from 150 ppb to 120 ppm. In order to understand the sorption mechanism and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinker concentration used during the synthesis on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. The variation effected significant changes in physical parameters such as bead diameter, swelling ratio, equilibrium water content and true wet density. Sorption capacity, unlike with regular resins, was found to increase with increase in crosslinker amount. The antimony sorption capacity of the crosslinked beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3 g uncrosslinked beads with 6.4 mmol epichlorohydrin (crosslinker) was 493 μmol/g. Non-crosslinked beads showed a capacity of 75 μmol/g, while the crosslinked beads made with the least amount of crosslinker (0.64 mmol per 0.3 g beads) showed a capacity of 133 μmol/g. These results indicate the possible involvement of the crosslinker in the sorption. (author)

  7. [Evaluation of TB-beads assay utilizing the technique of magnetic beads--an innovative assay method for detection of acid fast bacilli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Masanori; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Ando, Yukio; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kimu, Minhi; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The centrifuge method with the use of Semi-Alkalin Proteinase (SAP) and NALC-NaOH, recommended by the "2007 edition of the assay guideline for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis," has significantly contributed to improving the sensitivities and specificities of both smear and culture tests for detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, this method poses some challenges in terms of its cumbersome and time-consuming assay protocol. "TB-beads (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd.)" is a newly-developed method for detection of AFB utilizing magnetic beads. We evaluated the quality of this method in comparison with the centrifuge method, focusing on the results of smear and culture tests. This evaluation study was conducted using both 5 positive and 5 negative sputum samples. The sensitivity of TB-beads for fluorescent smear tests, conducted using "Acri-stain," was almost the same as that of the centrifuge method. One advantage of TB-beads, however, was that it was very convenient to practice microscopic observation due to the clear background of the smeared glass slides. The comparison of the contamination rates between the two methods showed that TB-beads suggested significantly lower contamination rates. The centrifuge method resulted in 50% and 60% of contamination rates for HK Semisolid Isolation Medium and BacT/ALERT MP, respectively. On the other hand, the contamination rates of TB-beads for both of the culture methods were only 10%. With regard to the 5 positive sputum samples, the comparison of the detection rates between the centrifuge and TB-Beads method was made utilizing Myco Acid, Ogawa K, and BacT/ALERT MP. The TB-Beads method suggested higher detection rates for Myco Acid and Ogawa K, while there were no significant differences between the two methods for BacT/ALERT MP (16-23 days). TB-beads is an easy method that allows to simplify the process of smear tests, and contributes to significantly reducing the contamination rate of culture

  8. Neutron activation analysis of AD 1660-1930 European copper-coloured blue glass trade beads from Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Aufreiter, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blue glass trade beads from well-dated late seventeenth- to early twentieth-century sites and collections have been analysed non-destructively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The beads display enough variations in their elemental contents to allow us to characterize the different chemistries. The implication of these results is that similar chemical analyses of blue beads from undated archaeological sites may be used to help date the sites, since each bead chemistry has a specific earliest period. (author)

  9. Preparation of Macroporous Poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) Beads Bearing Aminocarboxylic Acid as Functional Groups by Suspension Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous poly (vinyl acetate-co-triallyl isocyanurate) beads were prepared with suspension polymerization method. The copolymer beads were then transformed into poly (vinyl alcohol-co-triallyl isocyanurate) by ester exchange reaction. Aminocarboxylic acids were immobilized on the copolymer beads by the esterification of hydroxyl groups with diethyl-lenetriaminepentaacetic bisanhydride. The weak acid exchange capacities, specific surface areas and mean pore diameters of the resultant resin beads were measured.

  10. Advanced Equalization Techniques for Digital Coherent Optical Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria

    approach based on joint encoding and equalization technique, known as Turbo Equalization (TE). This scheme is demonstrated to be powerful in transmission impairments mitigation for high order modulations formats, such as 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), considered a key technology for high speed...... a lower complexity convolutional code compared to state of the art reports. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the strict constrains of spectral efficiency, this thesis shows the application of digital adaptive equalizer for reconfigurable and Ultra Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (U......-over-Fiber (RoF) transmission system for a stand alone case and mixed modulation mixed bit rates transmission scheme. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the flexibility, upgrade-ability and robustness offered by rising advanced digital signal processing techniques, for future high-speed, high...

  11. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. Beads of the Birsk Burial Ground in the Context of the Antiquities of the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslanova Rida Raisovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Middle Ages in the Southern Urals is the time of the tumultuous ethnocultural processes, that is an echo of the era of the Great Migration. At this time, the bakhmutinskaya culture was formed (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The Birsk burial ground is one of the unique monuments of this period – it appeared in the second third of the 1st millennium B.C. The Birsk burial ground is a fiducial monument for studying history, ethno-cultural, migration and trade processes occurring in the Southern Urals, and the content in the composition of grave goods makes it supplies an important source in the study of early medieval history of East European forest. A variety of types of beads from the Birsk burial ground allows suggesting that the necropolis was one of the major points on the caravan trade and exchange path. According to it, the exchange could take place on imports of products (furs, honey, metals. The article describes a set of beads from the Birsk burials – evidence of a monument in the system of early medieval antiquities (3rd-8th centuries A.D.. The complex morpho-technological research dealt with 218 complexes containing 6705 instances of beads and jewelry. The feature of the monument is the presence of necklaces jewelry from all the selected materials along with the material. The Birsk burial ground demonstrates various forms of products, colors used glass for monochrome and polychrome decorations. The presented work can be used in the study of material culture and trade exchange operations of the medieval population of the Urals.

  13. Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

    2013-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 μm with an average aperture size of around 58.6 μm. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological Effects of Drug-Free Alginate Beads Cross-Linked by Copper Ions Prepared Using External Ionotropic Gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, M; Kubová, K; Vysloužil, J; Kejdušová, M; Vetchý, D; Celer, V; Molinková, D; Lobová, D; Pechová, A; Vysloužil, J; Kulich, P

    2017-05-01

    External ionotropic gelation offers a unique possibility to entrap multivalent ions in a polymer structure. The aim of this experimental study was to prepare new drug-free sodium alginate (ALG) particles cross-linked by Cu 2+ ions and to investigate their technological parameters (particle size, sphericity, surface topology, swelling capacity, copper content, release of Cu 2+ ions, mucoadhesivity) and biological activity (cytotoxicity and efficiency against the most common vaginal pathogens-Herpes simplex, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans) with respect to potential vaginal administration. Beads prepared from NaALG dispersions (3 or 4%) were cross-linked by Cu 2+ ions (0.5 or 1.0 M CuCl 2 ) using external ionotropic gelation. Prepared mucoadhesive beads with particle size over 1000 μm exhibited sufficient sphericity (all ˃0.89) and copper content (214.8-249.07 g/kg), which increased with concentration of polymer and hardening solution. Dissolution behaviour was characterized by extended burst effect, followed by 2 h of copper release. The efficiency of all samples against the most common vaginal pathogens was observed at cytotoxic Cu 2+ concentrations. Anti-HSV activity was demonstrated at a Cu 2+ concentration of 546 mg/L. Antibacterial activity of beads (expressed as minimum inhibition concentration, MIC) was influenced mainly by the rate of Cu 2+ release which was controlled by the extent of swelling capacity. Lower MIC values were found for E. coli in comparison with C. albicans. Sample ALG-3_1.0 exhibited the fastest copper release and was proved to be the most effective against both bacteria. This could be a result of its lower polymer concentration in combination with smaller particle size and thus larger surface area.

  15. Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan gastric floating beads loading with oxymatrine solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Chengming; Yang, Jianhong; Hou, Yanhui; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OM) can be metabolized to matrine in gastrointestinal ileocecal valve after oral administration, which affects pharmacological activity and reduce bioavailability of OM. A type of multiple-unit alginate-chitosan (Alg-Cs) floating beads was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method for gastroretention delivery of OM. A solid dispersion technique was applied and incorporated into beads to enhance the OM encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustain the drug release. The surface morphology and internal hollow structure of beads were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed Alg-Cs beads were spherical in shape with hollow internal structure and had particle size of 3.49 ± 0.09 mm and 1.33 ± 0.09 mm for wet and dried beads. Over 84% of the optimized OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads were able to continuously float over the simulated gastric fluid for 12 h in vitro. The OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads showed drug EE of 67.07%, which was much higher than that of beads loading with pure OM. Compared with the immediate release of OM capsules and pure OM-loaded beads, the release of OM from solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads was in a sustained-release manner for 12 h. Prolonged gastric retention time of over 8.5 h was achieved for OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs floating beads in healthy rabbit in in vivo floating ability evaluated by X-ray imaging. The developed Alg-Cs beads loading with OM solid dispersion displayed excellent performance features characterized by excellent gastric floating ability, high drug EE and sustained-release pattern. The study illustrated the potential use of Alg-Cs floating beads combined with the solid dispersion technique for prolonging gastric retention and sustaining release of OM, which could provide a promising drug delivery system for gastric-specific delivery of OM for bioavailability enhancement.

  16. 77 FR 12311 - Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for... Evaluation and Research's (CDER's) current thinking on appropriate size ranges for beads in drug products...

  17. 76 FR 3144 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products... Evaluation and Research's (CDER's) current thinking on appropriate size ranges for beads in drug products...

  18. Technology, Utopia and Scholarly Life: Ideals and Realities in the Work of Hermann Hesse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between technology, utopia and scholarly life in Hermann Hesse's novel, "The Glass Bead Game." In the first part of Hesse's book, the Glass Bead Game and the society of which it is a part, Castalia, are portrayed in idealistic terms. The second part of the novel chronicles the educational life of Joseph…

  19. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  20. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  1. Optimization of GMAW process of AA 6063-T5 aluminum alloy butt joints based on the response surface methodology and on the bead geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, V.; Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Segura, F.; Manjabacas, M. C.; Abellan, E.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of the weld beads is characterized by the overhead, the width and the penetration. These values are indices of the behavior of the welded joint and therefore, they can be considered as factors that control the process. This work is performed to optimize the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5 by means of the response surface methodology (RSM). The variables herein considered are the arc voltage, the welding speed, the wire feed speed and the separation between surfaces in butt joints. The response functions that are herein studied are the overhead, the width, the penetration and the angle of the bead. The obtained results by RSM show high grade of agreement with the experimental values. The procedure is experimentally validated by welding for the theoretically obtained optimized technological conditions and a wide agreement between theoretical and experimental values is found. (Author) 16 refs.

  2. Gender Equality and the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Warth

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the commitment of businesses to promote gender equality within their organisations can be strengthened. A dual approach of encouraging voluntary measures and corporate social responsibility for gender equality on the one hand, and regulating and enforcing change through legislative reforms on the other hand are reviewed, focusing mainly on the European region. There are arguments for a business case for gender equality in terms of better financial performance and com...

  3. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  4. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  5. Analysis of surface properties of fixed and live cells using derivatized agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vanessa M; Walker, Sherri L; Badali, Oliver; Abundis, Maria I; Ngo, Lylla L; Weerasinghe, Gayani; Barajas, Marcela; Zem, Gregory; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    A novel assay has been developed for the histochemical characterization of surface properties of cells based on their adhesion to agarose beads derivatized with more than 100 types of molecules, including sugars, lectins and other proteins, and amino acids. The assay simply involves mixing small quantities of washed cells and beads in droplets on glass microscope slides and determining to which beads various cell types adhere. Distilled water was found to be the best medium for this assay because added ions or molecules in other media inhibit adhesion in some cases. Many cells, however, cannot tolerate distilled water. Here we show that cells fixed with either of two fixatives (1% formaldehyde or Prefer fixative) displayed similar bead-binding properties as did live cells. Specificity of cell-bead binding was tested by including specific free molecules in the test suspensions in hapten-type inhibition experiments. If a hapten compound inhibited live-cell adhesion to a specific bead, it also inhibited fixed-cell adhesion to a specific bead. The results of these experiments suggest that fixed cells display authentic surface properties, opening the door for the use of this assay with many cell types that cannot tolerate distilled water.

  6. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical and toxicological assessment of arsenic sorption onto Fe-sericite composite powder and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Lee, Cheongho; Lee, Seung Mok; Lalhmunsiama; Jung, Jinho

    2018-01-01

    Batch sorption and leaching of arsenic (1-30mgL -1 ) on Fe-sericite composite powder and beads were investigated in this study. Fe-sericite composite powder was made from natural sericite modified with iron, and alginate was used to transform the powder into beads. The maximum sorption capacities of the Fe-sericite composite powder (15.04 and 13.21mgg -1 for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were higher than those of the corresponding beads (9.02 and 7.11mgg -1 for As(III) and As(V), respectively) owing to the higher specific surface area of the powder. In addition, the leaching amounts of As(III) from Fe-sericite composite beads (≤ 15.03%) were higher than those of the corresponding powder (≤ 5.71%). However, acute toxicity of As(III)-sorbed Fe-sericite composite beads toward Daphnia magna was not significantly different from that of the corresponding powder (p > 0.05). Considering higher uptake of the powder particles by the daphnids, Fe-sericite composite beads seem to be a more appropriate and safer sorbent for arsenic removal in practical application. Based on Fe content, Fe-sericite composite beads had similar or higher maximum sorption capacities (71.19 and 56.11mgg -1 Fe for As(III) and As(V), respectively) than those of previously reported sorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater. PMID:27598142

  9. Kinase-loaded magnetic beads for sequential in vitro phosphorylation of peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadkova, Lenka; Kupcik, Rudolf; Vajrychova, Marie; Prikryl, Petr; Charvatova, Andrea; Jankovicova, Barbora; Ripova, Daniela; Bilkova, Zuzana; Slovakova, Marcela

    2018-01-15

    Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, greatly impact the physiological function of proteins, especially those that are natively unfolded and implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, structural and functional studies of such proteins require fully defined phosphorylation, including those that are not physiological. Thus, the kinases ERK2 and GSK-3β were immobilized to various superparamagnetic beads with carboxylic, aldehyde, Ni 2+ , or Co 3+ functional groups, with a view to efficiently phosphorylate peptides and proteins in vitro. Full phosphorylation of specific synthetic peptides confirmed that beads were successfully loaded with kinases. Remarkably, enzymes covalently immobilized on carboxylated SeraMag beads remained active upon reuse, with residual activity after 10 uses 99.5 ± 0.34% for GSK-3β and 36.2 ± 2.01% for ERK2. The beads were also used to sequentially phosphorylate recombinant tau, which in vivo is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, a system consisting of two fully active kinases immobilized to magnetic beads is demonstrated for the first time. In comparison to soluble enzymes, the beads are easier to handle, reusable, and thus low-cost. Importantly, these beads are also convenient to remove from reactions to minimize contamination of phosphorylated products or to exchange with other kinases.

  10. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  11. REVIEW: CHITOSAN BASED HYDROGEL POLYMERIC BEADS – AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Rani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable natural polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads have been extensively studied as micro- or nano-particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, where they have shown promise for drug delivery as a result of their controlled and sustained release properties, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. To introduce desired properties and enlarge the scope of the potential applications of chitosan, graft copolymerization with natural or synthetic polymers on it has been carried out, and also, various chitosan derivatives have been utilized to form beads. The desired kinetics, duration, and rate of drug release up to therapeutical level from polymeric beads are limited by specific conditions such as beads material and their composition, bead preparation method, amount of drug loading, drug solubility, and drug polymer interaction. The present review summarizes most of the available reports about compositional and structural effects of chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads on swelling, drug loading, and releasing properties. From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads are promising drug delivery systems.

  12. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  13. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Kwak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI ions were recovered from the Cr(VI adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI ions in industrial wastewater.

  14. Sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as mechanically stable carriers for the covalent immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Marwa I

    2018-03-01

    The poor mechanical stability of chitosan has long impeded its industrial utilization as an immobilization carrier. In this study, the mechanical properties of chitosan beads were greatly improved through utilizing the slow rate of the sodium bicarbonate-induced chitosan gelation and combining it with the chemical cross-linking action of glutaraldehyde (GA). The GA-treated sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads exhibited much better mechanical properties and up to 2.45-fold higher observed activity of the immobilized enzyme (β-D-galactosidase (β-gal)) when compared to the GA-treated sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)-gelled chitosan beads. The differences between the sodium bicarbonate-gelled and the TPP-gelled chitosan beads were proven visually and also via scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the optimum pH, the optimum temperature, the apparent K m , and the apparent V max of the β-gals immobilized onto the two aforementioned types of chitosan beads were determined and compared. A reusability study was also performed. This study proved the superiority of the sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as they retained 72.22 ± 4.57% of their initial observed activity during the 13 th reusability cycle whereas the TPP-gelled beads lost their activity during the first four reusability cycles, owing to their fragmentation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:347-361, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  16. Equal rights as the center of democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...

  17. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  18. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  19. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  20. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  1. Note: A quartz cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we provide and demonstrate a design of a unique cell with Pt single crystal bead electrode for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) measurements. The active metal Pt electrode can be protected from air contamination during the preparation process. The transparency of the cell allows the tip and bead to be aligned by direct observation. Based on this, a new and effective alignment method is introduced. The high-quality bead preparations through this new cell have been confirmed by the ECSTM images of Pt (111).

  2. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  3. Sequential mass spectrometric analysis of uranium and plutonium employing resin bead technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Chitambar, S.A.; Jain, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sequential mass spectrometric analysis of uranium and plutonium employing anion exchange resin bead technique is reported using a high sensitive single stage magnetic analyser instrument, the routinely employed rhenium double filament assembly and 0.5M HNO 3 as a wetting agent for loading the resin beads. A precision of bettter than 0.3per cent (2sigma) is obtained on the isotopic ratio measurements. However, extreme care has to be exercised to carry the resin bead experiments under ultra clean conditions so as to avoid pick up of contamination. (author)

  4. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  5. Silica-supported Macroporous Chitosan Bead for Affinity Purification of Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Na XI; Jian Min WU; Ming Ming LUAN

    2005-01-01

    Macroporous cross-linking chitosan layer coated on silica gel (CTS-SiO2) was prepared by phase inversion and polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular imprinting methods. Formation of macroporous surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET analysis.The prepared bead was activated by reacting with 1,2-ethylene diglycidyl ether for introducing epoxy groups, and trypsin could be efficiently immobilized on the bead as a biospecific ligand.The bead bearing trypsin was employed to purify trypsin inhibitor (TIs) from egg white as affinity adsorbent.

  6. Endogeneous price leadership in a duopoly: equal products, unequal technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastidar, K.G.; Furth, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we study endogenous price leadership in the context of a homogeneous product Bertrand duopoly model in which the firms have different, strictly convex cost functions. In such a framework it is well known that a simultaneous move price choice game does not have an equilibrium in

  7. Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Webb, Helen

    2010-08-01

    Equality and diversity are central to education and health services, in terms of both employment and service delivery. Clinical teachers need to be able to support students and trainees around equality issues, have the confidence to challenge discriminatory practice and provide an inclusive and safe learning and teaching environment.

  8. The Many Faces of Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    The ideal of equality of opportunity plays an important role in contemporary social and political discourse, and it is one of the few ideals which most people, across the political spectrum, accept. In this article, I argue that the seemingly widespread agreement about the value of equal opportunity is more apparent than real. I distinguish…

  9. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  10. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  11. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  12. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  13. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 167 August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004--50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom #0... 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  14. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature...

  15. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...

  16. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  17. Manipulation of Superparamagnetic Beads on Patterned Exchange-Bias Layer Systems for Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Arno; Koch, Iris; Holzinger, Dennis

    2015-11-13

    A technology platform based on a remotely controlled and stepwise transport of an array arrangement of superparamagnetic beads (SPB) for efficient molecular uptake, delivery and accumulation in the context of highly specific and sensitive analyte molecule detection for the application in lab-on-a-chip devices is presented. The near-surface transport of SPBs is realized via the dynamic transformation of the SPBs' magnetic potential energy landscape above a magnetically stripe patterned Exchange-Bias (EB) thin film layer systems due to the application of sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. In this concept, the SPB velocity is dramatically influenced by the magnitude and gradient of the magnetic field landscape (MFL) above the magnetically stripe patterned EB substrate, the SPB to substrate distance, the magnetic properties of both the SPBs and the EB layer system, respectively, as well as by the properties of the external magnetic field pulses and the surrounding fluid. The focus of this review is laid on the specific MFL design in EB layer systems via light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning (IBMP). A numerical approach is introduced for the theoretical description of the MFL in comparison to experimental characterization via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The SPB transport mechanism will be outlined in terms of the dynamic interplay between the EB substrate's MFL and the pulse scheme of the external magnetic field.

  18. Manipulation of Superparamagnetic Beads on Patterned Exchange-Bias Layer Systems for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Ehresmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A technology platform based on a remotely controlled and stepwise transport of an array arrangement of superparamagnetic beads (SPB for efficient molecular uptake, delivery and accumulation in the context of highly specific and sensitive analyte molecule detection for the application in lab-on-a-chip devices is presented. The near-surface transport of SPBs is realized via the dynamic transformation of the SPBs’ magnetic potential energy landscape above a magnetically stripe patterned Exchange-Bias (EB thin film layer systems due to the application of sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. In this concept, the SPB velocity is dramatically influenced by the magnitude and gradient of the magnetic field landscape (MFL above the magnetically stripe patterned EB substrate, the SPB to substrate distance, the magnetic properties of both the SPBs and the EB layer system, respectively, as well as by the properties of the external magnetic field pulses and the surrounding fluid. The focus of this review is laid on the specific MFL design in EB layer systems via light-ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning (IBMP. A numerical approach is introduced for the theoretical description of the MFL in comparison to experimental characterization via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The SPB transport mechanism will be outlined in terms of the dynamic interplay between the EB substrate’s MFL and the pulse scheme of the external magnetic field.

  19. Application of water flowing PVC pipe and EPS foam bead as insulation for wall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Umi Nadiah; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Yusuf, Mohammed Alias; Othman, Maidiana; Yahya, Muhamad Azani

    2018-02-01

    Malaysia located in tropical climate which have a typical temperature range between 21 °C to 36 °C. Due to this, air-conditioning system for buildings become a necessity to provide comfort to occupants. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the air-conditioning system, the transmission of heat from outdoor to indoor space should be kept as minimum as possible. This article discuss about a technology to resist heat transfer through concrete wall panel using a hybrid method. In this research, PVC pipe was embedded at the center of concrete wall panel while the EPS foam beads were added about 1% of the cement content in the concrete mix forming the outer layer of the wall panel. Water is regulated in the PVC pipe from the rainwater harvesting system. The aim of this study is to minimize heat transfer from the external environment into the building. Internal building temperature which indicated in BS EN ISO 7730 or ASHRAE Standard 55 where the comfort indoor thermal is below 25°C during the daytime. Study observed that the internal surface temperature of heat resistance wall panel is up to 3°C lower than control wall panel. Therefore, we can conclude that application of heat resistance wall panel can lead to lower interior building temperature.

  20. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  1. Exploring chemical reaction mechanisms through harmonic Fourier beads path optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Smith, Jason B; Wallqvist, Anders

    2013-10-28

    Here, we apply the harmonic Fourier beads (HFB) path optimization method to study chemical reactions involving covalent bond breaking and forming on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM∕molecular mechanical (QM∕MM) potential energy surfaces. To improve efficiency of the path optimization on such computationally demanding potentials, we combined HFB with conjugate gradient (CG) optimization. The combined CG-HFB method was used to study two biologically relevant reactions, namely, L- to D-alanine amino acid inversion and alcohol acylation by amides. The optimized paths revealed several unexpected reaction steps in the gas phase. For example, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, we found that alanine inversion proceeded via previously unknown intermediates, 2-iminopropane-1,1-diol and 3-amino-3-methyloxiran-2-ol. The CG-HFB method accurately located transition states, aiding in the interpretation of complex reaction mechanisms. Thus, on the B3LYP∕6-31G(d,p) potential, the gas phase activation barriers for the inversion and acylation reactions were 50.5 and 39.9 kcal∕mol, respectively. These barriers determine the spontaneous loss of amino acid chirality and cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins. We conclude that the combined CG-HFB method further advances QM and QM∕MM studies of reaction mechanisms.

  2. Enzyme-linked electrochemical DNA ligation assay using magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskalová, Eva; Horáková, Petra; Vacek, Jan; Bowater, Richard P; Fojta, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    DNA ligases are essential enzymes in all cells and have been proposed as targets for novel antibiotics. Efficient DNA ligase activity assays are thus required for applications in biomedical research. Here we present an enzyme-linked electrochemical assay based on two terminally tagged probes forming a nicked junction upon hybridization with a template DNA. Nicked DNA bearing a 5' biotin tag is immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and ligated product is detected via a 3' digoxigenin tag recognized by monoclonal antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. Enzymatic conversion of napht-1-yl phosphate to napht-1-ol enables sensitive detection of the voltammetric signal on a pyrolytic graphite electrode. The technique was tested under optimal conditions and various situations limiting or precluding the ligation reaction (such as DNA substrates lacking 5'-phosphate or containing a base mismatch at the nick junction, or application of incompatible cofactor), and utilized for the analysis of the nick-joining activity of a range of recombinant Escherichia coli DNA ligase constructs. The novel technique provides a fast, versatile, specific, and sensitive electrochemical assay of DNA ligase activity.

  3. A novel magnet focusing plate for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of magnetic bead-bound analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, David; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2013-05-15

    Magnetic beads are often used for serum profiling of peptide and protein biomarkers. In these assays, the bead-bound analytes are eluted from the beads prior to mass spectrometric analysis. This study describes a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique for direct application and focusing of magnetic beads to MALDI plates by means of dedicated micro-magnets as sample spots. Custom-made MALDI plates with magnetic focusing spots were made using small nickel-coated neodymium micro-magnets integrated into a stainless steel plate in a 16 × 24 (384) pattern. For demonstrating the proof-of-concept, commercial C-18 magnetic beads were used for the extraction of a test compound (reserpine) from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted to study focusing abilities, the required laser energies, the influence of a matrix compound, dispensing techniques, solvent choice and the amount of magnetic beads. Dispensing the magnetic beads onto the micro-magnet sample spots resulted in immediate and strong binding to the magnetic surface. Light microscope images illustrated the homogeneous distribution of beads across the surfaces of the magnets, when the entire sample volume containing the beads was pipetted onto the surface. Subsequent MALDI analysis of the bead-bound analyte demonstrated excellent and reproducible ionization yields. The surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) properties of the strongly light-absorbing γ-Fe2O3-based beads resulted in similar ionization efficiencies to those obtained from experiments with an additional MALDI matrix compound. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated the magnetic focusing abilities for magnetic bead-bound analytes on a novel MALDI plate containing small micro-magnets as sample spots. One of the key advantages of this integrated approach is that no elution steps from magnetic beads were required during analyses compared with conventional bead experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley

  4. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads® Using Vibration and a Sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Akinaga; Nitta, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Takefumi; Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads ® ) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  5. An Attempt to Shorten Loading Time of Epirubicin into DC Beads{sup ®} Using Vibration and a Sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp; Nitta, Norihisa [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takefumi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Central Research Laboratory (Japan); Tomozawa, Yuki; Ohta, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shobu; Murata, Kiyoshi [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeWe investigated the possibility of shortening the time required for loading epirubicin into calibrated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads (DC Beads{sup ®}) to be used for transarterial chemoembolization.MethodAfter separating the beads suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution by the use of a sieve (clearance 75 µm), epirubicin hydrochloride (EH) was loaded for 20, 30, or 60 s under vibration into DC beads. The EH loading rate into conventionally prepared (control) beads, i.e., beads loaded for 30 min without vibration, and vibration-loaded beads were calculated from the residual EH concentration in the bead-depleted EH solution. The amount of EH eluted from conventionally and vibration-loaded samples into a PBS solution (pH 7.0) was measured at 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. We also recorded the inhibitory effect of the PBS solution on the loading time. Using frozen sections, the EH load in the beads was evaluated visually under a fluorescence microscope.ResultsSpectrophotometry (495 nm) showed that the loading rate was 98.98 ± 0.34, 99.02 ± 0.32, and 99.50 ± 0.11 % with 20-, 30-, and 60-s vibration, respectively. The eluted rate was statistically similar between vibration- and statically loaded (control) beads. The PBS solution hampered EH loading into the beads. Visually, the distribution of EH in conventionally and vibration-loaded DC beads was similar.DiscussionThe use of vibration and the removal of PBS solution when epirubicin hydrochloride was loaded into DC beads dramatically shortened the loading time of epirubicin hydrochloride into DC beads.

  6. A control system for uniform bead in fillet arc welding on tack welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-01-01

    Positioning a workpiece accurately and preventing weld distortion, tack welding is often adopted before main welding in the construction of welded structures. However, this tack weld deteriorates the final weld bead profile, so that the grinding process is usually performed for a uniform weld bead profile. In this study, a control system for uniform weld bead is proposed for the fillet arc welding on tack welds. The system consists of GMA welding machine, torch manipulator, laser vision sensor for measuring the tack weld size and the database for optimal welding conditions. Experiments have been performed for constructing the database and for evaluating the control capability of the system. It has been shown that the system has the capability to smooth the bead at the high level of quality

  7. One-step isolation of plasma membrane proteins using magnetic beads with immobilized concanavalin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Block, Gregory; Chen, Huiwen

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for isolating and purifying plasma membrane proteins from various cell types. This one-step affinity-chromatography method uses the property of the lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the technique of magnetic bead separation to obtain highly purified plasma membrane...... proteins from crude membrane preparations or cell lines. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. When these ConA magnetic beads were used to enrich plasma membranes from a crude membrane preparation, this procedure resulted in 3.7-fold enrichment...... of plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase activity with 70% recovery of the activity in the crude membrane fraction of rat liver. In agreement with the results of 5'-nucleotidase activity, immunoblotting with antibodies specific for a rat liver plasma membrane protein, CEACAM1, indicated that CEACAM1...

  8. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  9. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  10. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  11. Magnetic bead micromixer: Influence of magnetic element geometry and field amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Buus, Bjarke B.; Howalt, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized by a homo......A scheme for the silicon microfabrication of lab-on-a-chip systems with mixing based on dynamic plugs of magnetic beads is presented. The systems consist of a microfluidic channel integrated with a number of soft magnetic elements by the sides of the channel. The elements are magnetized...... by a homogeneous external ac magnetic field. The systems are scalable with respect to the number of magnetic bead plugs and number of parallel channels, and thus they have high potential for use in biological separation using functionalized magnetic beads. The mixing efficiency is characterized for two different...

  12. Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...... by the sensor self-field or a combination thereof. The sensors can be made nominally insensitive to small external magnetic fields, while being maximally sensitive to magnetic beads, magnetized by the sensor self-field. Thus, the sensor designs can be tailored towards specific applications with minimal...... of the dynamic magnetic response of suspensions of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are performed. Furthermore, a method to amplify the signal by appropriate combinations of multiple sensor segments is demonstrated....

  13. Evaluation of double drop beads pavement edge lines : SPR project description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In UTCA projects 01465 and 04405, the retroreflectivities and the life cycle costs were measured and compared for standard Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) thermoplastic edge : stripes that contained only one size of retroreflective beads...

  14. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF MACRORETICULAR BEAD PAN/PVC IPN RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanfeng; ZHUO Renxi

    1993-01-01

    Macroreticular bead PAN/PVC IPN reans with cyano and chloro groups were synthesized by interpenetrating polymerization of acrylonitrile, or acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene into a macroporous polyvinyl chloride bead. The composition and structure of the bead IPN resins have been investigated by means of FT-IR, NMR, SEM, mercury porosimetry and elemental analysis. During the process of interpenetrating polymerization, the chain propagation obeys Bernoullian statistical law, and no grafting polymerization has been observed. The content of cyano group in the resulting IPN resins can be adjusted by the amount of acrylonitrile added. The morphology of the IPN resins basically resembles that of the polyvinyl chloride bead,whereas the pore structures vary to a certain degree

  15. Rapid bead-based immunoassay for measurement of mannose-binding lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, J T; Garred, P

    2009-01-01

    have been developed more automated platforms for MBL analysis is urgently needed. To pursue this, we set out to develop a flexible bead-based MBL immunoassay. Serum was obtained from 98 healthy individuals and 50 patients investigated for possible immunodeficiencies. We used the Luminex xMAP bead array...... coefficient were found be 7.88% and 5.70%, respectively. A close correlation between the new assay and a reference MBL measurement ELISA was found (rho 0.9381, P bead-based assay was less sensitive to interfering anti-murine antibodies in the blood samples than when the antibodies employed were...... used in the reference polystyrene-based ELISA. The new assay could be performed in 3 h with less than 25 microl serum required of each sample. These results show that MBL can be measured readily using a bead-based platform, which may form an efficient basis for a multiplex approach to measure different...

  16. Tumour metastasis-associated gene profiling using one-dimensional microfluidic beads array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Great efforts have been made on the early diagnosis and molecular mechanism research of tumour metastasis in recent years. In this paper, based on the one-dimensional microfluidic beads array, a novel platform for tumour metastasis-associated genes profiling has been developed by depositing nucleic acids functional beads in the microchannel. This platform is sensitive (limit of detection: 0.02 nmol/L) and can perform mRNAs analysis without PCR. Two human colon cancer cell lines (primary and metastatic) from the same patient were used as a model, and transcriptional expression profiling of multiple tumour metastasis-associated genes in these two cell lines was successfully achieved. Furthermore, the results obtained on the beads array were validated by RT-PCR. This novel beads array has advantages of high sensitivity, little sample consumption, short assay time, low cost and high throughput capability. It holds the potential in early diagnosis and mechanism research of tumour metastasis.

  17. Polyaniline coated magnetic carboxymethylcellulose beads for selective removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakup Arica, M.; Gulay Bayramoglu; Gazi University, Ankara

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) beads were prepared via ionic cross-linking. Then CMC beads were coated with polyaniline (PANI). The results of FTIR, SEM, DTA and N 2 adsorption-desorption demonstrated that aniline was successfully grafted onto the surface of mCMC beads. The potential use of the prepared adsorbent was used for removal of U(VI) ions. The determined maximum adsorption capacities of the mCMC and mCMC-g-PANI beads for U(VI) ions were 129.4 and 386.5 mg/g dry weight at pH 4.5, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were evaluated. The adsorbent systems were regenerated using 0.1 M HCl. (author)

  18. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  19. Asynchronous Magnetic Bead Rotation (AMBR Microviscometer for Label-Free DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzi Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a label-free viscosity-based DNA detection system, using paramagnetic beads as an asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR microviscometer. We have demonstrated experimentally that the bead rotation period is linearly proportional to the viscosity of a DNA solution surrounding the paramagnetic bead, as expected theoretically. Simple optical measurement of asynchronous microbead motion determines solution viscosity precisely in microscale volumes, thus allowing an estimate of DNA concentration or average fragment length. The response of the AMBR microviscometer yields reproducible measurement of DNA solutions, enzymatic digestion reactions, and PCR systems at template concentrations across a 5000-fold range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of viscosity-based DNA detection using AMBR in microscale aqueous volumes.

  20. Immobilization of catalase on chitosan and amino acid- modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin

    2013-08-01

    Bovine liver catalase was covalently immobilized onto amino acid-modified chitosan beads. The beads were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA and the effects of immobilization on optimum pH and temperature, thermostability, reusability were evaluated. Immobilized catalase showed the maximal enzyme activity at pH 7.0 at 30°C. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for immobilized catalase on alanine-chitosan beads and lysine-chitosan beads were estimated to be 25.67 mM, 27 mM and 201.39 μmol H2O2/min, 197.50 μmol H2O2/min, respectively. The activity of the immobilized catalase on Ala-CB and Lys-CB retained 40% of its high initial activity after 100 times of reuse.

  1. A micro-pillar array to trap magnetic beads in microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    A micro-pillar array (MPA) is proposed in this paper to trap and separate magnetic beads (MBs) in microfluidic systems. MBs are used in many biomedical applications due to being compatible in dimension to biomolecules, the large surface area

  2. Study of The Effect of Draw-bead Geometry on Stretch Flange Formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. S.; Winkler, S. L.; Worswick, M. J.; Lloyd, D. J.; Finn, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    A fully instrumented stretch flange press equipped with a back-up punch and draw-beads near the specimen cutout area is simulated. The utilization of different draw-bead geometries is examined numerically to determine the restraining forces, strains and amount of damage generated in stretch flanges during forming. Simulations of the forming process are conducted for 1mm AA5182 sheets with circular cutouts. The damage evolution with the deformed specimens is investigated using the explicit dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, with a modified Gurson-based material model. It was found that double draw-beads can provide the same amount of restraining force as single draw-beads, but at reduced levels of damage.

  3. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  4. [DNA extraction from decomposed tissue by double-digest and magnetic beads methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of the double-digest and magnetic beads method for DNA extraction from 3 types of decomposed tissues. DNA of cartilages, nails and joint capsule in 91 highly decomposed corpses which had not been extracted by common magnetic beads method, were prepared with the double-digest and magnetic beads methods, and quantified with Quantifiler kit, followed by amplification with Sinofiler kit or Minifiler kit. DNA concentration extracted from the 91 highly decomposed cartilages, nails and joint capsule samples was 0-0.225 ng/microL. Sixty-two samples whose DNA concentration were more than 0.020 ng/microL had obtained 9 or more STR loci successfully. The detection rate was 68.13%. The successful rate of STR genotyping for the 3 types of decomposed tissues can be significantly improved by the double-digest and magnetic beads methods.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Manisha, V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Sawant, Manjiri; Kamane, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL -1

  6. Micro-Raman and micro-XRF analysis of glass beads from the Chungde site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. S.; Wang, S. C.; Liu, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    A large number of ancient glass beads dating back from Late Neolithic Age to early Historical Period (ca. 2300-400 BP) of Taiwan have been uncovered from archaeological sites. These glass beads with variant colors, shapes, and stylistics have long been considered to possess socio-cultural significance. Due to the color and chemical composition of glass bead might be determined by raw materials, fluxing agents, colorants, opacifiers and stabilizers. In addition, ancient glass beads are rare and precious, non-destructive analysis has been employed to decipher about the provenances, manufacturing techniques, and exchange/trade routes. In this work, micro-Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (μ-XRF) were used to examine ten ancient glass beads excavated from the Chungde site, Hualien, Taiwan, dating back to 1500-800 BP, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions. Micro Raman experimental results show that glass and anorthite glass are the main constituents accompanying with trace level of quartz, albite, siderite, ankerite, and amazonite. The Raman Index of Polymerization (Ip) indicate that the sintering temperature of the glass beads is in the range of 1000~1400°C. Furthermore, the chemical compositions are corresponding to the maximum stretching vibration peak wave number (νmax Si-O Stretching) and the maximum bending vibration peak wave number (δmax Si-O Bending), which are essentially consistent with that of the India-Pacific beads. The μ-XRF results indicate the presence of oxides including SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SnO2, TiO2, CuO, etc., and could be classified to high aluminum of soda-lime glass system. According to ternary phase diagram analysis of CaO-K2O-Na2O and K2O-Al2O3-CaO, the ancient glass beads analyzed could be attributed to the India-Pacific beads, and is in accordance with that of Raman spectra. The combination of these facts leads to the conclusion that glass beads obtained from the Chungde

  7. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  8. Poly(GMA/MA/MBAA) Copolymer Beads: a Highly Efficient Support Immobilizing Penicillin G Acylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping XUE; Guan Zhong LU; Wan Yi LIU

    2006-01-01

    The hydrophilic, macroporous and beaded ternary copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/methacrylamide(MA)/N,N'-methylene-bis(acrylamide)(MBAA)was synthesized using the industrial agents by inverse suspension polymerization. The apparent activity of the immobilized penicillin G acylase reached 1096 IU/g for hydrolysis penicillin G on the beads with diameter of 0.11-0.13 mm, and it changed hardly after 50 cycles. It can be expected to be a good potential in industrial application.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DRAW—BEAD RESTRAINING FORCE IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Yang; J.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    Due to complexities of draw-bead restraining force calculated according to theory and depending on sheet metal forming properties experiment testing system,a simplified method to calculate draw-bead restraining force is put forward by experimental method in cup-shaped drawing process.The experimental results were compared with numer-ical results and proved agreement.It shows the method is effective.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Linum usitatisimum polysaccharide to prepare mucoadhesive beads of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib Hasnain, M; Rishishwar, Poonam; Rishishwar, Sanjay; Ali, Sadath; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The present research deals with the usefulness of isolated linseed polysaccharide (LP) as polymeric-blends with an anionic polymer, sodium alginate to prepare ionotropically cross-linking gelled mucoadhesive beads for controlled drug release. From the mature and ripe linseeds (Linum usitatisimum; family Liliaceae), LP was isolated and its colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity were studied. Isolated LP was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analyses. LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium were formulated via ionotropically crosslinking gelation method using calcium chloride as ionotropic crosslinker. These ionotropically crosslinked beads showed diclofenac sodium encapsulation efficiencies in these newly prepared beads were 60.78 ± 2.47 to 93.16 ± 4.08% and average bead-sizes of 1.17 ± 0.10 to 1.33 ± 0.12 mm. All LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium demonstrated a sustained drug releasing profile over 8 h with a zero-order model of drug releasing (controlled drug releasing pattern). The LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium displayed a pH responsive swelling and excellent biomucoadhesivity prospective with the intestinal mucosal tissue in both the acidic and alkaline pH (pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively). These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Design and characteristics of gellan gum beads for modified release of meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmałek, Tomasz; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Froelich, Anna; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Białowąs, Wojciech; Kapela, Marcin; Gadziński, Piotr; Ancukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to design, formulate and evaluate the properties of low-acyl gellan macro beads with the potential application as carriers for oral delivery of meloxicam (MLX) in the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer. The beads were obtained by means of ionotropic gelation technique. Calcium chloride (1.0%, 9.0 × 10 -2  M) was used as the cross-linking agent. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween ® 80) mixtures were used for production of the beads. The quantitative compositions of the mixtures were generated with the application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) modulus from the STATISTICA Software. The prepared formulations revealed 7.2-27.0% of drug loading and 29.2-50.7% drug encapsulation efficiency. It turned out that 0.5% amount of gellan gum in the mixtures was not sufficient to obtain spherical beads. The morphology and surface of the dried beads were analyzed by SEM. Raman spectra confirmed that MLX did not undergo structural changes during production of the beads. The swelling behavior and degradation of the beads were evaluated in three simulated gastrointestinal fluids at different pH (1.2; 4.5; 6.8). The MLX in vitro release studies were conducted on USP apparatus IV, working in the open loop mode. The obtained results showed that MLX release from the dried beads was pH-dependent. The formulations obtained from mixtures containing 1.0 and 1.5% of gellan may be considered as oral dosage forms for MLX, intended to omit the stomach and release the drug in the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of monosize magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evrim Banu Alt1nta(s); Lokman Uzun; Adil Denizli

    2007-01-01

    Monosize, 1.6 μm, magnetic beads of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) [M-poly(GMA)], were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of Fe3O4 nano-powder. Monosize M-poly(GMA) beads were characterized by swelling tests, density measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic functional groups of M-poly(GMA)beads were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The M-poly(GMA) beads are highly uniform in size and have a spherical shape and non-porous structure. Polydispersity index (PDI) of M-poly(GMA) beads was calculated to be around 1.008. The hydrated density of the M-poly(GMA) beads measured at 25 ℃ was 1.14 g/cm3. The content of oxirane groups on the surface of the M-poly(GMA) sample was found to be 3.46 mmol/g by using perchloric acid titration. The specific surface area of the M-poly(GMA) beads was determined to be 3.2 m2/g.The equilibrium swelling ratio was 52%. The volume fraction of magnetite nanopowder in the M-poly(GMA) beads was found to be 4.5%. The g factor, that can be considered as a quantity characteristic of the molecules in which the unpaired electrons are located, was found to be 2.28for M-poly(GMA). The external magnetic field at resonance was calculated to be 2055 Gs which was found sufficient to excite all of the dipole moments present in 1.0 g of M-poly(GMA) sample.

  14. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  15. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  16. Parental experiences with a hospital-based bead programme for children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie; Chando, Shingisai

    2015-02-01

    To present survey findings on parental experiences with a hospital-based bead programme for children with congenital heart disease. The Heart Beads programme commenced at a paediatric hospital in Australia in 2008. Children enrolled in the programme are awarded a distinctive bead for every procedure/treatment they have while in hospital. A previous evaluation study on the programme revealed that the beads are therapeutic for the child and parents; however, due to a small sample size, the results were representative of the experiences of a small number of families who participated in the programme. This was an evaluation study which employed a nonexperimental descriptive design. Surveys were mailed to all eligible families who enrolled in the programme. Data collection occurred between July-December 2012. Questions on parental experiences with the Heart Beads programme were divided into three categories: understanding, acknowledgement and quality. Descriptive statistics were obtained and analysed. One hundred and sixty-two mothers and 136 fathers responded to the survey. Heart Beads assisted mothers (83%) and fathers (80%) with understanding their child's condition and helped them with communication (mothers 80%, fathers 58%). The majority of fathers felt that their experience was acknowledged by nursing staff (64%) and medical staff (62%), while mothers indicated a higher response from nurses (76%) compared to medical staff (67%). Overall, parents rated the programme positively; however, there was some concern that children at times missed out on beads. Understanding how mothers and fathers experience the programme differently can guide staff in their communication with parents and inform future initiatives. The Heart Beads help nurses understand how parents are experiencing care and ways in which they can provide support and acknowledgement of the parent's experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  18. Suspension polymerization a process for the production of beaded polymer supports and derived ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension polymerization techniques for production of beaded polymers are discussed with special reference to styrene divinylbenzene copolymers. Methods to control particle size and size distribution of final copolymer beads are given. Mechanism of copolymerization and constituents of aqueous and oil phase are discussed. Mechanism of porous structure formation and control of porosity are also discussed. Chemical conversion of base copolymers into ion exchange resins is also discussed. (author) 16 figs

  19. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  20. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA-VP) beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemay Oezer, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Osman, Bilgen, E-mail: bilgeno@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Kara, Ali; Besirli, Necati; Guecer, Seref [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Soezeri, Hueseyin [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54 TR-41470, Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were prepared for removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total capacity of the beads was determined as 98.9 mg DEP per gram polymer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were regenerated easily and reused for DEP adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were elucidated. - Abstract: The barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA-VP)) beads (average diameter = 53-212 {mu}m) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25 Degree-Sign C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications.

  1. Bioinspired heterostructured bead-on-string fibers via controlling the wet-assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Song, Cheng; Zhang, Miaoxin; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-09-21

    A kind of bioinspired heterostructured bead-on-string fiber (BHBF), composed of poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) hydrolyzed nanoparticles, was prepared via integrating a wet-assembly system, including PMMA electrospinning, fog of nanoparticles and water coalescence at multi-stages. The wet-assembly of BHBF was regulated by the difference in surface energy and Laplace pressure. Especially, BHBF is characteristic of a hydrophilic rough bead for excellent water collection ability.

  2. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  3. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  4. Jllumina - A comprehensive Java-based API for statistical Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Diogo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring differential methylation of the DNA is the nowadays most common approach to linking epigenetic modifications to diseases (called epigenome-wide association studies, EWAS. For its low cost, its efficiency and easy handling, the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its successor, the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip, is the by far most popular techniques for conduction EWAS in large patient cohorts. Despite the popularity of this chip technology, raw data processing and statistical analysis of the array data remains far from trivial and still lacks dedicated software libraries enabling high quality and statistically sound downstream analyses. As of yet, only R-based solutions are freely available for low-level processing of the Illumina chip data. However, the lack of alternative libraries poses a hurdle for the development of new bioinformatic tools, in particular when it comes to web services or applications where run time and memory consumption matter, or EWAS data analysis is an integrative part of a bigger framework or data analysis pipeline. We have therefore developed and implemented Jllumina, an open-source Java library for raw data manipulation of Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 and Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip data, supporting the developer with Java functions covering reading and preprocessing the raw data, down to statistical assessment, permutation tests, and identification of differentially methylated loci. Jllumina is fully parallelizable and publicly available at http://dimmer.compbio.sdu.dk/download.html

  5. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  6. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  7. Formulation optimization and evaluation of jackfruit seed starch-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the formulation optimization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of sodium alginate to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 97.48±3.92%, R10h of 65.70±2.22%, and mean diameter of 1.16±0.11mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of micrometric latex beads to improve the porosity of hydroxyapatite obtained by chemical coprecipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webler, G. D.; Rodrigues, W. C.; Silva, A. E. S.; Silva, A. O. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; Degenhardt, M. F. S.; Oliveira, C. L. P.; Otubo, L.; Barros Filho, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is one of the most important biomaterials whose application mainly extends to implants and drug delivery. This work will discuss the changes in the pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite when there are latex beads present during the synthesis. These changes were monitored using different techniques: small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetrical analysis, N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Latex beads and hydroxyapatite form a single nanocomposite with well-distinguished inorganic and organic phases. Latex bead removal in the temperature range of 300-600 °C did not modify the original crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. However, the latex beads favored an increase in the adsorption capacity of mesopores at temperatures higher than their glassy transition (Tg). The main result of this research work consists on the increase of surface area and pore size distribution obtained after the removal of latex beads template. Latex beads have been used in a different approach changing the porosity of hydroxyapatite scaffolds not only introducing new routes for cell integration but also broadening the pore size distribution which can result in a more high efficiency for drug release in living cells.

  12. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2016-12-01

    There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012-2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3 ± 8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Physico-chemical state influences in vitro release profile of curcumin from pectin beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Thi-Binh; Winckler, Pascale; Loison, Pauline; Wache, Yves; Chambin, Odile

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with diverse effects interesting to develop health benefit products but its formulation in functional foods or in food supplement is hampered by its poor water solubility and susceptibility to alkaline conditions, light, oxidation and heat. Encapsulation of curcumin could be a mean to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, curcumin was encapsulated by ionotropic gelation method in low methoxyl pectin beads associated with different surfactants: Solutol(®), Transcutol(®) and sodium caseinate. After encapsulation, physico-chemical properties of encapsulated curcumin such as its solubility, physical state, tautomeric forms and encapsulation efficiency as well as encapsulation yield were characterized. In vitro dissolution of curcumin from beads displayed different kinetic profiles according to bead composition due to different matrix network. As Solutol(®) was a good solvent for curcumin, the drug was present into amorphous form in these beads inducing a rapid release of curcumin in the simulated digestive fluids. In contrast, drug release was slower from sodium caseinate beads since curcumin was not totally dissolved during the manufacturing process. Moreover, the FLIM studies showed that a part of curcumin was encapsulated in caseinate micelles and that 34% of this drug was in keto form which may delay the curcumin release. The Transcutol beads showed also a slow drug release because of the low curcumin solubility and the high density of the matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequestering HMGB1 via DNA-Conjugated Beads Ameliorates Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Daniel J.; Dancho, Meghan; Tsaava, Teá; Li, Jianhua; Lu, Ben; Levine, Yaakov A.; Stiegler, Andrew; Tamari, Yehuda; Al-Abed, Yousef; Roth, Jesse; Tracey, Kevin J.; Yang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of IBD is not clear, it is known that products from stressed cells and enteric microbes promote intestinal inflammation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally identified as a nuclear DNA binding protein, is a cytokine-like protein mediator implicated in infection, sterile injury, autoimmune disease, and IBD. Elevated levels of HMGB1 have been detected in inflamed human intestinal tissues and in feces of IBD patients and mouse models of colitis. Neutralizing HMGB1 activity by administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or HMGB1-specific antagonist improves clinical outcomes in animal models of colitis. Since HMGB1 binds to DNA with high affinity, here we developed a novel strategy to sequester HMGB1 using DNA immobilized on sepharose beads. Screening of DNA-bead constructs revealed that B2 beads, one linear form of DNA conjugated beads, bind HMGB1 with high affinity, capture HMGB1 ex vivo from endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell supernatant and from feces of mice with colitis. Oral administration of B2 DNA beads significantly improved body weight, reduced colon injury, and suppressed colonic and circulating cytokine levels in mice with spontaneous colitis (IL-10 knockout) and with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Thus, DNA beads reduce inflammation by sequestering HMGB1 and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of IBD. PMID:25127031

  16. Passive detection of Pb in water using rock phosphate agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenborn, Harry M; Howard, Bret H; Sams, James I; Vesper, Dorothy J; Edenborn, Sherie L

    2017-08-15

    In this study, passive detectors for Pb were prepared by immobilizing powdered rock phosphate in agarose beads. Rock phosphate has been used to treat Pb-contaminated waters and soil by fixing the metal as an insoluble pyromorphite mineral. Under lab conditions, Pb was rapidly adsorbed from aqueous solution by the beads over time, consistent with the acidic dissolution of rock phosphate, the precipitation of pyromorphite within the pore space of the agarose gel matrix, and surface exchange reactions. Net accumulation of Pb occurred when beads were exposed to simulated periodic releases of Pb over time. Under field conditions, beads in mesh bags were effective at detecting dissolved Pb being transported as surface runoff from a site highly contaminated with Pb. Rates of Pb accumulation in beads under field conditions appeared to be correlated with the frequency of storm events and total rainfall. The rock phosphate agarose bead approach could be an inexpensive way to carry out source-tracking of Pb pollution, to verify the successful remediation of sites with Pb-contaminated soil, and to routinely monitor public water systems for potential Pb contamination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Boiling phenomenon and heat transfer in bead-packed porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojie; ZHu Yanlei; Bai Bofeng; Yan Xiao; Xiao Zejun

    2009-01-01

    A visual study on pool boiling behavior and phase distribution was conducted on the porous structures made of staggered glass beads at atmospheric pressure. The bead-packed structure was heated on the bottom. The investigations were carried out respectively at different glass bead diameters which were 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The results show that during subcooled boiling, small isolated bubbles are formed on the heated surface and combine into main-bubbles, the dispersion frequency of the main-bubbles is low and the small bubbles scatter in the bead-packed porous structures. At the initial stage of saturated boiling, the bubble growth rate, the volume of main-bubbles and the range of continuous vapor phase increase. The dispersion frequency of main-bubbles increases with the increasing of heat flux. During film boiling, the heated surface is absolutely covered with vapor film and the porous structure is full of liquid. The larger the diameter of beads is, the higher heat flux is needed for the same phenomenon, and the higher maximum value of heat transfer coefficient will be. During the whole saturated boiling, and the heat transfer enhanced firstly and then weakened. Being opposite to that of the diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm, the heat transfer coefficient in the 6 mm-bead-packed porous structure decreases with the increasing of the heat flux. (authors)

  18. Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou el Ela, Amal El Sayeh F.; Hassan, Maha A.; El- Maraghy, Dalia A.

    2013-01-01

    The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8 h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8 h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n = 0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet. PMID:25161380

  19. Monoolein-alginate beads as a platform to promote adenosine cutaneous localization and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing Y; Migotto, Amanda; Ferreira, Thamyres Soares; Lopes, Luciana B

    2017-09-01

    Alginate beads containing the polar lipid monoolein were developed as a strategy to manage wet wounds by providing improved uptake of excess exudate while releasing adenosine locally for promotion of healing. To obtain monoolein-containing beads, the lipid was mixed with almond oil (2:1w/w), and emulsified within the alginate aqueous dispersion, followed by ionotropic gelation in CaCl 2 solution. Compared to alginate-only, monoolein-alginate systems were 1.44-fold larger, their swelling ability was 1.40-fold higher and adenosine cumulative release was approximately 1.30-fold lower (at 24h). Monoolein-alginate beads were considered safe for topical application as demonstrated by the absence of changes on the viability of reconstructed skin equivalents compared to PBS. Smaller amounts of adenosine were delivered by the beads into and across damaged porcine skin (created by an incisional wound) compared to the drug aqueous solution, and cutaneous localization was favored. More specifically, the beads increased the viable skin layer/receptor phase delivery ratio by approximately 4-fold at 12h post-application. Considering the wide range of adenosine physiological effects and the importance of skin localization for its use in wound healing, these results demonstrate the potential of monoolein-containing beads for localized drug delivery and management of wet wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo exfoliating efficacy of biodegradable beads and the correlation with user's satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Kreepoke, J; Duangweang, K; Tansirikongkol, A

    2018-02-01

    By the end of 2017, non-biodegradable microbeads will be prohibited in USA, UK and Europe, due to their environmental issue. There are biodegradable beads available, but their effect on skin desquamation has not been evaluated yet. This study aimed to understand the skin renewal time, moisturizing effect and user's satisfaction of gel scrubs containing different exfoliating beads. Gel scrubs, containing polyethylene, mannan or wax beads, were used in this study. The stratum corneum turnover time (SCTT) and skin hydration were evaluated by dansyl chloride staining technique and Corneometer ® , respectively. The self-assessment was also performed after a 3-week home use trial. The SCTTs of three different gel scrubs were not significantly different. A numerical increase in the skin hydration level was found in all groups. Satisfaction scores for the appearance and usability attributes were similar, but scores for improvement in the skin hydration and skin smoothness were higher in the gel scrubs with mannan or wax beads. All three gel scrubs provided a similar effect on the SCTT and skin hydration, but gel scrubs with mannan or wax beads were more favorable. Thus, these two biodegradable exfoliating beads may be good substitutes in scrubbing products. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  2. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, S.; Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Nacer-Khodja, A.; Arabi, M.; Lounici, H.; Mameri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: → Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. → Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. → Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. → Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. → Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  3. Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling; Allen, Peter B; Asghar, Waseem; Mahmood, M Arif Iftakher; Tan, Jifu; Duhon, Holli; Kim, Young-tae; Ellington, Andrew D; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-21

    Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.

  4. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jradi, Khalil; Daneault, Claude; Chabot, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  5. Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachkova, Mariya I; Duarte, Maria A; Pinto, João F

    2010-12-23

    The objective of the study was to produce calcium alginate beads able to deliver Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus lactis) with preserved viability and antibacterial activity. Four types of beads, containing entrapped (E), surface and entrapped (ES), surface (S) and concentrated surface and entrapped lactobacilli (C(ES)) were prepared and physically characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactobacilli cultures before and after immobilization, freeze-drying and throughout storage was studied in relationship to the viable number of lactobacilli. Multi-resistant clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycine-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, VIM-2-metalo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and CTX-M-15-β-lactamase producing strains: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used as indicator strains. Alginate beads in which lactobacilli proliferated to the beads surface (ES and C(ES)) differed significantly from the other types of beads in their physicochemical properties, showing smoother surface morphology, more spherical shape, bigger weight, lower calcium content, density and crushing force. Lactobacilli cultures, at high cell concentrations (10(8)cfu/ml) were active against both Gram-positive and negative multi-resistant bacteria. Beads containing both entrapped and surface lactobacilli (ES) resulted in viability and antibacterial activity most similar to non-processed lactobacilli cultures. The viability and antibacterial activity of the immobilized lactobacilli remained stable after 6 months storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanohole 3D-size tailoring through polystyrene bead combustion during thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaofeng; Kamiya, Itaru

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach is presented for nanohole 3D-size tailoring. The process starts with a monolayer of polystyrene (PS) beads spun coat on silicon wafer as a template. The holes can be directly prepared through combustion of PS beads by oxygen plasma during metal or oxide thin film deposition. The incoming particles are prevented from adhering on PS beads by H 2 O and CO 2 generated from the combustion of the PS beads. The hole depth generally depends on the film thickness. The hole diameter can be tailored by the PS bead size, film deposition rate, and also the combustion speed of the PS beads. In this work, a series of holes with depth of 4-24 nm and diameter of 10-36 nm has been successfully prepared. The hole wall materials can be selected from metals such as Au or Pt and oxides such as SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . These templates could be suitable for the preparation and characterization of novel nanodevices based on single quantum dots or single molecules, and could be extended to the studies of a wide range of coating materials and substrates with controlled hole depth and diameters.

  7. Surface modification of glass beads with glutaraldehyde: Characterization and their adsorption property for metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Can, Keziban; Akin, Ilker; Arslan, Gulsin [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali, E-mail: ali.alitor@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Engineering Faculty, Campus, 42031, Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Konya (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, a new material that adsorbs the metal ions was prepared by modification of the glass beads surfaces with glutaraldehyde. First, the glass beads were etched with 4 M NaOH solution. Then, they were reacted with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Finally, silanized glass beads were treated with 25% of glutaraldehyde solution. The characterization studies by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicated that modification of the glass bead surfaces was successfully performed. The adsorption studies exhibited that the modified glass beads could be efficiently used for the removal of the metal cations and anion (chromate ion) from aqueous solutions via chelation and ion-exchange mechanisms. For both Pb(II) and Cr(VI), selected as model ions, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 60 min and adsorption of both ions followed the second-order kinetic model. It was found that the sorption data was better represented by the Freundlich isotherm in comparison to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) and Cr(VI) were 9.947 and 11.571 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration studies also showed that modified glass beads could be re-used for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions over three cycles.

  8. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  9. Optimization of Enzyme Co-Immobilization with Sodium Alginate and Glutaraldehyde-Activated Chitosan Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Sinem Diken; İdil, Neslihan; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    2018-02-01

    In this study, two different materials-alginate and glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads-were used for the co-immobilization of α-amylase, protease, and pectinase. Firstly, optimization of multienzyme immobilization with Na alginate beads was carried out. Optimum Na alginate and CaCl 2 concentration were found to be 2.5% and 0.1 M, respectively, and optimal enzyme loading ratio was determined as 2:1:0.02 for pectinase, protease, and α-amylase, respectively. Next, the immobilization of multiple enzymes on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads was optimized (3% chitosan concentration, 0.25% glutaraldehyde with 3 h of activation and 3 h of coupling time). While co-immobilization was successfully performed with both materials, the specific activities of enzymes were found to be higher for the enzymes co-immobilized with glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads. In this process, glutaraldehyde was acting as a spacer arm. SEM and FTIR were used for the characterization of activated chitosan beads. Moreover, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes immobilized with chitosan beads were also found to have higher activity than their free forms. Three different enzymes were co-immobilized with these two materials for the first time in this study.

  10. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. Methods A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Results Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012–2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3±8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. Conclusion This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. PMID:26896286

  11. Chondroitin sulfate-derivatized agarose beads: a new system for studying cation binding to glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been covalently attached to aminoethyl-agarose beads in a carbodiimide-catalyzed reaction. In this process, an amide bond is formed between carboxylate groups on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the primary amine groups of the beads. Under optimal conditions, up to 160 micrograms of CS is attached per milligram of beads. CS-agarose beads have been used to study Ca binding to GAGs. The beads are mixed with a solution containing CaCl 2 and 45 Ca and allowed to sediment under unit gravity. An aliquot of supernatant is then removed and 45 Ca activity is determined to quantitate remaining (free) Ca. Using this system, it was shown that CS binds approximately 0.7 Ca/disaccharide unit at saturation. Under the conditions used, the apparent association constant (KA) is approximately 14 mM. In principle, this derivatization protocol may be used to attach any proteoglycan or GAG (except keratan sulfate) to an insoluble support. CS-agarose beads provide a rapid, simple, and relatively artifact-free system for studying cation-GAG interactions

  12. Development of bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter applicable to various purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, F.; Toyota, Y.; Maki, D.; Zushi, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bead-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were well fabricated with a gas-particle jet flame system for glass melting-cooling process. A rod of silver-activated phosphate glass was pulverized into micrometer-size particles. Spherical glass particles were formed from the pulverized glass particles in the high-temperature jet flame owing to the surface tension of the glass material. Some groups of spherical glass particles were irradiated with X-rays and their RPL was demonstrably observed for their exposure to UV light. A flexible RPL glass sheet was also made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters and was useful for radiation imaging. Bead-type RPL glass dosimeters are expected to be used for dose monitoring in highly radioactively-contaminated area. -- Highlights: ► We developed bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters. ► Bead-type glass RPL dosimeters are satisfactorily used as radiation dosimeters. ► A flexible RPL glass sheet is made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters

  13. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  14. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  15. Broad adsorption of sepsis-related PAMP and DAMP molecules, mycotoxins, and cytokines from whole blood using CytoSorb® sorbent porous polymer beads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann C Gruda

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In sepsis and septic shock, pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPS, such as bacterial exotoxins, cause direct cellular damage and/or trigger an immune response in the host often leading to excessive cytokine production, a maladaptive systemic inflammatory response syndrome response (SIRS, and tissue damage that releases DAMPs, such as activated complement and HMGB-1, into the bloodstream causing further organ injury. Cytokine reduction using extracorporeal blood filtration has been correlated with improvement in survival and clinical outcomes in experimental studies and clinical reports, but the ability of this technology to reduce a broader range of inflammatory mediators has not been well-described. This study quantifies the size-selective adsorption of a wide range of sepsis-related inflammatory bacterial and fungal PAMPs, DAMPs and cytokines, in a single compartment, in vitro whole blood recirculation system.Purified proteins were added to whole blood at clinically relevant concentrations and recirculated through a device filled with CytoSorb® hemoadsorbent polymer beads (CytoSorbents Corporation, USA or control (no bead device in vitro. Except for the TNF-α trimer, hemoadsorption through porous polymer bead devices reduced the levels of a broad spectrum of cytokines, DAMPS, PAMPS and mycotoxins by more than 50 percent.This study demonstrates that CytoSorb® hemoadsorbent polymer beads efficiently remove a broad spectrum of toxic PAMPS and DAMPS from blood providing an additional means of reducing the uncontrolled inflammatory cascade that contributes to a maladaptive SIRS response, organ dysfunction and death in patients with a broad range of life-threatening inflammatory conditions such as sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis, and other severe inflammatory conditions.

  16. Theoretical study of in-plane response of magnetic field sensor to magnetic beads in an in-plane homogeneous field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the average in-plane magnetic field on square and rectangular magnetic field sensors from a single magnetic bead and a monolayer of magnetic beads magnetized by an in-plane externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. General theoretical expressions...... are derived such that the sensor response and its dependence on the sensor size, spacer layer thickness, bead diameter, and bead susceptibility can easily be evaluated. The average magnetic field from a single bead close to the sensor shows a strong dependence on the position of the bead and a change of sign...... when the bead passes the edge of the sensor in the direction of the applied field. Analytical approximations are derived for the average field from a homogeneous monolayer of beads for beads much smaller than the sensor dimension and for a bead size chosen to minimize the position sensitivity...

  17. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  18. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  19. Teaching the Economics of Equal Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Arnola C.; Rhea, Jeanine N.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on equal opportunities--for education, pay, and with gender bias for individuals and business organizations. Suggests that business educators can expand the implications to include ethnic-based inequalities as well. (JOW)

  20. Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizer, S.M.; Amburn, E.P.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Greer, Trey; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. We report algorithms designed to