WorldWideScience

Sample records for equal error rate

  1. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  2. Time Domain Equalizer Design Using Bit Error Rate Minimization for UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imtiaz Husain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB communication systems occupy huge bandwidths with very low power spectral densities. This feature makes the UWB channels highly rich in resolvable multipaths. To exploit the temporal diversity, the receiver is commonly implemented through a Rake. The aim to capture enough signal energy to maintain an acceptable output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR dictates a very complicated Rake structure with a large number of fingers. Channel shortening or time domain equalizer (TEQ can simplify the Rake receiver design by reducing the number of significant taps in the effective channel. In this paper, we first derive the bit error rate (BER of a multiuser and multipath UWB system in the presence of a TEQ at the receiver front end. This BER is then written in a form suitable for traditional optimization. We then present a TEQ design which minimizes the BER of the system to perform efficient channel shortening. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with some generic TEQ designs and other Rake structures in UWB channels. It is shown that the proposed algorithm maintains a lower BER along with efficiently shortening the channel.

  3. Near-minimum bit-error rate equalizer adaptation for PRML systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riani, J.; Beneden, van S.J.L; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Immink, A.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Receivers for partial response maximum-likelihood systems typically use a linear equalizer followed by a Viterbi detector. The equalizer tries to confine the channel intersymbol interference to a short span in order to limit the implementation complexity of the Viterbi detector. Equalization is

  4. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.25 - Equalization of rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equalization of rates. 1620.25 Section 1620.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.25 Equalization of rates. Under the express terms of the EPA, when a prohibited sex-based wage differential has...

  6. EMG Versus Torque Control of Human-Machine Systems: Equalizing Control Signal Variability Does not Equalize Error or Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reva E; Kording, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors. Second, we quantified uncertainty by measuring the just-noticeable difference of a visual perturbation. We found that for equal errors, EMG resulted in higher movement uncertainty than both torque and torque+noise. The differences suggest that performance and confidence are influenced by more than just the noisiness of the control signal, and suggest that other factors, such as the user's ability to incorporate feedback and develop accurate internal models, also have significant impacts on the performance and confidence of a person's actions. We theorize that users have difficulty distinguishing between random and systematic errors for EMG control, and future work should examine in more detail the types of errors made with EMG control.

  7. The nearest neighbor and the bayes error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Maybank, S J

    1987-02-01

    The (k, l) nearest neighbor method of pattern classification is compared to the Bayes method. If the two acceptance rates are equal then the asymptotic error rates satisfy the inequalities Ek,l + 1 ¿ E*(¿) ¿ Ek,l dE*(¿), where d is a function of k, l, and the number of pattern classes, and ¿ is the reject threshold for the Bayes method. An explicit expression for d is given which is optimal in the sense that for some probability distributions Ek,l and dE* (¿) are equal.

  8. Generalizing human error rates: A taxonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffardi, L.; Fleishman, E.; Allen, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is well established that human error plays a major role in malfunctioning of complex, technological systems and in accidents associated with their operation. Estimates of the rate of human error in the nuclear industry range from 20-65% of all system failures. In response to this, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a variety of techniques for estimating human error probabilities for nuclear power plant personnel. Most of these techniques require the specification of the range of human error probabilities for various tasks. Unfortunately, very little objective performance data on error probabilities exist for nuclear environments. Thus, when human reliability estimates are required, for example in computer simulation modeling of system reliability, only subjective estimates (usually based on experts' best guesses) can be provided. The objective of the current research is to provide guidelines for the selection of human error probabilities based on actual performance data taken in other complex environments and applying them to nuclear settings. A key feature of this research is the application of a comprehensive taxonomic approach to nuclear and non-nuclear tasks to evaluate their similarities and differences, thus providing a basis for generalizing human error estimates across tasks. In recent years significant developments have occurred in classifying and describing tasks. Initial goals of the current research are to: (1) identify alternative taxonomic schemes that can be applied to tasks, and (2) describe nuclear tasks in terms of these schemes. Three standardized taxonomic schemes (Ability Requirements Approach, Generalized Information-Processing Approach, Task Characteristics Approach) are identified, modified, and evaluated for their suitability in comparing nuclear and non-nuclear power plant tasks. An agenda for future research and its relevance to nuclear power plant safety is also discussed

  9. Minimum Probability of Error-Based Equalization Algorithms for Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Levendovszky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel channel equalizer algorithms are introduced for wireless communication systems to combat channel distortions resulting from multipath propagation. The novel algorithms are based on newly derived bounds on the probability of error (PE and guarantee better performance than the traditional zero forcing (ZF or minimum mean square error (MMSE algorithms. The new equalization methods require channel state information which is obtained by a fast adaptive channel identification algorithm. As a result, the combined convergence time needed for channel identification and PE minimization still remains smaller than the convergence time of traditional adaptive algorithms, yielding real-time equalization. The performance of the new algorithms is tested by extensive simulations on standard mobile channels.

  10. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Aniseikonia quantification: error rate of rule of thumb estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkin, V; Shippman, S; Bennett, G; Meininger, D; Kramer, P; Poppinga, P

    1999-01-01

    To find the error rate in quantifying aniseikonia by using "Rule of Thumb" estimation in comparison with proven space eikonometry. Study 1: 24 adult pseudophakic individuals were measured for anisometropia, and astigmatic interocular difference. Rule of Thumb quantification for prescription was calculated and compared with aniseikonia measurement by the classical Essilor Projection Space Eikonometer. Study 2: parallel analysis was performed on 62 consecutive phakic patients from our strabismus clinic group. Frequency of error: For Group 1 (24 cases): 5 ( or 21 %) were equal (i.e., 1% or less difference); 16 (or 67% ) were greater (more than 1% different); and 3 (13%) were less by Rule of Thumb calculation in comparison to aniseikonia determined on the Essilor eikonometer. For Group 2 (62 cases): 45 (or 73%) were equal (1% or less); 10 (or 16%) were greater; and 7 (or 11%) were lower in the Rule of Thumb calculations in comparison to Essilor eikonometry. Magnitude of error: In Group 1, in 10/24 (29%) aniseikonia by Rule of Thumb estimation was 100% or more greater than by space eikonometry, and in 6 of those ten by 200% or more. In Group 2, in 4/62 (6%) aniseikonia by Rule of Thumb estimation was 200% or more greater than by space eikonometry. The frequency and magnitude of apparent clinical errors of Rule of Thumb estimation is disturbingly large. This problem is greatly magnified by the time and effort and cost of prescribing and executing an aniseikonic correction for a patient. The higher the refractive error, the greater the anisometropia, and the worse the errors in Rule of Thumb estimation of aniseikonia. Accurate eikonometric methods and devices should be employed in all cases where such measurements can be made. Rule of thumb estimations should be limited to cases where such subjective testing and measurement cannot be performed, as in infants after unilateral cataract surgery.

  12. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  13. Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buset, Jonathan M; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10(-10) over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

  14. 45 CFR 98.100 - Error Rate Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND... the total dollar amount of payments made in the sample); the average amount of improper payment; and... not received. (e) Costs of Preparing the Error Rate Report—Provided the error rate calculations and...

  15. Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Heckman, Kenneth; Vivenzio, Todd; Nissen, Kristopher; Wolfsberger, Luciant D.; Cormack, Robert A.; Mauch, Peter; Ng, Andrea K. [Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)-conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique

  16. Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Heckman, Kenneth; Vivenzio, Todd; Nissen, Kristopher; Wolfsberger, Luciant D.; Cormack, Robert A.; Mauch, Peter; Ng, Andrea K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)–conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique

  17. Logical error rate scaling of the toric code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Fern H E; Barrett, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    To date, a great deal of attention has focused on characterizing the performance of quantum error correcting codes via their thresholds, the maximum correctable physical error rate for a given noise model and decoding strategy. Practical quantum computers will necessarily operate below these thresholds meaning that other performance indicators become important. In this work we consider the scaling of the logical error rate of the toric code and demonstrate how, in turn, this may be used to calculate a key performance indicator. We use a perfect matching decoding algorithm to find the scaling of the logical error rate and find two distinct operating regimes. The first regime admits a universal scaling analysis due to a mapping to a statistical physics model. The second regime characterizes the behaviour in the limit of small physical error rate and can be understood by counting the error configurations leading to the failure of the decoder. We present a conjecture for the ranges of validity of these two regimes and use them to quantify the overhead—the total number of physical qubits required to perform error correction. (paper)

  18. Process error rates in general research applications to the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine process error rates in applications for ethics clearance of health research. Methods. Minutes of 586 general research applications made to a human health research ethics committee (HREC) from April 2008 to March 2009 were examined. Rates of approval were calculated and reasons for requiring ...

  19. High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, A R; Sato, H

    2014-12-02

    Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.

  20. Individual Differences and Rating Errors in First Impressions of Psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. A. Gillen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study is the first to investigate whether individual differences in personality are related to improved first impression accuracy when appraising psychopathy in female offenders from thin-slices of information. The study also investigated the types of errors laypeople make when forming these judgments. Sixty-seven undergraduates assessed 22 offenders on their level of psychopathy, violence, likability, and attractiveness. Psychopathy rating accuracy improved as rater extroversion-sociability and agreeableness increased and when neuroticism and lifestyle and antisocial characteristics decreased. These results suggest that traits associated with nonverbal rating accuracy or social functioning may be important in threat detection. Raters also made errors consistent with error management theory, suggesting that laypeople overappraise danger when rating psychopathy.

  1. A critique of recent models for human error rate assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper critically reviews two groups of models for assessing human error rates under accident conditions. The first group, which includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) handbook model and the human cognitive reliability (HCR) model, considers as fundamental the time that is available to the operators to act. The second group, which is represented by the success likelihood index methodology multiattribute utility decomposition (SLIM-MAUD) model, relies on ratings of the human actions with respect to certain qualitative factors and the subsequent derivation of error rates. These models are evaluated with respect to two criteria: the treatment of uncertainties and the internal coherence of the models. In other words, this evaluation focuses primarily on normative aspects of these models. The principal findings are as follows: (1) Both of the time-related models provide human error rates as a function of the available time for action and the prevailing conditions. However, the HCR model ignores the important issue of state-of-knowledge uncertainties, dealing exclusively with stochastic uncertainty, whereas the model presented in the NRC handbook handles both types of uncertainty. (2) SLIM-MAUD provides a highly structured approach for the derivation of human error rates under given conditions. However, the treatment of the weights and ratings in this model is internally inconsistent. (author)

  2. Evaluation of soft errors rate in a commercial memory EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Silva, A.A.; Santos, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Soft errors are transient circuit errors caused by external radiation. When an ion intercepts a p-n region in an electronic component, the ionization produces excess charges along the track. These charges when collected can flip internal values, especially in memory cells. The problem affects not only space application but also terrestrial ones. Neutrons induced by cosmic rays and alpha particles, emitted from traces of radioactive contaminants contained in packaging and chip materials, are the predominant sources of radiation. The soft error susceptibility is different for different memory technology hence the experimental study are very important for Soft Error Rate (SER) evaluation. In this work, the methodology for accelerated tests is presented with the results for SER in a commercial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). (author)

  3. The 95% confidence intervals of error rates and discriminant coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisher proposed a linear discriminant function (Fisher’s LDF. From 1971, we analysed electrocardiogram (ECG data in order to develop the diagnostic logic between normal and abnormal symptoms by Fisher’s LDF and a quadratic discriminant function (QDF. Our four years research was inferior to the decision tree logic developed by the medical doctor. After this experience, we discriminated many data and found four problems of the discriminant analysis. A revised Optimal LDF by Integer Programming (Revised IP-OLDF based on the minimum number of misclassification (minimum NM criterion resolves three problems entirely [13, 18]. In this research, we discuss fourth problem of the discriminant analysis. There are no standard errors (SEs of the error rate and discriminant coefficient. We propose a k-fold crossvalidation method. This method offers a model selection technique and a 95% confidence intervals (C.I. of error rates and discriminant coefficients.

  4. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  5. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  6. Estimating error rates for firearm evidence identifications in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Chu, Wei; Yen, James; Soons, Johannes A.; Ott, Daniel B.; Zhang, Nien Fan

    2018-01-01

    Estimating error rates for firearm evidence identification is a fundamental challenge in forensic science. This paper describes the recently developed congruent matching cells (CMC) method for image comparisons, its application to firearm evidence identification, and its usage and initial tests for error rate estimation. The CMC method divides compared topography images into correlation cells. Four identification parameters are defined for quantifying both the topography similarity of the correlated cell pairs and the pattern congruency of the registered cell locations. A declared match requires a significant number of CMCs, i.e., cell pairs that meet all similarity and congruency requirements. Initial testing on breech face impressions of a set of 40 cartridge cases fired with consecutively manufactured pistol slides showed wide separation between the distributions of CMC numbers observed for known matching and known non-matching image pairs. Another test on 95 cartridge cases from a different set of slides manufactured by the same process also yielded widely separated distributions. The test results were used to develop two statistical models for the probability mass function of CMC correlation scores. The models were applied to develop a framework for estimating cumulative false positive and false negative error rates and individual error rates of declared matches and non-matches for this population of breech face impressions. The prospect for applying the models to large populations and realistic case work is also discussed. The CMC method can provide a statistical foundation for estimating error rates in firearm evidence identifications, thus emulating methods used for forensic identification of DNA evidence. PMID:29331680

  7. Error rate performance of narrowband multilevel CPFSK signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, N.; Fonseka, K. J. P.

    1987-04-01

    The paper presents a relatively simple method for analyzing the effect of IF filtering on the performance of multilevel FM signals. Using this method, the error rate performance of narrowband FM signals is analyzed for three different detection techniques, namely limiter-discriminator detection, differential detection and coherent detection followed by differential decoding. The symbol error probabilities are computed for a Gaussian IF filter and a second-order Butterworth IF filter. It is shown that coherent detection and differential decoding yields better performance than limiter-discriminator detection and differential detection, whereas two noncoherent detectors yield approximately identical performance.

  8. Asynchronous LMS adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.; Modrie, D.; Otte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also operate in the asynchronous clock domain. Existing adaptation techniques for this equalizer involve an error sequence ek that

  9. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)

  10. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Lindholm, Lars; Ng, Nawi; Ohman, Ann

    2011-08-26

    Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements

  11. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  12. A novel interpolation approach for reducing clock-rate in multilevel decision feedback equalization detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, G.; Lee, Y.X.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Mutoh, H.; Wang, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The multilevel decision feedback equalization (MxDFE) family of detectors provides excellent performance over (1, 7)-coded magnetic recording channels, while being simple in structure. However, the reduced code-rate of 2/3 increases the channel data rate by 50% compared to the user data rate.

  13. Modeling of Bit Error Rate in Cascaded 2R Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    and the regenerating nonlinearity is investigated. It is shown that an increase in nonlinearity can compensate for an increase in noise figure or decrease in signal power. Furthermore, the influence of the improvement in signal extinction ratio along the cascade and the importance of choosing the proper threshold......This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments...

  14. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  15. Minimizing Symbol Error Rate for Cognitive Relaying with Opportunistic Access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-12-29

    In this paper, we present an optimal resource allocation scheme (ORA) for an all-participate(AP) cognitive relay network that minimizes the symbol error rate (SER). The SER is derived and different constraints are considered on the system. We consider the cases of both individual and global power constraints, individual constraints only and global constraints only. Numerical results show that the ORA scheme outperforms the schemes with direct link only and uniform power allocation (UPA) in terms of minimizing the SER for all three cases of different constraints. Numerical results also show that the individual constraints only case provides the best performance at large signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR).

  16. Accelerated testing for cosmic soft-error rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.; Muhlfeld, H.P.; Montrose, C.J.; Curtis, H.W.; O'Gorman, T.J.; Ross, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental techniques which have been developed at IBM to determine the sensitivity of electronic circuits to cosmic rays at sea level. It relates IBM circuit design and modeling, chip manufacture with process variations, and chip testing for SER sensitivity. This vertical integration from design to final test and with feedback to design allows a complete picture of LSI sensitivity to cosmic rays. Since advanced computers are designed with LSI chips long before the chips have been fabricated, and the system architecture is fully formed before the first chips are functional, it is essential to establish the chip reliability as early as possible. This paper establishes techniques to test chips that are only partly functional (e.g., only 1Mb of a 16Mb memory may be working) and can establish chip soft-error upset rates before final chip manufacturing begins. Simple relationships derived from measurement of more than 80 different chips manufactured over 20 years allow total cosmic soft-error rate (SER) to be estimated after only limited testing. Comparisons between these accelerated test results and similar tests determined by ''field testing'' (which may require a year or more of testing after manufacturing begins) show that the experimental techniques are accurate to a factor of 2

  17. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation where the detector may use maximum ration combining (MRC) or selection combining (SC). Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over linear network (LN) architecture and considering Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. The decline and fall of Type II error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Mark Durst

    2005-01-01

    For general linear models with normally distributed random errors, the probability of a Type II error decreases exponentially as a function of sample size. This potentially rapid decline reemphasizes the importance of performing power calculations.

  19. Low dose rate gamma ray induced loss and data error rate of multimode silica fibre links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Fanet, H.; Serre, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fiber optics data transmission from numerous multiplexed sensors, is potentially attractive for nuclear plant applications. Multimode silica fiber behaviour during steady state gamma ray exposure is studied as a joint programme between LETI CE/SACLAY and EDF Renardieres: transmitted optical power and bit error rate have been measured on a 100 m optical fiber

  20. A Fast Soft Bit Error Rate Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait-Idir Tarik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have suggested in a previous publication a method to estimate the Bit Error Rate (BER of a digital communications system instead of using the famous Monte Carlo (MC simulation. This method was based on the estimation of the probability density function (pdf of soft observed samples. The kernel method was used for the pdf estimation. In this paper, we suggest to use a Gaussian Mixture (GM model. The Expectation Maximisation algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of this mixture. The optimal number of Gaussians is computed by using Mutual Information Theory. The analytical expression of the BER is therefore simply given by using the different estimated parameters of the Gaussian Mixture. Simulation results are presented to compare the three mentioned methods: Monte Carlo, Kernel and Gaussian Mixture. We analyze the performance of the proposed BER estimator in the framework of a multiuser code division multiple access system and show that attractive performance is achieved compared with conventional MC or Kernel aided techniques. The results show that the GM method can drastically reduce the needed number of samples to estimate the BER in order to reduce the required simulation run-time, even at very low BER.

  1. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  2. Bit Error Rate Analysis for MC-CDMA Systems in Nakagami- Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zexian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA is a promising technique that combines orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM with CDMA. In this paper, based on an alternative expression for the -function, characteristic function and Gaussian approximation, we present a new practical technique for determining the bit error rate (BER of multiuser MC-CDMA systems in frequency-selective Nakagami- fading channels. The results are applicable to systems employing coherent demodulation with maximal ratio combining (MRC or equal gain combining (EGC. The analysis assumes that different subcarriers experience independent fading channels, which are not necessarily identically distributed. The final average BER is expressed in the form of a single finite range integral and an integrand composed of tabulated functions which can be easily computed numerically. The accuracy of the proposed approach is demonstrated with computer simulations.

  3. Analysis of gross error rates in operation of commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, D.W.; Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Experience in operation of US commercial nuclear power plants is reviewed over a 25-month period. The reports accumulated in that period on events of human error and component failure are examined to evaluate gross operator error rates. The impact of such errors on plant operation and safety is examined through the use of proper taxonomies of error, tasks and failures. Four categories of human errors are considered; namely, operator, maintenance, installation and administrative. The computed error rates are used to examine appropriate operator models for evaluation of operator reliability. Human error rates are found to be significant to a varying degree in both BWR and PWR. This emphasizes the import of considering human factors in safety and reliability analysis of nuclear systems. The results also indicate that human errors, and especially operator errors, do indeed follow the exponential reliability model. (Auth.)

  4. Three-class ROC analysis--the equal error utility assumption and the optimality of three-class ROC surface using the ideal observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-08-01

    Previously, we have developed a decision model for three-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on decision theory. The proposed decision model maximizes the expected decision utility under the assumption that incorrect decisions have equal utilities under the same hypothesis (equal error utility assumption). This assumption reduced the dimensionality of the "general" three-class ROC analysis and provided a practical figure-of-merit to evaluate the three-class task performance. However, it also limits the generality of the resulting model because the equal error utility assumption will not apply for all clinical three-class decision tasks. The goal of this study was to investigate the optimality of the proposed three-class decision model with respect to several other decision criteria. In particular, besides the maximum expected utility (MEU) criterion used in the previous study, we investigated the maximum-correctness (MC) (or minimum-error), maximum likelihood (ML), and Nyman-Pearson (N-P) criteria. We found that by making assumptions for both MEU and N-P criteria, all decision criteria lead to the previously-proposed three-class decision model. As a result, this model maximizes the expected utility under the equal error utility assumption, maximizes the probability of making correct decisions, satisfies the N-P criterion in the sense that it maximizes the sensitivity of one class given the sensitivities of the other two classes, and the resulting ROC surface contains the maximum likelihood decision operating point. While the proposed three-class ROC analysis model is not optimal in the general sense due to the use of the equal error utility assumption, the range of criteria for which it is optimal increases its applicability for evaluating and comparing a range of diagnostic systems.

  5. A Six Sigma Trial For Reduction of Error Rates in Pathology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosuner, Zeynep; Gücin, Zühal; Kiran, Tuğçe; Büyükpinarbaşili, Nur; Turna, Seval; Taşkiran, Olcay; Arici, Dilek Sema

    2016-01-01

    A major target of quality assurance is the minimization of error rates in order to enhance patient safety. Six Sigma is a method targeting zero error (3.4 errors per million events) used in industry. The five main principles of Six Sigma are defining, measuring, analysis, improvement and control. Using this methodology, the causes of errors can be examined and process improvement strategies can be identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of Six Sigma methodology in error reduction in our pathology laboratory. The errors encountered between April 2014 and April 2015 were recorded by the pathology personnel. Error follow-up forms were examined by the quality control supervisor, administrative supervisor and the head of the department. Using Six Sigma methodology, the rate of errors was measured monthly and the distribution of errors at the preanalytic, analytic and postanalytical phases was analysed. Improvement strategies were reclaimed in the monthly intradepartmental meetings and the control of the units with high error rates was provided. Fifty-six (52.4%) of 107 recorded errors in total were at the pre-analytic phase. Forty-five errors (42%) were recorded as analytical and 6 errors (5.6%) as post-analytical. Two of the 45 errors were major irrevocable errors. The error rate was 6.8 per million in the first half of the year and 1.3 per million in the second half, decreasing by 79.77%. The Six Sigma trial in our pathology laboratory provided the reduction of the error rates mainly in the pre-analytic and analytic phases.

  6. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2016-12-24

    In this work, we present a bit error rate (BER) and achievable spectral efficiency (ASE) performance of a freespace optical (FSO) link with pointing errors based on intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection over general Malaga turbulence channel. More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for adaptive and non-adaptive transmission. The closed form expressions are presented in terms of generalized power series of the Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results.

  7. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness as Predictors of University Students' Self/Peer-Assessment Rating Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Parviz; Siyyari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the role of two personality traits (i.e. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness from the Big Five personality traits) in predicting rating error in the self-assessment and peer-assessment of composition writing. The average self/peer-rating errors of 136 Iranian English major undergraduates…

  8. National Suicide Rates a Century after Durkheim: Do We Know Enough to Estimate Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Yip, Paul S.; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Currier, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the…

  9. Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    rate. As the need for 100 Gigabit Ethernet equipment rises, so does the need for equipment, which can properly test these systems during development, deployment and use. This paper presents early results from a work-in-progress academia-industry collaboration project and elaborates on the challenges...

  10. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Dispensing error rate after implementation of an automated pharmacy carousel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Scott; Caldwell, Richard

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine filling and dispensing error rates before and after the implementation of an automated pharmacy carousel system (APCS). The study was conducted in a 613-bed acute and tertiary care university hospital. Before the implementation of the APCS, filling and dispensing rates were recorded during October through November 2004 and January 2005. Postimplementation data were collected during May through June 2006. Errors were recorded in three areas of pharmacy operations: first-dose or missing medication fill, automated dispensing cabinet fill, and interdepartmental request fill. A filling error was defined as an error caught by a pharmacist during the verification step. A dispensing error was defined as an error caught by a pharmacist observer after verification by the pharmacist. Before implementation of the APCS, 422 first-dose or missing medication orders were observed between October 2004 and January 2005. Independent data collected in December 2005, approximately six weeks after the introduction of the APCS, found that filling and error rates had increased. The filling rate for automated dispensing cabinets was associated with the largest decrease in errors. Filling and dispensing error rates had decreased by December 2005. In terms of interdepartmental request fill, no dispensing errors were noted in 123 clinic orders dispensed before the implementation of the APCS. One dispensing error out of 85 clinic orders was identified after implementation of the APCS. The implementation of an APCS at a university hospital decreased medication filling errors related to automated cabinets only and did not affect other filling and dispensing errors.

  12. Short-read reading-frame predictors are not created equal: sequence error causes loss of signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimble William L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene prediction algorithms (or gene callers are an essential tool for analyzing shotgun nucleic acid sequence data. Gene prediction is a ubiquitous step in sequence analysis pipelines; it reduces the volume of data by identifying the most likely reading frame for a fragment, permitting the out-of-frame translations to be ignored. In this study we evaluate five widely used ab initio gene-calling algorithms—FragGeneScan, MetaGeneAnnotator, MetaGeneMark, Orphelia, and Prodigal—for accuracy on short (75–1000 bp fragments containing sequence error from previously published artificial data and “real” metagenomic datasets. Results While gene prediction tools have similar accuracies predicting genes on error-free fragments, in the presence of sequencing errors considerable differences between tools become evident. For error-containing short reads, FragGeneScan finds more prokaryotic coding regions than does MetaGeneAnnotator, MetaGeneMark, Orphelia, or Prodigal. This improved detection of genes in error-containing fragments, however, comes at the cost of much lower (50% specificity and overprediction of genes in noncoding regions. Conclusions Ab initio gene callers offer a significant reduction in the computational burden of annotating individual nucleic acid reads and are used in many metagenomic annotation systems. For predicting reading frames on raw reads, we find the hidden Markov model approach in FragGeneScan is more sensitive than other gene prediction tools, while Prodigal, MGA, and MGM are better suited for higher-quality sequences such as assembled contigs.

  13. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  14. Double symbol error rates for differential detection of narrow-band FM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper evaluates the double symbol error rate (average probability of two consecutive symbol errors) in differentially detected narrow-band FM. Numerical results are presented for the special case of MSK with a Gaussian IF receive filter. It is shown that, not unlike similar results previously obtained for the single error probability of such systems, large inaccuracies in predicted performance can occur when intersymbol interference is ignored.

  15. Prepopulated radiology report templates: a prospective analysis of error rate and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C M; Hall, S; Hardin, J; Salisbury, S; Towbin, A J

    2012-08-01

    Current speech recognition software allows exam-specific standard reports to be prepopulated into the dictation field based on the radiology information system procedure code. While it is thought that prepopulating reports can decrease the time required to dictate a study and the overall number of errors in the final report, this hypothesis has not been studied in a clinical setting. A prospective study was performed. During the first week, radiologists dictated all studies using prepopulated standard reports. During the second week, all studies were dictated after prepopulated reports had been disabled. Final radiology reports were evaluated for 11 different types of errors. Each error within a report was classified individually. The median time required to dictate an exam was compared between the 2 weeks. There were 12,387 reports dictated during the study, of which, 1,173 randomly distributed reports were analyzed for errors. There was no difference in the number of errors per report between the 2 weeks; however, radiologists overwhelmingly preferred using a standard report both weeks. Grammatical errors were by far the most common error type, followed by missense errors and errors of omission. There was no significant difference in the median dictation time when comparing studies performed each week. The use of prepopulated reports does not alone affect the error rate or dictation time of radiology reports. While it is a useful feature for radiologists, it must be coupled with other strategies in order to decrease errors.

  16. Soft error rate simulation and initial design considerations of neutron intercepting silicon chip (NISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Cihangir

    Advances in microelectronics result in sub-micrometer electronic technologies as predicted by Moore's Law, 1965, which states the number of transistors in a given space would double every two years. The most available memory architectures today have submicrometer transistor dimensions. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), a continuation of Moore's Law, predicts that Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) will have an average half pitch size of 50 nm and Microprocessor Units (MPU) will have an average gate length of 30 nm over the period of 2008-2012. Decreases in the dimensions satisfy the producer and consumer requirements of low power consumption, more data storage for a given space, faster clock speed, and portability of integrated circuits (IC), particularly memories. On the other hand, these properties also lead to a higher susceptibility of IC designs to temperature, magnetic interference, power supply, and environmental noise, and radiation. Radiation can directly or indirectly affect device operation. When a single energetic particle strikes a sensitive node in the micro-electronic device, it can cause a permanent or transient malfunction in the device. This behavior is called a Single Event Effect (SEE). SEEs are mostly transient errors that generate an electric pulse which alters the state of a logic node in the memory device without having a permanent effect on the functionality of the device. This is called a Single Event Upset (SEU) or Soft Error . Contrary to SEU, Single Event Latchup (SEL), Single Event Gate Rapture (SEGR), or Single Event Burnout (SEB) they have permanent effects on the device operation and a system reset or recovery is needed to return to proper operations. The rate at which a device or system encounters soft errors is defined as Soft Error Rate (SER). The semiconductor industry has been struggling with SEEs and is taking necessary measures in order to continue to improve system designs in nano

  17. Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Naomi H; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (≥10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems.

  18. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: Definition, numbers, impact and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, A.; Sjerps, M.; Quak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and

  19. Classification based upon gene expression data: bias and precision of error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ian A; Visscher, Peter M; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2007-06-01

    Gene expression data offer a large number of potentially useful predictors for the classification of tissue samples into classes, such as diseased and non-diseased. The predictive error rate of classifiers can be estimated using methods such as cross-validation. We have investigated issues of interpretation and potential bias in the reporting of error rate estimates. The issues considered here are optimization and selection biases, sampling effects, measures of misclassification rate, baseline error rates, two-level external cross-validation and a novel proposal for detection of bias using the permutation mean. Reporting an optimal estimated error rate incurs an optimization bias. Downward bias of 3-5% was found in an existing study of classification based on gene expression data and may be endemic in similar studies. Using a simulated non-informative dataset and two example datasets from existing studies, we show how bias can be detected through the use of label permutations and avoided using two-level external cross-validation. Some studies avoid optimization bias by using single-level cross-validation and a test set, but error rates can be more accurately estimated via two-level cross-validation. In addition to estimating the simple overall error rate, we recommend reporting class error rates plus where possible the conditional risk incorporating prior class probabilities and a misclassification cost matrix. We also describe baseline error rates derived from three trivial classifiers which ignore the predictors. R code which implements two-level external cross-validation with the PAMR package, experiment code, dataset details and additional figures are freely available for non-commercial use from http://www.maths.qut.edu.au/profiles/wood/permr.jsp

  20. Confidence Intervals Verification for Simulated Error Rate Performance of Wireless Communication System

    KAUST Repository

    Smadi, Mahmoud A.; Ghaeb, Jasim A.; Jazzar, Saleh; Saraereh, Omar A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derived an efficient simulation method to evaluate the error rate of wireless communication system. Coherent binary phase-shift keying system is considered with imperfect channel phase recovery. The results presented demonstrate

  1. Distribution of the Determinant of the Sample Correlation Matrix: Monte Carlo Type One Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Computer sampling from a multivariate normal spherical population was used to evaluate the type one error rates for a test of sphericity based on the distribution of the determinant of the sample correlation matrix. (Author/LMO)

  2. Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric and Nonparametric Tests of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1987-01-01

    Estimated Type I Error rates and power are reported for the Brown-Forsythe, O'Brien, Klotz, and Siegal-Tukey procedures. The effect of aligning the data using deviations from group means or group medians is investigated. (RB)

  3. The study of error for analysis in dynamic image from the error of count rates in Nal (Tl) scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joo Young; Kang, Chun Goo; Kim, Jung Yul; Oh, Ki Baek; Kim, Jae Sam; Park, Hoon Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of T 1/2 upon count rates in the analysis of dynamic scan using NaI (Tl) scintillation camera, and suggest a new quality control method with this effects. We producted a point source with '9 9m TcO 4 - of 18.5 to 185 MBq in the 2 mL syringes, and acquired 30 frames of dynamic images with 10 to 60 seconds each using Infinia gamma camera (GE, USA). In the second experiment, 90 frames of dynamic images were acquired from 74 MBq point source by 5 gamma cameras (Infinia 2, Forte 2, Argus 1). There were not significant differences in average count rates of the sources with 18.5 to 92.5 MBq in the analysis of 10 to 60 seconds/frame with 10 seconds interval in the first experiment (p>0.05). But there were significantly low average count rates with the sources over 111 MBq activity at 60 seconds/frame (p<0.01). According to the second analysis results of linear regression by count rates of 5 gamma cameras those were acquired during 90 minutes, counting efficiency of fourth gamma camera was most low as 0.0064%, and gradient and coefficient of variation was high as 0.0042 and 0.229 each. We could not find abnormal fluctuation in χ 2 test with count rates (p>0.02), and we could find the homogeneity of variance in Levene's F-test among the gamma cameras (p>0.05). At the correlation analysis, there was only correlation between counting efficiency and gradient as significant negative correlation (r=-0.90, p<0.05). Lastly, according to the results of calculation of T 1/2 error from change of gradient with -0.25% to +0.25%, if T 1/2 is relatively long, or gradient is high, the error increase relationally. When estimate the value of 4th camera which has highest gradient from the above mentioned result, we could not see T 1/2 error within 60 minutes at that value. In conclusion, it is necessary for the scintillation gamma camera in medical field to manage hard for the quality of radiation measurement. Especially, we found a

  4. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  5. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  6. Inflation of type I error rates by unequal variances associated with parametric, nonparametric, and Rank-Transformation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Zimmerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the two-sample Student t test fails to maintain its significance level when the variances of treatment groups are unequal, and, at the same time, sample sizes are unequal. However, introductory textbooks in psychology and education often maintain that the test is robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal. The present study discloses that, for a wide variety of non-normal distributions, especially skewed distributions, the Type I error probabilities of both the t test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test are substantially inflated by heterogeneous variances, even when sample sizes are equal. The Type I error rate of the t test performed on ranks replacing the scores (rank-transformed data is inflated in the same way and always corresponds closely to that of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. For many probability densities, the distortion of the significance level is far greater after transformation to ranks and, contrary to known asymptotic properties, the magnitude of the inflation is an increasing function of sample size. Although nonparametric tests of location also can be sensitive to differences in the shape of distributions apart from location, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and rank-transformation tests apparently are influenced mainly by skewness that is accompanied by specious differences in the means of ranks.

  7. On Kolmogorov asymptotics of estimators of the misclassification error rate in linear discriminant analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zollanvari, Amin

    2013-05-24

    We provide a fundamental theorem that can be used in conjunction with Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions to derive the first moments of well-known estimators of the actual error rate in linear discriminant analysis of a multivariate Gaussian model under the assumption of a common known covariance matrix. The estimators studied in this paper are plug-in and smoothed resubstitution error estimators, both of which have not been studied before under Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions. As a result of this work, we present an optimal smoothing parameter that makes the smoothed resubstitution an unbiased estimator of the true error. For the sake of completeness, we further show how to utilize the presented fundamental theorem to achieve several previously reported results, namely the first moment of the resubstitution estimator and the actual error rate. We provide numerical examples to show the accuracy of the succeeding finite sample approximations in situations where the number of dimensions is comparable or even larger than the sample size.

  8. On Kolmogorov asymptotics of estimators of the misclassification error rate in linear discriminant analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zollanvari, Amin; Genton, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a fundamental theorem that can be used in conjunction with Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions to derive the first moments of well-known estimators of the actual error rate in linear discriminant analysis of a multivariate Gaussian model under the assumption of a common known covariance matrix. The estimators studied in this paper are plug-in and smoothed resubstitution error estimators, both of which have not been studied before under Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions. As a result of this work, we present an optimal smoothing parameter that makes the smoothed resubstitution an unbiased estimator of the true error. For the sake of completeness, we further show how to utilize the presented fundamental theorem to achieve several previously reported results, namely the first moment of the resubstitution estimator and the actual error rate. We provide numerical examples to show the accuracy of the succeeding finite sample approximations in situations where the number of dimensions is comparable or even larger than the sample size.

  9. Estimating the annotation error rate of curated GO database sequence annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alfred L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annotations that describe the function of sequences are enormously important to researchers during laboratory investigations and when making computational inferences. However, there has been little investigation into the data quality of sequence function annotations. Here we have developed a new method of estimating the error rate of curated sequence annotations, and applied this to the Gene Ontology (GO sequence database (GOSeqLite. This method involved artificially adding errors to sequence annotations at known rates, and used regression to model the impact on the precision of annotations based on BLAST matched sequences. Results We estimated the error rate of curated GO sequence annotations in the GOSeqLite database (March 2006 at between 28% and 30%. Annotations made without use of sequence similarity based methods (non-ISS had an estimated error rate of between 13% and 18%. Annotations made with the use of sequence similarity methodology (ISS had an estimated error rate of 49%. Conclusion While the overall error rate is reasonably low, it would be prudent to treat all ISS annotations with caution. Electronic annotators that use ISS annotations as the basis of predictions are likely to have higher false prediction rates, and for this reason designers of these systems should consider avoiding ISS annotations where possible. Electronic annotators that use ISS annotations to make predictions should be viewed sceptically. We recommend that curators thoroughly review ISS annotations before accepting them as valid. Overall, users of curated sequence annotations from the GO database should feel assured that they are using a comparatively high quality source of information.

  10. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Canis Lupus LLC and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Departments of Human Oncology, Medical Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa

  12. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between

  13. A novel multitemporal insar model for joint estimation of deformation rates and orbital errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lei

    2014-06-01

    Orbital errors, characterized typically as longwavelength artifacts, commonly exist in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery as a result of inaccurate determination of the sensor state vector. Orbital errors degrade the precision of multitemporal InSAR products (i.e., ground deformation). Although research on orbital error reduction has been ongoing for nearly two decades and several algorithms for reducing the effect of the errors are already in existence, the errors cannot always be corrected efficiently and reliably. We propose a novel model that is able to jointly estimate deformation rates and orbital errors based on the different spatialoral characteristics of the two types of signals. The proposed model is able to isolate a long-wavelength ground motion signal from the orbital error even when the two types of signals exhibit similar spatial patterns. The proposed algorithm is efficient and requires no ground control points. In addition, the method is built upon wrapped phases of interferograms, eliminating the need of phase unwrapping. The performance of the proposed model is validated using both simulated and real data sets. The demo codes of the proposed model are also provided for reference. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rates and productivity in MRI reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Rodney H; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E

    2010-10-01

    Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalized MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Forty-two % and 30% of the finalized VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rated and productivity in MRI reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahan, Rodney H.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Methods: Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalised MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Results: Forty-two % and 30% of the finalised VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR.

  16. Invariance of the bit error rate in the ancilla-assisted homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the minimum achievable bit error rate of the discrimination of binary coherent states with the help of arbitrary ancillary states. We adopt homodyne measurement with a common phase of the local oscillator and classical feedforward control. After one ancillary state is measured, its outcome is referred to the preparation of the next ancillary state and the tuning of the next mixing with the signal. It is shown that the minimum bit error rate of the system is invariant under the following operations: feedforward control, deformations, and introduction of any ancillary state. We also discuss the possible generalization of the homodyne detection scheme.

  17. Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, S.

    2003-01-01

    We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed.......We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed....

  18. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Generalized Selection Combining Scheme in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousa Maan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of fading on mobile communication channels calls for the combining of multiple diversity sources to achieve acceptable error rate performance. Traditional approaches perform the combining of the different diversity sources using either the conventional selective diversity combining (CSC, equal-gain combining (EGC, or maximal-ratio combining (MRC schemes. CSC and MRC are the two extremes of compromise between performance quality and complexity. Some researches have proposed a generalized selection combining scheme (GSC that combines the best branches out of the available diversity resources ( . In this paper, we analyze a generalized selection combining scheme based on a threshold criterion rather than a fixed-size subset of the best channels. In this scheme, only those diversity branches whose energy levels are above a specified threshold are combined. Closed-form analytical solutions for the BER performances of this scheme over Nakagami fading channels are derived. We also discuss the merits of this scheme over GSC.

  19. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed

  20. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  1. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  2. Demonstrating the robustness of population surveillance data: implications of error rates on demographic and mortality estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottrell, Edward; Byass, Peter; Berhane, Yemane

    2008-03-25

    As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs). Vital events are likely to be missed and errors made no matter what method of data capture is used or what quality control procedures are in place. The extent to which random errors in large, longitudinal datasets affect overall health and demographic profiles has important implications for the role of DSSs as platforms for public health research and clinical trials. Such knowledge is also of particular importance if the outputs of DSSs are to be extrapolated and aggregated with realistic margins of error and validity. This study uses the first 10-year dataset from the Butajira Rural Health Project (BRHP) DSS, Ethiopia, covering approximately 336,000 person-years of data. Simple programmes were written to introduce random errors and omissions into new versions of the definitive 10-year Butajira dataset. Key parameters of sex, age, death, literacy and roof material (an indicator of poverty) were selected for the introduction of errors based on their obvious importance in demographic and health surveillance and their established significant associations with mortality. Defining the original 10-year dataset as the 'gold standard' for the purposes of this investigation, population, age and sex compositions and Poisson regression models of mortality rate ratios were compared between each of the intentionally erroneous datasets and the original 'gold standard' 10-year data. The composition of the Butajira population was well represented despite introducing random errors, and differences between population pyramids based on the derived datasets were subtle. Regression analyses of well-established mortality risk factors were largely unaffected even by relatively high levels of random errors in the data. The low sensitivity of parameter estimates and regression analyses to significant amounts of

  3. Demonstrating the robustness of population surveillance data: implications of error rates on demographic and mortality estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs. Vital events are likely to be missed and errors made no matter what method of data capture is used or what quality control procedures are in place. The extent to which random errors in large, longitudinal datasets affect overall health and demographic profiles has important implications for the role of DSSs as platforms for public health research and clinical trials. Such knowledge is also of particular importance if the outputs of DSSs are to be extrapolated and aggregated with realistic margins of error and validity. Methods This study uses the first 10-year dataset from the Butajira Rural Health Project (BRHP DSS, Ethiopia, covering approximately 336,000 person-years of data. Simple programmes were written to introduce random errors and omissions into new versions of the definitive 10-year Butajira dataset. Key parameters of sex, age, death, literacy and roof material (an indicator of poverty were selected for the introduction of errors based on their obvious importance in demographic and health surveillance and their established significant associations with mortality. Defining the original 10-year dataset as the 'gold standard' for the purposes of this investigation, population, age and sex compositions and Poisson regression models of mortality rate ratios were compared between each of the intentionally erroneous datasets and the original 'gold standard' 10-year data. Results The composition of the Butajira population was well represented despite introducing random errors, and differences between population pyramids based on the derived datasets were subtle. Regression analyses of well-established mortality risk factors were largely unaffected even by relatively high levels of random errors in the data. Conclusion The low sensitivity of parameter

  4. Benefits and risks of using smart pumps to reduce medication error rates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Dalleur, Olivia; Dykes, Patricia C; Bates, David W

    2014-12-01

    Smart infusion pumps have been introduced to prevent medication errors and have been widely adopted nationally in the USA, though they are not always used in Europe or other regions. Despite widespread usage of smart pumps, intravenous medication errors have not been fully eliminated. Through a systematic review of recent studies and reports regarding smart pump implementation and use, we aimed to identify the impact of smart pumps on error reduction and on the complex process of medication administration, and strategies to maximize the benefits of smart pumps. The medical literature related to the effects of smart pumps for improving patient safety was searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2000-2014) and relevant papers were selected by two researchers. After the literature search, 231 papers were identified and the full texts of 138 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 22 were included after removal of papers that did not meet the inclusion criteria. We assessed both the benefits and negative effects of smart pumps from these studies. One of the benefits of using smart pumps was intercepting errors such as the wrong rate, wrong dose, and pump setting errors. Other benefits include reduction of adverse drug event rates, practice improvements, and cost effectiveness. Meanwhile, the current issues or negative effects related to using smart pumps were lower compliance rates of using smart pumps, the overriding of soft alerts, non-intercepted errors, or the possibility of using the wrong drug library. The literature suggests that smart pumps reduce but do not eliminate programming errors. Although the hard limits of a drug library play a main role in intercepting medication errors, soft limits were still not as effective as hard limits because of high override rates. Compliance in using smart pumps is key towards effectively preventing errors. Opportunities for improvement include upgrading drug

  5. Kurzweil Reading Machine: A Partial Evaluation of Its Optical Character Recognition Error Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A study designed to assess the ability of the Kurzweil reading machine (a speech reading device for the visually handicapped) to read three different type styles produced by five different means indicated that the machines tested had different error rates depending upon the means of producing the copy and upon the type style used. (Author/CL)

  6. A novel multitemporal insar model for joint estimation of deformation rates and orbital errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lei; Ding, Xiaoli; Lu, Zhong; Jung, Hyungsup; Hu, Jun; Feng, Guangcai

    2014-01-01

    be corrected efficiently and reliably. We propose a novel model that is able to jointly estimate deformation rates and orbital errors based on the different spatialoral characteristics of the two types of signals. The proposed model is able to isolate a long

  7. Minimum Symbol Error Rate Detection in Single-Input Multiple-Output Channels with Markov Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Minimum symbol error rate detection in Single-Input Multiple- Output(SIMO) channels with Markov noise is presented. The special case of zero-mean Gauss-Markov noise is examined closer as it only requires knowledge of the second-order moments. In this special case, it is shown that optimal detection...

  8. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function

  9. Maximum type 1 error rate inflation in multiarmed clinical trials with adaptive interim sample size modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter; Glimm, Ekkehard; Koenig, Franz

    2014-07-01

    Sample size modifications in the interim analyses of an adaptive design can inflate the type 1 error rate, if test statistics and critical boundaries are used in the final analysis as if no modification had been made. While this is already true for designs with an overall change of the sample size in a balanced treatment-control comparison, the inflation can be much larger if in addition a modification of allocation ratios is allowed as well. In this paper, we investigate adaptive designs with several treatment arms compared to a single common control group. Regarding modifications, we consider treatment arm selection as well as modifications of overall sample size and allocation ratios. The inflation is quantified for two approaches: a naive procedure that ignores not only all modifications, but also the multiplicity issue arising from the many-to-one comparison, and a Dunnett procedure that ignores modifications, but adjusts for the initially started multiple treatments. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate for such types of design can be calculated by searching for the "worst case" scenarios, that are sample size adaptation rules in the interim analysis that lead to the largest conditional type 1 error rate in any point of the sample space. To show the most extreme inflation, we initially assume unconstrained second stage sample size modifications leading to a large inflation of the type 1 error rate. Furthermore, we investigate the inflation when putting constraints on the second stage sample sizes. It turns out that, for example fixing the sample size of the control group, leads to designs controlling the type 1 error rate. © 2014 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by the rate of ribosomal decoding errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kathleen E; Chang, Diana; Zwack, Erin E; Sebert, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae develops in response to accumulation of a secreted peptide pheromone and was one of the initial examples of bacterial quorum sensing. Activation of this signaling system induces not only expression of the proteins required for transformation but also the production of cellular chaperones and proteases. We have shown here that activity of this pathway is sensitively responsive to changes in the accuracy of protein synthesis that are triggered by either mutations in ribosomal proteins or exposure to antibiotics. Increasing the error rate during ribosomal decoding promoted competence, while reducing the error rate below the baseline level repressed the development of both spontaneous and antibiotic-induced competence. This pattern of regulation was promoted by the bacterial HtrA serine protease. Analysis of strains with the htrA (S234A) catalytic site mutation showed that the proteolytic activity of HtrA selectively repressed competence when translational fidelity was high but not when accuracy was low. These findings redefine the pneumococcal competence pathway as a response to errors during protein synthesis. This response has the capacity to address the immediate challenge of misfolded proteins through production of chaperones and proteases and may also be able to address, through genetic exchange, upstream coding errors that cause intrinsic protein folding defects. The competence pathway may thereby represent a strategy for dealing with lesions that impair proper protein coding and for maintaining the coding integrity of the genome. The signaling pathway that governs competence in the human respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae regulates both genetic transformation and the production of cellular chaperones and proteases. The current study shows that this pathway is sensitively controlled in response to changes in the accuracy of protein synthesis. Increasing the error rate during

  11. Performance Analysis for Bit Error Rate of DS- CDMA Sensor Network Systems with Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider M. AlSabbagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy (ME coding combined with DS-CDMA wireless sensor network is analyzed in order to reduce energy consumed and multiple access interference (MAI with related to number of user(receiver. Also, the minimum energy coding which exploits redundant bits for saving power with utilizing RF link and On-Off-Keying modulation. The relations are presented and discussed for several levels of errors expected in the employed channel via amount of bit error rates and amount of the SNR for number of users (receivers.

  12. FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.

  13. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Linear transceiver design for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol using a bit error rate criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2014-04-01

    The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network. This has led to new challenges in terms of designing new protocols and detectors for cooperative communications. Among various amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols, the half duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is superior to other AF schemes in terms of error performance and capacity. However, this superiority is achieved at the cost of higher receiver complexity. Furthermore, in order to exploit the full diversity of the system an optimal precoder is required. In this paper, an optimal joint linear transceiver is proposed for the NAF protocol. This transceiver operates on the principles of minimum bit error rate (BER), and is referred as joint bit error rate (JBER) detector. The BER performance of JBER detector is superior to all the proposed linear detectors such as channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, the biased maximum likelihood detectors, and the minimum mean square error. The proposed transceiver also outperforms previous precoders designed for the NAF protocol. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  16. The assessment of cognitive errors using an observer-rated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Errors (CEs) are a key construct in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Integral to CBT is that individuals with depression process information in an overly negative or biased way, and that this bias is reflected in specific depressotypic CEs which are distinct from normal information processing. Despite the importance of this construct in CBT theory, practice, and research, few methods are available to researchers and clinicians to reliably identify CEs as they occur. In this paper, the author presents a rating system, the Cognitive Error Rating Scale, which can be used by trained observers to identify and assess the cognitive errors of patients or research participants in vivo, i.e., as they are used or reported by the patients or participants. The method is described, including some of the more important rating conventions to be considered when using the method. This paper also describes the 15 cognitive errors assessed, and the different summary scores, including valence of the CEs, that can be derived from the method.

  17. Parental Cognitive Errors Mediate Parental Psychopathology and Ratings of Child Inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Error-Rate Estimation Based on Multi-Signal Flow Graph Model and Accelerated Radiation Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    Full Text Available A method of evaluating the single-event effect soft-error vulnerability of space instruments before launched has been an active research topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model is introduced to analyze the fault diagnosis and meantime to failure (MTTF for space instruments. A model for the system functional error rate (SFER is proposed. In addition, an experimental method and accelerated radiation testing system for a signal processing platform based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA is presented. Based on experimental results of different ions (O, Si, Cl, Ti under the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, the SFER of the signal processing platform is approximately 10-3(error/particle/cm2, while the MTTF is approximately 110.7 h.

  19. Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Michael M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.

  20. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5 of all compared methods.

  1. Error-Rate Bounds for Coded PPM on a Poisson Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Equations for computing tight bounds on error rates for coded pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a Poisson channel at high signal-to-noise ratio have been derived. These equations and elements of the underlying theory are expected to be especially useful in designing codes for PPM optical communication systems. The equations and the underlying theory apply, more specifically, to a case in which a) At the transmitter, a linear outer code is concatenated with an inner code that includes an accumulator and a bit-to-PPM-symbol mapping (see figure) [this concatenation is known in the art as "accumulate-PPM" (abbreviated "APPM")]; b) The transmitted signal propagates on a memoryless binary-input Poisson channel; and c) At the receiver, near-maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding is effected through an iterative process. Such a coding/modulation/decoding scheme is a variation on the concept of turbo codes, which have complex structures, such that an exact analytical expression for the performance of a particular code is intractable. However, techniques for accurately estimating the performances of turbo codes have been developed. The performance of a typical turbo code includes (1) a "waterfall" region consisting of a steep decrease of error rate with increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at low to moderate SNR, and (2) an "error floor" region with a less steep decrease of error rate with increasing SNR at moderate to high SNR. The techniques used heretofore for estimating performance in the waterfall region have differed from those used for estimating performance in the error-floor region. For coded PPM, prior to the present derivations, equations for accurate prediction of the performance of coded PPM at high SNR did not exist, so that it was necessary to resort to time-consuming simulations in order to make such predictions. The present derivation makes it unnecessary to perform such time-consuming simulations.

  2. Symbol error rate performance evaluation of the LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, H.

    1981-01-01

    The LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit was tested for evaluation of its symbol error rate (SER) performance. Using an automated test setup, the SER tests were carried out at various symbol rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), ranging from +10 to -10 dB. With the aid of a specially designed error detector and a stabilized signal and noise summation unit, measurement of the SER at low SNR was possible. The results of the tests show that at symbol rates below 20 megasymbols per second (MS)s) and input SNR above -6 dB, the SER performance of the modem is within the specified 0.65 to 1.5 dB of the theoretical error curve. At symbol rates above 20 MS/s, the specification is met at SNR's down to -2 dB. The results of the SER tests are presented with the description of the test setup and the measurement procedure.

  3. Confidence Intervals Verification for Simulated Error Rate Performance of Wireless Communication System

    KAUST Repository

    Smadi, Mahmoud A.

    2012-12-06

    In this paper, we derived an efficient simulation method to evaluate the error rate of wireless communication system. Coherent binary phase-shift keying system is considered with imperfect channel phase recovery. The results presented demonstrate the system performance under very realistic Nakagami-m fading and additive white Gaussian noise channel. On the other hand, the accuracy of the obtained results is verified through running the simulation under a good confidence interval reliability of 95 %. We see that as the number of simulation runs N increases, the simulated error rate becomes closer to the actual one and the confidence interval difference reduces. Hence our results are expected to be of significant practical use for such scenarios. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  4. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Accurate Bit Error Rate Calculation for Asynchronous Chaos-Based DS-CDMA over Multipath Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoum, Georges; Roviras, Daniel; Chargé, Pascal; Fournier-Prunaret, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    An accurate approach to compute the bit error rate expression for multiuser chaosbased DS-CDMA system is presented in this paper. For more realistic communication system a slow fading multipath channel is considered. A simple RAKE receiver structure is considered. Based on the bit energy distribution, this approach compared to others computation methods existing in literature gives accurate results with low computation charge. Perfect estimation of the channel coefficients with the associated delays and chaos synchronization is assumed. The bit error rate is derived in terms of the bit energy distribution, the number of paths, the noise variance, and the number of users. Results are illustrated by theoretical calculations and numerical simulations which point out the accuracy of our approach.

  6. The type I error rate for in vivo Comet assay data when the hierarchical structure is disregarded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær; Kulahci, Murat

    the type I error rate is greater than the nominal _ at 0.05. Closed-form expressions based on scaled F-distributions using the Welch-Satterthwaite approximation are provided to show how the type I error rate is aUected. With this study we hope to motivate researchers to be more precise regarding......, and this imposes considerable impact on the type I error rate. This study aims to demonstrate the implications that result from disregarding the hierarchical structure. DiUerent combinations of the factor levels as they appear in a literature study give type I error rates up to 0.51 and for all combinations...

  7. Rate estimation in partially observed Markov jump processes with measurement errors

    OpenAIRE

    Amrein, Michael; Kuensch, Hans R.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation methodology for Bayesian estimation of rate parameters in Markov jump processes arising for example in stochastic kinetic models. To handle the problem of missing components and measurement errors in observed data, we embed the Markov jump process into the framework of a general state space model. We do not use diffusion approximations. Markov chain Monte Carlo and particle filter type algorithms are introduced, which allow sampling from the posterior distribution of t...

  8. Reply: Birnbaum's (2012 statistical tests of independence have unknown Type-I error rates and do not replicate within participant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-shil Cha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Birnbaum (2011, 2012 questioned the iid (independent and identically distributed sampling assumptions used by state-of-the-art statistical tests in Regenwetter, Dana and Davis-Stober's (2010, 2011 analysis of the ``linear order model''. Birnbaum (2012 cited, but did not use, a test of iid by Smith and Batchelder (2008 with analytically known properties. Instead, he created two new test statistics with unknown sampling distributions. Our rebuttal has five components: 1 We demonstrate that the Regenwetter et al. data pass Smith and Batchelder's test of iid with flying colors. 2 We provide evidence from Monte Carlo simulations that Birnbaum's (2012 proposed tests have unknown Type-I error rates, which depend on the actual choice probabilities and on how data are coded as well as on the null hypothesis of iid sampling. 3 Birnbaum analyzed only a third of Regenwetter et al.'s data. We show that his two new tests fail to replicate on the other two-thirds of the data, within participants. 4 Birnbaum selectively picked data of one respondent to suggest that choice probabilities may have changed partway into the experiment. Such nonstationarity could potentially cause a seemingly good fit to be a Type-II error. We show that the linear order model fits equally well if we allow for warm-up effects. 5 Using hypothetical data, Birnbaum (2012 claimed to show that ``true-and-error'' models for binary pattern probabilities overcome the alleged short-comings of Regenwetter et al.'s approach. We disprove this claim on the same data.

  9. Improving Bayesian credibility intervals for classifier error rates using maximum entropy empirical priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats G; Wallman, Mikael; Wickenberg Bolin, Ulrika; Göransson, Hanna; Fryknäs, M; Andersson, Claes R; Isaksson, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Successful use of classifiers that learn to make decisions from a set of patient examples require robust methods for performance estimation. Recently many promising approaches for determination of an upper bound for the error rate of a single classifier have been reported but the Bayesian credibility interval (CI) obtained from a conventional holdout test still delivers one of the tightest bounds. The conventional Bayesian CI becomes unacceptably large in real world applications where the test set sizes are less than a few hundred. The source of this problem is that fact that the CI is determined exclusively by the result on the test examples. In other words, there is no information at all provided by the uniform prior density distribution employed which reflects complete lack of prior knowledge about the unknown error rate. Therefore, the aim of the study reported here was to study a maximum entropy (ME) based approach to improved prior knowledge and Bayesian CIs, demonstrating its relevance for biomedical research and clinical practice. It is demonstrated how a refined non-uniform prior density distribution can be obtained by means of the ME principle using empirical results from a few designs and tests using non-overlapping sets of examples. Experimental results show that ME based priors improve the CIs when employed to four quite different simulated and two real world data sets. An empirically derived ME prior seems promising for improving the Bayesian CI for the unknown error rate of a designed classifier. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  11. Tax revenue and inflation rate predictions in Banda Aceh using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulia, Eva; Miftahuddin; Sofyan, Hizir

    2018-05-01

    A country has some important parameters to achieve the welfare of the economy, such as tax revenues and inflation. One of the largest revenues of the state budget in Indonesia comes from the tax sector. Besides, the rate of inflation occurring in a country can be used as one measure, to measure economic problems that the country facing. Given the importance of tax revenue and inflation rate control in achieving economic prosperity, it is necessary to analyze the relationship and forecasting tax revenue and inflation rate. VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) was chosen as the method used in this research, because of the data used in the form of multivariate time series data. This study aims to produce a VECM model with optimal lag and to predict the tax revenue and inflation rate of the VECM model. The results show that the best model for data of tax revenue and the inflation rate in Banda Aceh City is VECM with 3rd optimal lag or VECM (3). Of the seven models formed, there is a significant model that is the acceptance model of income tax. The predicted results of tax revenue and the inflation rate in Kota Banda Aceh for the next 6, 12 and 24 periods (months) obtained using VECM (3) are considered valid, since they have a minimum error value compared to other models.

  12. Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.

  13. PS-022 Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration error rates in an acute medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Medication errors have received extensive attention in recent decades and are of significant concern to healthcare organisations globally. Medication errors occur frequently, and adverse events associated with medications are one of the largest causes of harm to hospitalised patients...... cabinet, automated dispensing and barcode medication administration; (2) non-patient specific automated dispensing and barcode medication administration. The occurrence of administration errors was observed in three 3 week periods. The error rates were calculated by dividing the number of doses with one...

  14. Soft error rate analysis methodology of multi-Pulse-single-event transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Huo Mingxue; Xiao Liyi

    2012-01-01

    As transistor feature size scales down, soft errors in combinational logic because of high-energy particle radiation is gaining more and more concerns. In this paper, a combinational logic soft error analysis methodology considering multi-pulse-single-event transients (MPSETs) and re-convergence with multi transient pulses is proposed. In the proposed approach, the voltage pulse produced at the standard cell output is approximated by a triangle waveform, and characterized by three parameters: pulse width, the transition time of the first edge, and the transition time of the second edge. As for the pulse with the amplitude being smaller than the supply voltage, the edge extension technique is proposed. Moreover, an efficient electrical masking model comprehensively considering transition time, delay, width and amplitude is proposed, and an approach using the transition times of two edges and pulse width to compute the amplitude of pulse is proposed. Finally, our proposed firstly-independently-propagating-secondly-mutually-interacting (FIP-SMI) is used to deal with more practical re-convergence gate with multi transient pulses. As for MPSETs, a random generation model of MPSETs is exploratively proposed. Compared to the estimates obtained using circuit level simulations by HSpice, our proposed soft error rate analysis algorithm has 10% errors in SER estimation with speed up of 300 when the single-pulse-single-event transient (SPSET) is considered. We have also demonstrated the runtime and SER decrease with the increment of P0 using designs from the ISCAS-85 benchmarks. (authors)

  15. Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.

  16. Error rate of automated calculation for wound surface area using a digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Park, J; Lee, H; Lee, J B; Lee, B U; Oh, B H

    2018-02-01

    Although measuring would size using digital photography is a quick and simple method to evaluate the skin wound, the possible compatibility of it has not been fully validated. To investigate the error rate of our newly developed wound surface area calculation using digital photography. Using a smartphone and a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, four photographs of various sized wounds (diameter: 0.5-3.5 cm) were taken from the facial skin model in company with color patches. The quantitative values of wound areas were automatically calculated. The relative error (RE) of this method with regard to wound sizes and types of camera was analyzed. RE of individual calculated area was from 0.0329% (DSLR, diameter 1.0 cm) to 23.7166% (smartphone, diameter 2.0 cm). In spite of the correction of lens curvature, smartphone has significantly higher error rate than DSLR camera (3.9431±2.9772 vs 8.1303±4.8236). However, in cases of wound diameter below than 3 cm, REs of average values of four photographs were below than 5%. In addition, there was no difference in the average value of wound area taken by smartphone and DSLR camera in those cases. For the follow-up of small skin defect (diameter: <3 cm), our newly developed automated wound area calculation method is able to be applied to the plenty of photographs, and the average values of them are a relatively useful index of wound healing with acceptable error rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  18. Error-rate performance analysis of incremental decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an incremental opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay chooses to cooperate only if the source-destination channel is of an unacceptable quality. In our study, we consider regenerative relaying in which the decision to cooperate is based on a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive a closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic error performance and the diversity order is deduced. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-12-24

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  20. Error-rate performance analysis of incremental decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate an incremental opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay chooses to cooperate only if the source-destination channel is of an unacceptable quality. In our study, we consider regenerative relaying in which the decision to cooperate is based on a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive a closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic error performance and the diversity order is deduced. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. A Simple Exact Error Rate Analysis for DS-CDMA with Arbitrary Pulse Shape in Flat Nakagami Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Sasaki, Shigenobu; Kikuchi, Hisakazu; Harada, Hiroshi; Kato, Shuzo

    A simple exact error rate analysis is presented for random binary direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) considering a general pulse shape and flat Nakagami fading channel. First of all, a simple model is developed for the multiple access interference (MAI). Based on this, a simple exact expression of the characteristic function (CF) of MAI is developed in a straight forward manner. Finally, an exact expression of error rate is obtained following the CF method of error rate analysis. The exact error rate so obtained can be much easily evaluated as compared to the only reliable approximate error rate expression currently available, which is based on the Improved Gaussian Approximation (IGA).

  2. Errors of car wheels rotation rate measurement using roller follower on test benches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Svirbutovich, O. A.; Krivtsov, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with rotation rate measurement errors, which depend on the motor vehicle rate, on the roller, test benches. Monitoring of the vehicle performance under operating conditions is performed on roller test benches. Roller test benches are not flawless. They have some drawbacks affecting the accuracy of vehicle performance monitoring. Increase in basic velocity of the vehicle requires increase in accuracy of wheel rotation rate monitoring. It determines the degree of accuracy of mode identification for a wheel of the tested vehicle. To ensure measurement accuracy for rotation velocity of rollers is not an issue. The problem arises when measuring rotation velocity of a car wheel. The higher the rotation velocity of the wheel is, the lower the accuracy of measurement is. At present, wheel rotation frequency monitoring on roller test benches is carried out by following-up systems. Their sensors are rollers following wheel rotation. The rollers of the system are not kinematically linked to supporting rollers of the test bench. The roller follower is forced against the wheels of the tested vehicle by means of a spring-lever mechanism. Experience of the test bench equipment operation has shown that measurement accuracy is satisfactory at small rates of vehicles diagnosed on roller test benches. With a rising diagnostics rate, rotation velocity measurement errors occur in both braking and pulling modes because a roller spins about a tire tread. The paper shows oscillograms of changes in wheel rotation velocity and rotation velocity measurement system’s signals when testing a vehicle on roller test benches at specified rates.

  3. Symbol Error Rate of MPSK over EGK Channels Perturbed by a Dominant Additive Laplacian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Souri, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The Laplacian noise has received much attention during the recent years since it affects many communication systems. We consider in this paper the probability of error of an M-ary phase shift keying (PSK) constellation operating over a generalized fading channel in presence of a dominant additive Laplacian noise. In this context, the decision regions of the receiver are determined using the maximum likelihood and the minimum distance detectors. Once the decision regions are extracted, the resulting symbol error rate expressions are computed and averaged over an Extended Generalized-K fading distribution. Generic closed form expressions of the conditional and the average probability of error are obtained in terms of the Fox’s H function. Simplifications for some special cases of fading are presented and the resulting formulas end up being often expressed in terms of well known elementary functions. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated using some selected analytical-based numerical results as well as Monte- Carlo simulation-based results.

  4. Symbol Error Rate of MPSK over EGK Channels Perturbed by a Dominant Additive Laplacian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Souri, Hamza

    2015-06-01

    The Laplacian noise has received much attention during the recent years since it affects many communication systems. We consider in this paper the probability of error of an M-ary phase shift keying (PSK) constellation operating over a generalized fading channel in presence of a dominant additive Laplacian noise. In this context, the decision regions of the receiver are determined using the maximum likelihood and the minimum distance detectors. Once the decision regions are extracted, the resulting symbol error rate expressions are computed and averaged over an Extended Generalized-K fading distribution. Generic closed form expressions of the conditional and the average probability of error are obtained in terms of the Fox’s H function. Simplifications for some special cases of fading are presented and the resulting formulas end up being often expressed in terms of well known elementary functions. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated using some selected analytical-based numerical results as well as Monte- Carlo simulation-based results.

  5. Error rates and resource overheads of encoded three-qubit gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryuji; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-10-01

    A non-Clifford gate is required for universal quantum computation, and, typically, this is the most error-prone and resource-intensive logical operation on an error-correcting code. Small, single-qubit rotations are popular choices for this non-Clifford gate, but certain three-qubit gates, such as Toffoli or controlled-controlled-Z (ccz), are equivalent options that are also more suited for implementing some quantum algorithms, for instance, those with coherent classical subroutines. Here, we calculate error rates and resource overheads for implementing logical ccz with pieceable fault tolerance, a nontransversal method for implementing logical gates. We provide a comparison with a nonlocal magic-state scheme on a concatenated code and a local magic-state scheme on the surface code. We find the pieceable fault-tolerance scheme particularly advantaged over magic states on concatenated codes and in certain regimes over magic states on the surface code. Our results suggest that pieceable fault tolerance is a promising candidate for fault tolerance in a near-future quantum computer.

  6. Comparison of Bit Error Rate of Line Codes in NG-PON2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Horvath

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on simulation and comparison of line codes NRZ (Non Return to Zero, RZ (Return to Zero and Miller’s code for NG-PON2 (Next-Generation Passive Optical Network Stage 2 using. Our article provides solutions with Q-factor, BER (Bit Error Rate, and bandwidth comparison. Line codes are the most important part of communication over the optical fibre. The main role of these codes is digital signal representation. NG-PON2 networks use optical fibres for communication that is the reason why OptSim v5.2 is used for simulation.

  7. Inclusive bit error rate analysis for coherent optical code-division multiple-access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gilad; Sadot, Dan

    2002-06-01

    Inclusive noise and bit error rate (BER) analysis for optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) using coherence techniques is presented. The analysis contains crosstalk calculation of the mutual field variance for different number of users. It is shown that the crosstalk noise depends deeply on the receiver integration time, the laser coherence time, and the number of users. In addition, analytical results of the power fluctuation at the received channel due to the data modulation at the rejected channels are presented. The analysis also includes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)-related noise effects of in-line amplifiers in a long-distance communication link.

  8. From equality to 'equality'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panov Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to lucid statement of a Serbian academician that the ideals of mankind have always been justice, freedom, virtues and that life was less noble, the work analyses whether there is both 'equality', as morosofo exist (stupid wise men, profitable altruists and evil humanists and admirers of freedom of monistic thinking. Is there a dialectics: from equality to 'equality'? At the time of profitable altruists, evil humanists and excellent actors of virtues, it is worthwhile to remember Nietzsche's attitude about the pose of morality: subordination to morality may be slavish, proud, sordid, and resigned. In theological literature it is said that both patriarchate and matriarchate are the same denial of thankful supplemental gifts to a man and a woman. There is no love and sacrifice in government. There is no fortune in slavery, but there is no happiness in mastery either. Can a 'hymn' of individualism, with empty concepts and legal formulations that encourage and sharpen the conflict of family members be an introductory tact of the dictatorship ballade? Is the projection of conflicts into a family and micro-environment a project against emotional solidarity, strength, independence, courage and will for freedom? If we cannot rely upon family are we strong enough to confront totalitarian in democratic?.

  9. Modeling the cosmic-ray-induced soft-error rate in integrated circuits: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the concepts and methodologies used to predict soft-error rates (SER) due to cosmic and high-energy particle radiation in integrated circuit chips. The paper emphasizes the need for the SER simulation using the actual chip circuit model which includes device, process, and technology parameters as opposed to using either the discrete device simulation or generic circuit simulation that is commonly employed in SER modeling. Concepts such as funneling, event-by-event simulation, nuclear history files, critical charge, and charge sharing are examined. Also discussed are the relative importance of elastic and inelastic nuclear collisions, rare event statistics, and device vs. circuit simulations. The semi-empirical methodologies used in the aerospace community to arrive at SERs [also referred to as single-event upset (SEU) rates] in integrated circuit chips are reviewed. This paper is one of four in this special issue relating to SER modeling. Together, they provide a comprehensive account of this modeling effort, which has resulted in a unique modeling tool called the Soft-Error Monte Carlo Model, or SEMM

  10. Symbol and Bit Error Rates Analysis of Hybrid PIM-CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemlooy Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid pulse interval modulation code-division multiple-access (hPIM-CDMA scheme employing the strict optical orthogonal code (SOCC with unity and auto- and cross-correlation constraints for indoor optical wireless communications is proposed. In this paper, we analyse the symbol error rate (SER and bit error rate (BER of hPIM-CDMA. In the analysis, we consider multiple access interference (MAI, self-interference, and the hybrid nature of the hPIM-CDMA signal detection, which is based on the matched filter (MF. It is shown that the BER/SER performance can only be evaluated if the bit resolution conforms to the condition set by the number of consecutive false alarm pulses that might occur and be detected, so that one symbol being divided into two is unlikely to occur. Otherwise, the probability of SER and BER becomes extremely high and indeterminable. We show that for a large number of users, the BER improves when increasing the code weight . The results presented are compared with other modulation schemes.

  11. Two-dimensional optoelectronic interconnect-processor and its operational bit error rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Jiang; Gollsneider, Brian; Chang, Wayne H.; Carhart, Gary W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Simonis, George J.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2004-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) multi-channel 8x8 optical interconnect and processor system were designed and developed using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driven 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays and the photodetector (PD) arrays with corresponding wavelengths. We performed operation and bit-error-rate (BER) analysis on this free-space integrated 8x8 VCSEL optical interconnects driven by silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) circuits. Pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) data sequence was used in operation of the interconnects. Eye diagrams were measured from individual channels and analyzed using a digital oscilloscope at data rates from 155 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s. Using a statistical model of Gaussian distribution for the random noise in the transmission, we developed a method to compute the BER instantaneously with the digital eye-diagrams. Direct measurements on this interconnects were also taken on a standard BER tester for verification. We found that the results of two methods were in the same order and within 50% accuracy. The integrated interconnects were investigated in an optoelectronic processing architecture of digital halftoning image processor. Error diffusion networks implemented by the inherently parallel nature of photonics promise to provide high quality digital halftoned images.

  12. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode.

  13. Creatinine Clearance Is Not Equal to Glomerular Filtration Rate and Cockcroft-Gault Equation Is Not Equal to CKD-EPI Collaboration Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Prado, Raul; Castillo-Rodriguez, Esmeralda; Velez-Arribas, Fernando Javier; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may require dose reduction or avoidance when glomerular filtration rate is low. However, glomerular filtration rate is not usually measured in routine clinical practice. Rather, equations that incorporate different variables use serum creatinine to estimate either creatinine clearance in mL/min or glomerular filtration rate in mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The Cockcroft-Gault equation estimates creatinine clearance and incorporates weight into the equation. By contrast, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations estimate glomerular filtration rate and incorporate ethnicity but not weight. As a result, an individual patient may have very different renal function estimates, depending on the equation used. We now highlight these differences and discuss the impact on routine clinical care for anticoagulation to prevent embolization in atrial fibrillation. Pivotal DOAC clinical trials used creatinine clearance as a criterion for patient enrollment, and dose adjustment and Federal Drug Administration recommendations are based on creatinine clearance. However, clinical biochemistry laboratories provide CKD-EPI glomerular filtration rate estimations, resulting in discrepancies between clinical trial and routine use of the drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimizing the symbol-error-rate for amplify-and-forward relaying systems using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a new detector is proposed for an amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system. The detector is designed to minimize the symbol-error-rate (SER) of the system. The SER surface is non-linear and may have multiple minimas, therefore, designing an SER detector for cooperative communications becomes an optimization problem. Evolutionary based algorithms have the capability to find the global minima, therefore, evolutionary algorithms such as particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE) are exploited to solve this optimization problem. The performance of proposed detectors is compared with the conventional detectors such as maximum likelihood (ML) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector. In the simulation results, it can be observed that the SER performance of the proposed detectors is less than 2 dB away from the ML detector. Significant improvement in SER performance is also observed when comparing with the MMSE detector. The computational complexity of the proposed detector is much less than the ML and MMSE algorithms. Moreover, in contrast to ML and MMSE detectors, the computational complexity of the proposed detectors increases linearly with respect to the number of relays.

  15. Correct mutual information, quantum bit error rate and secure transmission efficiency in Wojcik's eavesdropping scheme on ping-pong protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhanjun

    2004-01-01

    Comment: The wrong mutual information, quantum bit error rate and secure transmission efficiency in Wojcik's eavesdropping scheme [PRL90(03)157901]on ping-pong protocol have been pointed out and corrected

  16. Calculation of the soft error rate of submicron CMOS logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhnke, T.; Klar, H.

    1995-01-01

    A method to calculate the soft error rate (SER) of CMOS logic circuits with dynamic pipeline registers is described. This method takes into account charge collection by drift and diffusion. The method is verified by comparison of calculated SER's to measurement results. Using this method, the SER of a highly pipelined multiplier is calculated as a function of supply voltage for a 0.6 microm, 0.3 microm, and 0.12 microm technology, respectively. It has been found that the SER of such highly pipelined submicron CMOS circuits may become too high so that countermeasures have to be taken. Since the SER greatly increases with decreasing supply voltage, low-power/low-voltage circuits may show more than eight times the SER for half the normal supply voltage as compared to conventional designs

  17. Error-rate performance analysis of incremental decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an incremental opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay chooses to cooperate only if the source-destination channel is of an unacceptable quality. In our study, we consider regenerative relaying in which the decision to cooperate is based on a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive a closed-form expression for the end-to-end biterror rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic error performance and the diversity order is deduced. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results. ©2010 IEEE.

  18. Personnel selection and emotional stability certification: establishing a false negative error rate when clinical interviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The security plans of nuclear plants generally require that all personnel who are to have unescorted access to protected areas or vital islands be screened for emotional instability. Screening typically consists of first administering the MMPI and then conducting a clinical interview. Interviews-by-exception protocols provide for only those employees to be interviewed who have some indications of psychopathology in their MMPI results. A problem arises when the indications are not readily apparent: False negatives are likely to occur, resulting in employees being erroneously granted unescorted access. The present paper describes the development of a predictive equation which permits accurate identification, via analysis of MMPI results, of those employees who are most in need of being interviewed. The predictive equation also permits knowing probably maximum false negative error rates when a given percentage of employees is interviewed

  19. Error-rate performance analysis of incremental decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate an incremental opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay chooses to cooperate only if the source-destination channel is of an unacceptable quality. In our study, we consider regenerative relaying in which the decision to cooperate is based on a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive a closed-form expression for the end-to-end biterror rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic error performance and the diversity order is deduced. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Error-rate performance analysis of cooperative OFDMA system with decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Uysal, Murat; Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) system with decode-and-forward (DaF) relaying. Specifically, we derive a closed-form approximate symbol-error-rate expression and analyze the achievable diversity orders. Depending on the relay location, a diversity order up to (LSkD + 1) + σ M m = 1 min(LSkRm + 1, LR mD + 1) is available, where M is the number of relays, and LS kD + 1, LSkRm + 1, and LRmD + 1 are the lengths of channel impulse responses of source-to-destination, source-to- mth relay, and mth relay-to-destination links, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented to confirm the analytical findings. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Evolutionary enhancement of the SLIM-MAUD method of estimating human error rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamanali, J.H.; Hubbard, F.R.; Mosleh, A.; Waller, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The methodology described in this paper assigns plant-specific dynamic human error rates (HERs) for individual plant examinations based on procedural difficulty, on configuration features, and on the time available to perform the action. This methodology is an evolutionary improvement of the success likelihood index methodology (SLIM-MAUD) for use in systemic scenarios. It is based on the assumption that the HER in a particular situation depends of the combined effects of a comprehensive set of performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that influence the operator's ability to perform the action successfully. The PSFs relate the details of the systemic scenario in which the action must be performed according to the operator's psychological and cognitive condition

  2. Analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping using random field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl J

    2017-11-01

    This technical report revisits the analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping-using random field theory-reported in (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863). Contrary to the understandable spin that these sorts of analyses attract, a review of their results suggests that they endorse the use of parametric assumptions-and random field theory-in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. We briefly rehearse the advantages parametric analyses offer over nonparametric alternatives and then unpack the implications of (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863) for parametric procedures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Performance analysis for the bit-error rate of SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wenqing; Chen, Fujun

    2015-09-01

    Under low power, Gaussian statistics by invoking the central limit theorem is feasible to predict the upper bound in the spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) system. However, this case severely underestimates the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the system under high power assumption. Fortunately, the exact negative binomial (NB) model is a perfect replacement for the Gaussian model in the prediction and evaluation. Based on NB statistics, a more accurate closed-form expression is analyzed and derived for the SAC-OCDMA system. The experiment shows that the obtained expression provides a more precise prediction of the BER performance under the low and high power assumptions.

  4. System care improves trauma outcome: patient care errors dominate reduced preventable death rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoburn, E; Norris, P; Flores, R; Goode, S; Rodriguez, E; Adams, V; Campbell, S; Albrink, M; Rosemurgy, A

    1993-01-01

    A review of 452 trauma deaths in Hillsborough County, Florida, in 1984 documented that 23% of non-CNS trauma deaths were preventable and occurred because of inadequate resuscitation or delay in proper surgical care. In late 1988 Hillsborough County organized a County Trauma Agency (HCTA) to coordinate trauma care among prehospital providers and state-designated trauma centers. The purpose of this study was to review county trauma deaths after the inception of the HCTA to determine the frequency of preventable deaths. 504 trauma deaths occurring between October 1989 and April 1991 were reviewed. Through committee review, 10 deaths were deemed preventable; 2 occurred outside the trauma system. Of the 10 deaths, 5 preventable deaths occurred late in severely injured patients. The preventable death rate has decreased to 7.0% with system care. The causes of preventable deaths have changed from delayed or inadequate intervention to postoperative care errors.

  5. Error-rate performance analysis of cooperative OFDMA system with decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) system with decode-and-forward (DaF) relaying. Specifically, we derive a closed-form approximate symbol-error-rate expression and analyze the achievable diversity orders. Depending on the relay location, a diversity order up to (LSkD + 1) + σ M m = 1 min(LSkRm + 1, LR mD + 1) is available, where M is the number of relays, and LS kD + 1, LSkRm + 1, and LRmD + 1 are the lengths of channel impulse responses of source-to-destination, source-to- mth relay, and mth relay-to-destination links, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented to confirm the analytical findings. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. SU-E-T-114: Analysis of MLC Errors On Gamma Pass Rates for Patient-Specific and Conventional Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, D; Ehler, E [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a 3D patient-specific phantom is better able to detect known MLC errors in a clinically delivered treatment plan than conventional phantoms. 3D printing may make fabrication of such phantoms feasible. Methods: Two types of MLC errors were introduced into a clinically delivered, non-coplanar IMRT, partial brain treatment plan. First, uniformly distributed random errors of up to 3mm, 2mm, and 1mm were introduced into the MLC positions for each field. Second, systematic MLC-bank position errors of 5mm, 3.5mm, and 2mm due to simulated effects of gantry and MLC sag were introduced. The original plan was recalculated with these errors on the original CT dataset as well as cylindrical and planar IMRT QA phantoms. The original dataset was considered to be a perfect 3D patient-specific phantom. The phantoms were considered to be ideal 3D dosimetry systems with no resolution limitations. Results: Passing rates for Gamma Index (3%/3mm and no dose threshold) were calculated on the 3D phantom, cylindrical phantom, and both on a composite and field-by-field basis for the planar phantom. Pass rates for 5mm systematic and 3mm random error were 86.0%, 89.6%, 98% and 98.3% respectively. For 3.5mm systematic and 2mm random error the pass rates were 94.7%, 96.2%, 99.2% and 99.2% respectively. For 2mm systematic error with 1mm random error the pass rates were 99.9%, 100%, 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: A 3D phantom with the patient anatomy is able to discern errors, both severe and subtle, that are not seen using conventional phantoms. Therefore, 3D phantoms may be beneficial for commissioning new treatment machines and modalities, patient-specific QA and end-to-end testing.

  7. SU-E-T-114: Analysis of MLC Errors On Gamma Pass Rates for Patient-Specific and Conventional Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, D; Ehler, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a 3D patient-specific phantom is better able to detect known MLC errors in a clinically delivered treatment plan than conventional phantoms. 3D printing may make fabrication of such phantoms feasible. Methods: Two types of MLC errors were introduced into a clinically delivered, non-coplanar IMRT, partial brain treatment plan. First, uniformly distributed random errors of up to 3mm, 2mm, and 1mm were introduced into the MLC positions for each field. Second, systematic MLC-bank position errors of 5mm, 3.5mm, and 2mm due to simulated effects of gantry and MLC sag were introduced. The original plan was recalculated with these errors on the original CT dataset as well as cylindrical and planar IMRT QA phantoms. The original dataset was considered to be a perfect 3D patient-specific phantom. The phantoms were considered to be ideal 3D dosimetry systems with no resolution limitations. Results: Passing rates for Gamma Index (3%/3mm and no dose threshold) were calculated on the 3D phantom, cylindrical phantom, and both on a composite and field-by-field basis for the planar phantom. Pass rates for 5mm systematic and 3mm random error were 86.0%, 89.6%, 98% and 98.3% respectively. For 3.5mm systematic and 2mm random error the pass rates were 94.7%, 96.2%, 99.2% and 99.2% respectively. For 2mm systematic error with 1mm random error the pass rates were 99.9%, 100%, 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: A 3D phantom with the patient anatomy is able to discern errors, both severe and subtle, that are not seen using conventional phantoms. Therefore, 3D phantoms may be beneficial for commissioning new treatment machines and modalities, patient-specific QA and end-to-end testing

  8. Cognitive tests predict real-world errors: the relationship between drug name confusion rates in laboratory-based memory and perception tests and corresponding error rates in large pharmacy chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Salomon, Meghan M; Galanter, William L; Schiff, Gordon D; Vaida, Allen J; Gaunt, Michael J; Bryson, Michelle L; Rash, Christine; Falck, Suzanne; Lambert, Bruce L

    2017-05-01

    Drug name confusion is a common type of medication error and a persistent threat to patient safety. In the USA, roughly one per thousand prescriptions results in the wrong drug being filled, and most of these errors involve drug names that look or sound alike. Prior to approval, drug names undergo a variety of tests to assess their potential for confusability, but none of these preapproval tests has been shown to predict real-world error rates. We conducted a study to assess the association between error rates in laboratory-based tests of drug name memory and perception and real-world drug name confusion error rates. Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine). Laboratory test error rates (and other metrics) significantly predicted real-world error rates obtained from a large, outpatient pharmacy chain, with the best-fitting model accounting for 37% of the variance in real-world error rates. Cross-validation analyses confirmed these results, showing that the laboratory tests also predicted errors from a second pharmacy chain, with 45% of the variance being explained by the laboratory test data. Across two distinct pharmacy chains, there is a strong and significant association between drug name confusion error rates observed in the real world and those observed in laboratory-based tests of memory and perception. Regulators and drug companies seeking a validated preapproval method for identifying confusing drug names ought to consider using these simple tests. By using a standard battery of memory and perception tests, it should be possible to reduce the number of confusing look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs that reach the market, which will help protect patients from potentially harmful medication errors. Published by the BMJ

  9. Surprisingly different star-spot distributions on the near equal-mass equal-rotation-rate stars in the M dwarf binary GJ 65 AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Haswell, C. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Shulyak, D.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to understand how stellar parameters such as mass and rotation impact the distribution of star-spots on the stellar surface. To this purpose, we have used Doppler imaging to reconstruct the surface brightness distributions of three fully convective M dwarfs with similar rotation rates. We secured high cadence spectral time series observations of the 5.5 au separation binary GJ 65, comprising GJ 65A (M5.5V, Prot = 0.24 d) and GJ 65B (M6V, Prot = 0.23 d). We also present new observations of GJ 791.2A (M4.5V, Prot = 0.31 d). Observations of each star were made on two nights with UVES, covering a wavelength range from 0.64 - 1.03μm. The time series spectra reveal multiple line distortions that we interpret as cool star-spots and which are persistent on both nights suggesting stability on the time-scale of 3 d. Spots are recovered with resolutions down to 8.3° at the equator. The global spot distributions for GJ 791.2A are similar to observations made a year earlier. Similar high latitude and circumpolar spot structure is seen on GJ 791.2A and GJ 65A. However, they are surprisingly absent on GJ 65B, which instead reveals more extensive, larger, spots concentrated at intermediate latitudes. All three stars show small amplitude latitude-dependent rotation that is consistent with solid body rotation. We compare our measurements of differential rotation with previous Doppler imaging studies and discuss the results in the wider context of other observational estimates and recent theoretical predictions.

  10. Investigation on coupling error characteristics in angular rate matching based ship deformation measurement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xingshu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2018-01-01

    The coupling error in the measurement of ship hull deformation can significantly influence the attitude accuracy of the shipborne weapons and equipments. It is therefore important to study the characteristics of the coupling error. In this paper, an comprehensive investigation on the coupling error is reported, which has a potential of deducting the coupling error in the future. Firstly, the causes and characteristics of the coupling error are analyzed theoretically based on the basic theory of measuring ship deformation. Then, simulations are conducted for verifying the correctness of the theoretical analysis. Simulation results show that the cross-correlation between dynamic flexure and ship angular motion leads to the coupling error in measuring ship deformation, and coupling error increases with the correlation value between them. All the simulation results coincide with the theoretical analysis.

  11. Analysis and Compensation of Modulation Angular Rate Error Based on Missile-Borne Rotation Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SSINS provides a new solution to attitude measurement of a high-speed rotating missile. However, micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU outputs are corrupted by significant sensor errors. In order to improve the navigation precision, a rotation modulation technology method called Rotation Semi-Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (RSSINS is introduced into SINS. In fact, the stability of the modulation angular rate is difficult to achieve in a high-speed rotation environment. The changing rotary angular rate has an impact on the inertial sensor error self-compensation. In this paper, the influence of modulation angular rate error, including acceleration-deceleration process, and instability of the angular rate on the navigation accuracy of RSSINS is deduced and the error characteristics of the reciprocating rotation scheme are analyzed. A new compensation method is proposed to remove or reduce sensor errors so as to make it possible to maintain high precision autonomous navigation performance by MIMU when there is no external aid. Experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the method. In addition, the proposed method is applicable for modulation angular rate error compensation under various dynamic conditions.

  12. Quantitative comparison of errors in 15N transverse relaxation rates measured using various CPMG phasing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Wazo; Cai Yufeng; Schiffer, Celia A.; Ishima, Rieko

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-15 Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiment are widely used to characterize protein backbone dynamics and chemical exchange parameters. Although an accurate value of the transverse relaxation rate, R 2 , is needed for accurate characterization of dynamics, the uncertainty in the R 2 value depends on the experimental settings and the details of the data analysis itself. Here, we present an analysis of the impact of CPMG pulse phase alternation on the accuracy of the 15 N CPMG R 2 . Our simulations show that R 2 can be obtained accurately for a relatively wide spectral width, either using the conventional phase cycle or using phase alternation when the r.f. pulse power is accurately calibrated. However, when the r.f. pulse is miscalibrated, the conventional CPMG experiment exhibits more significant uncertainties in R 2 caused by the off-resonance effect than does the phase alternation experiment. Our experiments show that this effect becomes manifest under the circumstance that the systematic error exceeds that arising from experimental noise. Furthermore, our results provide the means to estimate practical parameter settings that yield accurate values of 15 N transverse relaxation rates in the both CPMG experiments.

  13. Power penalties for multi-level PAM modulation formats at arbitrary bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskiy, Nikolay A.; Wood, William A.; Downie, John D.; Hurley, Jason; Sterlingov, Petr

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in combining multi-level pulsed amplitude modulation formats (PAM-L) and forward error correction (FEC) in next-generation, short-range optical communications links for increased capacity. In this paper we derive new formulas for the optical power penalties due to modulation format complexity relative to PAM-2 and due to inter-symbol interference (ISI). We show that these penalties depend on the required system bit-error rate (BER) and that the conventional formulas overestimate link penalties. Our corrections to the standard formulas are very small at conventional BER levels (typically 1×10-12) but become significant at the higher BER levels enabled by FEC technology, especially for signal distortions due to ISI. The standard formula for format complexity, P = 10log(L-1), is shown to overestimate the actual penalty for PAM-4 and PAM-8 by approximately 0.1 and 0.25 dB respectively at 1×10-3 BER. Then we extend the well-known PAM-2 ISI penalty estimation formula from the IEEE 802.3 standard 10G link modeling spreadsheet to the large BER case and generalize it for arbitrary PAM-L formats. To demonstrate and verify the BER dependence of the ISI penalty, a set of PAM-2 experiments and Monte-Carlo modeling simulations are reported. The experimental results and simulations confirm that the conventional formulas can significantly overestimate ISI penalties at relatively high BER levels. In the experiments, overestimates up to 2 dB are observed at 1×10-3 BER.

  14. PERBANDINGAN BIT ERROR RATE KODE REED-SOLOMON DENGAN KODE BOSE-CHAUDHURI-HOCQUENGHEM MENGGUNAKAN MODULASI 32-FSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yovita Dwi Utami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kode Reed-Solomon (RS dan kode Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH merupakan kode pengoreksi error yang termasuk dalam jenis kode blok siklis. Kode pengoreksi error diperlukan pada sistem komunikasi untuk memperkecil error pada informasi yang dikirimkan. Dalam makalah ini, disajikan hasil penelitian kinerja BER sistem komunikasi yang menggunakan kode RS, kode BCH, dan sistem yang tidak menggunakan kode RS dan kode BCH, menggunakan modulasi 32-FSK pada kanal Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN, Rayleigh dan Rician. Kemampuan memperkecil error diukur menggunakan nilai Bit Error Rate (BER yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kode RS seiring dengan penambahan nilai SNR, menurunkan nilai BER yang lebih curam bila dibandingkan sistem dengan kode BCH. Sedangkan kode BCH memberikan keunggulan saat SNR bernilai kecil, memiliki BER lebih baik daripada sistem dengan kode RS.

  15. Assessment of the rate and etiology of pharmacological errors by nurses of two major teaching hospitals in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vizeshfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors have serious consequences for patients, their families and care givers. Reduction of these faults by care givers such as nurses can increase the safety of patients. The goal of study was to assess the rate and etiology of medication error in pediatric and medical wards. This cross-sectional-analytic study is done on 101 registered nurses who had the duty of drug administration in medical pediatric and adults’ wards. Data was collected by a questionnaire including demographic information, self report faults, etiology of medication error and researcher observations. The results showed that nurses’ faults in pediatric wards were 51/6% and in adults wards were 47/4%. The most common faults in adults wards were later or sooner drug administration (48/6%, and administration of drugs without prescription and administering wrong drugs were the most common medication errors in pediatric wards (each one 49/2%. According to researchers’ observations, the medication error rate of 57/9% was rated low in adults wards and the rate of 69/4% in pediatric wards was rated moderate. The most frequent medication errors in both adults and pediatric wards were that nurses didn’t explain the reason and type of drug they were going to administer to patients. Independent T-test showed a significant change in faults observations in pediatric wards (p=0.000 and in adults wards (p=0.000. Several studies have shown medication errors all over the world, especially in pediatric wards. However, by designing a suitable report system and use a multi disciplinary approach, we can be reduced the occurrence of medication errors and its negative consequences.

  16. Estimating gene gain and loss rates in the presence of error in genome assembly and annotation using CAFE 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mira V; Thomas, Gregg W C; Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Hahn, Matthew W

    2013-08-01

    Current sequencing methods produce large amounts of data, but genome assemblies constructed from these data are often fragmented and incomplete. Incomplete and error-filled assemblies result in many annotation errors, especially in the number of genes present in a genome. This means that methods attempting to estimate rates of gene duplication and loss often will be misled by such errors and that rates of gene family evolution will be consistently overestimated. Here, we present a method that takes these errors into account, allowing one to accurately infer rates of gene gain and loss among genomes even with low assembly and annotation quality. The method is implemented in the newest version of the software package CAFE, along with several other novel features. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method with extensive simulations and reanalyze several previously published data sets. Our results show that errors in genome annotation do lead to higher inferred rates of gene gain and loss but that CAFE 3 sufficiently accounts for these errors to provide accurate estimates of important evolutionary parameters.

  17. Impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy and evaluation of OAR doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaper, Deepak; Shukla, Arvind; Rathore, Narendra; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in CT based intracavitary brachytherapy planning and evaluation of its effect on organ at risk (OAR) like bladder, rectum and sigmoid and target volume High risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)

  18. Student laboratory experiments exploring optical fibre communication systems, eye diagrams, and bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Douglas; Moodie, David; Mauchline, Iain; Conner, Steve; Johnstone, Walter; Culshaw, Brian

    2005-06-01

    Optical fibre communications has proved to be one of the key application areas, which created, and ultimately propelled the global growth of the photonics industry over the last twenty years. Consequently the teaching of the principles of optical fibre communications has become integral to many university courses covering photonics technology. However to reinforce the fundamental principles and key technical issues students examine in their lecture courses and to develop their experimental skills, it is critical that the students also obtain hands-on practical experience of photonics components, instruments and systems in an associated teaching laboratory. In recognition of this need OptoSci, in collaboration with university academics, commercially developed a fibre optic communications based educational package (ED-COM). This educator kit enables students to; investigate the characteristics of the individual communications system components (sources, transmitters, fibre, receiver), examine and interpret the overall system performance limitations imposed by attenuation and dispersion, conduct system design and performance analysis. To further enhance the experimental programme examined in the fibre optic communications kit, an extension module to ED-COM has recently been introduced examining one of the most significant performance parameters of digital communications systems, the bit error rate (BER). This add-on module, BER(COM), enables students to generate, evaluate and investigate signal quality trends by examining eye patterns, and explore the bit-rate limitations imposed on communication systems by noise, attenuation and dispersion. This paper will examine the educational objectives, background theory, and typical results for these educator kits, with particular emphasis on BER(COM).

  19. [The effectiveness of error reporting promoting strategy on nurse's attitude, patient safety culture, intention to report and reporting rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsoo

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategies to promote reporting of errors on nurses' attitude to reporting errors, organizational culture related to patient safety, intention to report and reporting rate in hospital nurses. A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was used for this study. The program was developed and then administered to the experimental group for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, X(2)-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 12.0 program. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly higher scores for nurses' attitude to reporting errors (experimental: 20.73 vs control: 20.52, F=5.483, p=.021) and reporting rate (experimental: 3.40 vs control: 1.33, F=1998.083, porganizational culture and intention to report. The study findings indicate that strategies that promote reporting of errors play an important role in producing positive attitudes to reporting errors and improving behavior of reporting. Further advanced strategies for reporting errors that can lead to improved patient safety should be developed and applied in a broad range of hospitals.

  20. Residents' Ratings of Their Clinical Supervision and Their Self-Reported Medical Errors: Analysis of Data From 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, DeWitt C; Daugherty, Steven R; Ryan, Patrick M; Yaghmour, Nicholas A; Philibert, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors and patient safety are major concerns for the medical and medical education communities. Improving clinical supervision for residents is important in avoiding errors, yet little is known about how residents perceive the adequacy of their supervision and how this relates to medical errors and other education outcomes, such as learning and satisfaction. We analyzed data from a 2009 survey of residents in 4 large specialties regarding the adequacy and quality of supervision they receive as well as associations with self-reported data on medical errors and residents' perceptions of their learning environment. Residents' reports of working without adequate supervision were lower than data from a 1999 survey for all 4 specialties, and residents were least likely to rate "lack of supervision" as a problem. While few residents reported that they received inadequate supervision, problems with supervision were negatively correlated with sufficient time for clinical activities, overall ratings of the residency experience, and attending physicians as a source of learning. Problems with supervision were positively correlated with resident reports that they had made a significant medical error, had been belittled or humiliated, or had observed others falsifying medical records. Although working without supervision was not a pervasive problem in 2009, when it happened, it appeared to have negative consequences. The association between inadequate supervision and medical errors is of particular concern.

  1. Attitudes of Mashhad Public Hospital's Nurses and Midwives toward the Causes and Rates of Medical Errors Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakabadi, Sedigheh Sedigh; Ebrahimipour, Hosein; Najar, Ali Vafaie; Janghorban, Roksana; Azarkish, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Patient's safety is one of the main objective in healthcare services; however medical errors are a prevalent potential occurrence for the patients in treatment systems. Medical errors lead to an increase in mortality rate of the patients and challenges such as prolonging of the inpatient period in the hospitals and increased cost. Controlling the medical errors is very important, because these errors besides being costly, threaten the patient's safety. To evaluate the attitudes of nurses and midwives toward the causes and rates of medical errors reporting. It was a cross-sectional observational study. The study population was 140 midwives and nurses employed in Mashhad Public Hospitals. The data collection was done through Goldstone 2001 revised questionnaire. SPSS 11.5 software was used for data analysis. To analyze data, descriptive and inferential analytic statistics were used. Standard deviation and relative frequency distribution, descriptive statistics were used for calculation of the mean and the results were adjusted as tables and charts. Chi-square test was used for the inferential analysis of the data. Most of midwives and nurses (39.4%) were in age range of 25 to 34 years and the lowest percentage (2.2%) were in age range of 55-59 years. The highest average of medical errors was related to employees with three-four years of work experience, while the lowest average was related to those with one-two years of work experience. The highest average of medical errors was during the evening shift, while the lowest were during the night shift. Three main causes of medical errors were considered: illegibile physician prescription orders, similarity of names in different drugs and nurse fatigueness. The most important causes for medical errors from the viewpoints of nurses and midwives are illegible physician's order, drug name similarity with other drugs, nurse's fatigueness and damaged label or packaging of the drug, respectively. Head nurse feedback, peer

  2. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Yuki; Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  3. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanashi, Yuki, E-mail: yamanasi@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  4. Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1√(5)≅27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date

  5. A negentropy minimization approach to adaptive equalization for digital communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sooyong; Lee, Te-Won

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate a new adaptive equalization method based on minimizing approximate negentropy of the estimation error for a finite-length equalizer. We consider an approximate negentropy using nonpolynomial expansions of the estimation error as a new performance criterion to improve performance of a linear equalizer based on minimizing minimum mean squared error (MMSE). Negentropy includes higher order statistical information and its minimization provides improved converge, performance and accuracy compared to traditional methods such as MMSE in terms of bit error rate (BER). The proposed negentropy minimization (NEGMIN) equalizer has two kinds of solutions, the MMSE solution and the other one, depending on the ratio of the normalization parameters. The NEGMIN equalizer has best BER performance when the ratio of the normalization parameters is properly adjusted to maximize the output power(variance) of the NEGMIN equalizer. Simulation experiments show that BER performance of the NEGMIN equalizer with the other solution than the MMSE one has similar characteristics to the adaptive minimum bit error rate (AMBER) equalizer. The main advantage of the proposed equalizer is that it needs significantly fewer training symbols than the AMBER equalizer. Furthermore, the proposed equalizer is more robust to nonlinear distortions than the MMSE equalizer.

  6. Maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate when sample size and allocation rate are adapted in a pre-planned interim look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexandra C; Bauer, Peter

    2011-06-30

    We calculate the maximum type 1 error rate of the pre-planned conventional fixed sample size test for comparing the means of independent normal distributions (with common known variance) which can be yielded when sample size and allocation rate to the treatment arms can be modified in an interim analysis. Thereby it is assumed that the experimenter fully exploits knowledge of the unblinded interim estimates of the treatment effects in order to maximize the conditional type 1 error rate. The 'worst-case' strategies require knowledge of the unknown common treatment effect under the null hypothesis. Although this is a rather hypothetical scenario it may be approached in practice when using a standard control treatment for which precise estimates are available from historical data. The maximum inflation of the type 1 error rate is substantially larger than derived by Proschan and Hunsberger (Biometrics 1995; 51:1315-1324) for design modifications applying balanced samples before and after the interim analysis. Corresponding upper limits for the maximum type 1 error rate are calculated for a number of situations arising from practical considerations (e.g. restricting the maximum sample size, not allowing sample size to decrease, allowing only increase in the sample size in the experimental treatment). The application is discussed for a motivating example. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Considering the role of time budgets on copy-error rates in material culture traditions: an experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kerstin; Mesoudi, Alex; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research highlights that there are constraints placed on the time available to produce cultural artefacts in differing circumstances. Given that copying error, or cultural 'mutation', can have important implications for the evolutionary processes involved in material culture change, it is essential to explore empirically how such 'time constraints' affect patterns of artefactual variation. Here, we report an experiment that systematically tests whether, and how, varying time constraints affect shape copying error rates. A total of 90 participants copied the shape of a 3D 'target handaxe form' using a standardized foam block and a plastic knife. Three distinct 'time conditions' were examined, whereupon participants had either 20, 15, or 10 minutes to complete the task. One aim of this study was to determine whether reducing production time produced a proportional increase in copy error rates across all conditions, or whether the concept of a task specific 'threshold' might be a more appropriate manner to model the effect of time budgets on copy-error rates. We found that mean levels of shape copying error increased when production time was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 20 minute and 15 minute conditions. Significant differences were only obtained between conditions when production time was reduced to 10 minutes. Hence, our results more strongly support the hypothesis that the effects of time constraints on copying error are best modelled according to a 'threshold' effect, below which mutation rates increase more markedly. Our results also suggest that 'time budgets' available in the past will have generated varying patterns of shape variation, potentially affecting spatial and temporal trends seen in the archaeological record. Hence, 'time-budgeting' factors need to be given greater consideration in evolutionary models of material culture change.

  8. Finding the right coverage : The impact of coverage and sequence quality on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping error rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, Emily D.; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Reid, Brendan N.; Palsboll, Per J.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    Restriction-enzyme-based sequencing methods enable the genotyping of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in nonmodel organisms. However, in contrast to traditional genetic markers, genotyping error rates in SNPs derived from restriction-enzyme-based methods remain largely unknown.

  9. Error resilient H.264/AVC Video over Satellite for low Packet Loss Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2007-01-01

    The performance of video over satellite is simulated. The error resilience tools of intra macroblock refresh and slicing are optimized for live broadcast video over satellite. The improved performance using feedback, using a cross- layer approach, over the satellite link is also simulated. The ne...

  10. SNP discovery in nonmodel organisms: strand bias and base-substitution errors reduce conversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Barendse, William; Kijas, James W; Barris, Wes C; McWilliam, Sean; Bunch, Rowan J; McCullough, Russell; Harrison, Blair; Hoelzel, A Rus; England, Phillip R

    2015-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genetic studies in organisms of conservation, commercial or biological interest. Most SNP discovery projects in nonmodel organisms apply a strategy for identifying putative SNPs based on filtering rules that account for random sequencing errors. Here, we analyse data used to develop 4723 novel SNPs for the commercially important deep-sea fish, orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), to assess the impact of not accounting for systematic sequencing errors when filtering identified polymorphisms when discovering SNPs. We used SAMtools to identify polymorphisms in a velvet assembly of genomic DNA sequence data from seven individuals. The resulting set of polymorphisms were filtered to minimize 'bycatch'-polymorphisms caused by sequencing or assembly error. An Illumina Infinium SNP chip was used to genotype a final set of 7714 polymorphisms across 1734 individuals. Five predictors were examined for their effect on the probability of obtaining an assayable SNP: depth of coverage, number of reads that support a variant, polymorphism type (e.g. A/C), strand-bias and Illumina SNP probe design score. Our results indicate that filtering out systematic sequencing errors could substantially improve the efficiency of SNP discovery. We show that BLASTX can be used as an efficient tool to identify single-copy genomic regions in the absence of a reference genome. The results have implications for research aiming to identify assayable SNPs and build SNP genotyping assays for nonmodel organisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sharp Threshold Detection Based on Sup-norm Error rates in High-dimensional Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl

    focused almost exclusively on estimation errors in stronger norms. We show that this sup-norm bound can be used to distinguish between zero and non-zero coefficients at a much finer scale than would have been possible using classical oracle inequalities. Thus, our sup-norm bound is tailored to consistent...

  12. On the Symbol Error Rate of M-ary MPSK over Generalized Fading Channels with Additive Laplacian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2015-01-07

    This work considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox’s H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations [1].

  13. On the symbol error rate of M-ary MPSK over generalized fading channels with additive Laplacian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox\\'s H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. On the symbol error rate of M-ary MPSK over generalized fading channels with additive Laplacian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox's H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. On the Symbol Error Rate of M-ary MPSK over Generalized Fading Channels with Additive Laplacian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This work considers the symbol error rate of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) constellations over extended Generalized-K fading with Laplacian noise and using a minimum distance detector. A generic closed form expression of the conditional and the average probability of error is obtained and simplified in terms of the Fox’s H function. More simplifications to well known functions for some special cases of fading are also presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is validated with some numerical results examples done by computer based simulations [1].

  16. Determination of corrosion rate of reinforcement with a modulated guard ring electrode; analysis of errors due to lateral current distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtas, H.

    2004-01-01

    The main source of errors in measuring the corrosion rate of rebars on site is a non-uniform current distribution between the small counter electrode (CE) on the concrete surface and the large rebar network. Guard ring electrodes (GEs) are used in an attempt to confine the excitation current within a defined area. In order to better understand the functioning of modulated guard ring electrode and to assess its effectiveness in eliminating errors due to lateral spread of current signal from the small CE, measurements of the polarisation resistance performed on a concrete beam have been numerically simulated. Effect of parameters such as rebar corrosion activity, concrete resistivity, concrete cover depth and size of the corroding area on errors in the estimation of polarisation resistance of a single rebar has been examined. The results indicate that modulated GE arrangement fails to confine the lateral spread of the CE current within a constant area. Using the constant diameter of confinement for the calculation of corrosion rate may lead to serious errors when test conditions change. When high corrosion activity of rebar and/or local corrosion occur, the use of the modulated GE confinement may lead to significant underestimation of the corrosion rate

  17. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  18. Generalized additive models and Lucilia sericata growth: assessing confidence intervals and error rates in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Aaron M; Foran, David R

    2008-07-01

    Forensic entomologists use blow fly development to estimate a postmortem interval. Although accurate, fly age estimates can be imprecise for older developmental stages and no standard means of assigning confidence intervals exists. Presented here is a method for modeling growth of the forensically important blow fly Lucilia sericata, using generalized additive models (GAMs). Eighteen GAMs were created to predict the extent of juvenile fly development, encompassing developmental stage, length, weight, strain, and temperature data, collected from 2559 individuals. All measures were informative, explaining up to 92.6% of the deviance in the data, though strain and temperature exerted negligible influences. Predictions made with an independent data set allowed for a subsequent examination of error. Estimates using length and developmental stage were within 5% of true development percent during the feeding portion of the larval life cycle, while predictions for postfeeding third instars were less precise, but within expected error.

  19. Maximum type I error rate inflation from sample size reassessment when investigators are blind to treatment labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, Magdalena; Posch, Martin; Magirr, Dominic

    2016-05-30

    Consider a parallel group trial for the comparison of an experimental treatment to a control, where the second-stage sample size may depend on the blinded primary endpoint data as well as on additional blinded data from a secondary endpoint. For the setting of normally distributed endpoints, we demonstrate that this may lead to an inflation of the type I error rate if the null hypothesis holds for the primary but not the secondary endpoint. We derive upper bounds for the inflation of the type I error rate, both for trials that employ random allocation and for those that use block randomization. We illustrate the worst-case sample size reassessment rule in a case study. For both randomization strategies, the maximum type I error rate increases with the effect size in the secondary endpoint and the correlation between endpoints. The maximum inflation increases with smaller block sizes if information on the block size is used in the reassessment rule. Based on our findings, we do not question the well-established use of blinded sample size reassessment methods with nuisance parameter estimates computed from the blinded interim data of the primary endpoint. However, we demonstrate that the type I error rate control of these methods relies on the application of specific, binding, pre-planned and fully algorithmic sample size reassessment rules and does not extend to general or unplanned sample size adjustments based on blinded data. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Controlling type I error rate for fast track drug development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung J; Ouyang, Peter; Quan, Hui; Lin, Yong; Michiels, Bart; Bijnens, Luc

    2003-03-15

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 has a Section (No. 112) entitled 'Expediting Study and Approval of Fast Track Drugs' (the Act). In 1998, the FDA issued a 'Guidance for Industry: the Fast Track Drug Development Programs' (the FTDD programmes) to meet the requirement of the Act. The purpose of FTDD programmes is to 'facilitate the development and expedite the review of new drugs that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs'. Since then many health products have reached patients who suffered from AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, and many other diseases, sooner by utilizing the Fast Track Act and the FTDD programmes. In the meantime several scientific issues have also surfaced when following the FTDD programmes. In this paper we will discuss the concept of two kinds of type I errors, namely, the 'conditional approval' and the 'final approval' type I errors, and propose statistical methods for controlling them in a new drug submission process. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Bit Error Rate Due to Misalignment of Earth Station Antenna Pointing to Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One problem causing reduction of energy in satellite communications system is the misalignment of earth station antenna pointing to satellite. Error in pointing would affect the quality of information signal to energy bit in earth station. In this research, error in pointing angle occurred only at receiver (Rx antenna, while the transmitter (Tx antennas precisely point to satellite. The research was conducted towards two satellites, namely TELKOM-1 and TELKOM-2. At first, measurement was made by directing Tx antenna precisely to satellite, resulting in an antenna pattern shown by spectrum analyzer. The output from spectrum analyzers is drawn with the right scale to describe swift of azimuth and elevation pointing angle towards satellite. Due to drifting from the precise pointing, it influenced the received link budget indicated by pattern antenna. This antenna pattern shows reduction of power level received as a result of pointing misalignment. As a conclusion, the increasing misalignment of pointing to satellite would affect in the reduction of received signal parameters link budget of down-link traffic.

  2. Single Carrier Cyclic Prefix-Assisted CDMA System with Frequency Domain Equalization for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukumar A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-access interference and interfinger interference limit the capacity of conventional single-carrier DS-CDMA systems. Even though multicarrier CDMA posses the advantages of conventional CDMA and OFDM, it suffers from two major implementation difficulties such as peak-to-average power ratio and high sensitivity to frequency offset and RF phase noise. A novel approach based on single-carrier cyclic prefix-assisted CDMA has been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of single-carrier CDMA and multicarrier modulation. The usefulness of the proposed approach for high-speed packet access with simplified channel estimation procedures are investigated in this paper. The paper also proposes a data-dependent pilot structure for the downlink transmission of the proposed system for enhancing pilot-assisted channel estimation in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed pilot structure is compared against the data-independent common pilot structure. The proposed system is extensively simulated for different channel parameters with different channel estimation and equalization methods and the results are compared against conventional multicarrier CDMA systems with identical system specifications.

  3. Bit-error-rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.

  4. Capacity Versus Bit Error Rate Trade-Off in the DVB-S2 Forward Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berioli Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to optimize the use of satellite capacity in DVB-S2 forward links. By reducing the so-called safety margins, in the adaptive coding and modulation technique, it is possible to increase the spectral efficiency at expenses of an increased BER on the transmission. The work shows how a system can be tuned to operate at different degrees of this trade-off, and also the performance which can be achieved in terms of BER/PER, spectral efficiency, and interarrival, duration, strength of the error bursts. The paper also describes how a Markov chain can be used to model the ModCod transitions in a DVB-S2 system, and it presents results for the calculation of the transition probabilities in two cases.

  5. Capacity Versus Bit Error Rate Trade-Off in the DVB-S2 Forward Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Berioli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to optimize the use of satellite capacity in DVB-S2 forward links. By reducing the so-called safety margins, in the adaptive coding and modulation technique, it is possible to increase the spectral efficiency at expenses of an increased BER on the transmission. The work shows how a system can be tuned to operate at different degrees of this trade-off, and also the performance which can be achieved in terms of BER/PER, spectral efficiency, and interarrival, duration, strength of the error bursts. The paper also describes how a Markov chain can be used to model the ModCod transitions in a DVB-S2 system, and it presents results for the calculation of the transition probabilities in two cases.

  6. Optimal classifier selection and negative bias in error rate estimation: an empirical study on high-dimensional prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biometric practice, researchers often apply a large number of different methods in a "trial-and-error" strategy to get as much as possible out of their data and, due to publication pressure or pressure from the consulting customer, present only the most favorable results. This strategy may induce a substantial optimistic bias in prediction error estimation, which is quantitatively assessed in the present manuscript. The focus of our work is on class prediction based on high-dimensional data (e.g. microarray data, since such analyses are particularly exposed to this kind of bias. Methods In our study we consider a total of 124 variants of classifiers (possibly including variable selection or tuning steps within a cross-validation evaluation scheme. The classifiers are applied to original and modified real microarray data sets, some of which are obtained by randomly permuting the class labels to mimic non-informative predictors while preserving their correlation structure. Results We assess the minimal misclassification rate over the different variants of classifiers in order to quantify the bias arising when the optimal classifier is selected a posteriori in a data-driven manner. The bias resulting from the parameter tuning (including gene selection parameters as a special case and the bias resulting from the choice of the classification method are examined both separately and jointly. Conclusions The median minimal error rate over the investigated classifiers was as low as 31% and 41% based on permuted uninformative predictors from studies on colon cancer and prostate cancer, respectively. We conclude that the strategy to present only the optimal result is not acceptable because it yields a substantial bias in error rate estimation, and suggest alternative approaches for properly reporting classification accuracy.

  7. Standardized error severity score (ESS) ratings to quantify risk associated with child restraint system (CRS) and booster seat misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Kramer, Chelsea; Langerak, Robin; Scipione, Andrea; Kelsey, Shelley

    2017-11-17

    Although numerous research studies have reported high levels of error and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) and booster seats in experimental and real-world scenarios, conclusions are limited because they provide little information regarding which installation issues pose the highest risk and thus should be targeted for change. Beneficial to legislating bodies and researchers alike would be a standardized, globally relevant assessment of the potential injury risk associated with more common forms of CRS and booster seat misuse, which could be applied with observed error frequency-for example, in car seat clinics or during prototype user testing-to better identify and characterize the installation issues of greatest risk to safety. A group of 8 leading world experts in CRS and injury biomechanics, who were members of an international child safety project, estimated the potential injury severity associated with common forms of CRS and booster seat misuse. These injury risk error severity score (ESS) ratings were compiled and compared to scores from previous research that had used a similar procedure but with fewer respondents. To illustrate their application, and as part of a larger study examining CRS and booster seat labeling requirements, the new standardized ESS ratings were applied to objective installation performance data from 26 adult participants who installed a convertible (rear- vs. forward-facing) CRS and booster seat in a vehicle, and a child test dummy in the CRS and booster seat, using labels that only just met minimal regulatory requirements. The outcome measure, the risk priority number (RPN), represented the composite scores of injury risk and observed installation error frequency. Variability within the sample of ESS ratings in the present study was smaller than that generated in previous studies, indicating better agreement among experts on what constituted injury risk. Application of the new standardized ESS ratings to installation

  8. Linear transceiver design for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol using a bit error rate criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network

  9. Relationship of Employee Attitudes and Supervisor-Controller Ratio to En Route Operational Error Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    2002-01-01

    ...; Rodgers, Mogford, Mogford, 1998). In this study, the relationship of organizational factors to en route OE rates was investigated, based on an adaptation of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS; Shappell & Wiegmann 2000...

  10. Correcting for binomial measurement error in predictors in regression with application to analysis of DNA methylation rates by bisulfite sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, John; Prochenka, Agnieszka; Thoresen, Magne; Ploski, Rafal

    2016-09-30

    Motivated by a genetic application, this paper addresses the problem of fitting regression models when the predictor is a proportion measured with error. While the problem of dealing with additive measurement error in fitting regression models has been extensively studied, the problem where the additive error is of a binomial nature has not been addressed. The measurement errors here are heteroscedastic for two reasons; dependence on the underlying true value and changing sampling effort over observations. While some of the previously developed methods for treating additive measurement error with heteroscedasticity can be used in this setting, other methods need modification. A new version of simulation extrapolation is developed, and we also explore a variation on the standard regression calibration method that uses a beta-binomial model based on the fact that the true value is a proportion. Although most of the methods introduced here can be used for fitting non-linear models, this paper will focus primarily on their use in fitting a linear model. While previous work has focused mainly on estimation of the coefficients, we will, with motivation from our example, also examine estimation of the variance around the regression line. In addressing these problems, we also discuss the appropriate manner in which to bootstrap for both inferences and bias assessment. The various methods are compared via simulation, and the results are illustrated using our motivating data, for which the goal is to relate the methylation rate of a blood sample to the age of the individual providing the sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Bit Error-Rate Minimizing Detector for Amplify-and-Forward Relaying Systems Using Generalized Gaussian Kernel

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, a new detector is proposed for amplifyand- forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the receiver. The probability density function is estimated with the help of kernel density technique. A generalized Gaussian kernel is proposed. This new kernel provides more flexibility and encompasses Gaussian and uniform kernels as special cases. The optimal window width of the kernel is calculated. Simulations results show that a gain of more than 1 dB can be achieved in terms of BER performance as compared to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) receiver when communicating over Rayleigh fading channels.

  12. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  13. Soft error rate estimations of the Kintex-7 FPGA within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthlin, M J; Harding, A; Takai, H

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the radiation testing performed on the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA in an effort to determine if the Kintex-7 can be used within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter. The Kintex-7 device was tested with wide-spectrum neutrons, protons, heavy-ions, and mixed high-energy hadron environments. The results of these tests were used to estimate the configuration ram and block ram upset rate within the ATLAS LAr. These estimations suggest that the configuration memory will upset at a rate of 1.1 × 10 −10 upsets/bit/s and the bram memory will upset at a rate of 9.06 × 10 −11 upsets/bit/s. For the Kintex 7K325 device, this translates to 6.85 × 10 −3 upsets/device/s for configuration memory and 1.49 × 10 −3 for block memory

  14. Error associated with model predictions of wildland fire rate of spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel G. Cruz; Martin E. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    How well can we expect to predict the spread rate of wildfires and prescribed fires? The degree of accuracy in model predictions of wildland fire behaviour characteristics are dependent on the model's applicability to a given situation, the validity of the model's relationships, and the reliability of the model input data (Alexander and Cruz 2013b#. We...

  15. Error-free 5.1 Tbit/s data generation on a single-wavelength channel using a 1.28 Tbaud symbol rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a record bit rate of 5.1 Tbit/s on a single wavelength using a 1.28 Tbaud OTDM symbol rate, DQPSK data-modulation, and polarisation-multiplexing. Error-free performance (BER......We demonstrate a record bit rate of 5.1 Tbit/s on a single wavelength using a 1.28 Tbaud OTDM symbol rate, DQPSK data-modulation, and polarisation-multiplexing. Error-free performance (BER...

  16. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  17. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  18. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar......In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck....... The symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  19. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Macq

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  20. A Simulation Analysis of Errors in the Measurement of Standard Electrochemical Rate Constants from Phase-Selective Impedance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-30

    RESTRICTIVE MARKINGSC Unclassif ied 2a SECURIly CLASSIFICATION ALIIMOA4TY 3 DIS1RSBj~jiOAVAILAB.I1Y OF RkPORI _________________________________ Approved...of the AC current, including the time dependence at a growing DME, at a given fixed potential either in the presence or the absence of an...the relative error in k b(app) is ob relatively small for ks (true) : 0.5 cm s-, and increases rapidly for ob larger rate constants as kob reaches the

  1. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  2. Rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events among hospitalized children following implementation of a resident handoff bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Amy J; Sectish, Theodore C; Simon, Dennis W; Keohane, Carol; McSweeney, Maireade E; Chung, Erica Y; Yoon, Catherine S; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Wassner, Ari J; Harper, Marvin B; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-12-04

    Handoff miscommunications are a leading cause of medical errors. Studies comprehensively assessing handoff improvement programs are lacking. To determine whether introduction of a multifaceted handoff program was associated with reduced rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events, fewer omissions of key data in written handoffs, improved verbal handoffs, and changes in resident-physician workflow. Prospective intervention study of 1255 patient admissions (642 before and 613 after the intervention) involving 84 resident physicians (42 before and 42 after the intervention) from July-September 2009 and November 2009-January 2010 on 2 inpatient units at Boston Children's Hospital. Resident handoff bundle, consisting of standardized communication and handoff training, a verbal mnemonic, and a new team handoff structure. On one unit, a computerized handoff tool linked to the electronic medical record was introduced. The primary outcomes were the rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events measured by daily systematic surveillance. The secondary outcomes were omissions in the printed handoff document and resident time-motion activity. Medical errors decreased from 33.8 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 27.3-40.3) to 18.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 14.7-21.9; P < .001), and preventable adverse events decreased from 3.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 1.7-4.8) to 1.5 (95% CI, 0.51-2.4) per 100 admissions (P = .04) following the intervention. There were fewer omissions of key handoff elements on printed handoff documents, especially on the unit that received the computerized handoff tool (significant reductions of omissions in 11 of 14 categories with computerized tool; significant reductions in 2 of 14 categories without computerized tool). Physicians spent a greater percentage of time in a 24-hour period at the patient bedside after the intervention (8.3%; 95% CI 7.1%-9.8%) vs 10.6% (95% CI, 9.2%-12.2%; P = .03). The average duration of verbal

  3. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.

  4. Structure analysis of tax revenue and inflation rate in Banda Aceh using vector error correction model with multiple alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Hizir; Maulia, Eva; Miftahuddin

    2017-11-01

    A country has several important parameters to achieve economic prosperity, such as tax revenue and inflation rate. One of the largest revenues of the State Budget in Indonesia comes from the tax sector. Meanwhile, the rate of inflation occurring in a country can be used as an indicator, to measure the good and bad economic problems faced by the country. Given the importance of tax revenue and inflation rate control in achieving economic prosperity, it is necessary to analyze the structure of tax revenue relations and inflation rate. This study aims to produce the best VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) with optimal lag using various alpha and perform structural analysis using the Impulse Response Function (IRF) of the VECM models to examine the relationship of tax revenue, and inflation in Banda Aceh. The results showed that the best model for the data of tax revenue and inflation rate in Banda Aceh City using alpha 0.01 is VECM with optimal lag 2, while the best model for data of tax revenue and inflation rate in Banda Aceh City using alpha 0.05 and 0,1 VECM with optimal lag 3. However, the VECM model with alpha 0.01 yielded four significant models of income tax model, inflation rate of Banda Aceh, inflation rate of health and inflation rate of education in Banda Aceh. While the VECM model with alpha 0.05 and 0.1 yielded one significant model that is income tax model. Based on the VECM models, then there are two structural analysis IRF which is formed to look at the relationship of tax revenue, and inflation in Banda Aceh, the IRF with VECM (2) and IRF with VECM (3).

  5. The dynamic effect of exchange-rate volatility on Turkish exports: Parsimonious error-correction model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirhan Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effect of exchange-rate stability on real export volume in Turkey, using monthly data for the period February 2001 to January 2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration method and the parsimonious error-correction model are applied to determine long-run and short-run relationships between real export volume and its determinants. In this study, the conditional variance of the GARCH (1, 1 model is taken as a proxy for exchange-rate stability, and generalized impulse-response functions and variance-decomposition analyses are applied to analyze the dynamic effects of variables on real export volume. The empirical findings suggest that exchangerate stability has a significant positive effect on real export volume, both in the short and the long run.

  6. Error rate on the director's task is influenced by the need to take another's perspective but not the type of perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Edward W; Olivier, Laure; Samuel, Steven; Lurz, Robert; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-08-01

    Adults are prone to responding erroneously to another's instructions based on what they themselves see and not what the other person sees. Previous studies have indicated that in instruction-following tasks participants make more errors when required to infer another's perspective than when following a rule. These inference-induced errors may occur because the inference process itself is error-prone or because they are a side effect of the inference process. Crucially, if the inference process is error-prone, then higher error rates should be found when the perspective to be inferred is more complex. Here, we found that participants were no more error-prone when they had to judge how an item appeared (Level 2 perspective-taking) than when they had to judge whether an item could or could not be seen (Level 1 perspective-taking). However, participants were more error-prone in the perspective-taking variants of the task than in a version that only required them to follow a rule. These results suggest that having to represent another's perspective induces errors when following their instructions but that error rates are not directly linked to errors in inferring another's perspective.

  7. Impact of automated dispensing cabinets on medication selection and preparation error rates in an emergency department: a prospective and direct observational before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Laura; Jones, Nick; Manias, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) in healthcare facilities appears to be increasing, in particular within Australian hospital emergency departments (EDs). While the investment in ADCs is on the increase, no studies have specifically investigated the impacts of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in EDs. Our aim was to assess the impact of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in an ED of a tertiary teaching hospital. Pre intervention and post intervention study involving direct observations of nurses completing medication selection and preparation activities before and after the implementation of ADCs in the original and new emergency departments within a 377-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. Medication selection and preparation error rates were calculated and compared between these two periods. Secondary end points included the impact on medication error type and severity. A total of 2087 medication selection and preparations were observed among 808 patients pre and post intervention. Implementation of ADCs in the new ED resulted in a 64.7% (1.96% versus 0.69%, respectively, P = 0.017) reduction in medication selection and preparation errors. All medication error types were reduced in the post intervention study period. There was an insignificant impact on medication error severity as all errors detected were categorised as minor. The implementation of ADCs could reduce medication selection and preparation errors and improve medication safety in an ED setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  9. An Importance Sampling Simulation Method for Bayesian Decision Feedback Equalizers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    An importance sampling (IS) simulation technique is presented for evaluating the lower-bound bit error rate (BER) of the Bayesian decision feedback equalizer (DFE) under the assumption of correct decisions being fed back. A design procedure is developed, which chooses appropriate bias vectors for the simulation density to ensure asymptotic efficiency of the IS simulation.

  10. Comparison of the effect of paper and computerized procedures on operator error rate and speed of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, S.A.; Perez, P.B.; Meyer, S.; Crabtree, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Computerized Procedures Manual (COPMA-II) is an advanced procedure manual that can be used to select and execute procedures, to monitor the state of plant parameters, and to help operators track their progress through plant procedures. COPMA-II was evaluated in a study that compared the speed and accuracy of operators' performance when they performed with COPMA-II and traditional paper procedures. Sixteen licensed reactor operators worked in teams of two to operate the Scales Pressurized Water Reactor Facility at North Carolina State University. Each team performed one change of power with each type of procedure to simulate performance under normal operating conditions. Teams then performed one accident scenario with COPMA-II and one with paper procedures. Error rates, performance times, and subjective estimates of workload were collected, and were evaluated for each combination of procedure type and scenario type. For the change of power task, accuracy and response time were not different for COPMA-II and paper procedures. Operators did initiate responses to both accident scenarios fastest with paper procedures. However, procedure type did not moderate response completion time for either accident scenario. For accuracy, performance with paper procedures resulted in twice as many errors as did performance with COPMA-II. Subjective measures of mental workload for the accident scenarios were not affected by procedure type

  11. The Effect of Exposure to High Noise Levels on the Performance and Rate of Error in Manual Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajenasiri, Farahnaz; Zamanian, Alireza; Zamanian, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Sound is among the significant environmental factors for people's health, and it has an important role in both physical and psychological injuries, and it also affects individuals' performance and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to high noise levels on the performance and rate of error in manual activities. This was an interventional study conducted on 50 students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (25 males and 25 females) in which each person was considered as its own control to assess the effect of noise on her or his performance at the sound levels of 70, 90, and 110 dB by using two factors of physical features and the creation of different conditions of sound source as well as applying the Two-Arm coordination Test. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Repeated measurements were used to compare the length of performance as well as the errors measured in the test. Based on the results, we found a direct and significant association between the levels of sound and the length of performance. Moreover, the participant's performance was significantly different for different sound levels (at 110 dB as opposed to 70 and 90 dB, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). This study found that a sound level of 110 dB had an important effect on the individuals' performances, i.e., the performances were decreased.

  12. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.

  13. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Kellman

    Full Text Available Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert

  14. Forensic comparison and matching of fingerprints: using quantitative image measures for estimating error rates through understanding and predicting difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Philip J; Mnookin, Jennifer L; Erlikhman, Gennady; Garrigan, Patrick; Ghose, Tandra; Mettler, Everett; Charlton, David; Dror, Itiel E

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprint examination is a complex task that, despite advances in image processing, still fundamentally depends on the visual judgments of highly trained human examiners. Fingerprints collected from crime scenes typically contain less information than fingerprints collected under controlled conditions. Specifically, they are often noisy and distorted and may contain only a portion of the total fingerprint area. Expertise in fingerprint comparison, like other forms of perceptual expertise, such as face recognition or aircraft identification, depends on perceptual learning processes that lead to the discovery of features and relations that matter in comparing prints. Relatively little is known about the perceptual processes involved in making comparisons, and even less is known about what characteristics of fingerprint pairs make particular comparisons easy or difficult. We measured expert examiner performance and judgments of difficulty and confidence on a new fingerprint database. We developed a number of quantitative measures of image characteristics and used multiple regression techniques to discover objective predictors of error as well as perceived difficulty and confidence. A number of useful predictors emerged, and these included variables related to image quality metrics, such as intensity and contrast information, as well as measures of information quantity, such as the total fingerprint area. Also included were configural features that fingerprint experts have noted, such as the presence and clarity of global features and fingerprint ridges. Within the constraints of the overall low error rates of experts, a regression model incorporating the derived predictors demonstrated reasonable success in predicting objective difficulty for print pairs, as shown both in goodness of fit measures to the original data set and in a cross validation test. The results indicate the plausibility of using objective image metrics to predict expert performance and

  15. The Differences in Error Rate and Type between IELTS Writing Bands and Their Impact on Academic Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to demonstrate the differences in writing between International English Language Testing System (IELTS) bands 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. An analysis of exemplars provided from the IELTS test makers reveals that IELTS 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 writers can make a minimum of 206 errors, 96 errors and 35 errors per 1000 words. The following section…

  16. Inter-track interference mitigation with two-dimensional variable equalizer for bit patterned media recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased track density in bit patterned media recording (BPMR causes increased inter-track interference (ITI, which degrades the bit error rate (BER performance. In order to mitigate the effect of the ITI, signals from multiple tracks can be equalized by a 2D equalizer with 1D target. Usually, the 2D fixed equalizer coefficients are obtained by using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS for training. In this study, a 2D variable equalizer is proposed, where various sets of 2D equalizer coefficients are predetermined and stored for different ITI patterns besides the usual PRBS training. For data detection, as the ITI patterns are unknown in the first global iteration, the main and adjacent tracks are equalized with the conventional 2D fixed equalizer, detected with Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR detector and decoded with low-density parity-check (LDPC decoder. Then using the estimated bit information from main and adjacent tracks, the ITI pattern for each island of the main track can be estimated and the corresponding 2D variable equalizers are used to better equalize the bits on the main track. This process is executed iteratively by feeding back the main track information. Simulation results indicate that for both single-track and two-track detection, the proposed 2D variable equalizer can achieve better BER and frame error rate (FER compared to that with the 2D fixed equalizer.

  17. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, A M; Bonants, P; Tomassini, A; Bruni, N; Vannini, A

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was used to describe the structure of a DNA mixture comprising eight Phytophthora spp. and Pythium vexans. Pyrosequencing resulted in 16 965 reads, detecting all species in the template DNA mixture. Reducing the ITS1 sequence identity threshold resulted in a decrease in numbers of unmatched reads but a concomitant increase in the numbers of false MOTUs. The total error rate was 0·63% and comprised mainly mismatches (0·25%) Pyrosequencing of ITS1 region is an efficient and accurate technique for the detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. in environmental samples. However, the risk of allocating false MOTUs, even when demonstrated to be low, may require additional validation with alternative detection methods. Phytophthora spp. are considered among the most destructive groups of invasive plant pathogens, affecting thousands of cultivated and wild plants worldwide. Simultaneous early detection of Phytophthora complexes in environmental samples offers an unique opportunity for the interception of known and unknown species along pathways of introduction, along with the identification of these organisms in invaded environments. © 2012 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  19. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, E M; Zwinderman, A H; Gamazon, E R

    2017-05-01

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (F ST ) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of F ST between the ancestral European and African populations. Type-II error rate was investigated for a SNP characterized by a high value of F ST . In all tests, genomic MDS components were included to correct for population stratification. Type-I and type-II error rate was adequately controlled in a population that included two distinct ethnic populations but not in admixed samples. Statistical power was reduced in the admixed samples. Gene-based tests showed no residual inflation in type-I error rate.

  20. Outlier removal, sum scores, and the inflation of the Type I error rate in independent samples t tests: the power of alternatives and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-09-01

    In psychology, outliers are often excluded before running an independent samples t test, and data are often nonnormal because of the use of sum scores based on tests and questionnaires. This article concerns the handling of outliers in the context of independent samples t tests applied to nonnormal sum scores. After reviewing common practice, we present results of simulations of artificial and actual psychological data, which show that the removal of outliers based on commonly used Z value thresholds severely increases the Type I error rate. We found Type I error rates of above 20% after removing outliers with a threshold value of Z = 2 in a short and difficult test. Inflations of Type I error rates are particularly severe when researchers are given the freedom to alter threshold values of Z after having seen the effects thereof on outcomes. We recommend the use of nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests or robust Yuen-Welch tests without removing outliers. These alternatives to independent samples t tests are found to have nominal Type I error rates with a minimal loss of power when no outliers are present in the data and to have nominal Type I error rates and good power when outliers are present. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  2. Bit-error-rate performance analysis of self-heterodyne detected radio-over-fiber links using phase and intensity modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaoli; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the performance of two self-heterodyne detected radio-over-fiber (RoF) links employing phase modulation (PM) and quadrature biased intensity modulation (IM), in term of bit-error-rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR). In both links, self...

  3. Downlink Error Rates of Half-duplex Users in Full-duplex Networks over a Laplacian Inter-User Interference Limited and EGK fading

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a mathematical framework to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). The developed model is used to motivate long term pairing for users that have

  4. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E. M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Gamazon, E. R.

    2017-01-01

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates;

  5. Sample size re-assessment leading to a raised sample size does not inflate type I error rate under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Per

    2013-07-19

    One major concern with adaptive designs, such as the sample size adjustable designs, has been the fear of inflating the type I error rate. In (Stat Med 23:1023-1038, 2004) it is however proven that when observations follow a normal distribution and the interim result show promise, meaning that the conditional power exceeds 50%, type I error rate is protected. This bound and the distributional assumptions may seem to impose undesirable restrictions on the use of these designs. In (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) the possibility of going below 50% is explored and a region that permits an increased sample size without inflation is defined in terms of the conditional power at the interim. A criterion which is implicit in (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) is derived by elementary methods and expressed in terms of the test statistic at the interim to simplify practical use. Mathematical and computational details concerning this criterion are exhibited. Under very general conditions the type I error rate is preserved under sample size adjustable schemes that permit a raise. The main result states that for normally distributed observations raising the sample size when the result looks promising, where the definition of promising depends on the amount of knowledge gathered so far, guarantees the protection of the type I error rate. Also, in the many situations where the test statistic approximately follows a normal law, the deviation from the main result remains negligible. This article provides details regarding the Weibull and binomial distributions and indicates how one may approach these distributions within the current setting. There is thus reason to consider such designs more often, since they offer a means of adjusting an important design feature at little or no cost in terms of error rate.

  6. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  7. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  8. Resident Physicians' Clinical Training and Error Rate: The Roles of Autonomy, Consultation, and Familiarity with the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal; Stern, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Resident physicians' clinical training poses unique challenges for the delivery of safe patient care. Residents face special risks of involvement in medical errors since they have tremendous responsibility for patient care, yet they are novice practitioners in the process of learning and mastering their profession. The present study explores…

  9. SU-G-BRB-03: Assessing the Sensitivity and False Positive Rate of the Integrated Quality Monitor (IQM) Large Area Ion Chamber to MLC Positioning Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, E McKenzie; DeMarco, J; Steers, J; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine both the IQM’s sensitivity and false positive rate to varying MLC errors. By balancing these two characteristics, an optimal tolerance value can be derived. Methods: An un-modified SBRT Liver IMRT plan containing 7 fields was randomly selected as a representative clinical case. The active MLC positions for all fields were perturbed randomly from a square distribution of varying width (±1mm to ±5mm). These unmodified and modified plans were measured multiple times each by the IQM (a large area ion chamber mounted to a TrueBeam linac head). Measurements were analyzed relative to the initial, unmodified measurement. IQM readings are analyzed as a function of control points. In order to examine sensitivity to errors along a field’s delivery, each measured field was divided into 5 groups of control points, and the maximum error in each group was recorded. Since the plans have known errors, we compared how well the IQM is able to differentiate between unmodified and error plans. ROC curves and logistic regression were used to analyze this, independent of thresholds. Results: A likelihood-ratio Chi-square test showed that the IQM could significantly predict whether a plan had MLC errors, with the exception of the beginning and ending control points. Upon further examination, we determined there was ramp-up occurring at the beginning of delivery. Once the linac AFC was tuned, the subsequent measurements (relative to a new baseline) showed significant (p <0.005) abilities to predict MLC errors. Using the area under the curve, we show the IQM’s ability to detect errors increases with increasing MLC error (Spearman’s Rho=0.8056, p<0.0001). The optimal IQM count thresholds from the ROC curves are ±3%, ±2%, and ±7% for the beginning, middle 3, and end segments, respectively. Conclusion: The IQM has proven to be able to detect not only MLC errors, but also differences in beam tuning (ramp-up). Partially supported by the Susan Scott Foundation.

  10. Throughput Estimation Method in Burst ACK Scheme for Optimizing Frame Size and Burst Frame Number Appropriate to SNR-Related Error Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohteru, Shoko; Kishine, Keiji

    The Burst ACK scheme enhances effective throughput by reducing ACK overhead when a transmitter sends sequentially multiple data frames to a destination. IEEE 802.11e is one such example. The size of the data frame body and the number of burst data frames are important burst transmission parameters that affect throughput. The larger the burst transmission parameters are, the better the throughput under error-free conditions becomes. However, large data frame could reduce throughput under error-prone conditions caused by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration. If the throughput can be calculated from the burst transmission parameters and error rate, the appropriate ranges of the burst transmission parameters could be narrowed down, and the necessary buffer size for storing transmit data or received data temporarily could be estimated. In this paper, we present a method that features a simple algorithm for estimating the effective throughput from the burst transmission parameters and error rate. The calculated throughput values agree well with the measured ones for actual wireless boards based on the IEEE 802.11-based original MAC protocol. We also calculate throughput values for larger values of the burst transmission parameters outside the assignable values of the wireless boards and find the appropriate values of the burst transmission parameters.

  11. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  12. Real-time soft error rate measurements on bulk 40 nm SRAM memories: a five-year dual-site experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, J. L.; Munteanu, D.; Moindjie, S.; Saad Saoud, T.; Gasiot, G.; Roche, P.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports five years of real-time soft error rate experimentation conducted with the same setup at mountain altitude for three years and then at sea level for two years. More than 7 Gbit of SRAM memories manufactured in CMOS bulk 40 nm technology have been subjected to the natural radiation background. The intensity of the atmospheric neutron flux has been continuously measured on site during these experiments using dedicated neutron monitors. As the result, the neutron and alpha component of the soft error rate (SER) have been very accurately extracted from these measurements, refining the first SER estimations performed in 2012 for this SRAM technology. Data obtained at sea level evidence, for the first time, a possible correlation between the neutron flux changes induced by the daily atmospheric pressure variations and the measured SER. Finally, all of the experimental data are compared with results obtained from accelerated tests and numerical simulation.

  13. Who Do Hospital Physicians and Nurses Go to for Advice About Medications? A Social Network Analysis and Examination of Prescribing Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswick, Nerida; Westbrook, Johanna Irene

    2015-09-01

    To measure the weekly medication advice-seeking networks of hospital staff, to compare patterns across professional groups, and to examine these in the context of prescribing error rates. A social network analysis was conducted. All 101 staff in 2 wards in a large, academic teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed (response rate, 90%) using a detailed social network questionnaire. The extent of weekly medication advice seeking was measured by density of connections, proportion of reciprocal relationships by reciprocity, number of colleagues to whom each person provided advice by in-degree, and perceptions of amount and impact of advice seeking between physicians and nurses. Data on prescribing error rates from the 2 wards were compared. Weekly medication advice-seeking networks were sparse (density: 7% ward A and 12% ward B). Information sharing across professional groups was modest, and rates of reciprocation of advice were low (9% ward A, 14% ward B). Pharmacists provided advice to most people, and junior physicians also played central roles. Senior physicians provided medication advice to few people. Many staff perceived that physicians rarely sought advice from nurses when prescribing, but almost all believed that an increase in communication between physicians and nurses about medications would improve patient safety. The medication networks in ward B had higher measures for density, reciprocation, and fewer senior physicians who were isolates. Ward B had a significantly lower rate of both procedural and clinical prescribing errors than ward A (0.63 clinical prescribing errors per admission [95%CI, 0.47-0.79] versus 1.81/ admission [95%CI, 1.49-2.13]). Medication advice-seeking networks among staff on hospital wards are limited. Hubs of advice provision include pharmacists, junior physicians, and senior nurses. Senior physicians are poorly integrated into medication advice networks. Strategies to improve the advice-giving networks between senior

  14. A software solution to estimate the SEU-induced soft error rate for systems implemented on SRAM-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongming; Lu Min; Yao Zhibin; Guo Hongxia

    2011-01-01

    SRAM-based FPGAs are very susceptible to radiation-induced Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) in space applications. The failure mechanism in FPGA's configuration memory differs from those in traditional memory device. As a result, there is a growing demand for methodologies which could quantitatively evaluate the impact of this effect. Fault injection appears to meet such requirement. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to analyze the soft errors in SRAM-based FPGAs. This method is based on in depth understanding of the device architecture and failure mechanisms induced by configuration upsets. The developed programs read in the placed and routed netlist, search for critical logic nodes and paths that may destroy the circuit topological structure, and then query a database storing the decoded relationship of the configurable resources and corresponding control bit to get the sensitive bits. Accelerator irradiation test and fault injection experiments were carried out to validate this approach. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Error Rates of M-PAM and M-QAM in Generalized Fading and Generalized Gaussian Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-07-01

    This letter investigates the average symbol error probability (ASEP) of pulse amplitude modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive white generalized Gaussian noise. The new ASEP results are derived in a generic closed-form in terms of the Fox H function and the bivariate Fox H function for the extended generalized-K fading case. The utility of this new general closed-form is that it includes some special fading distributions, like the Generalized-K, Nakagami-m, and Rayleigh fading and special noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian. Some of these special cases are also treated and are shown to yield simplified results.

  16. Effect of a health system's medical error disclosure program on gastroenterology-related claims rates and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan A; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Scheiman, James M

    2014-04-01

    In 2001, the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) implemented a novel medical error disclosure program. This study analyzes the effect of this program on gastroenterology (GI)-related claims and costs. This was a review of claims in the UMHS Risk Management Database (1990-2010), naming a gastroenterologist. Claims were classified according to pre-determined categories. Claims data, including incident date, date of resolution, and total liability dollars, were reviewed. Mean total liability incurred per claim in the pre- and post-implementation eras was compared. Patient encounter data from the Division of Gastroenterology was also reviewed in order to benchmark claims data with changes in clinical volume. There were 238,911 GI encounters in the pre-implementation era and 411,944 in the post-implementation era. A total of 66 encounters resulted in claims: 38 in the pre-implementation era and 28 in the post-implementation era. Of the total number of claims, 15.2% alleged delay in diagnosis/misdiagnosis, 42.4% related to a procedure, and 42.4% involved improper management, treatment, or monitoring. The reduction in the proportion of encounters resulting in claims was statistically significant (P=0.001), as was the reduction in time to claim resolution (1,000 vs. 460 days) (P<0.0001). There was also a reduction in the mean total liability per claim ($167,309 pre vs. $81,107 post, 95% confidence interval: 33682.5-300936.2 pre vs. 1687.8-160526.7 post). Implementation of a novel medical error disclosure program, promoting transparency and quality improvement, not only decreased the number of GI-related claims per patient encounter, but also dramatically shortened the time to claim resolution.

  17. Errors in Computing the Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate due to Use of Single-pool Urea Kinetic Modeling or to Omission of the Residual Kidney Urea Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2017-07-01

    The protein catabolic rate normalized to body size (PCRn) often is computed in dialysis units to obtain information about protein ingestion. However, errors can manifest when inappropriate modeling methods are used. We used a variable volume 2-pool urea kinetic model to examine the percent errors in PCRn due to use of a 1-pool urea kinetic model or after omission of residual urea clearance (Kru). When a single-pool model was used, 2 sources of errors were identified. The first, dependent on the ratio of dialyzer urea clearance to urea distribution volume (K/V), resulted in a 7% inflation of the PCRn when K/V was in the range of 6 mL/min per L. A second, larger error appeared when Kt/V values were below 1.0 and was related to underestimation of urea distribution volume (due to overestimation of effective clearance) by the single-pool model. A previously reported prediction equation for PCRn was valid, but data suggest that it should be modified using 2-pool eKt/V and V coefficients instead of single-pool values. A third source of error, this one unrelated to use of a single-pool model, namely omission of Kru, was shown to result in an underestimation of PCRn, such that each ml/minute Kru per 35 L of V caused a 5.6% underestimate in PCRn. Marked overestimation of PCRn can result due to inappropriate use of a single-pool urea kinetic model, particularly when Kt/V <1.0 (as in short daily dialysis), or after omission of residual native kidney clearance. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of covariance with pre-treatment measurements in randomized trials: comparison of equal and unequal slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In randomized trials, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is often used to analyze post-treatment measurements with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate to compare two treatment groups. Random allocation guarantees only equal variances of pre-treatment measurements. We hence consider data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements without assuming normality. Recently, we showed that the actual type I error rate of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal residual variances is asymptotically at a nominal level under equal sample sizes, and that of the ANCOVA with unequal variances is asymptotically at a nominal level, even under unequal sample sizes. In this paper, we investigated the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes for such data. The estimators of the treatment effect at the observed mean are identical between equal and unequal variance assumptions, and these are asymptotically normal estimators for the treatment effect at the true mean. However, the variances of these estimators based on standard formulas are biased, and the actual type I error rates are not at a nominal level, irrespective of variance assumptions. In equal sample sizes, the efficiency of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal variances is asymptotically the same as those of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes and higher than that of the ANCOVA with equal slopes and unequal variances. Therefore, the use of the usual ANCOVA is appropriate in equal sample sizes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Reliability of perceived neighbourhood conditions and the effects of measurement error on self-rated health across urban and rural neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Jeffe, Donna B; Yan, Yan; Schootman, Mario

    2012-04-01

    Limited psychometric research has examined the reliability of self-reported measures of neighbourhood conditions, the effect of measurement error on associations between neighbourhood conditions and health, and potential differences in the reliabilities between neighbourhood strata (urban vs rural and low vs high poverty). We assessed overall and stratified reliability of self-reported perceived neighbourhood conditions using five scales (social and physical disorder, social control, social cohesion, fear) and four single items (multidimensional neighbouring). We also assessed measurement error-corrected associations of these conditions with self-rated health. Using random-digit dialling, 367 women without breast cancer (matched controls from a larger study) were interviewed twice, 2-3 weeks apart. Test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)/weighted κ) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) were assessed. Differences in reliability across neighbourhood strata were tested using bootstrap methods. Regression calibration corrected estimates for measurement error. All measures demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (α ≥ 0.70) and either moderate (ICC/κ=0.41-0.60) or substantial (ICC/κ=0.61-0.80) test-retest reliability in the full sample. Internal consistency did not differ by neighbourhood strata. Test-retest reliability was significantly lower among rural (vs urban) residents for two scales (social control, physical disorder) and two multidimensional neighbouring items; test-retest reliability was higher for physical disorder and lower for one multidimensional neighbouring item among the high (vs low) poverty strata. After measurement error correction, the magnitude of associations between neighbourhood conditions and self-rated health were larger, particularly in the rural population. Research is needed to develop and test reliable measures of perceived neighbourhood conditions relevant to the health of rural populations.

  20. Application of Fermat's Principle to Calculation of the Errors of Acoustic Flow-Rate Measurements for a Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow or Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. G.; Shkundin, S. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Fermat's variational principle is used for derivation of the formula for the time of propagation of a sonic signal between two set points A and B in a steady three-dimensional flow of a fluid or gas. It is shown that the fluid flow changes the time of signal reception by a value proportional to the flow rate independently of the velocity profile. The time difference in the reception of the signals from point B to point A and vice versa is proportional with a high accuracy to the flow rate. It is shown that the relative error of the formula does not exceed the square of the largest Mach number. This makes it possible to measure the flow rate of a fluid or gas with an arbitrary steady subsonic velocity field.

  1. Why are autopsy rates low in Japan? Views of ordinary citizens and doctors in the case of unexpected patient death and medical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shoichi; Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Starkey, Jay; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what could account for the low autopsy rate in Japan based on the findings from an anonymous, self-administered, structured questionnaire that was given to a sample population of the general public and physicians in Japan. The general public and physicians indicated that autopsy may not be carried out because: (1) conducting an autopsy might result in the accusation that patient death was caused by a medical error even when there was no error (50.4% vs. 13.1%, respectively), (2) suggesting an autopsy makes the families suspicious of a medical error even when there was none (61.0% vs. 19.1%, respectively), (3) families do not want the body to be damaged by autopsy (81.6% vs. 87.3%, respectively), and (4) families do not want to make the patient suffer any more in addition to what he/she has already endured (61.8% vs. 87.1%, respectively). © 2013 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  2. An evaluation of a Low-Dose-Rate (LDR) brachytherapy procedure using a systems engineering & error analysis methodology for health care (SEABH) - (SAVE)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chadwick, Liam

    2012-03-12

    Health Care Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HFMEA®) is an established tool for risk assessment in health care. A number of deficiencies have been identified in the method. A new method called Systems and Error Analysis Bundle for Health Care (SEABH) was developed to address these deficiencies. SEABH has been applied to a number of medical processes as part of its validation and testing. One of these, Low Dose Rate (LDR) prostate Brachytherapy is reported in this paper. The case study supported the validity of SEABH with respect to its capacity to address the weaknesses of (HFMEA®).

  3. Choice of reference sequence and assembler for alignment of Listeria monocytogenes short-read sequence data greatly influences rates of error in SNP analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W Pightling

    Full Text Available The wide availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS and an abundance of open-source software have made detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in bacterial genomes an increasingly accessible and effective tool for comparative analyses. Thus, ensuring that real nucleotide differences between genomes (i.e., true SNPs are detected at high rates and that the influences of errors (such as false positive SNPs, ambiguously called sites, and gaps are mitigated is of utmost importance. The choices researchers make regarding the generation and analysis of WGS data can greatly influence the accuracy of short-read sequence alignments and, therefore, the efficacy of such experiments. We studied the effects of some of these choices, including: i depth of sequencing coverage, ii choice of reference-guided short-read sequence assembler, iii choice of reference genome, and iv whether to perform read-quality filtering and trimming, on our ability to detect true SNPs and on the frequencies of errors. We performed benchmarking experiments, during which we assembled simulated and real Listeria monocytogenes strain 08-5578 short-read sequence datasets of varying quality with four commonly used assemblers (BWA, MOSAIK, Novoalign, and SMALT, using reference genomes of varying genetic distances, and with or without read pre-processing (i.e., quality filtering and trimming. We found that assemblies of at least 50-fold coverage provided the most accurate results. In addition, MOSAIK yielded the fewest errors when reads were aligned to a nearly identical reference genome, while using SMALT to align reads against a reference sequence that is ∼0.82% distant from 08-5578 at the nucleotide level resulted in the detection of the greatest numbers of true SNPs and the fewest errors. Finally, we show that whether read pre-processing improves SNP detection depends upon the choice of reference sequence and assembler. In total, this study demonstrates that researchers

  4. Evaluation of errors in prior mean and variance in the estimation of integrated circuit failure rates using Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The critical point of any Bayesian analysis concerns the choice and quantification of the prior information. The effects of prior data on a Bayesian analysis are studied. Comparisons of the maximum likelihood estimator, the Bayesian estimator, and the known failure rate are presented. The results of the many simulated trails are then analyzed to show the region of criticality for prior information being supplied to the Bayesian estimator. In particular, effects of prior mean and variance are determined as a function of the amount of test data available.

  5. Nonlinear Equalization in 40/112/224 Gbit/s Mixed Line Rate 15-Channel DP-QPSK and DP-16QAM Contiguous Spectrum Based Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated that in-line non-linear compensation schemes decrease the com- plexity of digital back-propagation and enhance the perfor mance of 40/112/224Gbit/s mixed line rate network. Both grouped and un-grouped spectral all ocation schemes are investigated.......We evaluated that in-line non-linear compensation schemes decrease the com- plexity of digital back-propagation and enhance the perfor mance of 40/112/224Gbit/s mixed line rate network. Both grouped and un-grouped spectral all ocation schemes are investigated....

  6. Increased error rates in preliminary reports issued by radiology residents working more than 10 consecutive hours overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Durand, Daniel J; Scanlon, Mary H; Itri, Jason N

    2013-03-01

    To determine if the rate of major discrepancies between resident preliminary reports and faculty final reports increases during the final hours of consecutive 12-hour overnight call shifts. Institutional review board exemption status was obtained for this study. All overnight radiology reports interpreted by residents on-call between January 2010 and June 2010 were reviewed by board-certified faculty and categorized as major discrepancies if they contained a change in interpretation with the potential to impact patient management or outcome. Initial determination of a major discrepancy was at the discretion of individual faculty radiologists based on this general definition. Studies categorized as major discrepancies were secondarily reviewed by the residency program director (M.H.S.) to ensure consistent application of the major discrepancy designation. Multiple variables associated with each report were collected and analyzed, including the time of preliminary interpretation, time into shift study was interpreted, volume of studies interpreted during each shift, day of the week, patient location (inpatient or emergency department), block of shift (2-hour blocks for 12-hour shifts), imaging modality, patient age and gender, resident identification, and faculty identification. Univariate risk factor analysis was performed to determine the optimal data format of each variable (ie, continuous versus categorical). A multivariate logistic regression model was then constructed to account for confounding between variables and identify independent risk factors for major discrepancies. We analyzed 8062 preliminary resident reports with 79 major discrepancies (1.0%). There was a statistically significant increase in major discrepancy rate during the final 2 hours of consecutive 12-hour call shifts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that interpretation during the last 2 hours of 12-hour call shifts (odds ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.21), cross

  7. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  8. The sensitivity of bit error rate (BER) performance in multi-carrier (OFDM) and single-carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albdran, Saleh; Alshammari, Ahmed; Matin, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Recently, the single-carrier and multi-carrier transmissions have grabbed the attention of industrial systems. Theoretically, OFDM as a Multicarrier has more advantages over the Single-Carrier especially for high data rate. In this paper we will show which one of the two techniques outperforms the other. We will study and compare the performance of BER for both techniques for a given channel. As a function of signal to noise ratio SNR, the BER will be measure and studied. Also, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is going to be examined and presented as a drawback of using OFDM. To make a reasonable comparison between the both techniques, we will use additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) as a communication channel.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of noise on the rate of errors and speed of work by the ergonomic test of two-hand co-ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the most important and effective factors affecting the efficiency of the human workforce are accuracy, promptness, and ability. In the context of promoting levels and quality of productivity, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to noise on the rate of errors, speed of work, and capability in performing manual activities. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 96 students (52 female and 44 male of the Isfahan Medical Science University with the average and standard deviations of age, height, and weight of 22.81 (3.04 years, 171.67 (8.51 cm, and 65.05 (13.13 kg, respectively. Sampling was conducted with a randomized block design. Along with controlling for intervening factors, a combination of sound pressure levels [65 dB (A, 85 dB (A, and 95 dB (A] and exposure times (0, 20, and 40 were used for evaluation of precision and speed of action of the participants, in the ergonomic test of two-hand coordination. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 software using a descriptive and analytical statistical method by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measures. Results: The results of this study showed that increasing sound pressure level from 65 to 95 dB in network ′A′ increased the speed of work (P 0.05. Male participants got annoyed from the noise more than females. Also, increase in sound pressure level increased the rate of error (P < 0.05. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, increasing the sound pressure level decreased efficiency and increased the errors and in exposure to sounds less than 85 dB in the beginning, the efficiency decreased initially and then increased in a mild slope.

  10. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  11. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  12. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Equalization and detection for digital communication over nonlinear bandlimited satellite communication channels. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alberto, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates receiver-based methods for mitigating the effects due to nonlinear bandlimited signal distortion present in high data rate satellite channels. The effects of the nonlinear bandlimited distortion is illustrated for digitally modulated signals. A lucid development of the low-pass Volterra discrete time model for a nonlinear communication channel is presented. In addition, finite-state machine models are explicitly developed for a nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. A nonlinear fixed equalizer based on Volterra series has previously been studied for compensation of noiseless signal distortion due to a nonlinear satellite channel. This dissertation studies adaptive Volterra equalizers on a downlink-limited nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. We employ as figure of merits performance in the mean-square error and probability of error senses. In addition, a receiver consisting of a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) followed by a Volterra equalizer (FSE-Volterra) is found to give improvement beyond that gained by the Volterra equalizer. Significant probability of error performance improvement is found for multilevel modulation schemes. Also, it is found that probability of error improvement is more significant for modulation schemes, constant amplitude and multilevel, which require higher signal to noise ratios (i.e., higher modulation orders) for reliable operation. The maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) receiver for a nonlinear satellite channel, a bank of matched filters followed by a Viterbi detector, serves as a probability of error lower bound for the Volterra and FSE-Volterra equalizers. However, this receiver has not been evaluated for a specific satellite channel. In this work, an MLSD receiver is evaluated for a specific downlink-limited satellite channel. Because of the bank of matched filters, the MLSD receiver may be high in complexity. Consequently, the probability of error performance of a more practical

  14. Downlink Error Rates of Half-duplex Users in Full-duplex Networks over a Laplacian Inter-User Interference Limited and EGK fading

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-03-14

    This paper develops a mathematical framework to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). The developed model is used to motivate long term pairing for users that have non-line of sight (NLOS) interfering link. Consequently, we study the interferer limited problem that appears between NLOS HD users-pair that are scheduled on the same FD channel. The distribution of the interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed form. Then, a comprehensive performance assessment for the proposed pairing scheme is provided by assuming Extended Generalized- $cal{K}$ (EGK) fading for the downlink and studying different modulation schemes. To this end, a unified closed form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. Furthermore, we show the effective downlink throughput gain harvested by the pairing NLOS users as a function of the average signal-to-interferenceratio when compared to an idealized HD scenario with neither interference nor noise. Finally, we show the minimum required channel gain pairing threshold to harvest downlink throughput via the FD operation when compared to the HD case for each modulation scheme.

  15. Improved read disturb and write error rates in voltage-control spintronics memory (VoCSM) by controlling energy barrier height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, T.; Yoda, H.; Kato, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Shirotori, S.; Shimomura, N.; Koi, K.; Kamiguchi, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Oikawa, S.; Ikegami, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Altansargai, B.; Tiwari, A.; Ohsawa, Y.; Saito, Y.; Kurobe, A.

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid writing scheme that combines the spin Hall effect and voltage-controlled magnetic-anisotropy effect is investigated in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ru/CoFe/IrMn junctions. The write current and control voltage are applied to Ta and CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB junctions, respectively. The critical current density required for switching the magnetization in CoFeB was modulated 3.6-fold by changing the control voltage from -1.0 V to +1.0 V. This modulation of the write current density is explained by the change in the surface anisotropy of the free layer from 1.7 mJ/m2 to 1.6 mJ/m2, which is caused by the electric field applied to the junction. The read disturb rate and write error rate, which are important performance parameters for memory applications, are drastically improved, and no error was detected in 5 × 108 cycles by controlling read and write sequences.

  16. Adaptive Equalizer Based on Second-Order Cone Programming in Underwater Acoustic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved adaptive equalizer based on the principle of minimum mean square error (MMSE is proposed. This optimization problem which is shown to be convex, is transformed to second-order cone (SOC and solved using the interior point method instead of conventional iterative methods such as least mean squares (LMS or recursive least squares (RLS. To validate its performance a single-carrier system for underwater acoustic communication with digital phase-locked loop and the adaptive fractional spaced equalizers was designed and a lake trial was carried out. According to the results, comparing with traditional equalizers based on LMS and RLS algorithms, the equalizer proposed needs no iterative process and gets rid of the contradiction between convergent rate and precision. Therefore it overcomes the difficulty of parameters setting. Furthermore, the algorithm needs much less training codes to achieve the same equalization performance and improves the communication efficiency.

  17. Global minimum profile error (GMPE) - a least-squares-based approach for extracting macroscopic rate coefficients for complex gas-phase chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K

    2018-01-03

    Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.

  18. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  19. MDCT angiography of the pulmonary arteries: intravascular contrast enhancement does not depend on iodine concentration when injecting equal amounts of iodine at standardized iodine delivery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, S.; Plumhans, C.; Behrendt, F.F.; Das, M.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.; Stanzel, S.; Seidensticker, P.; Knackstedt, C.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the impact of iodine concentration using two different contrast materials (CM) at standardized iodine delivery rate (IDR) and overall iodine load in 16-multidetector-row-CT-angiography (MDCTA) of the pulmonary arteries of 192 patients with known or suspected pulmonary embolism. One hundred three patients (group A) received 148 ml of a CM containing 300 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist 300 trademark, BayerScheringPharma) at a flow rate of 4.9 ml/s. Eighty-nine patients (group B) received 120 ml of a CM with a concentration of 370 mg iodine/ml (Ultravist370 trademark) at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/s, resulting in a standardized IDR (∝1.5 gI/s) and the same overall amount of iodine (44.4 g). Both CM injections were followed by a saline chaser. Mean density values were determined in the pulmonary trunk, the ascending and the descending aorta, respectively. Applying repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences between both MDCTA protocols were found (p=0.5790): the mean density in the pulmonary trunk was 355±116 Hounsfield Units (group A) and 358±115 (group B). The corresponding values for the ascending and descending aorta were 295±79 (group A) and 284±65 (group B) as well as 272±71 and 262±70. In conclusion, the use of standardized IDR and overall iodine load provides comparable intravascular CM density in pulmonary 16-MDCTA for delivering contrast materials with different iodine concentrations. (orig.)

  20. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10-6 g m-2 day-1 range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10-6 g m-2 day-1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  1. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  2. Free-space optics mode-wavelength division multiplexing system using LG modes based on decision feedback equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphawan, Angela; Ghazi, Alaan; Al-dawoodi, Aras

    2017-11-01

    A free-space optics mode-wavelength division multiplexing (MWDM) system using Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is designed using decision feedback equalization for controlling mode coupling and combating inter symbol interference so as to increase channel diversity. In this paper, a data rate of 24 Gbps is achieved for a FSO MWDM channel of 2.6 km in length using feedback equalization. Simulation results show significant improvement in eye diagrams and bit-error rates before and after decision feedback equalization.

  3. Free-space optics mode-wavelength division multiplexing system using LG modes based on decision feedback equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amphawan Angela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A free-space optics mode-wavelength division multiplexing (MWDM system using Laguerre-Gaussian (LG modes is designed using decision feedback equalization for controlling mode coupling and combating inter symbol interference so as to increase channel diversity. In this paper, a data rate of 24 Gbps is achieved for a FSO MWDM channel of 2.6 km in length using feedback equalization. Simulation results show significant improvement in eye diagrams and bit-error rates before and after decision feedback equalization.

  4. Particle Filtering Equalization Method for a Satellite Communication Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amblard Pierre-Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of particle filtering techniques and Monte Carlo methods to tackle the in-line and blind equalization of a satellite communication channel. The main difficulties encountered are the nonlinear distortions caused by the amplifier stage in the satellite. Several processing methods manage to take into account these nonlinearities but they require the knowledge of a training input sequence for updating the equalizer parameters. Blind equalization methods also exist but they require a Volterra modelization of the system which is not suited for equalization purpose for the present model. The aim of the method proposed in the paper is also to blindly restore the emitted message. To reach this goal, a Bayesian point of view is adopted. Prior knowledge of the emitted symbols and of the nonlinear amplification model, as well as the information available from the received signal, is jointly used by considering the posterior distribution of the input sequence. Such a probability distribution is very difficult to study and thus motivates the implementation of Monte Carlo simulation methods. The presentation of the equalization method is cut into two parts. The first part solves the problem for a simplified model, focusing on the nonlinearities of the model. The second part deals with the complete model, using sampling approaches previously developed. The algorithms are illustrated and their performance is evaluated using bit error rate versus signal-to-noise ratio curves.

  5. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  6. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Nicolas; Beauducel, André

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM) with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN), MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS) and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction) were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes ( n = 20) and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement occasions. The

  7. The human error rate assessment and optimizing system HEROS - a new procedure for evaluating and optimizing the man-machine interface in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richei, A.; Hauptmanns, U.; Unger, H.

    2001-01-01

    A new procedure allowing the probabilistic evaluation and optimization of the man-machine system is presented. This procedure and the resulting expert system HEROS, which is an acronym for Human Error Rate Assessment and Optimizing System, is based on the fuzzy set theory. Most of the well-known procedures employed for the probabilistic evaluation of human factors involve the use of vague linguistic statements on performance shaping factors to select and to modify basic human error probabilities from the associated databases. This implies a large portion of subjectivity. Vague statements are expressed here in terms of fuzzy numbers or intervals which allow mathematical operations to be performed on them. A model of the man-machine system is the basis of the procedure. A fuzzy rule-based expert system was derived from ergonomic and psychological studies. Hence, it does not rely on a database, whose transferability to situations different from its origin is questionable. In this way, subjective elements are eliminated to a large extent. HEROS facilitates the importance analysis for the evaluation of human factors, which is necessary for optimizing the man-machine system. HEROS is applied to the analysis of a simple diagnosis of task of the operating personnel in a nuclear power plant

  8. Bit Error Rate Performance of a MIMO-CDMA System Employing Parity-Bit-Selected Spreading in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude D'Amours

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically derive the upper bound for the bit error rate (BER performance of a single user multiple input multiple output code division multiple access (MIMO-CDMA system employing parity-bit-selected spreading in slowly varying, flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is done for spatially uncorrelated links. The analysis presented demonstrates that parity-bit-selected spreading provides an asymptotic gain of 10log(Nt dB over conventional MIMO-CDMA when the receiver has perfect channel estimates. This analytical result concurs with previous works where the (BER is determined by simulation methods and provides insight into why the different techniques provide improvement over conventional MIMO-CDMA systems.

  9. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  10. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  11. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  12. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  13. Analyzing the propagation behavior of scintillation index and bit error rate of a partially coherent flat-topped laser beam in oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Masoud; Golmohammady, Shole; Mashal, Ahmad; Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, a semianalytical expression for describing on-axis scintillation index of a partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) laser beam of weak to moderate oceanic turbulence is derived; consequently, by using the log-normal intensity probability density function, the bit error rate (BER) is evaluated. The effects of source factors (such as wavelength, order of flatness, and beam width) and turbulent ocean parameters (such as Kolmogorov microscale, relative strengths of temperature and salinity fluctuations, rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, and rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid) on propagation behavior of scintillation index, and, hence, on BER, are studied in detail. Results indicate that, in comparison with a Gaussian beam, a PCFT laser beam with a higher order of flatness is found to have lower scintillations. In addition, the scintillation index and BER are most affected when salinity fluctuations in the ocean dominate temperature fluctuations.

  14. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  15. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  16. Pairwise comparisons and visual perceptions of equal area polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamic, P; Babiy, V; Janicki, R; Kakiashvili, T; Koczkodaj, W W; Tadeusiewicz, R

    2009-02-01

    The number of studies related to visual perception has been plentiful in recent years. Participants rated the areas of five randomly generated shapes of equal area, using a reference unit area that was displayed together with the shapes. Respondents were 179 university students from Canada and Poland. The average error estimated by respondents using the unit square was 25.75%. The error was substantially decreased to 5.51% when the shapes were compared to one another in pairs. This gain of 20.24% for this two-dimensional experiment was substantially better than the 11.78% gain reported in the previous one-dimensional experiments. This is the first statistically sound two-dimensional experiment demonstrating that pairwise comparisons improve accuracy.

  17. Sampling Errors in Monthly Rainfall Totals for TRMM and SSM/I, Based on Statistics of Retrieved Rain Rates and Simple Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Estimates from TRMM satellite data of monthly total rainfall over an area are subject to substantial sampling errors due to the limited number of visits to the area by the satellite during the month. Quantitative comparisons of TRMM averages with data collected by other satellites and by ground-based systems require some estimate of the size of this sampling error. A method of estimating this sampling error based on the actual statistics of the TRMM observations and on some modeling work has been developed. "Sampling error" in TRMM monthly averages is defined here relative to the monthly total a hypothetical satellite permanently stationed above the area would have reported. "Sampling error" therefore includes contributions from the random and systematic errors introduced by the satellite remote sensing system. As part of our long-term goal of providing error estimates for each grid point accessible to the TRMM instruments, sampling error estimates for TRMM based on rain retrievals from TRMM microwave (TMI) data are compared for different times of the year and different oceanic areas (to minimize changes in the statistics due to algorithmic differences over land and ocean). Changes in sampling error estimates due to changes in rain statistics due 1) to evolution of the official algorithms used to process the data, and 2) differences from other remote sensing systems such as the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), are analyzed.

  18. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  19. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  20. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  1. A Physics-Based Engineering Methodology for Calculating Soft Error Rates of Bulk CMOS and SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, David E.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for characterizing the electrical behavior and soft error rate (SER) of CMOS and SiGe HBT integrated circuits that are struck by ions. A typical engineering design problem is to calculate the SER of a critical path that commonly includes several circuits such as an input buffer, several logic gates, logic storage, clock tree circuitry, and an output buffer. Using multiple 3D TCAD simulations to solve this problem is too costly and time-consuming for general engineering use. The new and simple methodology handles the problem with ease by simple SPICE simulations. The methodology accurately predicts the measured threshold linear energy transfer (LET) of a bulk CMOS SRAM. It solves for circuit currents and voltage spikes that are close to those predicted by expensive 3D TCAD simulations. It accurately predicts the measured event cross-section vs. LET curve of an experimental SiGe HBT flip-flop. The experimental cross section vs. frequency behavior and other subtle effects are also accurately predicted.

  2. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  3. The calculation of average error probability in a digital fibre optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugemalira, R. A. M.

    1980-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of determining the average error probability in a digital fibre optical communication system, in the presence of message dependent inhomogeneous non-stationary shot noise, additive Gaussian noise and intersymbol interference. A zero-forcing equalization receiver filter is considered. Three techniques for error rate evaluation are compared. The Chernoff bound and the Gram-Charlier series expansion methods are compared to the characteristic function technique. The latter predicts a higher receiver sensitivity

  4. Entrepreneur for Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Focuses on the first Republican Governor of the state of Georgia during the period of race adjustment and national reconstruction after the American Civil War. Bullock led the way to business connections in creating a New South, but he was best known for his steadfast efforts at human equality fo...

  5. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  6. Fight For Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  7. Equal Rights Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ko Oudhof

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2000. How is the emancipation process of women in the Netherlands progressing? What has been achieved? Have women already achieved equality, and have men accepted the sharing of power and responsibility? Was the emancipation process mainly a phenomenon of

  8. Effects of categorization method, regression type, and variable distribution on the inflation of Type-I error rate when categorizing a confounding variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell-Ménard, Jean-Louis; Li, Qing; Cohen, Alan A

    2015-03-15

    The loss of signal associated with categorizing a continuous variable is well known, and previous studies have demonstrated that this can lead to an inflation of Type-I error when the categorized variable is a confounder in a regression analysis estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome. However, it is not known how the Type-I error may vary under different circumstances, including logistic versus linear regression, different distributions of the confounder, and different categorization methods. Here, we analytically quantified the effect of categorization and then performed a series of 9600 Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the Type-I error inflation associated with categorization of a confounder under different regression scenarios. We show that Type-I error is unacceptably high (>10% in most scenarios and often 100%). The only exception was when the variable categorized was a continuous mixture proxy for a genuinely dichotomous latent variable, where both the continuous proxy and the categorized variable are error-ridden proxies for the dichotomous latent variable. As expected, error inflation was also higher with larger sample size, fewer categories, and stronger associations between the confounder and the exposure or outcome. We provide online tools that can help researchers estimate the potential error inflation and understand how serious a problem this is. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Scintillation and bit error rate analysis of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array laser beam in oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Masoud; Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Golmohammady, Shole; Mashal, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links, which is made up of the partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) array laser beam, has been investigated in detail. Providing high power, array laser beams are employed to increase the range of UWOC links. For characterization of the effects of oceanic turbulence on the propagation behavior of the considered beam, using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, an analytical expression for cross-spectral density matrix elements and a semi-analytical one for fourth-order statistical moment have been derived. Then, based on these expressions, the on-axis scintillation index of the mentioned beam propagating through weak oceanic turbulence has been calculated. Furthermore, in order to quantify the performance of the UWOC link, the average bit error rate (BER) has also been evaluated. The effects of some source factors and turbulent ocean parameters on the propagation behavior of the scintillation index and the BER have been studied in detail. The results of this investigation indicate that in comparison with the Gaussian array beam, when the source size of beamlets is larger than the first Fresnel zone, the PCFT array laser beam with the higher flatness order is found to have a lower scintillation index and hence lower BER. Specifically, in the sense of scintillation index reduction, using the PCFT array laser beams has a considerable benefit in comparison with the single PCFT or Gaussian laser beams and also Gaussian array beams. All the simulation results of this paper have been shown by graphs and they have been analyzed in detail.

  10. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: the influence of bacterial resistance, prescription errors, and de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy on mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Souza-Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Prescription errors influenced mortality of patients with Ventilator-associated pneumonia, underscoring the challenge of proper Ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment, which requires continuous reevaluation to ensure that clinical response to therapy meets expectations.

  11. Explaining quantitative variation in the rate of Optional Infinitive errors across languages: a comparison of MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian; Gobet, Fernand

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we use corpus analysis and computational modelling techniques to compare two recent accounts of the OI stage: Legate & Yang's (2007) Variational Learning Model and Freudenthal, Pine & Gobet's (2006) Model of Syntax Acquisition in Children. We first assess the extent to which each of these accounts can explain the level of OI errors across five different languages (English, Dutch, German, French and Spanish). We then differentiate between the two accounts by testing their predictions about the relation between children's OI errors and the distribution of infinitival verb forms in the input language. We conclude that, although both accounts fit the cross-linguistic patterning of OI errors reasonably well, only MOSAIC is able to explain why verbs that occur more frequently as infinitives than as finite verb forms in the input also occur more frequently as OI errors than as correct finite verb forms in the children's output.

  12. Light equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Reinecke, D.R.; Power, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical, radiographic film dodging technique has been developed that can restore lost image contrast on underexposed regions of radiographs. The device consists of a low-resolution x-ray camera and a scanning, light-exposure array. Both are controlled by a microcomputer. The theory of operation has been developed, and technical requirements for implementing light-equalization radiogrpahy have been defined. Initial clinical results with a prototype have been analyzed and compared with results of conventional films

  13. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  14. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  15. Random access to mobile networks with advanced error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A random access scheme for unreliable data channels is investigated in conjunction with an adaptive Hybrid-II Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme using Rate Compatible Punctured Codes (RCPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC). A simple scheme with fixed frame length and equal slot sizes is chosen and reservation is implicit by the first packet transmitted randomly in a free slot, similar to Reservation Aloha. This allows the further transmission of redundancy if the last decoding attempt failed. Results show that a high channel utilization and superior throughput can be achieved with this scheme that shows a quite low implementation complexity. For the example of an interleaved Rayleigh channel and soft decision utilization and mean delay are calculated. A utilization of 40 percent may be achieved for a frame with the number of slots being equal to half the station number under high traffic load. The effects of feedback channel errors and some countermeasures are discussed.

  16. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks. The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has been trained by utilizing the error back-propagation algorithm. The weights of the network are updated in accordance with training of the network. This paper presents a very effective method for blind channel equalization, being more efficient than the pre-existing algorithms. The obtained results show a visible reduction in the noise content.

  17. Medicaid/CHIP Program; Medicaid Program and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Changes to the Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control and Payment Error Rate Measurement Programs in Response to the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-05

    This final rule updates the Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control (MEQC) and Payment Error Rate Measurement (PERM) programs based on the changes to Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This rule also implements various other improvements to the PERM program.

  18. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  19. Combining wrist age and third molars in forensic age estimation: how to calculate the joint age estimate and its error rate in age diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbrich, Bianca; Frerking, Carolin; Weiss, Sandra; Schwerdt, Sebastian; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Tausche, Eve; Gelbrich, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Forensic age estimation in living adolescents is based on several methods, e.g. the assessment of skeletal and dental maturation. Combination of several methods is mandatory, since age estimates from a single method are too imprecise due to biological variability. The correlation of the errors of the methods being combined must be known to calculate the precision of combined age estimates. To examine the correlation of the errors of the hand and the third molar method and to demonstrate how to calculate the combined age estimate. Clinical routine radiographs of the hand and dental panoramic images of 383 patients (aged 7.8-19.1 years, 56% female) were assessed. Lack of correlation (r = -0.024, 95% CI = -0.124 to + 0.076, p = 0.64) allows calculating the combined age estimate as the weighted average of the estimates from hand bones and third molars. Combination improved the standard deviations of errors (hand = 0.97, teeth = 1.35 years) to 0.79 years. Uncorrelated errors of the age estimates obtained from both methods allow straightforward determination of the common estimate and its variance. This is also possible when reference data for the hand and the third molar method are established independently from each other, using different samples.

  20. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  1. Asynchronous zero-forcing adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Pozidis, H.; Lin, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also be asynchronous, and its adaptation is commonly based on extensions of the LMS algorithm. In this paper, we develop and

  2. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  3. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  4. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  5. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  6. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  7. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  8. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  9. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  10. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  11. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  12. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  13. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  14. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  15. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  16. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  17. Passport officers' errors in face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Kemp, Richard I; Jenkins, Rob; Matheson, Michael; Burton, A Mike

    2014-01-01

    Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.

  18. Passport officers' errors in face matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David White

    Full Text Available Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.

  19. Iterative Multiuser Equalization for Subconnected Hybrid mmWave Massive MIMO Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magueta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter waves and massive MIMO are a promising combination to achieve the multi-Gb/s required by future 5G wireless systems. However, fully digital architectures are not feasible due to hardware limitations, which means that there is a need to design signal processing techniques for hybrid analog-digital architectures. In this manuscript, we propose a hybrid iterative block multiuser equalizer for subconnected millimeter wave massive MIMO systems. The low complexity user-terminals employ pure-analog random precoders, each with a single RF chain. For the base station, a subconnected hybrid analog-digital equalizer is designed to remove multiuser interference. The hybrid equalizer is optimized using the average bit-error-rate as a metric. Due to the coupling between the RF chains in the optimization problem, the computation of the optimal solutions is too complex. To address this problem, we compute the analog part of the equalizer sequentially over the RF chains using a dictionary built from the array response vectors. The proposed subconnected hybrid iterative multiuser equalizer is compared with a recently proposed fully connected approach. The results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the fully connected hybrid approach counterpart after just a few iterations.

  20. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  1. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  3. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  4. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  5. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-γ and direct-γ + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of inclusive direct-γ production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between √s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-γ + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made

  7. Regularization in global sound equalization based on effort variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    . Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources......Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea...

  8. Joint Frequency-Domain Equalization and Despreading for Multi-Code DS-CDMA Using Cyclic Delay Transmit Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takeda, Kazuki; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can provide a better bit error rate (BER) performance than rake combining. To further improve the BER performance, cyclic delay transmit diversity (CDTD) can be used. CDTD simultaneously transmits the same signal from different antennas after adding different cyclic delays to increase the number of equivalent propagation paths. Although a joint use of CDTD and MMSE-FDE for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) achieves larger frequency diversity gain, the BER performance improvement is limited by the residual inter-chip interference (ICI) after FDE. In this paper, we propose joint FDE and despreading for DS-CDMA using CDTD. Equalization and despreading are simultaneously performed in the frequency-domain to suppress the residual ICI after FDE. A theoretical conditional BER analysis is presented for the given channel condition. The BER analysis is confirmed by computer simulation.

  9. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  10. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  11. Equality in Sport for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadelmann, Patricia L.; And Others

    The subject of equal rights and opportunities for women in the field of physical education is discussed in nine articles. The major emphasis is on the legal aspects of sex discrimination. Defining equality, knowing the laws regarding enforcement, understanding the court procedures, and realizing the avenues for change are the essential tools…

  12. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  13. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  14. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT FACE RECOGNITION BY ENHANCED CONTRAST LIMITED ADAPTIVE HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thamizharasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition system is gaining more importance in social networks and surveillance. The face recognition task is complex due to the variations in illumination, expression, occlusion, aging and pose. The illumination variations in image are due to changes in lighting conditions, poor illumination, low contrast or increased brightness. The variations in illumination adversely affect the quality of image and recognition accuracy. The illumination variations in face image have to be pre-processed prior to face recognition. The Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE is an image enhancement technique popular in enhancing medical images. The proposed work is to create illumination invariant face recognition system by enhancing Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique. This method is termed as “Enhanced CLAHE”. The efficiency of Enhanced CLAHE is tested using Fuzzy K Nearest Neighbour classifier and fisher face subspace projection method. The face recognition accuracy percentage rate, Equal Error Rate and False Acceptance Rate at 1% are calculated. The performance of CLAHE and Enhanced CLAHE methods is compared. The efficiency of the Enhanced CLAHE method is tested with three public face databases AR, Yale and ORL. The Enhanced CLAHE has very high recognition accuracy percentage rate when compared to CLAHE.

  15. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkel, Jean, E-mail: jean.rinkel@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael [CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-11-21

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discretization error limited by the number of equalization bits.

  16. Confiscatory equalization : the intriguing case of Saskatchewan's vanishing energy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined fiscal policies and factors that affect economic growth. In particular, it examined Saskatchewan's equalization entitlements for energy revenues and how Canada's equalization program confiscated the province's energy revenues for the fiscal year 2000-2001. It included an equalization primer that familiarized readers with the theory and practice of equalization. Several equations and tables relating to the mechanics of equalization were included along with a summary of equalization and tax-back rates that address the nature of tax-back rates that accompany the equalization formula. The author proposed alternative ways to reduce tax-backs such as the generic solution that applies to offshore energy revenues in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. He also suggested ways in which some important fiscal inequities can be redressed. A remedy that can be applied immediately involves an equitable approach which allows the province to retain at least 30 per cent of its energy revenues. A long term remedy would require the implementation of comprehensive reform such as restoring equalization to its national average standard (NAS) roots, but where only 25 per cent of resource revenues would be eligible for equalization. It was suggested that the maximum equalization tax-back rate for each of Saskatchewan's energy revenue categories should not exceed 70 per cent. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Equal opportunities group. His mission : accelerating equal opportunities at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    L. to r.: Michel Mayoud, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz, the Equal Opportunities Officer Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill, Elena Wildner, Anne-Sylvie Cerne, Karl-Heinz Kissler, the Chairman John Ellis and Eva-Maria Groniger-Voss

  18. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  19. Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronagh Byrne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The (inequality issues facing disabled people are extensive and long-enduring. The way(s in which equality is conceptualised has important consequences for understandings of disability. The ambiguity of what I call dis-equality theory is two-fold; the apparent failure of mainstream equality theorising in, firstly, embracing disability concepts at all, and secondly, in fully incorporating the logistics of disability, particularly in relation to the social construction of such. Practices of institutional and more complex forms of discrimination are part of those deeper structures of domination and oppression which maintain disabled people in positions of disadvantage. Everyday practices, in the ‘ordinary order of things’ (Bourdieu, 2000, continue to be misrecognised as natural and taken for granted. This article critically explores the complexity of dis-equality theorising utilising a Bourdieusian lens which explicitly incorporates complex and subtle forms of discrimination, and by examining the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’ approach to equality. I argue that the way forward for dis-equality theorising in today’s rights based era must be one that considers the nuances of the ‘rules of the game’ (Young, 1990 if it is to be effective in challenging the inequalities to which disabled people have long been subject.

  20. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  1. Design of Linear - and Minimum-phase FIR-equalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Jensen, K.J.; Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    an error function which is quadratic in the filtercoefficients. The advantage of the quadratic function is the ability to find the optimal coefficients solving a system of linear equations without iterations.The transformation to a minimum-phase equalizer is carried out by homomorphic deconvolution...

  2. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  3. RLS Channel Estimation with Adaptive Forgetting Factor for DS-CDMA Frequency-Domain Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yohei; Tomeba, Hiromichi; Takeda, Kazuaki; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can increase the downlink bit error rate (BER) performance of DS-CDMA beyond that possible with conventional rake combining in a frequency-selective fading channel. FDE requires accurate channel estimation. Recently, we proposed a pilot-assisted channel estimation (CE) based on the MMSE criterion. Using MMSE-CE, the channel estimation accuracy is almost insensitive to the pilot chip sequence, and a good BER performance is achieved. In this paper, we propose a channel estimation scheme using one-tap recursive least square (RLS) algorithm, where the forgetting factor is adapted to the changing channel condition by the least mean square (LMS)algorithm, for DS-CDMA with FDE. We evaluate the BER performance using RLS-CE with adaptive forgetting factor in a frequency-selective fast Rayleigh fading channel by computer simulation.

  4. 2-Step Maximum Likelihood Channel Estimation for Multicode DS-CDMA with Frequency-Domain Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yohei; Takeda, Kazuaki; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can provide better downlink bit error rate (BER) performance of direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) than the conventional rake combining in a frequency-selective fading channel. FDE requires accurate channel estimation. In this paper, we propose a new 2-step maximum likelihood channel estimation (MLCE) for DS-CDMA with FDE in a very slow frequency-selective fading environment. The 1st step uses the conventional pilot-assisted MMSE-CE and the 2nd step carries out the MLCE using decision feedback from the 1st step. The BER performance improvement achieved by 2-step MLCE over pilot assisted MMSE-CE is confirmed by computer simulation.

  5. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  6. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  7. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  8. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  9. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  10. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  11. Visual correlation analytics of event-based error reports for advanced manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    With the growing digitalization and automation in the manufacturing domain, an increasing amount of process data and error reports become available. To minimize the number of errors and maximize the efficiency of the production line, it is important to analyze the generated error reports and find solutions that can reduce future errors. However, not all errors have the equal importance, as some errors may be the result of previously occurred errors. Therefore, it is important for domain exper...

  12. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  13. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  14. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  15. Servo control booster system for minimizing following error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, W.L.

    1979-07-26

    A closed-loop feedback-controlled servo system is disclosed which reduces command-to-response error to the system's position feedback resolution least increment, ..delta..S/sub R/, on a continuous real-time basis, for all operational times of consequence and for all operating speeds. The servo system employs a second position feedback control loop on a by exception basis, when the command-to-response error greater than or equal to ..delta..S/sub R/, to produce precise position correction signals. When the command-to-response error is less than ..delta..S/sub R/, control automatically reverts to conventional control means as the second position feedback control loop is disconnected, becoming transparent to conventional servo control means. By operating the second unique position feedback control loop used herein at the appropriate clocking rate, command-to-response error may be reduced to the position feedback resolution least increment. The present system may be utilized in combination with a tachometer loop for increased stability.

  16. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  17. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  18. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  19. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  20. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  1. Weighted finite impulse response filter for chromatic dispersion equalization in coherent optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziyi; Yang, Aiying; Guo, Peng; Feng, Lihui

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain CD equalization using finite impulse response (FIR) filter is now a common approach for coherent optical fiber communication systems. The complex weights of FIR taps are calculated from a truncated impulse response of the CD transfer function, and the modulus of the complex weights is constant. In our work, we take the limited bandwidth of a single channel signal into account and propose weighted FIRs to improve the performance of CD equalization. The key in weighted FIR filters is the selection and optimization of weighted functions. In order to present the performance of different types of weighted FIR filters, a square-root raised cosine FIR (SRRC-FIR) and a Gaussian FIR (GS-FIR) are investigated. The optimization of square-root raised cosine FIR and Gaussian FIR are made in term of the bit rate error (BER) of QPSK and 16QAM coherent detection signal. The results demonstrate that the optimized parameters of the weighted filters are independent of the modulation format, symbol rate and the length of transmission fiber. With the optimized weighted FIRs, the BER of CD equalization signal is decreased significantly. Although this paper has investigated two types of weighted FIR filters, i.e. SRRC-FIR filter and GS-FIR filter, the principle of weighted FIR can also be extended to other symmetric functions super Gaussian function, hyperbolic secant function and etc.

  2. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  3. [Medical errors: inevitable but preventable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, R W

    2001-10-27

    Medical errors are increasingly reported in the lay press. Studies have shown dramatic error rates of 10 percent or even higher. From a methodological point of view, studying the frequency and causes of medical errors is far from simple. Clinical decisions on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are always taken within a clinical context. Reviewing outcomes of interventions without taking into account both the intentions and the arguments for a particular action will limit the conclusions from a study on the rate and preventability of errors. The interpretation of the preventability of medical errors is fraught with difficulties and probably highly subjective. Blaming the doctor personally does not do justice to the actual situation and especially the organisational framework. Attention for and improvement of the organisational aspects of error are far more important then litigating the person. To err is and will remain human and if we want to reduce the incidence of faults we must be able to learn from our mistakes. That requires an open attitude towards medical mistakes, a continuous effort in their detection, a sound analysis and, where feasible, the institution of preventive measures.

  4. PERM Error Rate Findings and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal agencies are required to annually review programs they administer and identify those that may be susceptible to significant improper payments, to estimate...

  5. Medicare FFS Jurisdiction Error Rate Contribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CMS is dedicated to continually strengthening and improving the Medicare program, which provides vital services to...

  6. Analysis of error patterns in clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, Roger; Meier, Tim; Barrett, Patricia; Weinhous, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Until very recently, prescription errors and adverse treatment events have rarely been studied or reported systematically in oncology. We wished to understand the spectrum and severity of radiotherapy errors that take place on a day-to-day basis in a high-volume academic practice and to understand the resource needs and quality assurance challenges placed on a department by rapid upswings in contract-based clinical volumes requiring additional operating hours, procedures, and personnel. The goal was to define clinical benchmarks for operating safety and to detect error-prone treatment processes that might function as 'early warning' signs. Methods: A multi-tiered prospective and retrospective system for clinical error detection and classification was developed, with formal analysis of the antecedents and consequences of all deviations from prescribed treatment delivery, no matter how trivial. A department-wide record-and-verify system was operational during this period and was used as one method of treatment verification and error detection. Brachytherapy discrepancies were analyzed separately. Results: During the analysis year, over 2000 patients were treated with over 93,000 individual fields. A total of 59 errors affecting a total of 170 individual treated fields were reported or detected during this period. After review, all of these errors were classified as Level 1 (minor discrepancy with essentially no potential for negative clinical implications). This total treatment delivery error rate (170/93, 332 or 0.18%) is significantly better than corresponding error rates reported for other hospital and oncology treatment services, perhaps reflecting the relatively sophisticated error avoidance and detection procedures used in modern clinical radiation oncology. Error rates were independent of linac model and manufacturer, time of day (normal operating hours versus late evening or early morning) or clinical machine volumes. There was some relationship to

  7. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  8. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  9. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…

  10. Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimere, Raphael Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the struggle for teacher salary equalization in Louisiana ended in success, but it was one chapter in a long struggle to gain the full citizenship that black teachers and their pupils dreamed would one day be theirs. (Author/AM)

  11. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  12. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  13. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  14. Synchronization of conference presentation sequence using delay equalization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavari, Rakesh K.; Celenk, Mehmet

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, a delay equalization approach is proposed for cohesive conference presentation with minimal screen- freezing effect. The underlying screen-freezing effect is due to varying delays in the communication channels involved in broadcasting. In turn, this poses a threat to the goal of uniform delay distribution among data packets for synchronized presentation broadcast. We wish to achieve uniformity among packet arrival times to the recipients. This objective is achieved by transforming a given input delay distribution (D) to the desired output density through a delay equalization process. Considering a general case of between packet and frame delay distributions for a given input, the desired output is obtained through a delay equalization process. In case of a specific normal delay distribution, a memory-less system g(D) is determined as an approximation to the delay equalizer such that the equalizer output O(t)equalsg[D(t)] is uniformly distributed in the allowable delay limits of (a,b) assuring the specified quality of service (QoS) parameters. The corresponding delay is added at each recipient workstation, which acts as the wait period required before it begins its designated presentation.For a zero mean normal delay density case, the equalizer transfer function can be given in a closed from solution as O(t)equalsg[D(t)[equals(b-a)]0.5+eft(-D/$RO OTR(0)))[+a, where erf(x) is the standard error function. The histogram approximation is adopted as an asymptotically delay equalization means for general cases. This technique provides a means for modifying the dynamic range of data acquired by altering it into a desired distribution. In experimentation, equalizer characteristic functions are derived for a set of selected input delays to obtain the desired output. The delay equalizer system developed here is suited for deployment in a distributed hierarchical conferencing environment. To accommodate a broadcast continuity, the multimedia presentation is

  15. Impact of Measurement Error on Synchrophasor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jiecheng [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tan, Jin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wu, Ling [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhan, Lingwei [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Phasor measurement units (PMUs), a type of synchrophasor, are powerful diagnostic tools that can help avert catastrophic failures in the power grid. Because of this, PMU measurement errors are particularly worrisome. This report examines the internal and external factors contributing to PMU phase angle and frequency measurement errors and gives a reasonable explanation for them. It also analyzes the impact of those measurement errors on several synchrophasor applications: event location detection, oscillation detection, islanding detection, and dynamic line rating. The primary finding is that dynamic line rating is more likely to be influenced by measurement error. Other findings include the possibility of reporting nonoscillatory activity as an oscillation as the result of error, failing to detect oscillations submerged by error, and the unlikely impact of error on event location and islanding detection.

  16. Implementation of pharmacists’ interventions and assessment of medication errors in an intensive care unit of a Chinese tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1,* Jian Chen,2,* Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Qing-Wei Zhao1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Pharmacist interventions and medication errors potentially differ between the People’s Republic of China and other countries. This study aimed to report interventions administered by clinical pharmacists and analyze medication errors in an intensive care unit (ICU in a tertiary hospital in People’s Republic of China.Method: A prospective, noncomparative, 6-month observational study was conducted in a general ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Clinical pharmacists performed interventions to prevent or resolve medication errors during daily rounds and documented all of these interventions and medication errors. Such interventions and medication errors were categorized and then analyzed.Results: During the 6-month observation period, a total of 489 pharmacist interventions were reported. Approximately 407 (83.2% pharmacist interventions were accepted by ICU physicians. The incidence rate of medication errors was 124.7 per 1,000 patient-days. Improper drug frequency or dosing (n=152, 37.3%, drug omission (n=83, 20.4%, and potential or actual occurrence of adverse drug reaction (n=54, 13.3% were the three most commonly committed medication errors. Approximately 339 (83.4% medication errors did not pose any risks to the patients. Antimicrobials (n=171, 35.0% were the most frequent type of medication associated with errors.Conclusion: Medication errors during prescription frequently occurred in an ICU of a tertiary hospital in the People’s Republic of China. Pharmacist interventions were also efficient in preventing medication errors. Keywords: pharmacist, medication error, preva­lence rate, type, severity, intensive care

  17. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Protocol for the PINCER trial: a cluster randomised trial comparing the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led IT-based intervention with simple feedback in reducing rates of clinically important errors in medicines management in general practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Scott A

    2009-05-01

    ineffective. Sample size: 34 practices in each of the two treatment arms would provide at least 80% power (two-tailed alpha of 0.05 to demonstrate a 50% reduction in error rates for each of the three primary outcome measures in the pharmacist-led intervention arm compared with a 11% reduction in the simple feedback arm. Discussion At the time of submission of this article, 72 general practices have been recruited (36 in each arm of the trial and the interventions have been delivered. Analysis has not yet been undertaken. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN21785299

  19. Nearly equal β* at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.; Billing, M.; Krishnagopal, S.; Rubin, D.; Siemann, R.; Welch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β * ) can produce tune shifts of 0.1 and very large luminosities. Further simulations show the same large vertical tune shifts even with very different horizontal and vertical emittances. Using a special CESR lattice with β h * = 32 cm, β v * = 20 cm, and zero horizontal and vertical dispersion at the interaction point, the author authors collided beams with horizontal emittance of 136 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad. There were experimental complications involving the damping partition numbers, a near miss at a parasitic crossing point, and small orbit offsets at the main collision point. They have done a detailed analysis of these complications and discuss their effects on the observed saturated tune shift of 0.045 ± 0.010

  20. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  1. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  2. Error analysis to improve the speech recognition accuracy on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dictionary plays a key role in the speech recognition accuracy. .... Sophisticated microphone is used for the recording speech corpus in a noise free environment. .... values, word error rate (WER) and error-rate will be calculated as follows:.

  3. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal

  4. Prescription Errors in Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    clinical pharmacists in detecting errors before they have a (sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. .... participation in ward rounds and adverse drug.

  5. Eliminating US hospital medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.

  6. The ESTRO European assurance programme for radiation treatments (EQUAL Network)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, I.H.; Dutreix, A.; Bridier, A.; Svensson, H.

    2002-01-01

    The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) Quality Assurance network for radiotherapy (EQUAL) has been set up in 1998 for European countries. This TLD postal dose assurance service addresses to photon and electron beam checks in reference and non-reference conditions and is successful with more than 440 radiotherapy centres and 1,656 beams checked. Dosimetric problems in the beam calibration, errors in beam data used as input to the treatment planning system (TPS), or uncertainties in the algorithms used in the TPS can be detected in the EQUAL audit. The EQUAL reference dosimetry is linked to the IAEA dosimetry laboratory and to the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) dosimetry laboratory by periodic intercomparisons. The absorbed doses to water in photon and electron beams, measured with the ionization chambers, are determined following the procedure described in the new IAEA TRS-398 International Code of Practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water. The participating centres are instructed to irradiate the TLD (LiF) capsules to a dose of 2 Gy according to the calculations given by the Treatment Planning System used in clinical routine. For photon beams, the EQUAL checks four dosimetric parameters: the reference beam output, the percentage depth doses, the beam output variation for open and wedged fields and the wedge transmission factor. In electron TLD audits, beam outputs are checked for 4 different field sizes. EQUAL has checked 440 radiotherapy centres corresponding to 1,656 beams (1009 photon beams and 574 electrons beams and 73 photon beams shaped by multileaf collimators). The results from measurements at the reference point are very good both for photon and electron beams. For photons, the rates of deviation (vertical bar d vertical bar D measured- D stated ) x 100 / D stated ) larger than 5% which have been observed are respectively of 2.6% for the beam output variation and 3.5% for the wedge transmission

  7. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  8. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  9. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  10. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  11. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  12. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  13. Spacecraft and propulsion technician error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Clyde

    Commercial aviation and commercial space similarly launch, fly, and land passenger vehicles. Unlike aviation, the U.S. government has not established maintenance policies for commercial space. This study conducted a mixed methods review of 610 U.S. space launches from 1984 through 2011, which included 31 failures. An analysis of the failure causal factors showed that human error accounted for 76% of those failures, which included workmanship error accounting for 29% of the failures. With the imminent future of commercial space travel, the increased potential for the loss of human life demands that changes be made to the standardized procedures, training, and certification to reduce human error and failure rates. Several recommendations were made by this study to the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, space launch vehicle operators, and maintenance technician schools in an effort to increase the safety of the space transportation passengers.

  14. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  15. Tropical systematic and random error energetics based on NCEP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Systematic error growth rate peak is observed at wavenumber 2 up to 4-day forecast then .... the influence of summer systematic error and ran- ... total exchange. When the error energy budgets are examined in spectral domain, one may ask ques- tions on the error growth at a certain wavenum- ber from its interaction with ...

  16. Error monitoring issues for common channel signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Victor T.; Kant, Krishna; Ramaswami, V.; Wang, Jonathan L.

    1994-04-01

    Motivated by field data which showed a large number of link changeovers and incidences of link oscillations between in-service and out-of-service states in common channel signaling (CCS) networks, a number of analyses of the link error monitoring procedures in the SS7 protocol were performed by the authors. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far and include the following: (1) results of an exact analysis of the performance of the error monitoring procedures under both random and bursty errors; (2) a demonstration that there exists a range of error rates within which the error monitoring procedures of SS7 may induce frequent changeovers and changebacks; (3) an analysis of the performance ofthe SS7 level-2 transmission protocol to determine the tolerable error rates within which the delay requirements can be met; (4) a demonstration that the tolerable error rate depends strongly on various link and traffic characteristics, thereby implying that a single set of error monitor parameters will not work well in all situations; (5) some recommendations on a customizable/adaptable scheme of error monitoring with a discussion on their implementability. These issues may be particularly relevant in the presence of anticipated increases in SS7 traffic due to widespread deployment of Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) and Personal Communications Service (PCS) as well as for developing procedures for high-speed SS7 links currently under consideration by standards bodies.

  17. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  18. Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for Orthogonal Multi-Carrier DS-CDMA with Frequency-Domain Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Tomoyuki; Tomeba, Hiromichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Orthogonal multi-carrier direct sequence code division multiple access (orthogonal MC DS-CDMA) is a combination of time-domain spreading and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). In orthogonal MC DS-CDMA, the frequency diversity gain can be obtained by applying frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion to a block of OFDM symbols and can improve the bit error rate (BER) performance in a severe frequency-selective fading channel. FDE requires an accurate estimate of the channel gain. The channel gain can be estimated by removing the pilot modulation in the frequency domain. In this paper, we propose a pilot-assisted channel estimation suitable for orthogonal MC DS-CDMA with FDE and evaluate, by computer simulation, the BER performance in a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel.

  19. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Data error effects on net radiation and evapotranspiration estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llasat, M.C.; Snyder, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential error in estimating the net radiation and reference evapotranspiration resulting from errors in the measurement or estimation of weather parameters. A methodology for estimating the net radiation using hourly weather variables measured at a typical agrometeorological station (e.g., solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity) is presented. Then the error propagation analysis is made for net radiation and for reference evapotranspiration. Data from the Raimat weather station, which is located in the Catalonia region of Spain, are used to illustrate the error relationships. The results show that temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover errors have little effect on the net radiation or reference evapotranspiration. A 5°C error in estimating surface temperature leads to errors as big as 30 W m −2 at high temperature. A 4% solar radiation (R s ) error can cause a net radiation error as big as 26 W m −2 when R s ≈ 1000 W m −2 . However, the error is less when cloud cover is calculated as a function of the solar radiation. The absolute error in reference evapotranspiration (ET o ) equals the product of the net radiation error and the radiation term weighting factor [W = Δ(Δ1+γ)] in the ET o equation. Therefore, the ET o error varies between 65 and 85% of the R n error as air temperature increases from about 20° to 40°C. (author)

  1. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  2. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  3. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  4. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  5. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  6. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  7. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  8. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  9. Characteristics of pediatric chemotherapy medication errors in a national error reporting database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L; Shore, Andrew D; Morlock, Laura; Hicks, Rodney W; Miller, Marlene R

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding chemotherapy medication errors in pediatrics despite studies suggesting high rates of overall pediatric medication errors. In this study, the authors examined patterns in pediatric chemotherapy errors. The authors queried the United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX database, a national, voluntary, Internet-accessible error reporting system, for all error reports from 1999 through 2004 that involved chemotherapy medications and patients aged error reports, 85% reached the patient, and 15.6% required additional patient monitoring or therapeutic intervention. Forty-eight percent of errors originated in the administering phase of medication delivery, and 30% originated in the drug-dispensing phase. Of the 387 medications cited, 39.5% were antimetabolites, 14.0% were alkylating agents, 9.3% were anthracyclines, and 9.3% were topoisomerase inhibitors. The most commonly involved chemotherapeutic agents were methotrexate (15.3%), cytarabine (12.1%), and etoposide (8.3%). The most common error types were improper dose/quantity (22.9% of 327 cited error types), wrong time (22.6%), omission error (14.1%), and wrong administration technique/wrong route (12.2%). The most common error causes were performance deficit (41.3% of 547 cited error causes), equipment and medication delivery devices (12.4%), communication (8.8%), knowledge deficit (6.8%), and written order errors (5.5%). Four of the 5 most serious errors occurred at community hospitals. Pediatric chemotherapy errors often reached the patient, potentially were harmful, and differed in quality between outpatient and inpatient areas. This study indicated which chemotherapeutic agents most often were involved in errors and that administering errors were common. Investigation is needed regarding targeted medication administration safeguards for these high-risk medications. Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  10. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  11. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  12. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  13. Analysis 1: SDG5, gender equal fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meryl J.

    2017-01-01

    What are the challenges in the path of achieving gender equality in fisheries and what should our priorities be? This article tries to identify these in the context of SDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality.

  14. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... States to celebrate the achievements of women and recommit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 167 August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality...

  15. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... celebrate the achievements of women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. [[Page 52586... Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 168...

  16. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  18. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  19. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Wee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  20. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  1. CMOS continuous-time adaptive equalizers for high-speed serial links

    CERN Document Server

    Gimeno Gasca, Cecilia; Aldea Chagoyen, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the design of adaptive equalization solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology for high-speed serial links. Since continuous-time equalizers offer various advantages as an alternative to discrete-time equalizers at multi-gigabit rates, this book provides a detailed description of continuous-time adaptive equalizers design - both at transistor and system levels-, their main characteristics and performances. The authors begin with a complete review and analysis of the state of the art of equalizers for wireline applications, describing why they are necessary, their types, and their main applications. Next, theoretical fundamentals of continuous-time adaptive equalizers are explored. Then, new structures are proposed to implement the different building blocks of the adaptive equalizer: line equalizer, loop-filters, power comparator, etc.  The authors demonstrate the design of a complete low-power, low-voltage, high-speed, continuous-time adaptive equalizer. Finally, a cost-...

  2. Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunity Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Home About ODMEO Leadership Documents News Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Search Search ODMEO: Search Search ODMEO: Search Office of Diversity Management and Equal

  3. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  4. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  5. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  6. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  7. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  8. High cortisol awakening response is associated with impaired error monitoring and decreased post-error adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Yuan, Yiran; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a rapid increase in cortisol levels following morning awakening, is an important aspect of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Alterations in the CAR have been linked to a variety of mental disorders and cognitive function. However, little is known regarding the relationship between the CAR and error processing, a phenomenon that is vital for cognitive control and behavioral adaptation. Using high-temporal resolution measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with behavioral assessment of error processing, we investigated whether and how the CAR is associated with two key components of error processing: error detection and subsequent behavioral adjustment. Sixty university students performed a Go/No-go task while their ERPs were recorded. Saliva samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after awakening on the two consecutive days following ERP data collection. The results showed that a higher CAR was associated with slowed latency of the error-related negativity (ERN) and a higher post-error miss rate. The CAR was not associated with other behavioral measures such as the false alarm rate and the post-correct miss rate. These findings suggest that high CAR is a biological factor linked to impairments of multiple steps of error processing in healthy populations, specifically, the automatic detection of error and post-error behavioral adjustment. A common underlying neural mechanism of physiological and cognitive control may be crucial for engaging in both CAR and error processing.

  9. Clinical errors and medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition, nature and origins of clinical errors including their prevention. The relationship between clinical errors and medical negligence is examined as are the characteristics of litigants and events that are the source of litigation. The pattern of malpractice claims in different specialties and settings is examined. Among hospitalized patients worldwide, 3-16% suffer injury as a result of medical intervention, the most common being the adverse effects of drugs. The frequency of adverse drug effects appears superficially to be higher in intensive care units and emergency departments but once rates have been corrected for volume of patients, comorbidity of conditions and number of drugs prescribed, the difference is not significant. It is concluded that probably no more than 1 in 7 adverse events in medicine result in a malpractice claim and the factors that predict that a patient will resort to litigation include a prior poor relationship with the clinician and the feeling that the patient is not being kept informed. Methods for preventing clinical errors are still in their infancy. The most promising include new technologies such as electronic prescribing systems, diagnostic and clinical decision-making aids and error-resistant systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Teamwork and Clinical Error Reporting among Nurses in Korean Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-In Hwang, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety.

  11. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  12. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  13. Reduced-Rank Chip-Level MMSE Equalization for the 3G CDMA Forward Link with Code-Multiplexed Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein J Scott

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with synchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple access (CDMA transmission using orthogonal channel codes in frequency selective multipath, motivated by the forward link in 3G CDMA systems. The chip-level minimum mean square error (MMSE estimate of the (multiuser synchronous sum signal transmitted by the base, followed by a correlate and sum, has been shown to perform very well in saturated systems compared to a Rake receiver. In this paper, we present the reduced-rank, chip-level MMSE estimation based on the multistage nested Wiener filter (MSNWF. We show that, for the case of a known channel, only a small number of stages of the MSNWF is needed to achieve near full-rank MSE performance over a practical single-to-noise ratio (SNR range. This holds true even for an edge-of-cell scenario, where two base stations are contributing near equal-power signals, as well as for the single base station case. We then utilize the code-multiplexed pilot channel to train the MSNWF coefficients and show that adaptive MSNWF operating in a very low rank subspace performs slightly better than full-rank recursive least square (RLS and significantly better than least mean square (LMS. An important advantage of the MSNWF is that it can be implemented in a lattice structure, which involves significantly less computation than RLS. We also present structured MMSE equalizers that exploit the estimate of the multipath arrival times and the underlying channel structure to project the data vector onto a much lower dimensional subspace. Specifically, due to the sparseness of high-speed CDMA multipath channels, the channel vector lies in the subspace spanned by a small number of columns of the pulse shaping filter convolution matrix. We demonstrate that the performance of these structured low-rank equalizers is much superior to unstructured equalizers in terms of convergence speed and error rates.

  14. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  15. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  16. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  17. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  18. Automatic latency equalization in VHDL-implemented complex pipelined systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In the pipelined data processing systems it is very important to ensure that parallel paths delay data by the same number of clock cycles. If that condition is not met, the processing blocks receive data not properly aligned in time and produce incorrect results. Manual equalization of latencies is a tedious and error-prone work. This paper presents an automatic method of latency equalization in systems described in VHDL. The proposed method uses simulation to measure latencies and verify introduced correction. The solution is portable between different simulation and synthesis tools. The method does not increase the complexity of the synthesized design comparing to the solution based on manual latency adjustment. The example implementation of the proposed methodology together with a simple design demonstrating its use is available as an open source project under BSD license.

  19. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  20. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  1. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  2. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  3. Errors in energy bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    On request, the Dutch Association for Energy, Environment and Water (VEMW) checks the energy bills for her customers. It appeared that in the year 2000 many small, but also big errors were discovered in the bills of 42 businesses

  4. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  5. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  6. The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J.; Otten, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women’s soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations...... in labor force participation rates and life expectancies between the genders, which serve as measures for the country’s gender equality, are able to explain diff erences in the international success of male and female national soccer teams. Our results reveal that diff erences in male and female labor...... force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success....

  7. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  8. Research trend on human error reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Sadaoki

    1990-01-01

    Human error has been the problem in all industries. In 1988, the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, USA, carried out the worldwide survey on the human error in all industries in relation to the fatal accidents in mines. There was difference in the results according to the methods of collecting data, but the proportion that human error took in the total accidents distributed in the wide range of 20∼85%, and was 35% on the average. The rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles in Japanese nuclear power stations is shown, and the rate of occurrence of human error is 0∼0.5 cases/reactor-year, which did not much vary. Therefore, the proportion that human error took in the total tended to increase, and it has become important to reduce human error for lowering the rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles hereafter. After the TMI accident in 1979 in USA, the research on man-machine interface became active, and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in USSR, the problem of organization and management has been studied. In Japan, 'Safety 21' was drawn up by the Advisory Committee for Energy, and also the annual reports on nuclear safety pointed out the importance of human factors. The state of the research on human factors in Japan and abroad and three targets to reduce human error are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  10. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  11. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  12. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  13. Gender Equality and the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Warth

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the commitment of businesses to promote gender equality within their organisations can be strengthened. A dual approach of encouraging voluntary measures and corporate social responsibility for gender equality on the one hand, and regulating and enforcing change through legislative reforms on the other hand are reviewed, focusing mainly on the European region. There are arguments for a business case for gender equality in terms of better financial performance and com...

  14. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  15. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  16. The correlation schemes in calculations of the rate constants of some radiation chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorets, P.A.; Shostenko, A.G.; Kim, V.

    1983-01-01

    The various correlation relationships of the evaluation of the rate constants of radiation chemical reactions of addition, abstraction and isomerization were considered. It was shown that neglection of the influence of solvent can result in errors in calculations of rate constants equalling two orders in magnitude. Several examples of isokinetic relationship are given. The methods of calculation of transmission coefficient of reaction addition have been discussed. (author)

  17. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  18. Equal rights as the center of democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...

  19. Measurement of flow rate in the third loop of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shufan.

    1986-01-01

    The range of flow rate was 14000-50000 m 3 /h. The diameter of main tube was 2.6 m. A special made pitot set was placed on the main tube in order to accurately measure the flow rate. A cross slideway and a guide devicc were used to prevent the pitot vibration. Method of equal annular area was used in the measurement. The error was less than 4.2%. A pitot cylinder flowmeter was set also on the main tube to supervise the total flow rate of the third loop

  20. Equalization of Multiuser Wireless CDMA Downlink Considering Transmitter Nonlinearity Using Walsh Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinter Stephen Z

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmitter nonlinearity has been a major issue in many scenarios: cellular wireless systems have high power RF amplifier (HPA nonlinearity at the base station; satellite downlinks have nonlinear TWT amplifiers in the satellite transponder and multipath conditions in the ground station; and radio-over-fiber (ROF systems consist of a nonlinear optical link followed by a wireless channel. In many cases, the nonlinearity is simply ignored if there is no out-of-band emission. This results in poor BER performance. In this paper we propose a new technique to estimate the linear part of the wireless downlink in the presence of a nonlinearity using Walsh codes; Walsh codes are commonly used in CDMA downlinks. Furthermore, we show that equalizer performance is significantly improved by taking into account the presence of the nonlinearity during channel estimation. This is shown by using a regular decision feedback equalizer (DFE with both wireless and RF amplifier noise. We perform estimation in a multiuser CDMA communication system where all users transmit their signal simultaneously. Correlation analysis is applied to identify the channel impulse response (CIR and the derivation of key correlation relationships is shown. A difficulty with using Walsh codes in terms of their correlations (compared to PN sequences is then presented, as well as a discussion on how to overcome it. Numerical evaluations show a good estimation of the linear system with 54 users in the downlink and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 25 dB. Bit error rate (BER simulations of the proposed identification and equalization algorithms show a BER of achieved at an SNR of dB.

  1. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  2. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  3. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  4. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  5. WACC: Definition, misconceptions and errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The WACC is just the rate at which the Free Cash Flows must be discounted to obtain the same result as in the valuation using Equity Cash Flows discounted at the required return to equity (Ke) The WACC is neither a cost nor a required return: it is a weighted average of a cost and a required return. To refer to the WACC as the "cost of capital" may be misleading because it is not a cost. The paper includes 7 errors due to not remembering the definition of WACC and shows the relationship betwe...

  6. Energy efficiency of error correcting mechanisms for wireless communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We consider the energy efficiency of error control mechanisms for wireless communication. Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy efficient error control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. Although good designed retransmission schemes can be optimal

  7. Energy efficiency of error correction on wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. We have studied the energy efficiency of two different error correction mechanisms and have measured the efficiency of an implementation in software.

  8. The Nature of Error in Adolescent Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Yagelski, Robert; Yu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of error in high school native English speaker (L1) and English learner (L2) writing. Four main research questions were addressed: Are there significant differences in students' error rates in English language arts (ELA) and social studies? Do the most common errors made by students differ in ELA…

  9. Iatrogenic medication errors in a paediatric intensive care unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Errors most frequently encountered included failure to calculate rates of infusion and the conversion of mL to mEq or mL to mg for potassium, phenobarbitone and digoxin. Of the 117 children admitted, 111 (94.9%) were exposed to at least one medication error. Two or more medication errors occurred in 34.1% of cases.

  10. THE PRESENCE OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN HR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farkas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring equal opportunities is a priority for CEO-s and decision makers, however, it is often not put into practice. Changes in recent years along with the priorities of the EU and the efforts made to banish discrimination becoming more prominent brought with themselves a pressure on firms to provide equal opportunities for the different under-privileged social groups. In Hungary the Act CXXV of 2003 on discrimination and equal opportunities lists the groups in need of protection. The law requires employers with more than fifty employees to have an equal opportunities program. In spite of this, these programs are often general and do not implement the changes and goals identified after the assessment. Still, strategies and plans are only worth how much of them are realized. Our article is about the conscious principles of the Hungarian business sector about equality and whether there are regional differences. We compare answers given by both employers and employees on the subject of the extent to which the above mentioned principles are realized by the management and whether the employees experience these changes. Our theory is that the prioritisation of equal opportunities in firms is more the result of access to project funds than that of inner initiative from the firm's management. We analyse our research questions using a quantitative method on a regionally representative national sample. We examined 992 firms with special attention on those and their employees who had some sort of written guidelines on equal opportunities and plans on implementing these. In our paper we give a short review on the importance of equal opportunities, it's manifestation in HR management and it's written declaration, the so called Equal Opportunities Plan (EOP. The efforts of the EU and access to financial resources for the EU projects as a condition our hypotheses are that (1 at least 30% of the firms studied have written guidelines or declaration on equal

  11. Prescribing errors in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cezar Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pediatric patients, especially those admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU, are highly vulnerable to medication errors. This study aimed to measure the prescription error rate in a university hospital neonatal ICU and to identify susceptible patients, types of errors, and the medicines involved. The variables related to medicines prescribed were compared to the Neofax prescription protocol. The study enrolled 150 newborns and analyzed 489 prescription order forms, with 1,491 medication items, corresponding to 46 drugs. Prescription error rate was 43.5%. Errors were found in dosage, intervals, diluents, and infusion time, distributed across 7 therapeutic classes. Errors were more frequent in preterm newborns. Diluent and dosing were the most frequent sources of errors. The therapeutic classes most involved in errors were antimicrobial agents and drugs that act on the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  12. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  13. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  14. Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Webb, Helen

    2010-08-01

    Equality and diversity are central to education and health services, in terms of both employment and service delivery. Clinical teachers need to be able to support students and trainees around equality issues, have the confidence to challenge discriminatory practice and provide an inclusive and safe learning and teaching environment.

  15. The Many Faces of Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    The ideal of equality of opportunity plays an important role in contemporary social and political discourse, and it is one of the few ideals which most people, across the political spectrum, accept. In this article, I argue that the seemingly widespread agreement about the value of equal opportunity is more apparent than real. I distinguish…

  16. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  17. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  18. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  19. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  20. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 167 August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004--50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom #0... 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  1. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature...

  2. Advanced Equalization Techniques for Digital Coherent Optical Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria

    approach based on joint encoding and equalization technique, known as Turbo Equalization (TE). This scheme is demonstrated to be powerful in transmission impairments mitigation for high order modulations formats, such as 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), considered a key technology for high speed...... a lower complexity convolutional code compared to state of the art reports. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the strict constrains of spectral efficiency, this thesis shows the application of digital adaptive equalizer for reconfigurable and Ultra Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (U......-over-Fiber (RoF) transmission system for a stand alone case and mixed modulation mixed bit rates transmission scheme. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the flexibility, upgrade-ability and robustness offered by rising advanced digital signal processing techniques, for future high-speed, high...

  3. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  4. An Investigation into Soft Error Detection Efficiency at Operating System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Asghari, Seyyed Amir; Kaynak, Okyay; Taheri, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Electronic equipment operating in harsh environments such as space is subjected to a range of threats. The most important of these is radiation that gives rise to permanent and transient errors on microelectronic components. The occurrence rate of transient errors is significantly more than permanent errors. The transient errors, or soft errors, emerge in two formats: control flow errors (CFEs) and data errors. Valuable research results have already appeared in literature at hardware and soft...

  5. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...

  6. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  7. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  8. A Two-Stage Approach for Improving the Convergence of Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizers in the Presence of Severe Narrowband Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Arun; Zeidler, James R.; Beex, A. A. Louis

    2007-12-01

    It has previously been shown that a least-mean-square (LMS) decision-feedback filter can mitigate the effect of narrowband interference (L.-M. Li and L. Milstein, 1983). An adaptive implementation of the filter was shown to converge relatively quickly for mild interference. It is shown here, however, that in the case of severe narrowband interference, the LMS decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) requires a very large number of training symbols for convergence, making it unsuitable for some types of communication systems. This paper investigates the introduction of an LMS prediction-error filter (PEF) as a prefilter to the equalizer and demonstrates that it reduces the convergence time of the two-stage system by as much as two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that the steady-state bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is still approximately equal to that attained in steady-state by the LMS DFE-only. Finally, it is shown that the two-stage system can be implemented without the use of training symbols. This two-stage structure lowers the complexity of the overall system by reducing the number of filter taps that need to be adapted, while incurring a slight loss in the steady-state BER.

  9. A Two-Stage Approach for Improving the Convergence of Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizers in the Presence of Severe Narrowband Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. (Louis Beex

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that a least-mean-square (LMS decision-feedback filter can mitigate the effect of narrowband interference (L.-M. Li and L. Milstein, 1983. An adaptive implementation of the filter was shown to converge relatively quickly for mild interference. It is shown here, however, that in the case of severe narrowband interference, the LMS decision-feedback equalizer (DFE requires a very large number of training symbols for convergence, making it unsuitable for some types of communication systems. This paper investigates the introduction of an LMS prediction-error filter (PEF as a prefilter to the equalizer and demonstrates that it reduces the convergence time of the two-stage system by as much as two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that the steady-state bit-error rate (BER performance of the proposed system is still approximately equal to that attained in steady-state by the LMS DFE-only. Finally, it is shown that the two-stage system can be implemented without the use of training symbols. This two-stage structure lowers the complexity of the overall system by reducing the number of filter taps that need to be adapted, while incurring a slight loss in the steady-state BER.

  10. Evaluation of drug administration errors in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdot Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication errors can occur at any of the three steps of the medication use process: prescribing, dispensing and administration. We aimed to determine the incidence, type and clinical importance of drug administration errors and to identify risk factors. Methods Prospective study based on disguised observation technique in four wards in a teaching hospital in Paris, France (800 beds. A pharmacist accompanied nurses and witnessed the preparation and administration of drugs to all patients during the three drug rounds on each of six days per ward. Main outcomes were number, type and clinical importance of errors and associated risk factors. Drug administration error rate was calculated with and without wrong time errors. Relationship between the occurrence of errors and potential risk factors were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Results Twenty-eight nurses caring for 108 patients were observed. Among 1501 opportunities for error, 415 administrations (430 errors with one or more errors were detected (27.6%. There were 312 wrong time errors, ten simultaneously with another type of error, resulting in an error rate without wrong time error of 7.5% (113/1501. The most frequently administered drugs were the cardiovascular drugs (425/1501, 28.3%. The highest risks of error in a drug administration were for dermatological drugs. No potentially life-threatening errors were witnessed and 6% of errors were classified as having a serious or significant impact on patients (mainly omission. In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of errors was associated with drug administration route, drug classification (ATC and the number of patient under the nurse's care. Conclusion Medication administration errors are frequent. The identification of its determinants helps to undertake designed interventions.

  11. Error exponents for entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases

  12. Black Holes, Holography, and Quantum Error Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    How can it be that a local quantum field theory in some number of spacetime dimensions can "fake" a local gravitational theory in a higher number of dimensions?  How can the Ryu-Takayanagi Formula say that an entropy is equal to the expectation value of a local operator?  Why do such things happen only in gravitational theories?  In this talk I will explain how a new interpretation of the AdS/CFT correspondence as a quantum error correcting code provides satisfying answers to these questions, and more generally gives a natural way of generating simple models of the correspondence.  No familiarity with AdS/CFT or quantum error correction is assumed, but the former would still be helpful.  

  13. Experimental demonstration of a real-time PAM-4 Q-band RoF system based on CMMA equalization and interleaved RS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Yu, Jianjun; He, Jing; Wei, Yiran

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a complete real-time 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) Q-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system with optical heterodyning and envelope detector (ED) down-conversion. Meanwhile, a cost-efficient real-time implementation scheme of cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization is proposed in this paper. By using the proposed scheme, the CMMA equalization is applied in the system for signal recovery. In addition, to improve the transmission performance of the system, an interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code is applied in the real-time system. Although there is serious power impulse noise in the system, the system can still achieve a bit error rate (BER) at below 1 × 10-7 after 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission and 1-m wireless transmission.

  14. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  15. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  16. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  17. Error-Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

  18. Stable Galerkin versus equal-order Galerkin least-squares elements for the stokes flow problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, L.P.; Frey, S.L.; Sampaio, R.

    1989-11-01

    Numerical experiments are performed for the stokes flow problem employing a stable Galerkin method and a Galerkin/Least-squares method with equal-order elements. Error estimates for the methods tested herein are reviewed. The numerical results presented attest the good stability properties of all methods examined herein. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  20. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.