WorldWideScience

Sample records for equal access regional

  1. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  2. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  3. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature...

  4. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees and...

  5. 29 CFR 530.414 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 530.414 Section 530.414 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.414 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the provisions of the Equal Access to Justice Act. In any...

  6. 29 CFR 8.19 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal Access to Justice Act. 8.19 Section 8.19 Labor Office... SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.19 Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under the... Access to Justice Act (Pub. L. 96-481). Accordingly, in any proceeding conducted pursuant to the...

  7. Regionally adaptive histogram equalization of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrier, R.H.; Johnson, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in digital chest radiography have resulted in the acquisition of high-quality digital images of the human chest. With these advances, there arises a genuine need for image processing algorithms, specific to chest images. The author has implemented the technique of histogram equalization, noting the problems encountered when it is adapted to chest images. These problems have been successfully solved with a regionally adaptive histogram equalization method. Histograms are calculated locally and then modified according to both the mean pixel value of a given region and certain characteristics of the cumulative distribution function. The method allows certain regions of the chest radiograph to be enhanced differentially

  8. The Human Right to Equal Access to Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. San Giorgi (Maite)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe right to equal access to health care is a fundamental principle that is part of the human right to health care. For victims of a violation of the human right to equal access to health care it is important that a judicial or quasi-judicial human rights body can adjudicate their

  9. Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against ... Centre for International Sustainable Development Law.

  10. Realising Equality in Access to HIV Treatment for Vulnerable and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the relevance of the concept of equality in improving access to HIV treatment for vulnerable and marginalised groups in Africa. The article argues that though modest achievements have been made in expanding access to HIV treatment for those in need in Africa, this expansion has concentrated on the ...

  11. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  12. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.

  13. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... regularly perform services for remuneration for the applicant, under the applicant's direction and control... Director may delegate authority to take final action on matters pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice... that the Director's final order issued pursuant to Sec. 1081.405 is final and unappealable, both within...

  14. Race and time from diagnosis to radical prostatectomy: does equal access mean equal timely access to the operating room?--Results from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañez, Lionel L; Terris, Martha K; Aronson, William J; Presti, Joseph C; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    African American men with prostate cancer are at higher risk for cancer-specific death than Caucasian men. We determine whether significant delays in management contribute to this disparity. We hypothesize that in an equal-access health care system, time interval from diagnosis to treatment would not differ by race. We identified 1,532 African American and Caucasian men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) from 1988 to 2007 at one of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers that comprise the Shared Equal-Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database with known biopsy date. We compared time from biopsy to RP between racial groups using linear regression adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. We analyzed risk of potential clinically relevant delays by determining odds of delays >90 and >180 days. Median time interval from diagnosis to RP was 76 and 68 days for African Americans and Caucasian men, respectively (P = 0.004). After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, race was not associated with the time interval between diagnosis and RP (P = 0.09). Furthermore, race was not associated with increased risk of delays >90 (P = 0.45) or >180 days (P = 0.31). In a cohort of men undergoing RP in an equal-access setting, there was no significant difference between racial groups with regard to time interval from diagnosis to RP. Thus, equal-access includes equal timely access to the operating room. Given our previous finding of poorer outcomes among African Americans, treatment delays do not seem to explain these observations. Our findings need to be confirmed in patients electing other treatment modalities and in other practice settings.

  15. Predictors of appendiceal perforation in an equal access system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Avery; Hatch, Quinton; Drake, Thurston; Nelson, Daniel W; Fitzpatrick, Emilie; Bingham, Jason; Black, George; Maykel, Justin A; Steele, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    Discrepancies in socioeconomic factors have been associated with higher rates of perforated appendicitis. As an equal-access health care system theoretically removes these barriers, we aimed to determine if remaining differences in demographics, education, and pay result in disparate outcomes in the rate of perforated appendicitis. All patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis (November 2004-October 2009) at a tertiary care equal access institution were categorized by demographics and perioperative data. Rank of the sponsor was used as a surrogate for economic status. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to determine patient and clinical characteristics associated with perforated appendicitis. A total of 680 patients (mean age 30±16 y; 37% female) were included. The majority were Caucasian (56.4% [n=384]; African Americans 5.6% [n=38]; Asians 1.9% [n=13]; and other 48.9% [n=245]) and enlisted (87.2%). Overall, 6.4% presented with perforation, with rates of 6.6%, 5.8%, and 6.7% (P=0.96) for officers, enlisted soldiers, and contractors, respectively. There was no difference in perforation when stratified by junior or senior status for either officers or enlisted (9.3% junior versus 4.40% senior officers, P=0.273; 6.60% junior versus 5.50% senior enlisted, P=0.369). On multivariate analysis, parameters such as leukocytosis and temperature, as well as race and rank were not associated with perforation (P=0.7). Only age had a correlation, with individuals aged 66-75 y having higher perforation rates (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.05; P<0.001). In an equal-access health care system, older age, not socioeconomic factors, correlated with increased appendiceal perforation rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Immigrants' access to health insurance: no equality without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzúrová, Dagmar; Winkler, Petr; Drbohlav, Dušan

    2014-07-14

    The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants' access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants' access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.

  17. Immigrants’ Access to Health Insurance: No Equality without Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dzúrová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.

  18. Expansion and access to higher education: how is gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edineide Jezine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is problematic the process of expansion of higher education in Brazil and the challenges of access and retention of students in vulnerable situations. In this objective set to analyze the gender equality concepts in higher education policies; and enrollment in public and private sectors as they are distributed, considering the gender variable. This is a qualitative study supported by quantitative data of expanding the number of courses and enrollment, considering the Census of Higher Education (2013 that the tip 10 courses with the highest number of female and male enrollment. Based on these data analysis seeks apprehension-der the dynamics at the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB from the perspective of sexualization / gendering. By analyzing access to this type of education of men and women in UFPB, the data show that more women enter and complete higher education courses. However, when analyze distribution by courses, still remains femininity and masculinity certain professional careers. In this sense, the research results show that the process of expansion of higher education is not accompanied by professional motivations that courses historically constitute as male, the case of Engineering, and / or female courses, the case of pedagogy, keeping inequality processes between the sexes in professional careers.

  19. realising equality in access to hiv treatment for vulnerable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UOVS

    been recognised that equality is tantamount to non-discrimination. .... HIV/AIDS), sexual orientation, and civil, political, social or other status which has ... ensuring equal HIV treatment for children, sex workers and men who have sex with.

  20. Access to Higher Education in Canada: Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisef, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the issue of access to higher education in Canada and suggests that those who do not gain entry share common social and cultural properties. Recommends three strategies for enhancing accessibility: a monitoring system, compensatory education programs, and financial assistance programs. (JAC)

  1. Discipline: Impact on Access to Equal Educational Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Rika; de Waal, Elda; Rossouw, JP

    2004-01-01

    Complying with the founding values (human dignity, equality and freedom) of the South African Constitution is one of the most important challenges of creating and maintaining a safe, disciplined environment where effective teaching and learning can take place. All school principals, educators and school governing bodies--bearing in mind the…

  2. Gender Accessibility and Equality in Education: The Implication to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria. Arinze, Francis ... of the constraints to gender equality in education and concludes that gender imbalance in ... provide educational opportunities for the girls so that they can develop side by side with men. .... from school but purely to protect them.

  3. 20 CFR 655.460 - Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Justice Act. 655.460 Section 655.460 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Attestations § 655.460 Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act. A proceeding under subpart D or E of this part is not subject to the Equal Access to Justice Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 504. In such a...

  4. 20 CFR 655.675 - Non-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Justice Act. 655.675 Section 655.675 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION...-applicability of the Equal Access to Justice Act. A proceeding under subpart G of this part is not subject to the Equal Access to Justice Act, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 504. In such a proceeding, the administrative...

  5. ICTs for Equal Access to Human Resources in Health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Making use of information and communication technology (ICT) to ensure equitable access to health services in developing countries is becoming more and more feasible. Since the conference, Bridges to African Development via the Internet (Bamako, 2000), several ICT initiatives have appeared in Mali, such as the ...

  6. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  7. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  8. Promoting Equal Access of Girls/Women to Technical and Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun; Khanna, Pinki; Shrivastava, Nalini

    Despite United Nations' efforts, inequality of access for girls and women to technical and vocational education (TVE) persists in India. Challenges of the 21st century with regard to ensuring equal access of girls and women to TVE include: increasing the participation of girls (especially rural girls) in TVE; overcoming gender bias and…

  9. Mapping equality in access : the case of Bogota's sustainable transport initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Thijs; Sarmiento, Olga; Zuidgeest (Former Assistant Professor), Mark; Brussel, M.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance social equity, three important sustainable transportation initiatives have been introduced in Bogotá. Spatial information and GIS have been used to analyze levels of inequality in access to these initiatives. The results show that the TransMilenio BRT offers equal access for all

  10. Acoustic environments that support equally accessible oral higher education as a human right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Heuij, Kirsten M.L.; Neijenhuis, Karin; Coene, Martine

    Purpose: People have the right to freedom of opinion and expression, as defined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Higher education plays a major role in helping students to develop and express their own opinions and, therefore, should be equally accessible to all. This

  11. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...... Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP...

  12. Labor Law Reform: The Regulation of Free Speech and Equal Access in NLRB Representational Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    After examining the existing legal standards governing free speech and equal access in representation elections, the author analyzes various reform possibilities and suggests a unified approach for legislative action. Available from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $3.00 sc.…

  13. Health care access for rural youth on equal terms? A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  14. Access for All! Neuro-architecture and Equal Enjoyment of Public Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gillen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990, many impaired Americans are no longer disabled by socially condoned conditions in the built environment. However, many people with cognitive and neurological impairments continue to face significant barriers to access, due to disabling environmental hyper-sensitivity and sensory processing disorders. These people are equally protected under the ADA, therefore mitigation is required. Neuroarchitecture, where consideration of the impact of the built environment on the central nervous system informs design paradigms, must complement current ADA compliance guidelines. This paper serves to open the topic to discussion, and is a call for attention, and action, for the removal of these generally unrecognized barriers to access and the equal use and enjoyment of public facilities.

  15. Internet accessibility and disability policy: lessons for digital inclusion and equality from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Goggin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth decade of the internet, accessibility for all, especially those with disabilities, is central to digital inclusion. Yet internationally, the score card on internet and accessibility remains mixed, at best; and woefully inadequate, at worst. Via an Australian case study, we argue that it is imperative to better understand how internet technology interacts with the life worlds and dynamics of disability, and we suggest how policy can be articulated and improved to put people with disabilities on an equal basis to others in digital societies.

  16. Experimental low-frequency sound equalization in an extended region of an enclosure using adaptive filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sound equalization in an extended region inside an enclosure is presented. DSP and the multiple LMS algorithm is used to obtain the optimal solution. Equalization at single frequencies in the stationary state is studied. Also analyzed is the equalization of band...

  17. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  18. Enabling Equal Access to Molecular Diagnostics: What Are the Implications for Policy and Health Technology Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. South Africa’s protracted struggle for equal distribution and equitable access – still not there

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to analyse and explain the South African HRH case, its historical evolution, and post-apartheid reform initiatives aimed at addressing deficiencies and shortfalls. HRH in South Africa not only mirrors the nature and diversity of challenges globally, but also the strategies pursued by countries to address these challenges. Although South Africa has strongly developed health professions, large numbers of professional and mid-level workers, and also well-established training institutions, it is experiencing serious workforce shortages and access constraints. This results from the unequal distribution of health workers between the well-resourced private sector over the poorly-resourced public sector, as well as from distributional disparities between urban and rural areas. During colonial and apartheid times, disparities were aggravated by policies of racial segregation and exclusion, remnants of which are today still visible in health-professional backlogs, unequal provincial HRH distribution, and differential access to health services for specific race and class groups. Since 1994, South Africa’s transition to democracy deeply transformed the health system, health professions and HRH establishments. The introduction of free-health policies, the district health system and the prioritisation of PHC ensured more equal distribution of the workforce, as well as greater access to services for deprived groups. However, the HIV/AIDS epidemic brought about huge demands for care and massive patient loads in the public-sector. The emigration of health professionals to developed countries and to the private sector also undermines the strength and effectiveness of the public health sector. For the poor, access to care thus remains constrained and in perpetual shortfall. The post-1994 government has introduced several HRH-specific strategies to recruit, distribute, motivate and retain health professionals to strengthen the public sector and to

  20. Disability, access to food, and the UN CRPD : Navigating a rights-based equality discourse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltz, M.M.; Mol, Tanja; Gittins, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Aims In 2016, the Netherlands ratified the UN CRPD, becoming one of the last developed nations to sign on. In this presentation, we will explore how equal access to food provides a lens through which barriers to implementing a rights-based approach to disability equality can be examined in countries

  1. Treatment Trends for Stage I Testicular Seminoma in an Equal-Access Medical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Jonathan T; Etzioni, Ruth; Macdonald, Dusten M; Brand, Timothy C

    2016-10-01

    The practice patterns for adjuvant therapies for stage I seminoma are rapidly evolving, and surveillance is currently preferred. How these recommendations have affected contemporary practice in an equal-access US population is unknown. A total of 436 men diagnosed with clinical stage IA-IB seminoma from 2001 to 2011 were identified in the Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR). The ACTUR is the cancer registry system for the Department of Defense. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between patient characteristics and adjuvant therapy. Overall and recurrence-free survival were determined from Kaplan-Meier analysis. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy in this population decreased significantly from 2001 to 2011. In 2001, 83.9% of patients received radiotherapy compared with only 24.0% in 2011. During that period, a concomitant increase occurred in the use of chemotherapy from 0% to 38.0%. A later year of diagnosis was significantly associated with a greater rate of receiving chemotherapy relative to radiotherapy (P associated with the receipt of surveillance (P = .412 for 2006-2011 vs. 2001-2005; odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.29). Black race or age was not significantly associated with adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up period of 4.7 years, the 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 98.0% and 77.0%, respectively. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy has been replaced by chemotherapy for clinical stage I testicular seminoma in an equal-access system. The lack of an increase in active surveillance in our cohort might represent overtreatment of the population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Performance of an optical equalizer in a 10 G wavelength converting optical access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendinueta, José Manuel D; Cao, Bowen; Thomsen, Benn C; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A centralized optical processing unit (COPU) that functions both as a wavelength converter (WC) and optical burst equaliser in a 10 Gb/s wavelength-converting optical access network is proposed and experimentally characterized. This COPU is designed to consolidate drifting wavelengths generated with an uncooled laser in the upstream direction into a stable wavelength channel for WDM backhaul transmission and to equalize the optical loud/soft burst power in order to relax the burst-mode receiver dynamic range requirement. The COPU consists of an optical power equaliser composed of two cascaded SOAs followed by a WC. Using an optical packet generator and a DC-coupled PIN-based digital burst-mode receiver, the COPU is characterized in terms of payload-BER for back-to-back and backhaul transmission distances of 22, 40, and 62 km. We show that there is a compromise between the receiver sensitivity and overload points that can be optimized tuning the WC operating point for a particular backhaul fiber transmission distance. Using the optimized settings, sensitivities of -30.94, -30.17, and -27.26 dBm with overloads of -9.3, -5, and >-5 dBm were demonstrated for backhaul transmission distances of 22, 40 and 62 km, respectively. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  4. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  5. Insurance + access not equal to health care: typology of barriers to health care access for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Jennifer E; Baez, Alia; Angier, Heather; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Carney, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Public health insurance programs have expanded coverage for the poor, and family physicians provide essential services to these vulnerable populations. Despite these efforts, many Americans do not have access to basic medical care. This study was designed to identify barriers faced by low-income parents when accessing health care for their children and how insurance status affects their reporting of these barriers. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken using 722 responses to an open-ended question on a health care access survey instrument that asked low-income Oregon families, "Is there anything else you would like to tell us?" Themes were identified using immersion/crystallization techniques. Pertinent demographic attributes were used to conduct matrix coded queries. Families reported 3 major barriers: lack of insurance coverage, poor access to services, and unaffordable costs. Disproportionate reporting of these themes was most notable based on insurance status. A higher percentage of uninsured parents (87%) reported experiencing difficulties obtaining insurance coverage compared with 40% of those with insurance. Few of the uninsured expressed concerns about access to services or health care costs (19%). Access concerns were the most common among publicly insured families, and costs were more often mentioned by families with private insurance. Families made a clear distinction between insurance and access, and having one or both elements did not assure care. Our analyses uncovered a 3-part typology of barriers to health care for low-income families. Barriers to health care can be insurmountable for low-income families, even those with insurance coverage. Patients who do not seek care in a family medicine clinic are not necessarily getting their care elsewhere.

  6. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  7. Does Increased Access Increase Equality? Gender and Child Health Investments in India

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Oster

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers often argue that increasing access to health care is one crucial avenue for decreasing gender inequality in the developing world. Although this is generally true in the cross section, time series evidence does not always point to the same conclusion. This paper analyzes the relationship between access to child health investments and gender inequality in those health investments in India. A simple theory of gender-biased parental investment suggests that gender inequality may actu...

  8. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  9. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  10. Questioning territorial cohesion: (Un)equal access to services of general interest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malý, Jiří

    -, August 2016 (2016), s. 1-21 ISSN 1056-8190 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : territorial cohesion * services of general interest * accessibility * spatial justice * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pirs.12250/full

  11. What's in Your Refrigerator? Children's Views on Equality, Work, Money and Access to Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Libby-Lee; Hesterman, Sandra; Knaus, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates young children's theorising about families and their differential access to food from a perspective of wealth and poverty. Fifty-two children, aged 6-7 years, attending a Western Australian school were invited to share their perspectives on this global issue. The single case study method utilised three children's focus…

  12. Do Your School Policies Provide Equal Access to Computers? Are You Sure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Phyllis A.; Schubert, Jane G.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines how school policies can unintentionally perpetuate gender discrimination in student computer use and access. Describes four areas of administrative policies that can cause inequities and provides ways for administrators to counteract these policies. Includes discussion of a program to balance computer use, and an abstract of an article…

  13. REGION - the online open-access journal of ERSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koschinsky, Julia; Koster, Sierdjan; Patuelli, R.; Royuela, Vicente; Tselios, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    This editorial launches REGION, the new online and open-access journal of ERSA. REGION aims to be a high-quality academic journal in the field of regional science. To its contributors, it offers a solid peer-review process and immediate publication upon acceptance. Also, it will be a flexible

  14. The Accessibility of Higher Education in the Russian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, A. D.; Platonova, D. P.; Semyonov, D. S.; Pyrova, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of accessibility of higher education across Russian regions in terms of the following three factors: the availability of admission opportunities; financial affordability; and geographic accessibility. The study will be of interest to government agencies in higher education at various levels, analysts…

  15. Accessibility Inequality to Basic Education in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    educational services in Amhara region of Ethiopia in terms of availability and accessibility ... Dept. of Geography Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ... and very high students / teacher ratio. .... facilities to train their children (Hanmer et ...

  16. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes: Cultural Capital and Educational Choice in a Meritocratic Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    conditions must hold: (1. parents must possess cultural capital, (2. they must transfer their cultural capital to children, and (3. children must absorb cultural capital and convert it into educational success. This research develops an empirical model that analyzes the significance of the three effects...... with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  17. Validation of the 2015 prostate cancer grade groups for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes in a shared equal-access health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ariel A; Howard, Lauren E; Tay, Kae Jack; Tsivian, Efrat; Sze, Christina; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J; Polascik, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    A 5-tier prognostic grade group (GG) system was enacted to simplify the risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in which Gleason scores of ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9 or 10 are considered GG 1 through 5, respectively. The authors investigated the utility of biopsy GG for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal-access health system. Men who underwent prostatectomy at 1 of 6 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. The prognostic ability of biopsy GG was examined using Cox models. Interactions between GG and race also were tested. In total, 2509 men were identified who had data available on biopsy Gleason scores, covariates, and follow-up. The cohort included men with GG 1 (909 patients; 36.2%), GG 2 (813 patients; 32.4%), GG 3 (398 patients; 15.9%), GG 4 (279 patients; 11.1%), and GG 5 (110 patients; 4.4%) prostate cancer. The cohort included 1002 African American men (41%). The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 33-90 months). Higher GG was associated with higher clinical stage, older age, more recent surgery, and surgical center (P prostate cancer, metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (all P Cancer 2017;123:4122-4129. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A

    2015-11-18

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement

  19. Girls' equal participation in education. Period. : A field study on how Indian schoolgirls perceive menstruation stigmas to affect their access to education

    OpenAIRE

    Schylander, Hedvig

    2017-01-01

    Menstruation stigmas and a lack of facilities to manage periods have been identified as possible hinders for girls’ equal access to education all over of the world. This paper focuses on investigating how menstruation stigmas generate obstacles for girls’ equal access to, and participation in, education. Its aim is to investigate how girls in an Indian context perceive menstruation stigmas to affect them, particularly when it comes to school attendance and ability to learn in school. This is ...

  20. Study of band terminating in the A {approx_equal} 100 by EUROGAM; Recherche de terminaisons de bandes dans la region A {approx_equal} 100 avec EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Genevey, J.; Santos, D. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary); Boston, A.J.; Zoss, D.T.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); O`Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D. [Horia Hulubei Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Terminating bands in nuclei in the A{approx_equal} 100 region have been investigated using the EUROGAM2 array. Results have been obtained for Pd (Z 46) and Rh (Z = 45) isotopes. In the nucleus {sup 102}Pd, eight terminating configurations are identified. It is the first nucleus where terminating bands built on the valence space configurations and on core excited configurations are observed. Terminating bands have been also found in {sup 103}Pd and {sup 102}Rh. For {sup 102}Rh it is the first case of band terminations identified in a doubly-odd nucleus below the Z = 50 shell closure. (authors) 9 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Making accessibility analyses accessible: A tool to facilitate the public review of the effects of regional transportation plans on accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Aaron; Robinson, Glenn; Brendan Nee, Brendan Nee

    2013-01-01

    The regional transportation planning process in the United States has not been easily opened to public oversight even after strengthened requirements for public participation and civil rights considerations. In the effort to improve the public review of regional transportation plans, this paper describes the construction of a proof-of concept web-based tool designed to analyze the effects of regional transportation plans on accessibility to jobs and other essential destinations. The tool allo...

  2. Equal and universal access?: water at mealtimes, inequalities, and the challenge for schools in poor and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Stafford, Randall

    2013-05-01

    As a result of the rising national obesity rates, public health researchers and advocates have initiated a number of obesity prevention interventions to reduce the rates of overweight and obesity along with their related medical conditions and costs. Policymakers have also initiated a wide range of environmental and policies to support healthy eating and physical activity. Policies such as California's SB1413, which requires that free drinking water be served in school cafeterias during mealtimes, and subsequently the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, assume an equal access to safe and healthy drinking water. As a result, these policies and their application may unintentionally, exacerbate the inequities already present. Unless we take reasonable steps to address the needs of high-need communities, these one-size-fits-all policy efforts may result in an unequal patchwork of disparities and may have a greater negative impact in high-need poor and rural areas.

  3. Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I, EQUALANT II, and EQUALANT III projects from 1963-02-15 to 1964-07-09 (NODC Accession 0071432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I,...

  4. The relation between household income and surgical outcome in the Dutch setting of equal access to and provision of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultee, Klaas H J; Tjeertes, Elke K M; Bastos Gonçalves, Frederico; Rouwet, Ellen V; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stolker, Robert Jan; Verhagen, Hence J M; Hoeks, Sanne E

    2018-01-01

    The impact of socioeconomic disparities on surgical outcome in the absence of healthcare inequality remains unclear. Therefore, we set out to determine the association between socioeconomic status (SES), reflected by household income, and overall survival after surgery in the Dutch setting of equal access and provision of care. Additionally, we aim to assess whether SES is associated with cause-specific survival and major 30-day complications. Patients undergoing surgery between March 2005 and December 2006 in a general teaching hospital in the Netherlands were prospectively included. Adjusted logistic and cox regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of SES-quantified by gross household income-with major 30-day complications and long-term postoperative survival. A total of 3929 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Low household income was associated with worse survival in continuous analysis (HR: 1.05 per 10.000 euro decrease in income, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10) and in income quartile analysis (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.08-2.31, first [i.e. lowest] quartile relative to the fourth quartile). Similarly, low income patients were at higher risk of cardiovascular death (HR: 1.26 per 10.000 decrease in income, 95% CI: 1.07-1.48, first income quartile: HR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.04-9.22). Household income was not independently associated with cancer-related mortality and major 30-day complications. Low SES, quantified by gross household income, is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality risks among surgical patients. Considering the equality of care provided by this study setting, the associated survival hazards can be attributed to patient and provider factors, rather than disparities in healthcare. Increased physician awareness of SES as a risk factor in preoperative decision-making and focus on improving established SES-related risk factors may improve surgical outcome of low SES patients.

  5. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  6. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  7. Vocational Guidance for Equal Access and Opportunity for Girls and Women in Technical and Vocational Education. UNEVOC Studies in Technical and Vocational Education 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Juliet V.; Vetter, Louise

    A study examined the relevance of vocational information and guidance for the equal access of girls and women to technical/vocational education in the following countries: Argentina; India; Mexico; Republic of Korea; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; and Zambia. Case studies were conducted by using a multiple-strategy…

  8. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  9. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  10. A filtering method for signal equalization in region-of-interest fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T; Rowlands, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A method to significantly reduce the exposure area product in fluoroscopy using a pre-patient region-of-interest (ROI) attenuator is presented. The attenuator has a thin central region and a gradually increasing thickness away from the center. It is shown that the unwanted brightening artifact caused by the attenuator can be eliminated by attenuating the low spatial frequencies in the detected image using digital image processing techniques. An investigation of the best image processing method to correct for the presence of the attenuator is undertaken. The correction procedure selected is suitable for use with real-time image processors and the ROI attenuator can be permitted to move during image acquisition. Images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom acquired in the presence of the ROI attenuator using an x-ray image intensifier/video chain are corrected to illustrate the clinical feasibility of our approach

  11. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  12. Fiscal Equalization in the System of Financial Support of Ukraine’s Regions: the Current State and Vector of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Halyna V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities in the functioning of the current system of inter-budget relations in Ukraine from the perspective of its impact on the regional development have been disclosed. The instruments of implementing fiscal equalization are analyzed, the functioning structure of inter-budget transfers in Ukraine is presented, its characteristics are given. The study demonstrates that the domestic financial equalization system is unable to perform its functions. The conducted analysis of the dynamics and structure of inter-budget transfers made it possible to identify a number of shortcomings in the sphere of inter-budget relations: the excessive centralization of financial resources of regions and their transfer dependence; the imbalances and low revenue capacity of local budgets; the imperfect mechanisms for calculating transfers and terms of transferring, etc. It is noted that in the process of implementing the budgetary policy of the regions, it is advisable to pay more attention to forms of budget support and methods of budgetary regulation.

  13. Promoting gender equality in access to microcredit through flexible lending approaches of female targeting MFIs: Evidence from Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Mukamana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to loans is one of the most important areas of focus by many development practitioners for reducing the existing gender gap in access to productive resources. Microfinance Institutions which target females as key clients were promoted for their lending approaches which avoid previous discriminatory practices that excluded women in the financial system. The current study examines the role of Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda in promoting equality in access to microcredit between female and male borrowers. The results of the study are generated by analyzing quantitative data collected from 244 females and 94 males using the questionnaire and qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The study findings revealed that Duterimbere has been able to adapt its requirements to the specific needs of poor women. A significant number of poor women have been able to join the MFI through group solidarity, a method that has upgraded their borrowing capacity to the level of getting individual loans on equal basis as male peers. This study recommends further research that should go beyond access to loan and consider the dynamics of power relations about utilization of the loan received by female and male borrowers.

  14. Two plus blue equals green: Grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N.; Alvarez, Bryan D.; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information. PMID:24100131

  15. From equality to 'equality'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panov Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to lucid statement of a Serbian academician that the ideals of mankind have always been justice, freedom, virtues and that life was less noble, the work analyses whether there is both 'equality', as morosofo exist (stupid wise men, profitable altruists and evil humanists and admirers of freedom of monistic thinking. Is there a dialectics: from equality to 'equality'? At the time of profitable altruists, evil humanists and excellent actors of virtues, it is worthwhile to remember Nietzsche's attitude about the pose of morality: subordination to morality may be slavish, proud, sordid, and resigned. In theological literature it is said that both patriarchate and matriarchate are the same denial of thankful supplemental gifts to a man and a woman. There is no love and sacrifice in government. There is no fortune in slavery, but there is no happiness in mastery either. Can a 'hymn' of individualism, with empty concepts and legal formulations that encourage and sharpen the conflict of family members be an introductory tact of the dictatorship ballade? Is the projection of conflicts into a family and micro-environment a project against emotional solidarity, strength, independence, courage and will for freedom? If we cannot rely upon family are we strong enough to confront totalitarian in democratic?.

  16. 40Gbit/s MDM-WDM Laguerre-Gaussian Mode with Equalization for Multimode Fiber in Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazea, Yousef; Amphawan, Angela

    2018-04-01

    Modal dispersion is seen as the primary impairment for multimode fiber. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is a promising technology that has been realized as a favorable technology for considerably upsurges the capacity and distance of multimode fiber in conjunction with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for fiber-to-the-home. This paper reveals the importance of an equalization technique in conjunction with controlling the modes spacing of mode division multiplexing-wavelength division multiplexing of Laguerre-Gaussian modes to alleviate modal dispersion for multimode fiber. The effects of channel spacing of 20 channels MDM-WDM were examined through controlling the azimuthal mode number and the radial mode number of Laguerre-Gaussian modes. A data rate of 40Gbit/s was achieved for a distance of 1,500 m for MDM-WDM.

  17. Negotiating Gender Norms in the Context of Equal Access to Education in North-Western Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjaaland, Thera

    2018-01-01

    Girls in Tigray region in North Ethiopia have over the past decade started to outnumber boys up through primary and secondary education in terms of enrolment rates. But underage marriage still hampers rural girls' pursuit of education. Left unchallenged by governmental efforts to address marriage of underage girls is the female virginity ideal and…

  18. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  19. Pushing the boundaries of accessibility – Governmental efforts on ensuring equal access to information to rural library users (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 a new Cultural Act was enacted which included, among other things, public library provision. Based on this act the Hungarian library system has been developed systematically through the consecutive strategic plans (Skaliczki, 1999. All projects aimed to push the boundaries of accessibility and to facilitate the realisation of the information society (Caidi, 2006. The 2003-2007 strategic period draws to an end and now we are able to review the tasks accomplished. (Skaliczki, 2003; 2006. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the strategic development of Hungarian libraries between 1997 and 2007, and to draw up the basic figures regarding to this period. (http://www.ki.oszk.hu/statisztika.html

  20. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  1. Accessibility of second regions of stability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickam, J.

    1985-12-01

    Second regions of stability to the ideal ballooning modes have been shown to exist in large-aspect-ratio circular and small-aspect-ratio bean-shaped tokamaks. We report on the existence of these second stability regions in finite-aspect-ratio dee-shaped tokamaks. We also report on the discovery of a second-stable region with respect to the n = 1 external kink mode in a bean-shaped plasma. The role of the shear and current profile in determining these regions of parameter space are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Accessibility of second regions of stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickam, J.

    1985-12-01

    Second regions of stability to the ideal ballooning modes have been shown to exist in large-aspect-ratio circular and small-aspect-ratio bean-shaped tokamaks. We report on the existence of these second stability regions in finite-aspect-ratio dee-shaped tokamaks. We also report on the discovery of a second-stable region with respect to the n = 1 external kink mode in a bean-shaped plasma. The role of the shear and current profile in determining these regions of parameter space are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs

  3. Regional Disparities in Online Map User Access Volume and Determining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Yang, N.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The regional disparities of online map user access volume (use `user access volume' in this paper to indicate briefly) is a topic of growing interest with the increment of popularity in public users, which helps to target the construction of geographic information services for different areas. At first place we statistically analysed the online map user access logs and quantified these regional access disparities on different scales. The results show that the volume of user access is decreasing from east to the west in China as a whole, while East China produces the most access volume; these cities are also the crucial economic and transport centres. Then Principal Component Regression (PCR) is applied to explore the regional disparities of user access volume. A determining model for Online Map access volume is proposed afterwards, which indicates that area scale is the primary determining factor for regional disparities, followed by public transport development level and public service development level. Other factors like user quality index and financial index have very limited influence on the user access volume. According to the study of regional disparities in user access volume, map providers can reasonably dispatch and allocate the data resources and service resources in each area and improve the operational efficiency of the Online Map server cluster.

  4. Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0123320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico Regional Climatology is a set of objectively analyzed climatological fields of temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, and nitrate at...

  5. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-01-01

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets. (author)

  6. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej [Kozminski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets. (author)

  7. Determinants of the accessibility of regional-product information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    In an era being characterized by globalization, the importance of product differentiation grows. Marketing products based on the region-of-origin (within-country area) is one of the strategies applied (i.e., Washington apples). Most place-of-origin research focuses on the effect of the

  8. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients' knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients' CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2-4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar's test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42-0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29-1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99%). Improved knowledge about glaucoma and a high intent to

  9. Phylogenetic relationships among vietnamese cocoa accessions using a non-coding region of the chloroplast dna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, L.T.V.; Dung, T.N.; Phuoc, P.H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes, that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam, based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected from different regions in Southern Vietnam. Their phylogenetic relationships were identified using the universal primers c-B49317 and d-A49855 from the chloroplast DNA region. The sequences were situated in the trnL intron genes which are identify the closest terrestrial plant species of the chloroplast genome. DNA sequences were determined and subjected to an analysis of the phylogenetic relationship using the maximum evolution method. The genetic analysis showed clustering of 63 cocoa accessions in three groups: the domestically cultivated Trinitario group, the Indigenous cultivars, and the cultivations from Peru. The analyzed sequencing data also illustrated that the TD accessions and CT accessions were related genetically closed. Based on those results the genetic relation between PA and NA accessions was established as the hybrid origins of the TD and CT accessions. Some foreign accessions, including UIT, SCA and IMC accessions were confirmed of their genetic relationship. The present study is the first report of phylogenetic relationships of Vietnamese cocoa collections. The cocoa program in Vietnam has been in development for thirty years. (author)

  10. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  11. Remoteness Equals Backwardness? Human Capital and Market Access in the European Regions: Insights from the Long Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolt, Claude; Hippe, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    In a recent contribution, Redding and Schott [2003. "Distance, Skill Deepening and Development: Will Peripheral Countries Ever Get Rich?" "Journal of Development Economics": 72 (2): 515-541. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(03)00118-4] add human capital to a two sector NEG model, highlighting that remoteness represents a penalty that…

  12. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  13. Accessibility-based evaluation of transportation and land-use planning : from laboratory to practice : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The concept of accessibility has made inroads into planning practice, largely at the system level. That is, accessibility is measured or modeled for current or future regional transportation and land-use scenarios for evaluation or broad policy guida...

  14. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  15. Pré-vestibulares alternativos: da igualdade à eqüidade Alternative courses for college entrance examination and higher education access: from equality to equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleny Mitrulis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as crescentes demandas por acesso ao ensino superior em período em que se assiste a um deslizamento do debate sobre igualdade de oportunidades do plano da educação obrigatória para o terreno da educação superior. Representando os interesses dos novos grupos de concluintes de educação básica, proliferaram, a partir do final dos anos 90, dentro de movimentos sociais voltados para segmentos desassistidos da população, cursos preparatórios ao ensino superior, gratuitos e sem fins lucrativos. No âmbito das universidades públicas do Estado de São Paulo, igualmente sensíveis às urgências sociais da inclusão, registram-se também ações favoráveis ao acesso e à permanência desses segmentos sociais nos cursos oferecidos. O artigo analisa as ambigüidades e as aberturas presentes em programas preparatórios ao ensino superior, tomando como referência o Programa Pró-Universitário, voltados aos alunos da série terminal da educação básica, pertencentes à rede estadual de ensino, desenvolvido pela Universidade de São Paulo em parceria com a Secretaria de Estado da Educação. Traz uma análise do perfil dos alunos participantes e uma reflexão sobre os efeitos desse tipo de iniciativa sobre a relação dos jovens com o saber e sobre a construção de suas identidades. Sugere que a ação afirmativa para a inclusão de jovens dos segmentos populares em instituições públicas de ensino superior requer uma proposta educativa na qual a socialização e a aprendizagem estejam intimamente ligadas. O domínio dos saberes preparatórios aos exames de acesso deixa de ser considerado apenas pelo valor instrumental e adquire outros significados como uma nova maneira de ver o mundo, relacionar-se consigo mesmo e com o outro.This work explores the growing demands for increasing access to higher education at a time when discussions on equality of opportunities at the level of compulsory education are shifting to higher

  16. Discovery of accessible locations using region-based geo-social data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jianmin; Zhong, Ying; Zhu, Shunzhi; Guo, Danhuai; Shang, Shuo

    2018-01-01

    Geo-social data plays a significant role in location discovery and recommendation. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of discovering accessible locations in spatial networks using region-based geo-social data. Given a set Q of query

  17. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the WHO European Region 2003-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Annemarie R; Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    To assess changes in access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between the end of 2002 and the end of 2005, and to review the capacity for further HAART scale-up in the then 52 Member States of the WHO European Region....

  18. The Analysis of Basic Public Service Supply Regional Equalization in China’s Provinces——Based on the Theil Index Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zangyi

    2017-12-01

    Accomplishing the regional equalization of basic public service supply among the provinces in China is an important objective that can promote the people’s livelihood construction. In order to measure the problem which is about the non-equalization of basic public service supply, this paper takes these aspects as the first index, such as the infrastructure construction, basic education services, public employment services, public health service and social security service. At the same time, it cooperates with 16 index as the second index to construct the performance evaluation systems, and then use the Theil index to evaluate the performance in provinces that using the panel data from the year 2000 to 2012.

  19. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar......In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck....... The symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  20. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  1. Stable tokamak access to, and operation in, the second stability region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Phillips, M.; Chance, M.; Manickam, J.; Pomphrey, N.

    1987-01-01

    Tokamak operation in the second region of stability to ballooning modes holds promise for economic fusion reactor operation. A second region of stability is confirmed to exist in circular tokamaks with a nearby conducting shell for εβθ>1. In addition to ballooning instabilities with high toroidal mode number n, the presence of low n internal pressure driven modes in low shear regions can pose serious problems for access to the second region. These modes can be present even when ballooning modes with infinite n are stable. Stable access to the second region for all ideal modes is demonstrated with current profile programming that raises the safety factor on axis above unity. Present calculations for stable access using this technique indicate that a conducting wall must be located close to the plasma edge (∼ 0.1 plasma minor radius) to stabilize external modes. Pressure and shear profile optimization could be used to increase this value. As εβθ is raised above unity, the stabilizing wall can be moved to progressively larger major radii. This behaviour is attributed to restabilization of the pressure driven component in low n kink modes. Finally, it is shown that poloidally discontinuous conducting structures are effective in stabilizing low n external kink modes. (author)

  2. Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...

  3. Discovery of accessible locations using region-based geo-social data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yan

    2018-03-17

    Geo-social data plays a significant role in location discovery and recommendation. In this light, we propose and study a novel problem of discovering accessible locations in spatial networks using region-based geo-social data. Given a set Q of query regions, the top-k accessible location discovery query (k ALDQ) finds k locations that have the highest spatial-density correlations to Q. Both the spatial distances between locations and regions and the POI (point of interest) density within the regions are taken into account. We believe that this type of k ALDQ query can bring significant benefit to many applications such as travel planning, facility allocation, and urban planning. Three challenges exist in k ALDQ: (1) how to model the spatial-density correlation practically, (2) how to prune the search space effectively, and (3) how to schedule the searches from multiple query regions. To tackle the challenges and process k ALDQ effectively and efficiently, we first define a series of spatial and density metrics to model the spatial-density correlation. Then we propose a novel three-phase solution with a pair of upper and lower bounds of the spatial-density correlation and a heuristic scheduling strategy to schedule multiple query regions. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on real and synthetic spatial data to demonstrate the performance of the developed solutions.

  4. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG VIETNAMESE COCOA ACCESSIONS USING A NON-CODING REGION OF THE CHLOROPLAST DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Thi, Viet Ha; D.T., Khang; Everaert, Helena; T.N, Dung; P.H.D, Phuoc; H.T., Toan; Dewettinck, Koen; Messens, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivation has increased in tropical areas around the world, including Vietnam, due to the high demand of cocoa beans for chocolate production. The genetic diversity of cocoa genotypes is recognized to be complex, however, their phylogenetic relationships need to be clarified. The present study aimed to classify the cocoa genotypes that are imported and cultivated in Vietnam based on a chloroplast DNA region. Sixty-three Vietnamese Cocoa accessions were collected f...

  5. Plans for dealing with loss of access to the Midwest Compact Regional Disposal Facility: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes events that could lead to the premature closure of a disposal facility and the prospects that the closed facility could eventually be reopened. Possible courses of action leading to disposal outside the Midwest region while the Midwest Compact works to reestablish a regional disposal capability are also discussed. A likely division of responsibilities between the Compact Commission and the individual member states, with emphasis on managing low-level waste after a loss of access when disposal outside the Midwest is not possible is presented. Key elements in an agreement between compacts to accept each other's waste when one compact has experienced an unexpected interruption of its disposal operation are described

  6. The Impact of Varying Statutory Arrangements on Spatial Data Sharing and Access in Regional NRM Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, D. R.; McDougall, K.; Apan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial information plays an important role in many social, environmental and economic decisions and increasingly acknowledged as a national resource essential for wider societal and environmental benefits. Natural Resource Management is one area where spatial information can be used for improved planning and decision making processes. In Australia, state government organisations are the custodians of spatial information necessary for natural resource management and regional NRM bodies are responsible to regional delivery of NRM activities. The access and sharing of spatial information between government agencies and regional NRM bodies is therefore as an important issue for improving natural resource management outcomes. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of spatial information access, sharing and use with varying statutory arrangements and its impacts on spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in catchment management sector in Australia. Further, it critically examined whether any trends and significant variations exist due to different institutional arrangements (statutory versus non-statutory) or not. A survey method was used to collect primary data from 56 regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies responsible for catchment management in Australia. Descriptive statistics method was used to show the similarities and differences between statutory and non-statutory arrangements. The key factors which influence sharing and access to spatial information are also explored. The results show the current statutory and administrative arrangements and regional focus for natural resource management is reasonable from a spatial information management perspective and provides an opportunity for building SDI at the catchment scale. However, effective institutional arrangements should align catchment SDI development activities with sub-national and national SDI development activities to address catchment management issues. We found minor

  7. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for injecting drug users in the WHO European Region 2002-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Bollerup, Annemarie R; Lazarus, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Providing equitable access to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) to injecting drug users (IDUs) is both feasible and desirable. Given the evidence that IDUs can adhere to HAART as well as non-IDUs and the imperative to provide universal and equitable access to HIV/AIDS treatment for all...... who need it, here we examine whether IDUs in the 52 countries in the WHO European Region have equitable access to HAART and whether that access has changed over time between 2002 and 2004. We consider regional and country differences in IDU HAART access; examine preliminary data regarding...

  8. [Gender and accessibility barriers to treatment in alcohol abuse patients in the Autonomous Region of Valencia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Hernández-Martínez, Ma Carmen; Torrijo-Rodrigo, Ma José

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to delaying the access of alcohol abuse patients to specific treatment centres in the Autonomous Region of Valencia (Spain). 563 patients from Addictive Behaviours Units (UCA) and Alcohology Units (UA) were interviewed. A survey was conducted which included items on previous requested treatment in other centres and on barriers of accessibility to treatment in specific ambulatory centres. A descriptive analysis and t-student and ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc tests were carried out. 59.7% of respondents said they had requested previous treatment in non-specific resources due to physical or psychical trouble that they now relate to their alcohol use although they did not do so at the time, in addition to being motivated by their own alcohol abuse (42.8%). The most attended resources were Primary Care and Specialist Unit Care. Women showed a higher demand for treatment in Mental Health Services (p gender differences in barriers that delay access to treatment do exist. It is necessary to build gender-adapted intervention guidelines to be used in Primary Care and Mental Health services to reduce the accessibility barriers to treatment.

  9. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  10. Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Irene D; Swartz, Rebecca H; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2016-05-01

    Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for emergent themes using NVivo. Five factors were found to impact primary care access and use: lack of social contacts, lack of universal healthcare coverage during their initial arrival, language as a barrier, treatment preferences, and geographic distance to primary care. Overall findings suggest that immigrants moving to smaller areas such as the Niagara Region face similar barriers to primary care as those moving into large cities. Some barriers, however, appear to be specific to the context of smaller urban centres, further exacerbated by living in a small city due to a smaller immigrant population, fewer services for immigrants, and less diversity in practicing physicians. More research is required to understand the contextual factors inhibiting primary care access and use among immigrants moving to smaller urban centres, and determine effective strategies to overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of energy access to the poor and to impoverished regions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, A.

    2007-01-01

    have higher levels of education, better sanitation facilities, and greater access to tap water; their houses are in better condition; and they have a higher daily caloric intake. For this reason, energy measures may form a practical basis for a proxy indicator of poverty, as the use of energy indicators is not restricted to environmental and economical issues but is significant for social issues as well. Although energy development is closely related to measures that focus on basic human needs, a single energy-based indicator cannot grasp the multidimensional quality of poverty. Energy is a factor in fulfilling each of these needs, but the extent of these needs is not completely captured by measuring energy poverty alone. Therefore, while access adjusted useful energy correlates fairly well with most of the analysed poverty dimensions, it is only a rough approximation for poverty. The relationship between energy and poverty, however, is a reciprocal one. Improving the poors' access to modern energy sources can make an important difference to their welfare and can be a catalyst for human development: specifically, electricity may be an important trigger for development. Yet, there are still about 450 million people in India without access to electricity. In this way, one observes remarkable regional differences in the electrification rate. These observed regional disparities in electrification can be explained by a combination of factors that influence both village and household electrification. While the geographic endowment of a region was found to be relevant for village electrification, this was not the case for household electrification. A panel data analysis shows further that having a high proportion of agricultural area has a positive effect on a village's electrification rate, while an unfavourable settlement structure and a large state area constrain its electrification rate. In particular, the existence of small but numerous villages seems to correspond to

  12. Characteristics of energy access to the poor and to impoverished regions in India[Dissertation 17033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmler, A.

    2007-07-01

    therein have higher levels of education, better sanitation facilities, and greater access to tap water; their houses are in better condition; and they have a higher daily caloric intake. For this reason, energy measures may form a practical basis for a proxy indicator of poverty, as the use of energy indicators is not restricted to environmental and economical issues but is significant for social issues as well. Although energy development is closely related to measures that focus on basic human needs, a single energy-based indicator cannot grasp the multidimensional quality of poverty. Energy is a factor in fulfilling each of these needs, but the extent of these needs is not completely captured by measuring energy poverty alone. Therefore, while access adjusted useful energy correlates fairly well with most of the analysed poverty dimensions, it is only a rough approximation for poverty. The relationship between energy and poverty, however, is a reciprocal one. Improving the poors' access to modern energy sources can make an important difference to their welfare and can be a catalyst for human development: specifically, electricity may be an important trigger for development. Yet, there are still about 450 million people in India without access to electricity. In this way, one observes remarkable regional differences in the electrification rate. These observed regional disparities in electrification can be explained by a combination of factors that influence both village and household electrification. While the geographic endowment of a region was found to be relevant for village electrification, this was not the case for household electrification. A panel data analysis shows further that having a high proportion of agricultural area has a positive effect on a village's electrification rate, while an unfavourable settlement structure and a large state area constrain its electrification rate. In particular, the existence of small but numerous villages seems to

  13. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, Intellectual Property Protection, and Access to Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Belinda; Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Leaked drafts of IP provisions proposed by Japan and South Korea raise similar concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. This article identifies TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement)-Plus provisions in leaked negotiating texts and examines their implications for LMICs that are not also parties to the TPP: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, China, and India. We find that higher levels of IP protection delay the market entry of generic medicines, giving rise to increased costs to governments and reduced access to essential medicines. The article concludes that the public health community should recognize risks inherent in trade agreements that promote expansions of IP rights and engage with governments to ensure that public health is adequately and explicitly protected in trade and investment negotiations. © 2016 APJPH.

  14. Secure Degrees of Freedom Regions of Multiple Access and Interference Channels: The Polytope Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwei; Ulukus, Sennur

    2014-01-01

    The sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) of two fundamental multi-user network structures, the K-user Gaussian multiple access (MAC) wiretap channel and the K-user interference channel (IC) with secrecy constraints, have been determined recently as K(K-1)/(K(K-1)+1) [1,2] and K(K-1)/(2K-1) [3,4], respectively. In this paper, we determine the entire s.d.o.f. regions of these two channel models. The converse for the MAC follows from a middle step in the converse of [1,2]. The converse for t...

  15. Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch: Morphological and phytochemical variability of twelve accessions from the Swiss alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCardell, Jessica Heather

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostruthin, a natural bioactive compound mainly occurring in the roots of Peucedanum ostruthium, is the focus of this study. P. ostruthium was collected from twelve locations in the Swiss alpine region and reared in an experimental field, subdivided into twelve lots over two years. In the spring and fall, a portion of each of the twelve accessions was harvested and separated into above and below ground plant parts. The dried plants were then extracted with 60 % ethanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC.The above and below ground plant parts were then analyzed concerning their dry matter yield (DMY, their ostruthin concentration and their ostruthin yield. Focusing on ostruthin, it was found that the below ground plant parts harvested in the fall rendered the highest ostruthin yield. Furthermore, a variability concerning ostruthin among the twelve accessions was found. This variability among the accessions is of interest with regards to a breeding program used to develop a cultivar with a high ostruthin yield.

  16. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  17. Regional differences in electricity distribution costs and their consequences for yardstick regulation of access prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wild, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 59 Swiss local and regional electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Shleifer (1985) proposed yardstick competition in terms of price to regulate local monopolies producing a homogeneous good. The regulated price for the individual firms depends on the average costs of identical firms. The yardstick competition concept can also be applied to firms that produce heterogeneous goods if these goods differ only in observable characteristics. To correct the yardstick for heterogeneity the regulator can use a multivariate estimation of an average-cost function. In the case of electricity distribution, the heterogeneity of output consists mainly of different characteristics of the distribution service areas. In this paper we follow Shleifer's suggestion to estimate a multivariate average-cost function that can be employed by the regulatory commission to benchmark network access prices at the distribution level. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the cost model specification. We find that the regional differences of the service areas - e.g. area shares of forests, agricultural areas or unproductive land and population density - significantly influence electricity distribution costs

  18. [Improve the accessibility of essential drugs for the populations of one medical region in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Nitièma, Abdoulaye P; Dadjoari, Moussa

    2005-01-01

    Despite the formulation of the Bamako initiative in 1992 in Burkina Faso, not until 2001 and the launching of a project by a nongovernmental organization was the policy really implemented in a region of the country. One of the goals of this policy is to improve access to health care by using generic essential drugs. The objective of this article is to summarize the results of the evaluation of the project's ability to improve the population's access to drugs. The project lasted three years (2001-2003) and the interventions took place in 41 basic health centres of three districts. According to WHO, improving access to drugs requires consideration of four essential factors: rational use, affordable prices, financial viability, and effectiveness of the distribution. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription sheet (n = 1061) was 2.4; 93% of the drugs were prescribed by their generic name (international non-proprietary names); 44% of infant diarrheas were treated with oral rehydration salt. National drug prices were respected but not the directives aiming at exempting from payment or subsidizing certain population sub-groups (children, indigents). The average annual cash flow of the basic health centres was 1.2 million F CFA and it increased by 854% compared to the beginning of the project. The cost-recovery scheme for administrative expenses was 106%. The average annual availability of the 10 essential drugs was 89%. Utilization rates increased (0.13 in 1999 to 0.21 in 2003) but not significantly differently than in other basic health centres of the area not supported by the project (p = 0.084). The project succeeded in improving access to these drugs for the overall population but not for the worst-off. The drugs are now geographically available for all and financially accessible for those who can afford to pay. The intervention strategy supported the sustainability of the project's activities but much remains to be done to provide the poorest with

  19. Evidence for Policy Making: Health Services Access and Regional Disparities in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Anjomshoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Health indices, regarding to their role in the development of society, are one of the most important indices at national level. Success of national development programs is largely dependent on the establishment of appropriate goals at the health sector, among which access to healthcare facilities is an essential requirement. The aim of this study was to examine the disparities in health services access across the Kerman province. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study sample included the cities of Kerman province, ranked based on 15 health indices. Data was collected from statistical yearbook. The indices were weighted using Shannon entropy, then using the TOPSIS technique and the result were classified into three categories in terms of the level of development across towns. Results: The findings showed distinct regional disparities in health services across Kerman province and the significant difference was observed between the cities in terms of development. Shannon entropy introduced the number of pharmacologist per 10 thousand people as the most important indicator and the number of rural active health center per 1000 people as the less important indicator. According to TOPSIS, Kerman town (0.719 and Fahraj (0.1151 ranked the first and last in terms of access to health services respectively. Conclusion: There are significant differences between cities of Kerman province in terms of access to health care facilities and services. Therefore, it is recommended that officials and policy-makers determine resource allocation priorities according to the degree of development for a balanced and equitable distribution of health care facilities.

  20. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Annemarie Rinder; Lazarus, Jeff; Donoghoe, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess the level of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region. Methods. Analysis of data from three national surveys of 53 WHO European Member States. The comparative level of access to HAART for women and children was a...

  1. Effects of a proposed rural dental school on regional dental workforce and access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchek, Tanya N; Rephann, Terance J

    2013-01-01

    Southwest Virginia is a rural, low-income region with a relatively small dentist workforce and poor oral health outcomes. The opening of a dental school in the region has been proposed by policy-makers as one approach to improving the size of the dentist workforce and oral health outcomes. A policy simulation was conducted to assess how a hypothetical dental school in rural Southwest Virginia would affect the availability of dentists and utilization levels of dental services. The simulation focuses on two channels through which the dental school would most likely affect the region. First, the number of graduates who are expected to remain in the region was varied, based on the extensiveness of the education pipeline used to attract local students. Second, the number of patients treated in the dental school clinic under different dental school clinical models, including the traditional model, a patient-centered clinic model and a community-based clinic model, was varied in the simulation to obtain a range of additional dentists and utilization rates under differing dental school models. Under a set of plausible assumptions, the low yield scenario (ie private school with a traditional clinic) would result in three additional dentists residing in the region and a total of 8090 additional underserved patients receiving care. Under the high yield scenario (ie dental pipeline program with community based clinics) nine new dentists would reside in the region and as many as 18 054 underserved patients would receive care. Even with the high yield scenario and the strong assumption that these patients would not otherwise access care, the utilization rate increases to 68.9% from its current 60.1%. While the new dental school in Southwest Virginia would increase the dentist workforce and utilization rates, the high cost combined with the continued low rate of dental utilization suggests that there may be more effective alternatives to improving oral health in rural areas

  2. Light equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Reinecke, D.R.; Power, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical, radiographic film dodging technique has been developed that can restore lost image contrast on underexposed regions of radiographs. The device consists of a low-resolution x-ray camera and a scanning, light-exposure array. Both are controlled by a microcomputer. The theory of operation has been developed, and technical requirements for implementing light-equalization radiogrpahy have been defined. Initial clinical results with a prototype have been analyzed and compared with results of conventional films

  3. Social justice in Chinese higher education: Regional issues of equity and access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, W. James

    2007-01-01

    A topic of growing concern in Chinese higher education to policy-makers, scholars, and future student applicants is social justice. With the trend toward increasing enrollments in China's higher-education institutions, issues of equity and access have begun to surface, especially as they relate to China's minority population of over 100 million persons. The present contribution offers an overview of the regional boundaries of China, both geographic and historical. It then looks at the development of urbanicity in connection with higher education. Third, it describes the recent history of the gender gap in education both in general and in higher education in particular. Fourth, it examines the ethnic boundaries that exist in higher education. The final section analyzes related findings drawn from interviews and questionnaires administered to faculty members, administrators, and students at ten sample universities.

  4. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  5. Do low-income coronary artery bypass surgery patients have equal opportunity to access excellent quality of care and enjoy good outcome in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2014-09-10

    Equity is an important issue in the healthcare research field. Many studies have focused on the relationship between patient characteristics and outcomes of care. These studies, however, have seldom examined whether patients' characteristics affected their access to quality healthcare, which further affected the care outcome. The purposes of this study were to determine whether low-income coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) patients receive healthcare services with poorer quality, and if such differences in treatment result in different outcomes. A retrospective multilevel study design was conducted using claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance scheme for 2005-2008. Patients who underwent their CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 were included in this study. CABG patients who were under 18 years of age or had unknown gender or insured classifications were excluded. Hospital and surgeon's performance indicators in the previous one year were used to evaluate the level of quality via k-means clustering algorithm. Baron and Kenny's procedures for mediation effect were conducted to explore the relationship among patient's income, quality of CABG care, and inpatient mortality. A total of 10,320 patients were included in the study. The results showed that 5.65% of the low-income patients received excellent quality of care, which was lower than that of patients not in the low-income group (5.65% vs.11.48%). The mortality rate of low-income patients (12.10%) was also higher than patients not in the low-income group (5.25%). Also, the mortality of patients who received excellent care was half as low as patients receiving non-excellent care (2.63% vs. 5.68%). Finally, after the procedure of mediation effect testing, the results showed that the relationship between patient income level and CABG mortality was partially mediated by patterns of quality of care. The results of the current study implied that worse outcome in low-income CABG patients might be

  6. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  7. Geoanalyses of Lunokhods' regions for future Lunar missions and data access via Geoportal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, Irina; Baskakova, Marina; Gusakova, Eugenia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Kozlova, Natalia; Matveev, Eugeny; Nadezhdina, Irina; Zubarev, Anatoliy; Oberst, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Introduction: The Soviet rover missions Lunokhod-1 and -2 were launched at the beginning of 70th (Luna-17 in October 1971 and Luna-21 in January 1973 respectively). The main goals of the both missions were to study Moon surface in situ. The history of the Lunokhods' missions came back into focus recently, when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter obtained high resolutions images. Sources. For our work we used various data: LROC Narrow Angle Camera (LRO NAC) images, 0.3-1 m/pixel [7, 11]; DEMs with different resolution: LRO NAC DEM, 1-5 m/pixel [9]; Kaguya DEM, 7.5 m/pixel [10]; Lunokhods' stereo panoramas and early cartography information [1, 8]. Methodolody: We collected all data as spatial database (Geodatabase) which includes various derived products. Based on methods developed earlier [4, 6], rovers wheel tracks and craters entire study regions were mapped. High resolution DEMs allow calculate of various morphometric parameters of the Lunokhods' regions which provide better understanding processes on lunar surface [2, 5]. Method of detailed morphology analyses developed for study area now used for investigation of the Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource landing missions which are planned to the south pole of the Moon. Data access: We are developing easy access to the planetary data based on web and spatial technology (Geoportal). Geoportal provides the ability to view spatial data in the web-browser, displays different layers in the same area at different scales turns the web. Lunokhods' data point features were created for each station of rover routes where panoramas were been recorded. So GIS project provide an easy access to non-spatial image database and can involve these information in their spatial context. Conclusions: During Lunokhods' missions early topography data of the traverses were accurate for most areas. Modern estimating these results based on the new LRO data provide comparative studies in lunar geology and morphology. We show that these data can be used

  8. Barriers and facilitators to accessing skilled birth attendants in Afar region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rosemary; Jackson, Ruth; Dietsch, Elaine; Hailemariam, Asseffa

    2015-05-01

    to explore barriers and facilitators that enable women to access skilled birth attendance in Afar Region, Ethiopia. researchers used a Key Informant Research approach (KIR), whereby Health Extension Workers participated in an intensive training workshop and conducted interviews with Afar women in their communities. Data was also collected from health-care workers through questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. fourteen health extension workers were key informants and interviewers; 33 women and eight other health-care workers with a range of experience in caring for Afar childbearing women provided data as individuals and in focus groups. participants identified friendly service, female skilled birth attendants (SBA) and the introduction of the ambulance service as facilitators to SBA. There are many barriers to accessing SBA, including women׳s low status and restricted opportunities for decision making, lack of confidence in health-care facilities, long distances, cost, domestic workload, and traditional practices which include a preference for birthing at home with a traditional birth attendant. many Afar men and women expressed a lack of confidence in the services provided at health-care facilities which impacts on skilled birth attendance utilisation. ambulance services that are free of charge to women are effective as a means to transfer women to a hospital for emergency care if required and expansion of ambulance services would be a powerful facilitator to increasing institutional birth. Skilled birth attendants working in institutions need to ensure their practice is culturally, physically and emotionally safe if more Afar women are to accept their midwifery care. Adequate equipping and staffing of institutions providing emergency obstetric and newborn care will assist in improving community perceptions of these services. Most importantly, mutual respect and collaboration between traditional birth attendants (Afar women׳s preferred caregiver), health

  9. Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: Impact of a Regional Rapid Access Clinic on Access to Care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jackson S.Y.; Kerba, Marc; Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Mckimmon, Erin; Eigl, Bernhard; Hagen, Neil A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy (RT) is commonly indicated for the palliation of symptomatic bone metastases, but there is evidence of underutilization of this treatment modality in palliative care for cancer populations. This study was conducted to investigate factors that influenced the use of palliative RT services at a regional comprehensive cancer center. Methods and Materials: A cohort of patients with radiographically confirmed bone metastases and first-time users of palliative RT between 2003 and 2005 was retrospectively reviewed from the time of initial diagnosis of bone metastases to death or last follow-up. Type of radiation treatment service provider used (rapid access or routine access) and patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their influences on the number of treatment courses given over the duration of disease. Results: A total of 887 patients received 1,354 courses of palliative RT for bone metastases at a median interval of 4.0 months between courses. Thirty-three percent of patients required more than one RT course. Increased age and travel distance reduced the likelihood and number of treatment courses, while service through a rapid access clinic was independently associated with an increase in subsequent use of palliative RT. Conclusions: A rapid access service model for palliative RT facilitated access to RT. Travel distance and other factors remained substantial barriers to use of palliative RT services. The pattern of practice suggests an unmet need for symptom control in patients with bone metastases.

  10. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  11. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-09-27

    Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours

  12. Equal Measure: Shielding Students and Enabling Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    "If one life is saved, then it's worth it." That is the cliched argument frequently used to justify banning electronic communications, websites, and other forms of technology in schools. The common belief is that these prohibitions will prevent, among other things, the sexual assault of minors or suicides related to cyberbullying. But that…

  13. The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    advice offices exist to guide complainants and the Danish Ombudsman claimed the duty to also provide interpreter assistance yet with no obligation to generally offer foreigner complaint information. Currently only little homepage information is available in English. More research is needed on complainant...

  14. Assessing the accessibility of HIV care packages among tuberculosis patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel San

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection is a major source of morbidity and mortality globally. The World Health Organization (WHO has recommended that HIV counselling and testing be offered routinely to TB patients in order to increase access to HIV care packages. We assessed the uptake of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC, antiretroviral (ART and co-trimoxazole preventive therapies (CPT among TB patients in the Northwest Region, Cameroon. Methods A retrospective cohort study using TB registers in 4 TB/HIV treatment centres (1 public and 3 faith-based for patients diagnosed with TB between January 2006 and December 2007 to identify predictors of the outcomes; HIV testing/serostatus, ART and CPT enrolment and factors that influenced their enrolment between public and faith-based hospitals. Results A total of 2270 TB patients were registered and offered pre-HIV test counselling; 2150 (94.7% accepted the offer of a test. The rate of acceptance was significantly higher among patients in the public hospital compared to those in the faith-based hospitals (crude OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.33 - 2.92 and (adjusted OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.24 - 2.97. HIV prevalence was 68.5% (1473/2150. Independent predictors of HIV-seropositivity emerged as: females, age groups 15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years, rural residence, previously treated TB and smear-negative pulmonary TB. ART uptake was 50.3% (614/1220 with 17.2% (253/1473 of missing records. Independent predictors of ART uptake were: previously treated TB and extra pulmonary TB. Finally, CPT uptake was 47.0% (524/1114 with 24% (590/1114 of missing records. Independent predictors of CPT uptake were: faith-based hospitals and female sex. Conclusion PITC services are apparently well integrated into the TB programme as demonstrated by the high testing rate. The main challenges include improving access to ART and CPT among TB patients and proper reporting and monitoring of

  15. National and Regional Impacts of Increasing Non-Agricultural Market Access by Developing Countries – the Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bandara, Jayatilleke S.

    2008-01-01

    The US, the EU, Brazil and India met in Germany in June 2007 with a view to bridging differences between developed and developing countries on the Doha Round of trade negotiations. However, the talks broke down because of disagreement on the intertwined issues of agricultural protection and Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA). This study uses the first regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Pakistan to evaluate the national and regional impacts of increasing NAMA as per two ...

  16. A study on the equality and benefit of China's national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Wang, Pei; Dong, Quanfang; Ren, Xing; Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-08-29

    This study is designed to evaluate whether the benefit which the residents received from the national health care system is equal in China. The perceived equality and benefit are used to measure the personal status of health care system, health status. This study examines variations in perceived equality and benefit of the national health care system between urban and rural residents from five cities of China and assessed their determinants. One thousand one hundred ninty eight residents were selected from a random survey among five nationally representative cities. The research characterizes perceptions into four population groupings based on a binary assessment of survey scores: high equality & high benefit; low equality & low benefit; high equality & low benefit; and low equality & high benefit. The distribution of the four groups above is 30.4%, 43.0%, 4.6% and 22.0%, respectively. Meanwhile, the type of health insurance, educational background, occupation, geographic regions, changes in health status and other factors have significant impacts on perceived equality and benefit derived from the health care system. The findings demonstrate wide variations in perceptions of equality and benefit between urban and rural residents and across population characteristics, leading to a perceived lack of fairness in benefits and accessibility. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that are targeted to eliminate perceived differences and promote greater equality in access to health care.

  17. Accessing the mega-region : evaluating the role of livable community patterns in Gulf Coast mega-region planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzes both the need and mechanisms for integrating livability components such as : transit and active transportation into a broader mega-regions transportation framework. The research : builds a conceptual framework for understanding...

  18. Evaluating transportation equity : an intermetropolitan comparison of regional accessibility and urban form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The concept of accessibility is used as the measurement tool to assess the link between social equity and the built environment because : it simultaneously accounts for both land-use patterns and a transportation system. This study compares 25 metrop...

  19. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3-6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but accessibility was restricted

  20. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  1. Implementing an Open Access Policy – Modeling KAUST in the Region

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Vijayakumar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation will discuss different open access approaches, and what can well-fit academic and governmental institutions. As a case study of KAUST, presenters will discuss how it can be initiated in a university set-up, how to get academic stakeholder engaged with support, and how the final stage is reached. Details about the KAUST Open Access Policy for research articles, theses and dissertations and the required tools and workflow to implement the policies will be highlighted.

  2. Implementing an Open Access Policy – Modeling KAUST in the Region

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2014-11-12

    The presentation will discuss different open access approaches, and what can well-fit academic and governmental institutions. As a case study of KAUST, presenters will discuss how it can be initiated in a university set-up, how to get academic stakeholder engaged with support, and how the final stage is reached. Details about the KAUST Open Access Policy for research articles, theses and dissertations and the required tools and workflow to implement the policies will be highlighted.

  3. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  4. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  5. Creating multithemed ecological regions for macroscale ecology: Testing a flexible, repeatable, and accessible clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Yuan, Shuai; Webster, Katherine E.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Collins, Sarah M.; Fergus, C. Emi; Scott, Caren E.; Norton Henry, Emily; Soranno, Patricia A.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Understanding broad-scale ecological patterns and processes often involves accounting for regional-scale heterogeneity. A common way to do so is to include ecological regions in sampling schemes and empirical models. However, most existing ecological regions were developed for specific purposes, using a limited set of geospatial features and irreproducible methods. Our study purpose was to: (1) describe a method that takes advantage of recent computational advances and increased availability of regional and global data sets to create customizable and reproducible ecological regions, (2) make this algorithm available for use and modification by others studying different ecosystems, variables of interest, study extents, and macroscale ecology research questions, and (3) demonstrate the power of this approach for the research question—How well do these regions capture regional-scale variation in lake water quality? To achieve our purpose we: (1) used a spatially constrained spectral clustering algorithm that balances geospatial homogeneity and region contiguity to create ecological regions using multiple terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial data for 17 northeastern U.S. states (~1,800,000 km2); (2) identified which of the 52 geospatial features were most influential in creating the resulting 100 regions; and (3) tested the ability of these ecological regions to capture regional variation in water nutrients and clarity for ~6,000 lakes. We found that: (1) a combination of terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial features influenced region creation, suggesting that the oft-ignored freshwater landscape provides novel information on landscape variability not captured by traditionally used climate and terrestrial metrics; and (2) the delineated regions captured macroscale heterogeneity in ecosystem properties not included in region delineation—approximately 40% of the variation in total phosphorus and water clarity among lakes was at the regional

  6. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  7. Effect of sodium chloride on the germination of the seeds of a collection of carrot accessions (Daucus carota L. cultivated in the region of Sidi Bouzid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. collected from seven areas in the region of Sidi Bouzid, Lessouda (three accessions: L1, L2 and L3 Faid (one accession: F4, El Ogla (one accession: E5, Regueb (two accessions: R7 and R8, Lahweze (one accession: L10 Garet Hdid (one accession: G11 and Souk Jedid (one accession: S12 were germinated at 20° C in the dark and in the presence of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 g/l during 14 days. The results obtained showed that germination is possible until the highest concentration of salt (16 g/l but germination and speed of germination decrease according to the concentration, so the accession L3 was the most tolerant and accessions L1, L2 and S12 was the most sensitive.

  8. Dilemma of Access and Provision of Quality Basic Education in Central Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…

  9. Traditional access and forest management arrangements for beekeeping: the case of Southwest Ethiopia forest region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endalamaw, T.B.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management

  10. The special role of item-context associations in the direct-access region of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Guillermo

    2017-09-01

    The three-embedded-component model of working memory (WM) distinguishes three representational states corresponding to three WM regions: activated long-term memory, direct-access region (DAR), and focus of attention. Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that access to the DAR is associated with enhanced hippocampal activity. Because the hippocampus mediates the encoding and retrieval of item-context associations, it has been suggested that this hippocampal activation is a consequence of the fact that item-context associations are particularly strong and accessible in the DAR. This study provides behavioral evidence for this view using an item-recognition task to assess the effect of non-intentional encoding and maintenance of item-location associations across WM regions. Five pictures of human faces were sequentially presented in different screen locations followed by a recognition probe. Visual cues immediately preceding the probe indicated the location thereof. When probe stimuli appeared in the same location that they had been presented within the memory set, the presentation of the cue was expected to elicit the activation of the corresponding WM representation through the just-established item-location association, resulting in faster recognition. Results showed this same-location effect, but only for items that, according to their serial position within the memory set, were held in the DAR.

  11. THE PRESENCE OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN HR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farkas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring equal opportunities is a priority for CEO-s and decision makers, however, it is often not put into practice. Changes in recent years along with the priorities of the EU and the efforts made to banish discrimination becoming more prominent brought with themselves a pressure on firms to provide equal opportunities for the different under-privileged social groups. In Hungary the Act CXXV of 2003 on discrimination and equal opportunities lists the groups in need of protection. The law requires employers with more than fifty employees to have an equal opportunities program. In spite of this, these programs are often general and do not implement the changes and goals identified after the assessment. Still, strategies and plans are only worth how much of them are realized. Our article is about the conscious principles of the Hungarian business sector about equality and whether there are regional differences. We compare answers given by both employers and employees on the subject of the extent to which the above mentioned principles are realized by the management and whether the employees experience these changes. Our theory is that the prioritisation of equal opportunities in firms is more the result of access to project funds than that of inner initiative from the firm's management. We analyse our research questions using a quantitative method on a regionally representative national sample. We examined 992 firms with special attention on those and their employees who had some sort of written guidelines on equal opportunities and plans on implementing these. In our paper we give a short review on the importance of equal opportunities, it's manifestation in HR management and it's written declaration, the so called Equal Opportunities Plan (EOP. The efforts of the EU and access to financial resources for the EU projects as a condition our hypotheses are that (1 at least 30% of the firms studied have written guidelines or declaration on equal

  12. Strategic Priorities for Improving Access to Quality Education in the Kurdistan Region--Iraq. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Georges; Culbertson, Shelly; Constant, Louay

    2014-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) began an ambitious reform of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI's) kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education system beginning in 2007 in an effort to modernize the curriculum, upgrade school facilities, and raise the quality of instruction. In 2010, RAND was asked to conduct a one-year study to assess…

  13. Standardized Access and Processing of Multi-Source Earth Observation Time-Series Data within a Regional Data Middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Schmullius, C.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing archives of global satellite data present a new challenge to handle multi-source satellite data in a user-friendly way. Any user is confronted with different data formats and data access services. In addition the handling of time-series data is complex as an automated processing and execution of data processing steps is needed to supply the user with the desired product for a specific area of interest. In order to simplify the access to data archives of various satellite missions and to facilitate the subsequent processing, a regional data and processing middleware has been developed. The aim of this system is to provide standardized and web-based interfaces to multi-source time-series data for individual regions on Earth. For further use and analysis uniform data formats and data access services are provided. Interfaces to data archives of the sensor MODIS (NASA) as well as the satellites Landsat (USGS) and Sentinel (ESA) have been integrated in the middleware. Various scientific algorithms, such as the calculation of trends and breakpoints of time-series data, can be carried out on the preprocessed data on the basis of uniform data management. Jupyter Notebooks are linked to the data and further processing can be conducted directly on the server using Python and the statistical language R. In addition to accessing EO data, the middleware is also used as an intermediary between the user and external databases (e.g., Flickr, YouTube). Standardized web services as specified by OGC are provided for all tools of the middleware. Currently, the use of cloud services is being researched to bring algorithms to the data. As a thematic example, an operational monitoring of vegetation phenology is being implemented on the basis of various optical satellite data and validation data from the German Weather Service. Other examples demonstrate the monitoring of wetlands focusing on automated discovery and access of Landsat and Sentinel data for local areas.

  14. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  15. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  16. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  17. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  20. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Mid-Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the Mid-Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  1. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Southeast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1991) Southeast regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  2. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: West Coast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0161540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the West Coast regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  3. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: North Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the North Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  4. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  5. AVHRR CoastWatch Regional Data, November 2003 - present (NODC Accession 0099041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR (Advanced High Resolution Radiometer) onboard NOAA and Metop satellites is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest....

  6. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  7. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  8. Highly accessible AU-rich regions in 3’ untranslated regions are hotspots for binding of regulatory factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is regarded as one of the major processes involved in the regulation of gene expression. It is mainly performed by RNA binding proteins and microRNAs, which target RNAs and typically affect their stability. Recent efforts from the scientific community have aimed at understanding post-transcriptional regulation at a global scale by using high-throughput sequencing techniques such as cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), which facilitates identification of binding sites of these regulatory factors. However, the diversity in the experimental procedures and bioinformatics analyses has hindered the integration of multiple datasets and thus limited the development of an integrated view of post-transcriptional regulation. In this work, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 107 CLIP datasets from 49 different RBPs in HEK293 cells to shed light on the complex interactions that govern post-transcriptional regulation. By developing a more stringent CLIP analysis pipeline we have discovered the existence of conserved regulatory AU-rich regions in the 3’UTRs where miRNAs and RBPs that regulate several processes such as polyadenylation or mRNA stability bind. Analogous to promoters, many factors have binding sites overlapping or in close proximity in these hotspots and hence the regulation of the mRNA may depend on their relative concentrations. This hypothesis is supported by RBP knockdown experiments that alter the relative concentration of RBPs in the cell. Upon AGO2 knockdown (KD), transcripts containing “free” target sites show increased expression levels compared to those containing target sites in hotspots, which suggests that target sites within hotspots are less available for miRNAs to bind. Interestingly, these hotspots appear enriched in genes with regulatory functions such as DNA binding and RNA binding. Taken together, our results suggest that hotspots are functional regulatory elements that define an extra layer

  9. Seeking the win/win alternative: Negotiations for regional access 1993-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visocki, Kathryn; Bremen, Sherol S.

    1992-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (The Policy Act or LLWPA) of 1980 gave each state responsibility for dealing with its own low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), and encouraged them to align themselves in regional compacts in order to do so. Now, many years and millions of dollars later, states and compacts are fighting legal and other battles to site the low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities so essential to continuing the power generation, medical research, and industrial activities enjoyed by United States citizens today. Delays in siting are causing a new set of problems associated with an interim period beginning in 1993 and lasting for variable durations from region to region. Existing disposal facilities will close, and the new generation of disposal facilities will not yet be open. In the Southeast, the first regional disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina is scheduled to close on December 31, 1992. A second regional facility is being sited in North Carolina, but it is not scheduled to open until February of 1996. The authors outline the possible options for low-level radio-active waste management in the Southeast during its three-year interim period and explain the process being used by the Southeast Compact Commission to explore the feasibility of each option. The authors conclude that ultimately the implementation of the LLWPA will be successful. (author)

  10. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the

  11. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  12. Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

  13. Flavors of the city: access to regional fruit and fruit consumption in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Barbosa de Lima

    Full Text Available In 2010 more than 70% of the population in the Brazilian Amazon was living in urban centers. This article looks at the effect of urbanization on market availability and consumption of regional fruits in the state of Acre. The east and west region were used as proxies for urbanization, and quantitative and qualitative methods were combined in interviews with regional fruit vendors and consumers. Open markets in large cities provided a greater variety of regional fruits for purchase, yet fruit consumption was more diverse in the less urbanized west, than in the east. This pattern reveals the importance of fruit tree diversity in home gardens and urban forested fragments, as well as of non-monetary exchanges of goods as promoters of variety in fruit consumption. Findings suggest that children may be benefiting the most from this consumption. Also, certain regional fruits have gained a 'cultural marker' status and are widely consumed regardless of the urbanization rates. Nevertheless, this article demonstrates how urbanization affects the diversity of fruit consumption in different social groups, and how this process is mediated by access, income level, and health concerns.

  14. Asynchronous LMS adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.; Modrie, D.; Otte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also operate in the asynchronous clock domain. Existing adaptation techniques for this equalizer involve an error sequence ek that

  15. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  16. Access to and Usage of Information among Rural Communities: a Case Study of Kilosa District Morogoro Region in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan Pius Mtega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how rural communities in Kilosa District of Morogoro region in Tanzania accessed and used information. Specifically the study identified the information needs of rural people; determined the factors influencing the choice of information sources; and the appropriateness of the information sources basing on usefulness and preference. Three divisions were involved in the study area, choice of the study area was based on the availability of multiple information sources/channels information seekers could consulted. Simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting villages to be investigated and respondents to be interviewed. Findings showed that almost all people needed information of all types. Most of the information needed related to day to day problems. Information was accessed mainly through radio, television sets, newspapers and magazines, and also through cell phones and face to face communication. Choice of information sources was influenced by the respondents’ level of education, income, sex, age, occupation and distance from the information seeker’s residence to the information sources. Findings showed further that people accessed and used information for solving day to day problems and for leisure purposes. The study recommends that it is important to have frequent rural information needs assessments before providing information services to rural areas. Information providers should repackage information in appropriate forms suitable for rural communities. Moreover, radio and television stations should have enough rural related programmes which should be broadcasted during appropriate time.

  17. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  18. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  19. Gender Equality and the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Warth

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the commitment of businesses to promote gender equality within their organisations can be strengthened. A dual approach of encouraging voluntary measures and corporate social responsibility for gender equality on the one hand, and regulating and enforcing change through legislative reforms on the other hand are reviewed, focusing mainly on the European region. There are arguments for a business case for gender equality in terms of better financial performance and com...

  20. Use of and barriers to access to opioid analgesics: a worldwide, regional, and national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berterame, Stefano; Erthal, Juliana; Thomas, Johny; Fellner, Sarah; Vosse, Benjamin; Clare, Philip; Hao, Wei; Johnson, David T; Mohar, Alejandro; Pavadia, Jagjit; Samak, Ahmed Kamal Eldin; Sipp, Werner; Sumyai, Viroj; Suryawati, Sri; Toufiq, Jallal; Yans, Raymond; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-04-16

    Despite opioid analgesics being essential for pain relief, use has been inadequate in many countries. We aim to provide up-to-date worldwide, regional, and national data for changes in opioid analgesic use, and to analyse the relation of impediments to use of these medicines. We calculated defined daily doses for statistical purposes (S-DDD) per million inhabitants per day of opioid analgesics worldwide and for regions and countries from 2001 to 2013, and we used generalised estimating equation analysis to assess longitudinal change in use. We compared use data against the prevalence of some health disorders needing opioid use. We surveyed 214 countries or territories about impediments to availability of these medicines, and used regression analyses to establish the strength of associations between impediments and use. The S-DDD of opioid analgesic use more than doubled worldwide between 2001-03 and 2011-13, from 1417 S-DDD (95% CI -732 to 3565; totalling about 3.01 billion defined daily doses per annum) to 3027 S-DDD (-1162 to 7215; totalling about 7.35 billion defined daily doses per annum). Substantial increases occurred in North America (16,046 S-DDD [95% CI 4032-28,061] to 31,453 S-DDD [8121-54,785]), western and central Europe (3079 S-DDD [1274-4883] to 9320 S-DDD [3969-14,672]), and Oceania (2275 S-DDD [763-3787] to 9136 S-DDD [2508-15,765]). Countries in other regions have shown no substantial increase in use. Impediments to use included an absence of training and awareness in medical professionals, fear of dependence, restricted financial resources, issues in sourcing, cultural attitudes, fear of diversion, international trade controls, and onerous regulation. Higher number of impediments reported was significantly associated with lower use (unadjusted incidence rate ratio 0.39 [95% CI 0.29-0.52]; p<0.0001), but not when adjusted for gross domestic product and human development index (0.91 [0.73-1.14]; p=0.4271). Use of opioid analgesics has increased, but

  1. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  2. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  3. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  4. Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizer, S.M.; Amburn, E.P.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Greer, Trey; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. We report algorithms designed to

  5. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  6. Accessibility of fast food outlets is associated with fast food intake. A study in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Toft, Ulla; Lykke, Maja; Glümer, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast food options may show higher levels of fast food intake. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association between GIS-located fast food outlets (FFOs) and self-reported fast food intake among adults (+ 16 years) in the Capital Region of Denmark (N = 48,305). Accessibility of FFOs was measured both as proximity (distance to nearest FFO) and density (number of FFOs within a 1km network buffer around home). Odds of fast food intake ≥ 1/week increased significantly with increasing FFO density and decreased significantly with increasing distance to the nearest FFO for distances ≤ 4km. For long distances (>4km), odds increased with increasing distance, although this applied only for car owners. Results suggest that Danish health promotion strategies need to consider the contribution of the built environment to unhealthy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of telemedicine for improving access to care in the Paris region: study protocols for eight trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nathanael; Zarca, Kevin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Calinaud, Christine

    2016-02-08

    With the development of information and communication technologies, telemedicine has been proposed as a way to improve patient management by facilitating access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The Paris Ile de France Regional Health Agency is currently funding a comprehensive program of telemedicine experiments. This article describes the protocols for the evaluation of the implementation of telemedicine in the Paris region. Over 2,500 patients have been included in eight studies addressing the use of telemedicine in the context of specific diseases or settings. Two projects are randomized controlled trials, while the six other projects are based on before-after designs (differences in differences studies). Based on the MAST model and the French national framework, we identified endpoints to assess the impact of telemedicine on five dimensions: clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, security of the application, patient satisfaction and quality of life and perception of professionals. Telemedicine encompasses a wide range of services and stakeholders, and thus study protocols must be tailored to the specific constraints and interests of the users. NCT02110433 (03/07/2014), NCT02157740 (05/27/2014), NCT02374697 (02/05/2015), NCT02157727 (05/27/2014), NCT02229279 (08/28/2014), NCT02368769 (02/05/2015), NCT02164747 (NCT02164747), NCT02309905 (11/27/2014).

  8. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  9. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  10. Entrepreneur for Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Focuses on the first Republican Governor of the state of Georgia during the period of race adjustment and national reconstruction after the American Civil War. Bullock led the way to business connections in creating a New South, but he was best known for his steadfast efforts at human equality fo...

  11. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  12. Fight For Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  13. Equal Rights Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ko Oudhof

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2000. How is the emancipation process of women in the Netherlands progressing? What has been achieved? Have women already achieved equality, and have men accepted the sharing of power and responsibility? Was the emancipation process mainly a phenomenon of

  14. Stability of the Light Output, Oral Cavity Tip Accessibility in Posterior Region and Emission Spectrum of Light-Curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C B; Nima, G; Sebold, M; Giannini, M; Price, R B

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the light output from six light-emitting diode dental curing lights after 25 consecutive light exposures without recharging the battery, tip accessibility in the posterior region, and light beam spread from light-curing units. Irradiance, spectral peak, and radiant exposure were measured with the battery fully charged (Bluephase Style, ESPE Cordless, Elipar S10, Demi Ultra, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal) and monitored for 25 light exposures (each lasting 10 seconds). The tip diameter was measured to identify the beam size and the ability of the six light-curing units to irradiate all areas of the lower second molar in the standard output setting. Four curing lights delivered a single peak wavelength from 454 to 462 nm, and two (Bluephase Style and Valo Cordless) delivered multiple emission peaks (at 410 and 458 nm and 400, 450, and 460 nm, respectively). The irradiance and radiant exposure always decreased after 25 exposures by 2% to 8%, depending on the light unit; however, only ESPE Cordless, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal presented a statistical difference between the first and the last exposure. The tip diameter ranged from 6.77 mm to 9.40 mm. The Radii-Cal delivered the lowest radiant exposure and irradiance. This light was also unable to access all the teeth with the tip parallel to the occlusal surface of the tooth. Not all of the blue-emitting lights deliver the same emission spectra, and some curing lights delivered a lower irradiance (as much as 8% lower) after the 25th exposure.

  15. Efficient random access high resolution region-of-interest (ROI) image retrieval using backward coding of wavelet trees (BCWT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Enrique; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Guo, Jiangling; Karp, Tanja

    2008-03-01

    Efficient retrieval of high quality Regions-Of-Interest (ROI) from high resolution medical images is essential for reliable interpretation and accurate diagnosis. Random access to high quality ROI from codestreams is becoming an essential feature in many still image compression applications, particularly in viewing diseased areas from large medical images. This feature is easier to implement in block based codecs because of the inherent spatial independency of the code blocks. This independency implies that the decoding order of the blocks is unimportant as long as the position for each is properly identified. In contrast, wavelet-tree based codecs naturally use some interdependency that exploits the decaying spectrum model of the wavelet coefficients. Thus one must keep track of the decoding order from level to level with such codecs. We have developed an innovative multi-rate image subband coding scheme using "Backward Coding of Wavelet Trees (BCWT)" which is fast, memory efficient, and resolution scalable. It offers far less complexity than many other existing codecs including both, wavelet-tree, and block based algorithms. The ROI feature in BCWT is implemented through a transcoder stage that generates a new BCWT codestream containing only the information associated with the user-defined ROI. This paper presents an efficient technique that locates a particular ROI within the BCWT coded domain, and decodes it back to the spatial domain. This technique allows better access and proper identification of pathologies in high resolution images since only a small fraction of the codestream is required to be transmitted and analyzed.

  16. POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME IN DIETETICS &FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT (MSCDFSM PROGRAMME of IGNOU: Access through the Lucknow Regional Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. DOROTHY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI. The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science in Dietetics and Food Service Management (MScDFSM Programme of IGNOU offered through the Distance Learning Mode from the year 2005 has been the boon in developing human resources involved in Nutrition and Dietetics services and also serves as a mode for continuing education among the professionals on-the-job. Accessibility to the programme is independent of the qualification earned at the Bachelor’s level as at IGNOU flexibility of the qualification is ensured for fulfilling the eligibility criteria into the MScDFSM Programme so that the diverse needs of the aspirants are accommodated at entry level itself. The Programme is unique in that it has compulsory Dissertation and Internship besides the Theory and Practical Courses. The Self-Study is enriched by the Teacher inbuilt Self-instructional Study Materials coupled with compulsory submission of the Tutor Marked Assignments (TMA which phase learning and initiate the didactic communication between the Academic Counsellor (who facilitate the Academic Transactions at the field level functionary - the Learner Support Centre and the Learner. The MSc DFSM Programme of IGNOU, as the distance learning programme offered by the School of Continuing Education (SOCE of IGNOU in the Indian Sub-Continent only. This paper discusses how the MScDFSM Programme of IGNOU is contributing to the staff development of in-service Nutritionists and Dietitians through the distance education/learning mode in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, North India Regional Centre. This paper also highlights the Institutions, which served as the Learner Support Centres from the year 2005 (when the programme was launched till 2011

  17. Teale Board of Equalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  18. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  19. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  20. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  1. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  2. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SURAKARTA REGIONAL REGULATION NUMBER 2 YEAR 2008 ABOUT DISABILITY EQULITY OF TRANSPORTATION FACILITY ACCESSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuni Nasihatun Arifah

    2017-06-01

    The result of the research shows that the implementation of the rights of  Perda No.2 of 2008 on disability equality in Surakarta through three processes namely socialization, coordination and implementation and supervision and assessment, all of which have been running well but still require a lot of improvement especially in terms of coordination of implementation.

  4. The effect of centralization of health care services on travel time and its equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the regional variations in travel time between patient residences and medical facilities for the treatment of ischemic heart disease and breast cancer, and to simulate the effects of health care services centralization on travel time and equality of access. We used medical insurance claims data for inpatients and outpatients for the two target diseases that had been filed between September 2008 and May 2009 in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Using a geographical information system, patient travel times were calculated based on the driving distance between patient residences and hospitals via highways and toll roads. Locations of residences and hospital locations were identified using postal codes. We then conducted a simulation analysis of centralization of health care services to designated regional core hospitals. The simulated changes in potential spatial access to care were examined. Inequalities in access to care were examined using Gini coefficients, which ranged from 0.4109 to 0.4574. Simulations of health care services centralization showed reduced travel time for most patients and overall improvements in equality of access, except in breast cancer outpatients. Our findings may contribute to the decision-making process in policies aimed at improving the potential spatial access to health care services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  6. Equality and Excellence in Higher Education--Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Sarah

    1986-01-01

    The underlying philosophy of Everyman's University, Israel's open university, is to maintain educational excellence while providing equal educational opportunity to large segments of the population through free access and a flexible program of distance education. (MSE)

  7. Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health ... yet limited access to sexual and reproductive health services is preventing women and girls ... forms of sexual violence, trafficking, and abuse and gender discrimination.

  8. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  9. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  10. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  11. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  12. 'Better justice?' or 'shambolic justice?': Governments' use of information technology for access to law and justice, and the impact on regional and rural legal practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hart

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study on whether government use of information technology potentially compromises access to law and justice by Queensland regional and rural (RR legal practitioners. The paper describes current approaches to the use of information technology by state and federal governments, and provides an insight into the challenges and opportunities identified by individual RR legal practitioners, policy-makers and the judiciary on the use of such technology. The paper makes recommendations to promote increased access to law and justice for RR legal practitioners when using government information technology.

  13. Pay More Attention: a national mixed methods study to identify the barriers and facilitators to ensuring equal access to high-quality hospital care and services for children and young people with and without learning disabilities and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulton, Kate; Wray, Jo; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kerry, Sam; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Gibson, Faith

    2016-12-09

    Despite evidence of health inequalities for adults with intellectual disability (ID) there has yet to be a comprehensive review of how well hospital services are meeting the needs of children and young people (CYP) with ID and their families. We do not know how relevant existing recommendations and guidelines are to CYP, whether these are being applied in the paediatric setting or what difference they are making. Evidence of parental dissatisfaction with the quality, safety and accessibility of hospital care for CYP with ID exists. However, the extent to which their experience differs from parents of CYP without ID is not known and the views and experiences of CYP with ID have not been investigated. We will compare how services are delivered to, and experienced by CYP aged 5-15 years with and without ID and their families to see what inequalities exist, for whom, why and under what circumstances. We will use a transformative, mixed methods case study design to collect data over four consecutive phases. We will involve CYP, parents and hospital staff using a range of methods; interviews, parental electronic diary, hospital and community staff questionnaire, patient and parent satisfaction questionnaire, content analysis of hospital documents and a retrospective mapping of patient hospital activity. Qualitative data will be managed and analysed using NVivo and quantitative data will be analysed using parametric and non-parametric descriptive statistics. The study will run from December 2015 to November 2018. We have Health Authority Approval (IRAS project ID: 193932) for phase 1 involving staff only and ethical and Health Authority Approval for phases 2-4 (IRAS project ID: 178525). We will disseminate widely to relevant stakeholders, using a range of accessible formats, including social media. We will publish in international peer-reviewed journals and present to professional, academic and lay audiences through national and international conferences. Published by

  14. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  15. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  16. NODC Standard Product: C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Project - St. Croix estuary region (1985 - 1992) (NODC Accession 0090142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Project St. Croix Estuary Region CD-ROM data set uses Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1985 to 1992 to provide a regional change...

  17. Measuring Physical Accessibility with Space-Time Prisms in a GIS: A Case Study of Access to Health-Care Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ming S.; McNally, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    Physical accessibility is a measurement of opportunities available to people in a geographical region. The purpose of such a measurement is for the redirection of regional and transportation policies toward the provision of quality of life. Public policies should provide individuals with more options to choose from, and these options should be more equally distributed among the population. A physical accessibility measure can reflect the efficiency of policies in addressing these issues. This...

  18. Gender aspects of the access to economic resources within teritorialization processes: Research in the region of Zlatibor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender aspects of the access to economic resources within the processes of terrritorialization are important at macro-level for the designing processes of sustainable rural development, as well as at the micro-level, for shaping livelihoods of men and women in rural areas. The research is based on the assumption that access to economic resources is gendered. Starting from the findings of previous researches (Blagojević, 2010, Babović and Vuković, 2008, Trajković, 2002, Korać, 1991 on gender relations in rural areas, the research presented in this paper is motivated by intention to get deeper knowledge about gender aspects of access to economic resources throughout the processes of territorialization (Battaglini, 2014. The process of territorialization is the process of 'embedding' actors in the place of living, which unfolds through their interactions with nature and other resources available for production and securing livelihoods. Territorialization patterns, the access to endogenous and egzogenous resources available in the given territory (Stimson, Stough and Njikamp, 2011 are important elements of positioning of men and women in the processes of rural development. Qualitative research findings indicate that gender and generation differences in the territorialization patterns are present in the key phases of symbolization, reification and organization, and they are influenced by specific norms and values as well as power relations.

  19. Mental health of South Asian youth in Peel Region, Toronto, Canada: a qualitative study of determinants, coping strategies and service access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148

  20. Fiscal Decentralization and Disparity of Access to Primary Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Doriza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In education, one crusial issue of development is the disparity of primary education access. Using 440 regions database from 2005-2009, this study is aim to analize the impact of fiscal decentralization in reducing the enrolement of primary education in Indonesia. Three factors were included, i.e fiscal decentralization, socioeconomic factors and regional characteristics. The result of panel data estimation using fixed-effect approach on this study is that DAK for Education, DAK Non Education, and PAD have significant impact in reducing education acess disparity along with poverty and regional characteristic such as Java-non Java regions. For education level, another variable was also found significant including education of the society and regional characteristic such as proliferated-non proliferated regions. In general there is a facts and proves that fiscal decentralization improve education access equality, but several effort need to done to optimalize the equalization of primary education access in Indonesia.

  1. Accessibility of Local Food Production to Regional Markets – Case of Berry Production in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhonen Kirsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers and institutional kitchens, as well as traders, have shown increasing interest towards local food. This is particularly due to the transparency and traceability characteristic of a short supply chain and social aspects related to food origins. The trend has been increasingly common during the past decade in Europe and North America, and it is strongly evident in the case area of this study in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. In general, ease of access to food is highly important for consumers and crucial for institutional kitchens, in addition to quality aspects and price. However, regardless of proximity, poor accessibility is one of the key issues preventing the further growth of local food markets. Due to scale economics in food value chain, food transport is presently organised mainly by centralised, large-scale logistics companies directed via hubs serving millions of consumers. Accordingly, production volumes required to enter large-scale markets are often unattainable for disjointed small-scale local food producers. In this study, geographic information system (GIS-based accessibility analyses are applied for analysing potential for integral networking of local food production and transport companies. Berry production was selected as a case study because it has a relatively strong role in Northern Ostrobothnia, while its logistics are notably underdeveloped. Spatial data of primary production volumes consists of register records of farm-specific cultivation areas and average yields in Northern Ostrobothnia and Finland. Accessibility computations are based on the digital model of the Finnish road network, Digiroad. Two surveys were also implemented to farmers and food processing companies to seek views on food processing, sales, logistics and procurements regarding local food. Data from the surveys was used in accessibility analysis, which enables exploration of opportunities for establishing ‘local food’ clusters integrating

  2. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  3. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  4. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  5. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A new entrance for sustainable gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Lundkvist, Hans; Westberg, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable regional and business development depends on the access to people motivated to invest their lives in the region and the enterprises. But in a time of demographical changes, urbanization and new values regarding life and work among the next generation the issue of being attractive is crucial for both a region and enterprises. This paper describes the interactive collaboration between a research project and an enterprise in a semirural area in Sweden. A collaboration aiming for a mo...

  7. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and Integration into the world economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  8. Radial measures of public services deficit for regional allocation of public funds

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Jaume

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an optimal resource allocation model for the regional allocation of public service inputs. The proposed solution leads to maximise the relative public service availability in regions located below the best availability frontier, subject to exogenous budget restrictions and equality of access for equal need criteria (equity-based notion of regional needs). The construction of non-parametric deficit indicators is proposed for public service availability by a...

  9. Equal accessequal egress: Accounting for people with disabilities in emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    (Papaioannou, 2006). It is essential to use models, enabling the prediction of the egress of a total population in a building. In the current quantitative and qualitative study evacuation times and -characteristics from a train in a tunnel are measured for a full-scale evacuation exercise. The results...

  10. Equality in Sport for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadelmann, Patricia L.; And Others

    The subject of equal rights and opportunities for women in the field of physical education is discussed in nine articles. The major emphasis is on the legal aspects of sex discrimination. Defining equality, knowing the laws regarding enforcement, understanding the court procedures, and realizing the avenues for change are the essential tools…

  11. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  12. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  13. Ensuring Equal Access to High-Quality Education. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education (Department) is a law enforcement agency charged with enforcing federal civil rights laws to ensure that educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance do not engage in discriminatory conduct. OCR enforces the federal civil rights laws that prohibit…

  14. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... the Director of FHFA until such regulations are modified, terminated, set aside, or superseded by.... Director means the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Fees and other expenses includes... for remuneration for the party, under the party's direction and control. Part-time employees must be...

  15. 75 FR 17622 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... the Federal Government.\\1\\ FHFA was established to oversee the prudential operations of the Federal... activities and operations of the regulated entities are consistent with the public interest. \\1\\ See Division... (FHFB) were abolished on July 30, 2009, one year after the enactment of HERA. However, the regulated...

  16. Equal Access to Justice in a Rural Western State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Miller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three inmates from a rural state penitentiary with mental retardation participated in a study on the differential treatment of persons with mental retardation by the criminal justice system. After obtaining informed consent, the inmates were screened for appropriateness for the study using the PPVT-R, a proxy test for IQ. The inmates were interviewed to obtain a social history and given the CAST-MR, an instrument that measures the competency of a person with mental retardation to stand trial. Results suggest participants may not have been competent to stand trial, learned most of what they knew about the criminal justice system while incarcerated, and had difficulty with interpersonal conflict and conflict with authority. The combination of these factors suggests that clients in the study may have been vulnerable to being coerced into confessing to crimes they did not commit. The presence of an advocate during criminal justice system encounters may benefit persons with mental retardation.

  17. Equal Opportunity and Accessibility | Oregon State University Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    discrimination based on age, color, disability, familial or parental status, gender identity or expression inclusion for people with a wide range of needs. People who benefit include those with: Vision, hearing, or

  18. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental

  19. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  20. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote gender equality, strengthen social and

  1. Investigating the normality of data set collected to resolve the accessibility issues of badin sub-region, sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpur, M.A.H.; Meon, F.A.; Khahro, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the accessibility issues of rural households, the data were collected from the rural subregion of Badin, Sindh, Pakistan. The purpose of the data-collection was to offer policy proposal inputs, as concerned planning agencies could be able to know the ground realities and implement their planned decisions accordingly. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate about the normality of the data, collected through the questionnaire survey from the sampled population of the study area. Total hundred questionnaires were completed from sampled rural households. Mostly, the household's demographic and socioeconomic aspects were targeted in this regard, including travel- time and distance characteristics. The data were successfully analyzed in SPSS-17.0 and results were generated accordingly. The results exhibited the symmetry in household-size aspect due to clustering; whereas, household income, travel distance and time depicted enormous variations. (author)

  2. Home-end and activity-end preferences for access to and egress from train stations in the Copenhagen region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    . Moreover, model results emphasize the role of bicycle parking in terms of the sheer number of spaces to be increased as well as covered places to be offered at the activity end, de facto giving the possibility to leave a bicycle at that end during the night. Lastly, model results show that it is a matter......Increasing public transport use with the aim of improving the sustainability of cities should focus not only on enhancing level and quality of the service offered, but also on understanding determinants of the choice of access and egress modes to and from the railway network. This study analyzes...... the difference in preferences at the home-end and activity-end for travelers who have chosen train as their main travel mode while investigating the effect of policy variables such as car parking availability, bicycle parking availability and type, and bicycle on train possibility. Specifically, this study...

  3. Foreign Models of Financial Equalization, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Piontko Nataliia B.

    2015-01-01

    The article is aimed to identify the models of financial equalization applied in foreign countries, and to substantiate the possibilities for use of foreign experience in terms of financial equalization or individual elements of such models on the territory of Ukraine, for taking into consideration the foreign tools of financial equalization in the context of the State regional policy reforms is a priority and urgent task of the present day. During the generalization and sys...

  4. Improving access to health care in a rural regional hospital in South Africa: Why do patients miss their appointments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Lucy; Jenkins, Louis S; Emmink, Benjamin

    2017-03-30

    Access to health services is one of the Batho Pele ('people first') values and principles of the South African government since 1997. This necessitated some changes around public service systems, procedures, attitudes and behaviour. The challenges of providing health care to rural geographically spread populations include variations in socio-economic status, transport opportunities, access to appointment information and patient perceptions of costs and benefits of seeking health care. George hospital, situated in a rural area, serves 5000 outpatient visits monthly, with non-attendance rates of up to 40%. The aim of this research was to gain a greater understanding of the reasons behind non-attendance of outpatient department clinics to allow locally driven, targeted interventions. This was a descriptive study. We attempted to phone all patients who missed appointments over a 1-month period (n = 574). Only 20% were contactable with one person declining consent. Twenty-nine percent had no telephone number on hospital systems, 7% had incorrect numbers, 2% had died and 42% did not respond to three attempts. The main reasons for non-attendance included unaware of appointment date (16%), out of area (11%), confusion over date (11%), sick or admitted to hospital (10%), family member sick or died (7%), appointment should have been cancelled by clerical staff (6%) and transport (6%). Only 9% chose to miss their appointment. The other 24% had various reasons. Improved patient awareness of appointments, adjustments in referral systems and enabling appointment cancellation if indicated would directly improve over two-thirds of reasons for non-attendance. Understanding the underlying causes will help appointment planning, reduce wasted costs and have a significant impact on patient care.

  5. Equal opportunities group. His mission : accelerating equal opportunities at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    L. to r.: Michel Mayoud, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz, the Equal Opportunities Officer Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill, Elena Wildner, Anne-Sylvie Cerne, Karl-Heinz Kissler, the Chairman John Ellis and Eva-Maria Groniger-Voss

  6. Foreign Models of Financial Equalization, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontko Nataliia B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to identify the models of financial equalization applied in foreign countries, and to substantiate the possibilities for use of foreign experience in terms of financial equalization or individual elements of such models on the territory of Ukraine, for taking into consideration the foreign tools of financial equalization in the context of the State regional policy reforms is a priority and urgent task of the present day. During the generalization and systematization of scientific works by numerous domestic and foreign scientists, models of financial equalization, depending on the form of state structure in the country, have been identified. Determinants of the necessity of financial equalization were analyzed, such as: the imbalance between the own financial security and the level of assigned tasks; the level of fiscal decentralization. Methods of income and expenditures equalization, applied in vertical or horizontal levels for balancing regional development, have been substantiated. Features of expansion of financial security of budgets by using innovative tools for equalization have been determined. A comparison of the models of financial equalization in foreign countries was made and the major tasks for improving the mechanism and organization of financial equalization of budgets in Ukraine were defined. Prospects for further research in this area are diversification of tools for financial equalization, defining the investment component in the structure of budgets' incomes and studying the activities of sub-central authorities in the financial market

  7. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  8. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  9. Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronagh Byrne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The (inequality issues facing disabled people are extensive and long-enduring. The way(s in which equality is conceptualised has important consequences for understandings of disability. The ambiguity of what I call dis-equality theory is two-fold; the apparent failure of mainstream equality theorising in, firstly, embracing disability concepts at all, and secondly, in fully incorporating the logistics of disability, particularly in relation to the social construction of such. Practices of institutional and more complex forms of discrimination are part of those deeper structures of domination and oppression which maintain disabled people in positions of disadvantage. Everyday practices, in the ‘ordinary order of things’ (Bourdieu, 2000, continue to be misrecognised as natural and taken for granted. This article critically explores the complexity of dis-equality theorising utilising a Bourdieusian lens which explicitly incorporates complex and subtle forms of discrimination, and by examining the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’ approach to equality. I argue that the way forward for dis-equality theorising in today’s rights based era must be one that considers the nuances of the ‘rules of the game’ (Young, 1990 if it is to be effective in challenging the inequalities to which disabled people have long been subject.

  10. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  11. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  12. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  13. Relations between nature-based solutions of green-blue area accessibility and socio-economic-ethnic patterns in the urban Stockholm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Destouni, Georgia

    2017-04-01

    More than half of the world's population lives in cities, a proportion expected to increase to two thirds by 2050 (United Nations (UN), 2015). In this study, we investigate the spatial relationships that may exist between income and/or nationality homogeneity/heterogeneity levels of urban populations and their accessibility to local green-blue areas as possible nature-based solutions for sustainable urban design. For this investigation, we consider as a concrete case study the urban region of Stockholm, Sweden, for which we compile and use available land-cover and vegetation density data (the latter in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) in order to identify and assess the spatial distributions of various green-blue area types and aspects. We further combine this data with spatial distribution data for population density, income and nationality, as well as with road-network data for assessing population travel times to nearby green-blue areas within the region. The present study results converge with those of other recent studies in showing large socio-economic-ethnic segregation in the Stockholm region. Moreover, the present data combination and analysis also show large spatial differences in and important socio-economic-ethnic correlations with accessibility to local green areas and nearby water bodies. Specifically, population income and share of Swedish nationals are well correlated in this region, with increases in both of these variables implying greater possibility to choose where to live within the region. The living choices of richer and more homogeneous (primarily Swedish) population parts are then found to be areas with greater local vegetation density (local green areas as identified by high-resolution NDVI data) and greater area extent of nearby water bodies (blue areas). For comparison, no such correlation is found between increased income or Swedish nationality homogeneity and accessibility to nearby forest areas (overall green

  14. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  15. The Impact of China’s WTO Accession on China-Japan-Korea Trade Relation, and its Policy Implications for Regional Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyo Cheong

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increased possibility of China's accession to the WTO due to the settlement of negotiations with the U.S. and EU, the world is interested in opening China’s domestic market and taking advantage of the opportunities. Existing papers about China’s entry into the WTO generally analyze the impact on China and the world economy based on his/her assumption of a hypothetical tariff reduction scenario. However, this paper systematically analyzes by sector and region the tariff reduction structures of 5,685 tariff lines that China will actually reduce up until 2005. Based on this, the author employs a computational general equilibrium model in order to estimate the impact of China's trade liberalization on the economies of Northeast Asia and the world economy. According to the results, China's trade liberalization will bring the greatest benefit to China itself and substantial export expansion for Korea and Japan. This paper also states that if these three countries promote economic cooperation using China's accession to the WTO as momentum, it will be necessary to think economic cooperation in the fiber and clothing industries, which are quite effectively promoting intra-regional trade and absorbing workers left unemployed by structural adjustments in China.

  16. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  17. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  18. Delivering market-based access to clean cooking fuel for displaced populations the Kigoma region, Tanzania: a business plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivoal, Morgane; Haselip, James Arthur

    the relatively high financial and non-financial costs of woodfuel and charcoal use in the camp, which in turn is a function of the size and profile of the camp. Where there is a willingness to pay (WTP) for any given good or service, but where the market is constrained in meeting this demand (such...... as in a refugee camp), there is a need for an intervention to create a market. This market creation plan is the outcome of various discussions with key stakeholders which took place between November 2017 and January 2018, the full list is presented in section 7. It intends to give a clear picture...... of the opportunities and challenges, along with the different options available to developing a market for LPG in the Kigoma region. The aims and intended outcomes of the LPG market creation programme support the Tanzanian government's ambition to scale up the use of LPG across the nation. In the context...

  19. Equality of Opportunity in American and Canadian Graduate Education: A Comparison of Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Gladys L.

    1980-01-01

    Women in Canada and the U.S. enjoy neither equality of access to higher education nor equality of treatment within graduate level institutions. While women in the U.S. have somewhat greater access to graduate study, they are excluded from the sponsorship system in which Canadian women participate. (SB)

  20. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  1. Eleventh Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research A Long Shadow: The American Pursuit of Political Justice and Education Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical relationship between political power and the pursuit of education and social equality from the Reconstruction era to the present. The chief argument is that education equality is historically linked to and even predicated on equal political power, specifically, equal access to the franchise and instruments of…

  2. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  3. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  4. Gender Equality in Educational Achievement An East-West Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, Sylke Viola

    2004-01-01

    Data on educational access show gender parity of pupils attending primary and secondary schools in transition countries. The first aim of this analysis is to examine whether the gender balance in educational access translates also into gender equality in educational achievement. There are several and very recent international surveys available measuring pupils learning achievement and functional literacy in schools. These surveys are typically analysed in isolation from each other even though...

  5. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  6. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In many countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), cancer is an increasing problem due to ageing and a transition to Western lifestyles. Governments have been slow to react to the health consequences of these socioeconomic changes, leading to the risk of a cancer epidemic overwhelming the region. A major limitation to motivating change is the paucity of high-quality data on cancer, and its socioeconomic repercussions, in ASEAN. Two initiatives have been launched to address these issues. First, a study of over 9000 new cancer patients in ASEAN - the ACTION study - which records information on financial difficulties, as well as clinical outcomes, subsequent to the diagnosis. Second, a series of roundtable meetings of key stakeholders and experts, with the broad aim of producing advice for governments in ASEAN to take appropriate account of issues relating to cancer, as well as to generate knowledge and interest through engagement with the media. An important product of these roundtables has been the Jakarta Call to Action on Cancer Control. The growth and ageing of populations is a global challenge for cancer services. In the less developed parts of Asia, and elsewhere, these problems are compounded by the epidemiological transition to Western lifestyles and lack of awareness of cancer at the government level. For many years, health services in less developed countries have concentrated on infectious diseases and mother-and-child health; despite a recent wake-up call (United Nations, 2010), these health services have so far failed to allow for the huge increase in cancer cases to come. It has been estimated that, in Asia, the number of new cancer cases per year will grow from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030 (Sankaranarayanan et al., 2014). In the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), corresponding figures are 770 thousand in 2012 (Figure 1), rising to 1.3 million in 2030 (Ferlay et al., 2012). ASEAN

  7. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components, and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  8. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  9. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  10. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…

  11. Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimere, Raphael Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the struggle for teacher salary equalization in Louisiana ended in success, but it was one chapter in a long struggle to gain the full citizenship that black teachers and their pupils dreamed would one day be theirs. (Author/AM)

  12. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  13. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases and access to health care and medications among Yazidis and other minority groups displaced by ISIS into the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetorelli, Valeria; Burnham, Gilbert; Shabila, Nazar

    2017-01-01

    The increasing caseload of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in displaced populations poses new challenges for humanitarian agencies and host country governments in the provision of health care, diagnostics and medications. This study aimed to characterise the prevalence of NCDs and better understand issues related to accessing care among Yazidis and other minority groups displaced by ISIS and currently residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The study covered 13 camps managed by the Kurdish Board of Relief and Humanitarian Affairs. A systematic random sample of 1300 households with a total of 8360 members were interviewed between November and December 2015. Respondents were asked whether any household members had been previously diagnosed by a health provider with one or more of four common NCDs: hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal conditions. For each household member with an NCD diagnosis, access to health care and medications were queried. Nearly one-third of households had at least one member who had been previously diagnosed with one or more of the four NCDs included in this study. Hypertension had the highest prevalence (19.4%; CI: 17.0-22.0), followed by musculoskeletal conditions (13.5%; CI: 11.4-15.8), diabetes (9.7%; CI: 8.0-11.7) and cardiovascular disease (6.3%; CI: 4.8-8.1). Individual NCD prevalence and multimorbidity increased significantly with age. Of those with an NCD diagnosis, 92.9% (CI: 88.9-95.5) had seen a health provider for this condition in the 3 months preceding the survey. In the majority of cases, care was sought from private clinics or hospitals rather than from the camp primary health care clinics. Despite the frequent access to health providers, 40.0% (CI: 34.4-46.0) were not taking prescribed medications, costs being the primary reason cited. New strategies are needed to strengthen health care provision for displaced persons with NCDs and ensure access to affordable medications.

  14. Health system barriers and enablers to early access to breast cancer screening, detection, and diagnosis: a global analysis applied to the MENA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, D; Marqusee, H; El Koussa, M; Atun, R

    2017-11-01

    To identify barriers and enablers that impact access to early screening, detection, and diagnosis of breast cancer both globally and more specifically in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region (with a specific focus on Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates [UAE], and Kuwait) with a specific focus on the health system. A systematic review of literature. We conducted a systematic reviewing using the PRISMA methodology. We searched PubMed, Global Index Medicus, and EMBASE for studies on 'breast cancer', 'breast neoplasm,' or 'screening, early detection, and early diagnosis' as well as key words related to the following barriers: religion, culture, health literacy, lack of knowledge/awareness/understanding, attitudes, fatalism/fear, shame/embarrassment, and physician gender from January 1, 2000 until September 1, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened both titles and abstracts. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded a final list of articles. A conceptual framework was used to guide the thematic analysis and examine health system barriers and enablers to breast cancer screening at the broader macro health system level, at the health provider level, and the individual level. The analysis was conducted globally and in the MENA region. A total of 11,936 references were identified through the initial search strategy, of which 55 were included in the final thematic analysis. The results found the following barriers and enablers to access to breast cancer screening at the health system level, the health provider level, and the individual level: health system structures such as health insurance and care coordination systems, costs, time concerns, provider characteristics including gender of the provider, quality of care issues, medical concerns, and fear. In addition, the following seven barriers and enablers were identified at the health system or provider level as significantly impacting screening for breast cancer: (1) access

  15. Chip-Level Channel Equalization in WCDMA Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hooli

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important third generation (3G cellular communications standard is based on wideband CDMA (WCDMA. Receivers based on TDMA style channel equalization at the chip level have been proposed for a WCDMA downlink employing long spreading sequences to ensure adequate performance even with a high number of active users. These receivers equalize the channel prior to despreading, thus restoring the orthogonality of users and resulting in multiple-access interference (MAI suppression. In this paper, an overview of chip-level channel equalizers is delivered with special attention to adaptation methods suitable for the WCDMA downlink. Numerical examples on the equalizers′ performance are given in Rayleigh fading frequency-selective channels.

  16. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  17. Nearly equal β* at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.; Billing, M.; Krishnagopal, S.; Rubin, D.; Siemann, R.; Welch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β * ) can produce tune shifts of 0.1 and very large luminosities. Further simulations show the same large vertical tune shifts even with very different horizontal and vertical emittances. Using a special CESR lattice with β h * = 32 cm, β v * = 20 cm, and zero horizontal and vertical dispersion at the interaction point, the author authors collided beams with horizontal emittance of 136 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad. There were experimental complications involving the damping partition numbers, a near miss at a parasitic crossing point, and small orbit offsets at the main collision point. They have done a detailed analysis of these complications and discuss their effects on the observed saturated tune shift of 0.045 ± 0.010

  18. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  19. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  20. Importance of age in outcome of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in open access endoscopy: a profile of patients in Sub-Himalayan region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sharma

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD is done in patients received by either open access system or the conventional system. The presenting complaints and OGD findings may differ among patients with age < 45 yrs and those who are more than 45 yrs old. The referral diagnosis, age, sex, and environmental factors have important implications on the chances of finding and objective abnormality on endoscopy in a patient. This study was aimed to evaluate to evaluate the profile of 1186 patients divided into younger (<45 yrs and older age (45 or > 45 yrs groups presenting for oesophago gastroduodenoscopy through open access referral system in sub-Himalayan region of North India. This is a retrospective study carried out on patients who underwent the OGD from Jan, 2004-Dec, 2004. The study was conducted in Indira Gandhi Medical College situated at a moderate altitude in North India. All patients presenting in Medical College during the study period for OGD were taken into study. The patients were divided into two groups based on age; less than 45 yrs and 45 yrs or more than 45 yrs. Their presenting complaint, age, sex, and OGD findings were recorded. The profile was compared between the two groups. A total of 1186 patients underwent OGD; the females were 451(38% and males were 735(62%; 616(52% were < 45 yrs old and 570(48% of the patients were 45 yrs or older. In the group I 431(70% had a normal endoscopy and 185(30% showed abnormal endoscopic findings. In group II 302(53% had a normal endoscopy, and 268(47% had abnormal findings on endoscopy. Gastric ulcers, mass lesion/new growth were more common in elderly group, Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD was more common in younger group. The presenting complaints were similar in both groups. It is concluded that for the same presenting diagnosis the yield of OGD was more in patients > 45 yrs old. The positivity rate increased from 30% in < 45 yrs to 47% in the elderly cohort. So, all people >45 yrs

  1. Imbalance in Spatial Accessibility to Primary and Secondary Schools in China: Guidance for Education Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory education is an important aspect of the societal development. Meanwhile, education equality safeguards the effectiveness of education systems and is an important part of social equality. This study analyzes the inequality of compulsory education from the perspective of imbalanced spatial distribution. Unlike previous studies that have measured the spatial distribution of education simply based on the spatial position of primary and secondary schools, we explore spatial accessibility based on the shortest travel distance from residents to schools, and then analyze the inequality of compulsory education through the distribution of spatial accessibility. We use 2873 Chinese counties as statistical units, and perform a statistical and graphical analysis of their spatial accessibility using the Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analyses. To analyze the differences in the spatial accessibility distribution on the national and regional levels, we use three partitioned modes: the terrain partitioned mode, the economic development partitioned mode, and the province-level partitioned mode. We then analyze the spatial agglomeration characteristics and distribution patterns of compulsory education accessibility through global autocorrelation, local autocorrelation, and hot-spot and cold-spot analysis. The results demonstrate an obvious imbalance in the distribution of spatial accessibility to compulsory education at the national level. Accessibility and equality in eastern and central regions are significantly better than those in the western region; both are significantly better in coastal regions than in inland regions; and equality alone is better in the municipalities, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing, than in other provinces and autonomous regions. The spatial pattern analysis shows significant global autocorrelation and obvious clusters. Counties in cold-spot areas (clusters of good spatial accessibility are large in number

  2. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  3. Access to diagnostic tests and essential medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes care: cost, availability and affordability in the West Region of Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadou M Jingi

    Full Text Available To assess the availability and affordability of medicines and routine tests for cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes in the West region of Cameroon, a low-income setting.A survey was conducted on the availability and cost of twelve routine tests and twenty medicines for CVD and diabetes in eight health districts (four urban and four rural covering over 60% of the population of the region (1.8 million. We analyzed the percentage of tests and medicines available, the median price against the international reference price (median price ratio for the medicines, and affordability in terms of the number of days' wages it would cost the lowest-paid unskilled government worker for initial investigation tests and procurement for one month of treatment.The availability of tests varied between 10% for the ECG to 100% for the fasting blood sugar. The average cost for the initial investigation using the minimum tests cost 29.76 days' wages. The availability of medicines varied from 36.4% to 59.1% in urban and from 9.1% to 50% in rural settings. Only metformin and benzathine-benzylpenicilline had a median price ratio of ≤ 1.5, with statins being largely unaffordable (at least 30.51 days' wages. One month of combination treatment for coronary heart disease costs at least 40.87 days' wages.The investigation and management of patients with medium-to-high cardiovascular risk remains largely unavailable and unaffordable in this setting. An effective non-communicable disease program should lay emphasis on primary prevention, and improve affordable access to essential medicines in public outlets.

  4. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  5. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  6. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  7. An equal opportunity power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the House and Senate head to conference on the energy bill, the outlook for PUHCA reform and mandatory wholesale transmission access is excellent. During the opening months of 1991, the US Senate was debating the administration's proposal for a comprehensive national energy strategy. Reform of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) was a controversial issue in that debate. Independent energy producers and others strongly supported reform but investor-owned utilities were sharply split on the issue. The Senate refused to consider transmission access, and it was the one issue which had the potential to unite the investor-owned utility community in opposition to PUHCA reform. Now, as we approach the mid-point of 1992, the Senate and the House have passed energy bills and are headed to conference to work out their differences. There is no longer effective opposition to PUHCA reform, and although the Senate would still prefer to avoid the issue, transmission access appears likely to be included in the final energy package. Energy legislation will almost certainly be enacted before the November elections and was expected possibly as early as June. This article addresses transmission access, transmission policies, voluntary transmission, independent power producers influence, the retail wheeling juggernaut, and Public Utilities Holding Company Act reform

  8. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  9. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  10. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  11. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  12. Gender equality and childbirth in a health facility: Nigeria and MDG5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort; Brodish, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This paper examined how addressing gender equality can lead to reductions in maternal mortality in Nigeria through an increased use of facility delivery. Because the majority of maternal complications cannot be predicted and often arise suddenly during labor, delivery and the immediate postpartum period, childbirth in a health facility is key to reducing maternal mortality. This paper used data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to examine associations of gender measures on the utilization of facility delivery after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Four gender equality measures were studied: household decision-making, financial decision-making, attitudes towards wife beating, and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. Results found older, more educated, wealthier, urban, and working women were more likely to have a facility delivery than their counterparts. In addition ethnicity was a significant variable indicating the importance of cultural and regional diversity. Notably, after controlling for the socioeconomic variables, two of the gender equality variables were significant: household decision-making and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. In resource-poor settings such as Nigeria, women with more decision-making autonomy are likely better able to advocate for and access a health facility for childbirth. Thus programs and policies that focus on gender in addition to focusing on education and poverty have the potential to reduce maternal mortality even further.

  13. We Do Not Enjoy Equal Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Antoinette Sossou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores Ghanaian women’s perception and voices about issues of gender equality in terms of exercising their political and decision-making rights in connection with political participation and governance in Ghana. The study uses demographic survey and six different focus group discussions to capture the views of a total of 68 women with different educational, socioeconomical, and occupational backgrounds, in two regions of the Ghana. The findings indicate that even though theoretically the constitution of Ghana gives women equal rights as their male counterparts to actively participate in the governance of their country, in practice, women face issues of gender-based power imbalance and discrimination in addition to other structural, institutional, cultural, and traditional barriers and roadblocks. These barriers expose women as being inferior and second-class citizens compared with their male counterparts in term of participation and inclusion in the governance of their country. The study discusses the social and policy implications of the issues of gender inequality and social exclusion of women in politics and calls for empowerment and organization of women and structural change in the system.

  14. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  15. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  16. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  17. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  18. High mobility, low access thwarts interventions among seasonal workers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: lessons from the malaria containment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Lawford, Harriet L S; Yok, Sovann; Lek, Dysoley; Richards, Jack S; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2016-08-26

    During the process of malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) have been identified as the most at-risk demographic. An important sub-group of MMPs are seasonal workers, and this paper presents an evaluation of the reach and effectiveness of interventions tailored towards this group and was carried out as part of the Containment Project from 2009-11. A mixed-methods study was conducted in Pailin Province in Western Cambodia. Three-hundred-and-four seasonal workers were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered through a total of eight focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews. Data triangulation of the qualitative and quantitative data was used during analysis. High mobility and low access of the target population to the interventions, as well as lack of social and anthropological research that led to implementation oversights, resulted in under-exposure of seasonal workers to interventions. Consequently, their reach and impact were severely limited. Some services, particularly Mobile Malaria Workers, had the ability to significantly impact key factors, such as risky behaviours among those they did reach. Others, like Listening and Viewing Clubs and mass media campaigns, showed little impact. There is potential in two of the interventions assessed, but high mobility and inadequate exposure of seasonal workers to these interventions must be considered in the development and planning of future interventions to avoid investing in low-impact activities and ensure that all interventions perform according to their maximum potential. This will be critical in order for Cambodia to achieve its aim of malaria elimination. The lessons learned from this study can be extrapolated to other areas of health care in Cambodia and other countries in order to reduce the gap between healthcare provided to MMPs, especially seasonal workers, and to the general population.

  19. Strategic Accessibility Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchiega, Emanuele; Randon, Emanuela; Zirulia, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effect of competition in market-accessibility enhancement among quality-differentiated firms. Firms are located in regions with different ex-ante transport costs to reach the final market. We characterize the equilibrium of the two-stage game in which firms first invest to improve market accessibility and then compete in prices. Efforts in accessibility improvement crucially depend on the interplay between the willingness to pay for the quality premium of the median consumer an...

  20. Gender and occupational wage gaps in Romania: from planned equality to market inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Andrén, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Romania, the communist regime promoted an official policy of gender equality for more than 40 years, providing equal access to education and employment, and restricting pay differentiation based on gender. After its fall in December 1989, the promotion of equal opportunities and treatment for women and men did not constitute a priority for any of the governments of the 1990s. This paper analyzes both gender and occupational wage gaps before and during the first years of transition to a mar...

  1. [Equality between men and women is a right].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Equality between men and women is one of the basic human rights. Investments in health, education, and family planning are the fundamental measures for promoting sexual equality. Promoting equality in turn is an investment in improving the health of women and children and the quality of human resources. By reducing pressure for large families, sexual equality creates conditions for faster economic growth. Women control most of the nonmonetary economy including subsistence agriculture, care of children, and domestic work, and they also play an important role in the monetary economy, although much of their work is unrecognized. The unfavorable condition of women limits their access to productive goods and social services. A strong inverse relationship exists between fertility and female education. More educated women have a greater probability of receiving prenatal care and of providing adequate care for their children. In many countries of Latin America, more than 20% of births are to adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies are often problematic, resulting in interrupted education, perpetuation of poverty, health complications, abortion, or even suicide. The problems of adolescent maternity are closely related to the inferior position of women. Education and family planning services are essential in breaking the vicious cycle. Access to employment for women contributes to reducing fertility, improves the position of women in the family, directly aids children, and reduces the woman's need to have many children for old age security. To establish conditions of equality between men and women, political actions must be taken to assure women equal social conditions and economic opportunities. Men must become more involved in family planning and in child care. The society as a whole must understand the social function of maternity.

  2. A Scorecard on Gender Equality and Girls' Education in Asia, 1990-2000. Advocacy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Rajagopalan, Rajee; Challender, Chloe

    2005-01-01

    Background: Existing measures for access to and efficiency in the school system are very limited as measures of gender equality, even though there have been marked improvements in sex-disaggregated data. A methodology for developing a scorecard which measures gender equality in schooling and education partly based on Amartya Sen's capability…

  3. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  4. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  5. Analysis 1: SDG5, gender equal fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meryl J.

    2017-01-01

    What are the challenges in the path of achieving gender equality in fisheries and what should our priorities be? This article tries to identify these in the context of SDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality.

  6. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... States to celebrate the achievements of women and recommit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 167 August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality...

  7. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... celebrate the achievements of women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. [[Page 52586... Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 168...

  8. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  9. Access to and use of health services as factors associated with neonatal mortality in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Batista

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with neonatal mortality related to health services accessibility and use. Methods: Case–control study of live births in 2008 in small- and medium-sized municipalities in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil. A probabilistic sample stratified by region, population size, and information adequacy was generated for the choice of municipalities. Of these, all municipalities with 20,000 inhabitants or less were included in the study (36 municipalities, whereas the remainder were selected according to the probability method proportional to population size, totaling 20 cities with 20,001–50,000 inhabitants and 19 municipalities with 50,001–200,000 inhabitants. All deaths of live births in these cities were included. Controls were randomly sampled, considered as four times the number of cases. The sample size comprised 412 cases and 1772 controls. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: The risk factors for neonatal death were socioeconomic class D and E (OR = 1.28, history of child death (OR = 1.74, high-risk pregnancy (OR = 4.03, peregrination in antepartum (OR = 1.46, lack of prenatal care (OR = 2.81, absence of professional for the monitoring of labor (OR = 3.34, excessive time waiting for delivery (OR = 1.97, borderline preterm birth (OR = 4.09 and malformation (OR = 13.66. Conclusion: These results suggest multiple causes of neonatal mortality, as well as the need to improve access to good quality maternal-child health care services in the assessed places of study. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal referentes ao acesso e à utilização dos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle de nascidos vivos em 2008 nos municípios de pequeno e médio porte nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Vale do Jequitinhonha do Brasil. Uma amostra probabilística e estratificada por regi

  10. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  11. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Wee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  12. Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunity Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Home About ODMEO Leadership Documents News Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Search Search ODMEO: Search Search ODMEO: Search Office of Diversity Management and Equal

  13. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  14. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  15. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  16. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  17. Automated Area Beam Equalization Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molloi, Sabee

    2005-01-01

    ...) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to underpenetrated regions without increasing the exposure to the breast regions...

  18. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  19. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  20. Barriers to Advocacy and Litigation in the Equality Courts for Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willene Holness

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000 (PEPUDA and the fulfilment of the South African state's obligations in terms of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD are dependent on two fundamental tools, advocacy and litigation. This article discusses the outcome of three cases in the Equality Courts and how these cases promote accessibility and access to justice for persons with disabilities. The authors then consider the impact of CREATE, a KwaZulu-Natal NGO's advocacy initiatives to promote the rights of persons with disabilities and the utilisation of the Equality Court to realise those rights. Participants of ten workshops in KwaZulu-Natal identified three barriers to access to justice in accessing the Equality Courts. Firstly, some Equality Courts are geographically (and financially inaccessible. Secondly, the negative and insensitive attitudes of front-line workers impact on the ability of persons with disabilities to bring equality claims to and access the services of the Equality Court. These barriers constitute discrimination and flout articles 9 and 13 of the CRPD, which require the provision of support for persons with disabilities to access the justice system and the promotion of accessibility to the physical environment, and the provision to them of transportation, information and other services. Thirdly, cultural norms and fears impede access to courts and the agency of persons with disabilities to bring these claims, for example the requirement that traditional leaders provide "permission" to persons with disabilities to sue and a similar requirement of permission from the in-laws of women with disabilities. The article analyses the three barriers identified as inhibiting advocacy and litigation, and explains the implication of these barriers for the state's obligations in terms of articles 5, 8, 9, 12 and 13 of the CRPD. Recommendations

  1. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  2. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  3. «Equality! the sacred right of equality». Representation under Constitution of 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez O., Jaime E.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Historians generally argue that Spaniards were not willing to grant Americans equal representation in the Cortes of Cádiz. This article examines the nature of representation in the Antiguo Régimen and the reasons inequality existed in the institutions that emerged after 1808, the Junta Central, the Regency, and the Cortes. Although it is true that the Peninsular majority refused to grant the castas full political rights, they acted to preserve equal representation for themselves in the Cortes. Their actions were predicated on an erroneous belief about the total population of the overseas territories. Opposition to granting the castas full political rights was also shared by some American deputies — those from regions with large African origin population—. Although the Peninsular majority failed to grant Americans the equal representation based on population that they desired, the Spaniards went further than the leaders of any other European nation. England never considered granting the white population of its North American possessions any representation in Parliament, much less equality.

    La historiografía sostiene habitualmente que los españoles peninsulares no deseaban otorgar a los americanos una representación igualitaria en las Cortes de Cádiz. Este artículo estudia la naturaleza de la representación en el Antiguo Régimen y las razones por las que existía la desigualdad en instituciones surgidas después de 1808, como la Junta Central, la Regencia y las Cortes. Es cierto que la mayoría peninsular rechazó otorgar plenos derechos políticos a las castas (personas con ancestros africanos y que se esforzó en conservar la representación igualitaria para ellos mismos en las Cortes. Un comportamiento que se basaba en una idea equivocada sobre la población total de los territorios de ultramar. Sin embargo, en el rechazo a otorgar plenos derechos políticos también participaron algunos diputados

  4. Territorial Dynamics and Gender Equality Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the multilevel governance structure in Spain. Particularly, it explores how the main territorial dynamics underpinning the Spanish decentralization model have shaped gender equality policies, namely the cross-regional competitive bargaining, the existence of multiple arenas, the underdevelopment of intergovernmental mechanisms and a highly salient territorial cleavage. The article looks at three key fields of gender equality public intervention and scholarly research: gender mainstreaming, electoral gender quotas and policies against gender-based violence. Our results align with the conditional approach of the gender and federalism scholarship. While competition has stimulated policy diffusion across regions and feminist agency has frequently benefited from the multilevel opportunity structure, the lack of well-established intergovernmental mechanisms has brought about negative side-effects like ‘patchwork’ policies that fail to guarantee equal rights for all Spanish women. The article also shows that territorial interests have not trumped gender equality since the most advanced policies are found in regions with the highest territorial saliency.

  5. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  6. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  7. E-inclusion: Digital equality - young people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, H; Bolic-Baric, V; Lidström, H

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations' position is that digital access is a matter involving equality between groups of people, the securing of democratic rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens. This study investigates digital equality in school and leisure between young people with and without disabilities. A cross-sectional design with group comparisons was applied. Participants were young people (10-18 years of age) with disabilities (n=389) and a reference group in about the same ages. Data were collected by a survey focusing on access to and engagement in ICT activities in school and during leisure time. The results demonstrated young people with disabilities had restricted participation in computer use in educational activities, in comparison to young people in general. During leisure time young people with disabilities had a leading position compared to the reference group with respect to internet use in a variety of activities. Beneficial environmental conditions at home (and the reverse in schools) are discussed as parts of the explanation for the differing engagement levels at home and in school, and among young people with disabilities and young people in general. Schools need to prioritise use of ICT by young people with disabilities.

  8. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  9. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  10. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  11. Equal rights as the center of democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...

  12. A Rank Test on Equality of Population Medians

    OpenAIRE

    Pooi Ah Hin

    2012-01-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for the equality of K population medians. The test statistic involved is a measure of the overall closeness of the K average ranks in the individual samples to the average rank in the combined sample. The resulting acceptance region of the test however may not be the smallest region with the required acceptance probability under the null hypothesis. Presently an alternative acceptance region is constructed such that it has the smallest size, ap...

  13. A novel parallel architecture for local histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Mesrob I.; Choueiter, Ghinwa F.; Diab, Hassan

    2005-07-01

    Local histogram equalization is an image enhancement algorithm that has found wide application in the pre-processing stage of areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and medical imaging. The computationally intensive nature of the procedure, however, is a main limitation when real time interactive applications are in question. This work explores the possibility of performing parallel local histogram equalization, using an array of special purpose elementary processors, through an HDL implementation that targets FPGA or ASIC platforms. A novel parallelization scheme is presented and the corresponding architecture is derived. The algorithm is reduced to pixel-level operations. Processing elements are assigned image blocks, to maintain a reasonable performance-cost ratio. To further simplify both processor and memory organizations, a bit-serial access scheme is used. A brief performance assessment is provided to illustrate and quantify the merit of the approach.

  14. The Financial Equalization System in Germany and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehr Hans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experience of European countries, practical recommendations on improving the level of financial capacity of regions in Ukraine have been developed. In the article the comparative analysis of the financial equalization system in Germany and Ukraine has been conducted, different approaches to equalization on the basis of the actual redistribution have been determined, the efficiency and transparency of the use of budgetary resources in these countries have been analyzed. The research result is the substantiation of the necessity for decentralization of tax revenues in Ukraine to reduce the volume of transfers from the State Budget to the regions. Prospects for further research in this direction are developing a reform strategy for Germany and Ukraine in order to improve the socio-economic relations between the center and regions and to make the redistribution of budgetary resources more efficient. Improving the system of financial equalization involves the use of optimization techniques taking into account the inter-regional economic and geographic ties.

  15. Social Attitudes on Gender Equality and Firms' Discriminatory Pay-Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Simon; Tuor Sartore, Simone N.; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between social attitudes on gender equality and firms' pay-setting behavior by combining information about regional votes relative to gender equality laws with a large data set of multi-branch firms and workers. The results show that multi-branch firms pay more discriminatory wages in branches located in regions with a higher social acceptance of gender inequality than in branches located in regions with a lower acceptance. The results are similar for different sub...

  16. Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Webb, Helen

    2010-08-01

    Equality and diversity are central to education and health services, in terms of both employment and service delivery. Clinical teachers need to be able to support students and trainees around equality issues, have the confidence to challenge discriminatory practice and provide an inclusive and safe learning and teaching environment.

  17. The Many Faces of Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    The ideal of equality of opportunity plays an important role in contemporary social and political discourse, and it is one of the few ideals which most people, across the political spectrum, accept. In this article, I argue that the seemingly widespread agreement about the value of equal opportunity is more apparent than real. I distinguish…

  18. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  19. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  20. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  1. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  2. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 167 August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004--50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom #0... 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  3. County-level poverty is equally associated with unmet health care needs in rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Litaker, David G

    2010-01-01

    Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet need, a marker of health care access, by rural/urban setting. Multilevel, cross-sectional analysis of a state-representative sample of 39,953 adults stratified by rural/urban status, linked at the county level to data describing contextual characteristics. Weighted random intercept models examined the independent association of regional poverty with unmet needs, controlling for a range of contextual and individual-level characteristics. The unadjusted association between regional poverty levels and unmet needs was similar in both rural (OR = 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.08]) and urban (OR = 1.03 [1.02-1.05]) settings. Adjusting for other contextual characteristics increased the size of the association in both rural (OR = 1.11 [1.04-1.19]) and urban (OR = 1.11 [1.05-1.18]) settings. Further adjustment for individual characteristics had little additional effect in rural (OR = 1.10 [1.00-1.20]) or urban (OR = 1.11 [1.01-1.22]) settings. To better meet the health care needs of all Americans, health care systems in areas with high regional poverty should acknowledge the relationship between poverty and unmet health care needs. Investments, or other interventions, that reduce regional poverty may be useful strategies for improving health through better access to health care. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...

  5. Carbonate Budget data of the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative (SEFCRI) region from 2014-09-29 to 2014-10-17 (NCEI Accession 0156913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes census based carbonate budget data that was collected in coral reef habitats located within the SEFCRI region. Surveys (based on Perry et al...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  8. Open access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Dennis Ocholla

    The argument that access to information is an instrumental and individual as well as ... and Dean School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. ... to scholarly publications and can be in any digital format, including text, movies and ... language barriers, censorship, lack of access to the Internet and ...

  9. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas.

  10. Moving toward a universally accessible web: Web accessibility and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Serhat

    2017-12-08

    The World Wide Web is an extremely powerful source of information, inspiration, ideas, and opportunities. As such, it has become an integral part of daily life for a great majority of people. Yet, for a significant number of others, the internet offers only limited value due to the existence of barriers which make accessing the Web difficult, if not impossible. This article illustrates some of the reasons that achieving equality of access to the online world of education is so critical, explores the current status of Web accessibility, discusses evaluative tools and methods that can help identify accessibility issues in educational websites, and provides practical recommendations and guidelines for resolving some of the obstacles that currently hinder the achievability of the goal of universal Web access.

  11. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  12. The influence of European sex equality law on the UK legislation: a challenge to the “male norm”?

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    It has been argued that some of the main provisions of the EU sex equality law, namely the Equal Treatment and the Equal Pay Directives, have hardly had any influence on the decision to introduce legislation in the UK, aimed at eliminating discrimination based on sex with regard to pay, access to jobs, training and working conditions. The Equal Pay Act (1970) and the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), which represent the two main pillars of equality legislation in the UK, were both introduced pri...

  13. Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian V.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês L.; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Wind speeds in remote areas are sometimes very high, but transmission costs to access these locations can be prohibitive. We present a conceptual model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets, and apply the model to the Midwestern grid (MISO) as a case study. We assess the goal of providing 40 TWh of new wind generation while minimizing costs, and include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. We find that building wind farms in North/South Dakota (windiest states) compared to Illinois (less windy, but close to load) would only be economical if the incremental transmission costs to access them were below $360/kW of wind capacity (break-even value). Historically, the incremental transmission costs for wind development in North/South Dakota compared to in Illinois are about twice this value. However, the break-even incremental transmission cost for wind farms in Minnesota/Iowa (also windy states) is $250/kW, which is consistent with historical costs. We conclude that wind development in Minnesota/Iowa is likely more economical to meet MISO renewable targets compared to North/South Dakota or Illinois. - Highlights: •We evaluate the economics of building wind farms in remote areas in MISO. •We present a conceptual wind site selection model to meet 40 TWh of new wind. •We use the model to compare remote windy sites to less windy ones closer to load. •We show break-even transmission costs that would justify remote wind development. •Comparing break-even values to historical costs, MN/IA sites are most economical.

  14. Effect of area x-ray beam equalization on image quality and dose in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jerry; Xu Tong; Husain, Adeel; Le, Huy; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2004-08-21

    In mammography, thick or dense breast regions persistently suffer from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions. Optimal equalization parameters with respect to image quality and patient dose were determined through computer simulations and validated with experimental observations on a step phantom and an anthropomorphic breast phantom. Three parameters important in equalization digital mammography were considered: attenuator material (Z = 13-92), beam energy (22-34 kVp) and equalization level. A Mo/Mo digital mammography system was used for image acquisition. A prototype 16 x 16 piston driven equalization system was used for preparing patient-specific equalization masks. Simulation studies showed that a molybdenum attenuator and an equalization level of 20 were optimal for improving contrast, CNR and figure of merit (FOM = CNR{sup 2}/dose). Experimental measurements using these parameters showed significant improvements in contrast, CNR and FOM. Moreover, equalized images of a breast phantom showed improved image quality. These results indicate that area beam equalization can improve image quality in digital mammography.

  15. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  16. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  17. Social equality in the number of choice options is represented in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Madoka; Yomogida, Yukihito; Izuma, Keise; Murayama, Kou; Sugiura, Ayaka; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2014-04-30

    A distinct aspect of the sense of fairness in humans is that we care not only about equality in material rewards but also about equality in nonmaterial values. One such value is the opportunity to choose freely among many options, often regarded as a fundamental right to economic freedom. In modern developed societies, equal opportunities in work, living, and lifestyle are enforced by antidiscrimination laws. Despite the widespread endorsement of equal opportunity, no studies have explored how people assign value to it. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural substrates for subjective valuation of equality in choice opportunity. Participants performed a two-person choice task in which the number of choices available was varied across trials independently of choice outcomes. By using this procedure, we manipulated the degree of equality in choice opportunity between players and dissociated it from the value of reward outcomes and their equality. We found that activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) tracked the degree to which the number of options between the two players was equal. In contrast, activation in the ventral striatum tracked the number of options available to participants themselves but not the equality between players. Our results demonstrate that the vmPFC, a key brain region previously implicated in the processing of social values, is also involved in valuation of equality in choice opportunity between individuals. These findings may provide valuable insight into the human ability to value equal opportunity, a characteristic long emphasized in politics, economics, and philosophy.

  18. The importance of institutional mechanisms for exercising gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajvančić Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary democratic societies, equality between men and women is one of the fundamental human rights as well as the key moral and legal value. In order to be exercised, this right must be legally recognized and efficiently exercised in all aspects of human life: political, economic, social and cultural. Experience has shown that an effective exercise of gender equality calls for integrating the gender perspective into all public policies, at all levels and in all decision-making processes. The necessary prerequisite is a proper institutional and legal framework. The institutional framework in the field of gender equality includes institutions operating within the legislative and the executive branch, as well as those involved in the protection of gender equality. The jurisdiction of the institutional mechanism within the legislative branch is defined in general terms and it does not reflect the multi-sectoral nature of activities covered by this operative body. The Gender Equality Council and the Gender Equality Agency, which were operative until the year 2014, differed in their composition and membership selection method, and they had different positions in the structure of executive authorities; the content and scope of their jurisdiction was not clearly defined, nor were they vested with sufficient and relevant powers. For that reason, it is essential to establish a new structure of institutional mechanisms within the executive branch as soon as possible. In that course, it should be ascertained that these institutions have direct communication with the government, and their competences have to be regulated adequately and precisely. In order to ensure that the normative and other measures and activities produce good results, it is necessary to provide and sustain an inter-sectoral approach to gender equality and create systemic presumptions and adequate procedures which will provide for utmost coordination and cooperation of all

  19. Can Distance Education Increase Educational Equality? Evidence from the Expansion of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengliang; Zhou, Mengying; Fan, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    Since China decided to expand its higher education, we have seen an increasing number of discussions of the relationship between educational expansion and equality. However, few studies have examined whether the expansion of distance higher education will improve educational equality among different regions. In this study, we analyzed the changes…

  20. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  1. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  2. Teaching the Economics of Equal Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Arnola C.; Rhea, Jeanine N.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on equal opportunities--for education, pay, and with gender bias for individuals and business organizations. Suggests that business educators can expand the implications to include ethnic-based inequalities as well. (JOW)

  3. Girls' Education and Gender Equality. Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Partnership for Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief fact sheet presents benefits of investing in gender equality, how the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) supports inclusive and equitable quality education, as well as the results it has achieved.

  4. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  5. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  7. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results...... and inspiration from a number of comparative research projects and networks. In the following I address three issues that have been central in academic debates: 1) The challenges from multiculturalism to gender equality, 2) gendering citizenship and migration and 3) Nordic feminist debates about diversity....... In the last section I argue that one solution to the new gender equality dilemma posed by increased diversity among women is a simultaneous re-framing of multiculturalism and gender equality....

  8. Causality, spin, and equal-time commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    We study the causality constraints on the structure of the Lorentz-antisymmetric component of the commutator of two conserved isovector currents between fermion states of equal momenta. We discuss the sum rules that follow from causality and scaling, using the recently introduced refined infinite-momentum technique. The complete set of sum rules is found to include the spin-dependent fixed-mass sum rules obtained from light-cone commutators. The causality and scaling restrictions on the structure of the electromagnetic equal-time commutators are discussed, and it is found, in particular, that causality requires the spin-dependent part of the matrix element for the time-space electromagnetic equal-time commutator to vanish identically. It is also shown, in comparison with the electromagnetic case, that the corresponding matrix element for the time-space isovector current equal-time commutator is required, by causality, to have isospin-antisymmetric tensor and scalar operator Schwinger terms

  9. Equality of Opportunity for Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...

  10. NODC Standard Product: Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Chesapeake Bay Region Data from 1984 to 1989 on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 9200303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set on this CD-ROM shows changes in land cover for the Chesapeake Bay region over the 5-year interval from 1984 to 1988-89. The data set was produced...

  11. Access Contested

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of ... 8 Control and Resistance: Attacks on Burmese Opposition Media 153 ...... “Reluctant Gatekeepers: Corporate Ethics on a Filtered Internet,” in Access ...

  12. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  13. Prevalence of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes at public access watershed sites in a California Central Coast agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael B; Quiñones, Beatriz; Oryang, David; Mandrell, Robert E; Gorski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8%) contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8, and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90, 80, and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50 and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels toward an understanding of transport leading to produce recalls or outbreaks.

  14. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    . Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...... into a contextualized approach to analyzing transnational intersectionality. This unique approach focuses on processes of institutionalization and mobilization, which are addressed in relation to the institutional setup of the EU, its policies and policymaking structures, as well as transnational civil society...

  15. Implementation of the Midway Image Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Guillemot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the detailed algorithm of the Midway Image Equalization giving to a pair of images the same histogram while maintaining as much as possible their previous gray dynamics. The midway equalization is primarily designed for gray level images, but can be applied channel-wise to color images. This method is easy to implement, fast to compute, fully automatic and requires no parameter.

  16. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  17. Forbidden Access

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

  18. Open access to transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig

  19. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  20. Marriage equality is a mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Equality on the Bus: Case Comment on Paulley v FirstGroup Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Akeel

    2018-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 imposes a duty on employers and organisations to make sure that disabled people have easy access to education, jobs and services. This ensures that they are treated equally with non-disabled people.\\ud Over the years, employers have been looked down upon for failing to make reasonable adjustments for disabled people by both the EHRC and judges. There seems to be much more focus on how and why employers should treat disabled people equally, leaving organisations and servi...

  2. Evaluating accessibility to Bangkok Metro Systems using multi-dimensional criteria across user groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Prasertsubpakij

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metro systems act as fast and efficient transport systems for many modern metropolises; however, enhancing higher usage of such systems often conflicts with providing suitable accessibility options. The traditional approach of metro accessibility studies seems to be an ineffective measure to gage sustainable access in which the equal rights of all users are taken into account. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR transportation has increasingly relied on the role of two mass rapid transport systems publicly called “BTS Skytrain” and “MRT Subway”, due to limited availability of land and massive road congestion; however, access to such transit arguably treats some vulnerable groups, especially women, the elderly and disabled people unfairly. This study constructs a multi-dimensional assessment of accessibility considerations to scrutinize how user groups access metro services based on BMR empirical case. 600 individual passengers at various stations were asked to rate the questionnaire that simultaneously considers accessibility aspects of spatial, feeder connectivity, temporal, comfort/safety, psychosocial and other dimensions. It was interestingly found by user disaggregated accessibility model that the lower the accessibility perceptions—related uncomfortable and unsafe environment conditions, the greater the equitable access to services, as illustrated by MRT — Hua Lumphong and MRT — Petchaburi stations. The study suggests that, to balance the access priorities of groups on services, policy actions should emphasize acceptably safe access for individuals, cost efficient feeder services connecting the metro lines, socioeconomic influences and time allocation. Insightful discussions on integrated approach balancing different dimensions of accessibility and recommendations would contribute to accessibility-based knowledge and potential propensity to use the public transits towards transport sustainability.

  3. Homonormativity, Charternormativity, and Processes of Legitimation: Exploring the Affective-Spatio-Temporal-Fixed Dimensions of Marriage Equality and Charter Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, marriage equality and charter schools have emerged at the forefront of political conversations about equality and rights. Some argue that these policies extend access to certain benefits and opportunities to historically oppressed communities, thus furthering liberalism and egalitarianism. In this article, I engage these arguments by exploring how and why people from dominant cultures come to support marriage equality or charter schools despite not directly benefitti...

  4. Cashew cultivation, access to land and food security in Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana:\\ud Preventing the intergenerational transmission of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ruth; Mariwah, Simon; Barima Antwi, Kwabena

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the implications of changing agricultural land use from food production towards increased cashew cultivation for food security and poverty alleviation in Jaman North District, Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. Based on qualitative, participatory research with a total of 60 participants, the research found that increased cashew production had led to improvements in living standards for many farmers and their children over recent years. Global demand for cashew is ...

  5. The Access Pricing Problem: A Synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark; Doyle, Chris; Vickers, John

    1996-01-01

    The Baumol-Willig efficient component pricing rule states that it is efficient to set the price of access to an essential facility equal to the direct cost of access plus the opportunity cost to the integrated access provider. The authors analyze the relevant notion of 'opportunity cost' under various assumptions about demand and supply conditions, including product differentiation, bypass, and substitution possibilities, which all reduce opportunity cost compared to the benchmark case. They ...

  6. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks’ diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks, policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States.

  7. Homonormativity, Charternormativity, and Processes of Legitimation: Exploring the Affective-Spatio-Temporal-Fixed Dimensions of Marriage Equality and Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, marriage equality and charter schools have emerged at the forefront of political conversations about equality and rights. Some argue that these policies extend access to certain benefits and opportunities to historically oppressed communities, thus furthering liberalism and egalitarianism. In this article, I engage these…

  8. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  9. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  11. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  12. Interplay between chromatin modulators and histone acetylation regulates the formation of accessible chromatin in the upstream regulatory region of fission yeast fbp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Akira; Senmatsu, Satoshi; Asada, Ryuta; Abe, Takuya; Hoffman, Charles S; Ohta, Kunihiro; Hirota, Kouji

    2018-05-03

    Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation. Histone acetylation by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ADCRs) are implicated in chromatin remodeling, but the interplay between HATs and ADCRs in this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we examine the roles played by two distinct ADCRs, Snf22 and Hrp3, and by the HAT Gcn5 in the transcriptional activation of fbp1. Snf22 and Hrp3 redundantly promote disassembly of chromatin in the fbp1 upstream region. Gcn5 critically contributes to nucleosome eviction in the absence of either Snf22 or Hrp3, presumably by recruiting Hrp3 in snf22∆ cells and Snf22 in hrp3∆ cells. Conversely, Gcn5-dependent histone H3 acetylation is impaired in snf22∆/hrp3∆ cells, suggesting that both redundant ADCRs induce recruitment of Gcn5 to the chromatin array in the fbp1 upstream region. These results reveal a previously unappreciated interplay between ADCRs and histone acetylation in which histone acetylation facilitates recruitment of ADCRs, while ADCRs are required for histone acetylation.

  13. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  14. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  15. Investigating equality: The poverty and riches indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    As noise is omnipresent, real-world quantities measured by scientists and engineers are commonly obtained in the form of statistical distributions. In turn, perhaps the most compact representation of a given statistical distribution is via the mean-variance approach: the mean manifesting the distribution’s ‘typical’ value, and the variance manifesting the magnitude of the distribution’s fluctuations about its mean. The mean-variance approach is based on an underlying Euclidean-geometry perspective. So very often real-world quantities of interest are non-negative sizes, and their measurements yield statistical size distributions. In this paper, and in the context of size distributions, we present an alternative to the Euclidean-based mean-variance approach: a mean-equality approach that is based on an underlying socioeconomic perspective. We establish two equality indices that score, on a unit-interval scale, the intrinsic ‘egalitarianism’ of size distributions: (i) the poverty equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very small “poor” sizes; (ii) the riches equality index which is particularly sensitive to the existence of very large “rich” sizes. These equality indices, their properties, their computation, their application, and their connections to the mean-variance approach – are explored and described comprehensively.

  16. Interaction of equal-size bubbles in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Lavrenteva, Olga M; Byk, Leonid; Nir, Avinoam

    2013-04-01

    The inertia-induced forces on two identical spherical bubbles in a simple shear flow at small but finite Reynolds number, for the case when the bubbles are within each other's inner viscous region, are calculated making use of the reciprocal theorem. This interaction force is further employed to model the dynamics of air bubbles injected to a viscous fluid sheared in a Couette device at the first shear flow instability where the bubbles are trapped inside the stable Taylor vortex. It was shown that, during a long time scale, the inertial interaction between the bubbles in the primary shear flow drives them away from each other and, as a result, equal-size bubbles eventually assume an ordered string with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We report on experiments showing the dynamic evolution of various numbers of bubbles. The results of the theory are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  17. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  18. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  19. Troubling gender equality: Revisiting gender equality work in the famous Nordic model countries

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic...

  20. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  1. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks. The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has been trained by utilizing the error back-propagation algorithm. The weights of the network are updated in accordance with training of the network. This paper presents a very effective method for blind channel equalization, being more efficient than the pre-existing algorithms. The obtained results show a visible reduction in the noise content.

  2. Access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and factors associated with non-use among communities in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah governorate in the Tihama region, west of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2017-06-09

    Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts (Ad Durayhimi, Al Marawi'ah, Al Mansuriyah and Bayt Al Faqiah) in Al Hudaydah during February 2016. A total of 701 households were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and availability of LLINs were collected by interview and observation. Four indicators for malaria prevention using LLINs; proportion of households with at least one LLIN, proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people, proportion of population with access to LLINs in the surveyed households and proportion of population who slept under LLINs the previous night of the survey were calculated as indicated by Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Use to access ratio was assessed. Factors associated with not using LLINs among people with access were also investigated. Of 701 households with 4900 de facto population, ownership of at least one LLIN was 90.6%, while 24.1% owned at least one for every two people during the survey in 2016. The overall proportion of people with access to LLINs was 51.5% (95% CI 50.1-52.9). Only 19.0% (95% CI 17.9-20.1) slept under LLINs the night before the survey and the overall use to access ratio was 0.37. The proportions of children under 5 years of age with access to and use of LLINs were 13.7 and 42.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of pregnant women with access to and use of LLINs were 16.4 and 20

  3. Equal Work Require Equal Salary” – Part of the Principle of Equality Treatment between Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carmina Spiridon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlarging the provisions of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Convention no. 111 from 1958 regarding discrimination in the field of employing manpower and practicing profession, , has pointed out the effect of discrimination: to suppress or to prejudice the equal opportunities or treatment in the field of employing manpower and practicing profession.

  4. All are equal, but some are more equal than others: Managerialism and gender equality in higher education in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.; Deem, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary

  5. Equal task, equal exposure? Are men and women with the same tasks equally exposed to awkward working postures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Wal, B.G. van de; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Burdorf, A.; Mechelen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether men and woman with equal tasks perform these tasks in the same way. Video recordings of 37 male and 43 female workers in six task groups were observed, from which data regarding frequency and duration of exposure to awkward postures were derived. These

  6. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  7. Gender Equality & Work: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Hasanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, activities and features that a particular society believes are appropriate for men and women. Gender equality is necessary in order to ensure a fair and productive labor market. Even though, Bosnia and Herzegovina has established legal framework including gender equality laws, women are still facing barriers to participation in the labor market. This research paper will indicate what are the main challenges behind the low participation of women in the labor market. It will provide information on gender differences; the main challenges, and also emphasize gender stereotypes which are contributing the gendered division in labor market.

  8. Gaining Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Sean; Thermos, Adam C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the issues to consider before a college decides to purchase a card-access system. The benefits of automation, questions involving implementation, the criteria for technology selection, what typical card technology involves, privacy concerns, and the placement of card readers are discussed. (GR)

  9. The principle of equality and the right to assisted procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of equality is the foundation of developing an entire system of human rights, and its implementation represents the standard of respecting each right individually. With these premises as a starting point, the subject of the author’s interests is whether the right to assisted reproduction, as a segment of reproductive rights, is regulated in conformity with the equality principal. In order to reach an answer, the author examines the concept of human assisted reproduction and analyzes the application of reproductive technologies in the light of legal, social and political reforms which affected marriages, the family and partnership in general at the end of the 20th century. The author finds that the most significant ones among them are the emancipation of women, recognition and legal formation of same sex unions and statements prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, by considering the right to assisted reproduction in the context of other human rights with which it is interconnected and interdependent (the right to life, right to privacy, the right to a family life, health rights, children’s rights, the author finds there are no absolute, unlimited rights in the contemporary system of human rights, but that they inevitably have certain restrictions. Since the same limitation attribute also characterizes the right to assisted reproduction, the author further researches whether there is discrimination, positive or negative, towards the existing forms of limitations to this right. The following forms of limitations have been singled out, as the key ones for this analysis: request for (nonmarital status and heterosexual orientation, sexual affiliation and age and the accessibility (prohibition of applying certain methods of assisted reproduction which are primarily in the function of eliminating female sterility. The author concludes that there are elements of discrimination based on family status, sexual

  10. Trends in Gender Equality in the UK, 1968 to 2012: Four Barriers to ¡®Equal Pay¡¯ for Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Tattam; John Simister

    2014-01-01

    This paper disaggregates the pay gap between men and women into four possible ¡®barriers¡¯: access to paid work; part-time versus full-time jobs; entrance into higher-paid jobs; and similar pay for equivalent work. UK data from 1968 to 2012 are analyzed, to investigate these possible barriers. All four barriers have persisted for decades, and all four ¡®barriers¡¯ tend to work in favour of men. There is evidence of progress in gender equality since 1968 ¨C for example, the 1970 ¡®Equal Pay Ac...

  11. Information Access for Disabled Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita

    2008-01-01

    Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...

  12. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-05

    The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place) and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions) are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks), policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access

  13. Scale effects in food environment research: Implications from assessing socioeconomic dimensions of supermarket accessibility in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hibbert, James D; Porter, Dwayne E; Lawson, Andrew B; Liese, Angela D

    2016-03-01

    Choice of neighborhood scale affects associations between environmental attributes and health-related outcomes. This phenomenon, a part of the modifiable areal unit problem, has been described fully in geography but not as it relates to food environment research. Using two administrative-based geographic boundaries (census tracts and block groups), supermarket geographic measures (density, cumulative opportunity and distance to nearest) were created to examine differences by scale and associations between three common U.S. Census-based socioeconomic status (SES) characteristics (median household income, percentage of population living below poverty and percentage of population with at least a high school education) and a summary neighborhood SES z-score in an eight-county region of South Carolina. General linear mixed-models were used. Overall, both supermarket density and cumulative opportunity were higher when using census tract boundaries compared to block groups. In analytic models, higher median household income was significantly associated with lower neighborhood supermarket density and lower cumulative opportunity using either the census tract or block group boundaries, and neighborhood poverty was positively associated with supermarket density and cumulative opportunity. Both median household income and percent high school education were positively associated with distance to nearest supermarket using either boundary definition, whereas neighborhood poverty had an inverse association. Findings from this study support the premise that supermarket measures can differ by choice of geographic scale and can influence associations between measures. Researchers should consider the most appropriate geographic scale carefully when conducting food environment studies.

  14. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  15. Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 162 (2008), s. 135-152 ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008

  16. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  17. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  18. Reflections: The Worldwide Commitment to Educational Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on articles appearing in the 2001 theme issue of Sociology of Education. Considers the nature and impact of the widespread cultural commitment to educational equality. Discusses other aspects of education not emphasized in this issue, such as the implications of racial inequality, credentialism, and educational organization (CAJ)

  19. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  20. Equalization in Aeronautical Telemetry Using Multiple Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    such an interval is assumed, although we won’t complicate the notation to make this explicit. 3In the traditional TR-STBC system, ρ = 1/2 is included...linear, with or without noise whitening ) with the usual performance-complexity tradeoffs. Here, we apply the approximate MMSE equalizer introduced in

  1. Emancipation and Equality: A Critical Genealogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Joan Wallach

    2012-01-01

    I have been suggesting that the deployment of the language of sexual emancipation and gender equality to dismiss Muslim claims for recognition as full members of the nation-states of Western Europe in which so many have now for so long resided, needs to be read not simply as Islamophobia (which

  2. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  3. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...

  4. Nonlinear Equalization of Microwave Photonic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    1][2] [3] (2) 123 is a combinatorial factor describing the number of unique permutations of frequency indicies...nonlinear equalizer works on the entire Nyquist band and is synthesized directly from mathematical requirements instead of using best- fit methods

  5. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  6. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  7. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  8. Leaky Zero-Forcing Adaptive Equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Zero-forcing equalizer adaptation schemes are attractive because of their simplicity. We study their steady-state solution, and find that it is more poorly conditioned than that of least mean-square adaptation schemes. A simple yet effective solution to this problem, based on tap leakage, is

  9. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  10. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  11. Asynchronous zero-forcing adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Pozidis, H.; Lin, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also be asynchronous, and its adaptation is commonly based on extensions of the LMS algorithm. In this paper, we develop and

  12. An Equal Employment Opportunity Sensitivity Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Thomas H., Jr.; Dorey, Lester E.

    1972-01-01

    The equal employment opportunity sensitivity workshop seems to be a useful training device for getting an organization started on developing black and white change agents. A report on the establishment of such a workshop at the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). Includes charts of design, characteristics, analysis of results, program…

  13. Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.

    1992-06-01

    Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.

  14. Mapping Students' Spoken Conceptions of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakin, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This study expands contemporary theorising about students' conceptions of equality. A nationally representative sample of New Zealand students' were asked to provide a spoken numerical response and an explanation as they solved an arithmetic additive missing number problem. Students' responses were conceptualised as acts of communication and…

  15. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  16. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JMaluleke

    2005-10-18

    Oct 18, 2005 ... CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY .... supremacy (sections 1(c) and 2 of the Constitution), and provides that any law ... protecting polygamy as well as related practices such as 'spouse inheritance', .... This school of thought argues that the practice of virginity testing puts the.

  17. The Colour of Equality : Racial Classification and Natural Equality in Enlightenment Encyclopaedias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartija, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    While it may seem obvious that human beings should be treated equally before the law and given equal opportunities to succeed, much of recorded history actually demonstrates the exact opposite: hierarchy and innate inequalities were generally seen as both natural and inevitable. It was only during

  18. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...

  19. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  20. Module 11: Gender Equality & Social Exclusion Issues in Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael

    2003-01-01

    1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Equality Argument 1.3 Equality and the Culture of Contentment 1.4 Rawls and the Theory of a Just Society 1.5 Equal Opportunities and the Equality Continuum 1.6 The Equality Context

  1. 76 FR 15049 - Agency Information Collection (Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Report); Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA... schools below college level. The information is used to assure that participants have equal access to.... Estimated Annual Burden and Average Burden per Respondent: Based on past experience, VBA estimates that 76...

  2. Higher Education as Object for Corporate and Nation Branding: Between Equality and Flagships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy

    2015-01-01

    Branding has become an important issue within higher education. The use of core value statements and visions are expressions of this. To be a successful brand, organisations must also make sure they are different from others. However, in both the scholarly discourse and in political rhetoric, the Nordic model highlights equal access to education…

  3. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  4. The "Second Chance" Myth: Equality of Opportunity in Irish Adult Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummell, Bernie

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the "second chance" myth that surrounds the role of adult education in society. This myth apparently offers all citizens an equal chance to access educational opportunities to improve their life chances. I argue that recent developments in educational policy-making are increasingly shaped by neoliberal discourses…

  5. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  6. Equal exchange: Determining a fair price for carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodes, G.; Kamel, S.

    2007-12-14

    This first volume in the new series CD4CDM Perspective Series focuses on determining an equal exchange between carbon buyers and sellers in CDM transactions. Contributors to this volume represent a wide spectrum of the various market actors that are interacting in order to realize both successful and equitable carbon transactions. The following issues are discussed: Global carbon price dynamics; CDM project risk profiles and/or premiums; Importance of time factors and delivery guarantees; Impact of regulatory drivers and post-Kyoto outlook; Region-specific outlooks; Strategies, contracting models and approaches. (BA)

  7. Very proton-rich nuclei with N asymptotically equals 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.

    1984-01-01

    The proton-rich nuclei with N asymptotically equals 82 show beautifully properties, which are perfectly described by the nuclear shell model. Some of these properties are the occurrence of seniority isomerism in the proton-rich N=82 isotones and the perfect description of the corresponding life times by the seniority scheme as well as the observation of favoured Gamow-Teller β transitions in this nuclear region and the dependence of the corresponding ft values on the number of the envolved nucleons. (author)

  8. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Chiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA, which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods.

  9. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  10. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  11. Addressing the Issue of Gender Equity in the Presidency of the University System in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious

    2010-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 15 countries whose common vision is to promote economic, social and political development and growth. Arguably, sustainable growth can be realized if there is equal access to all positions of power and influence in the area, but an investigation of 117…

  12. Comparative analysis of hybridizing histogram equalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept....... There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals...

  14. TROUBLING GENDER EQUALITY: REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Edström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic methodology and two previous empirical studies. By analysing interviews conducted with people involved in gender equality work, this article emphasises the effects of market-oriented and project-based gender equality work in education and working life in Sweden and in Finland. The findings highlight an alliance between projectisation and heteronormativity that acts to regulate how gender equality ought to be talked about in order for its issues to be heard. A persistently constructed ‘remedy’ to ‘the gender equality problem’ is that girls and women are positioned as ‘needing’ to change more than boys and men, by adopting more traditionally ‘masculine manners’ and choosing to work in more ‘masculine sectors’. The findings also show that the constitutive forces of these discourses provide little leeway for critical perspectives.

  15. State Toleration, Religious Recognition and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    In debates about multiculturalism, it is widely claimed that ‘toleration is not enough’ and that we need to go ‘beyond toleration’ to some form of politics of recognition in order to satisfactorily address contemporary forms of cultural diversity (e.g. the presence in Europe of Muslim minorities...... a conceptual question of whether the relation between states and minorities can be categoriseized in terms of recognition or toleration, but about a normative question of whether and how toleration and recognition secures equality. When toleration is inadequate, this is often because it institutionaliseizes...... and upholds specific inequalities. But politics of recognition may equally well institute inequalities, and in such cases unequal recognition may not be preferable to toleration....

  16. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...... of the capability approach to questions of health or equality. In the present paper we extend the notion of rationalizing orderings of capabilities to a dynamical context, in the sense that the utility function is not yet revealed to the individual at the time when the capabilities are ordered. It turns out...... over capabilities as sets of functionings can be rationalized by maximization of a suitable utility function over the set of functionings. Such a rationalization turned out to be possible only in cases which must be considered exceptional and which do not allowfor interesting applications...

  17. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  18. Information on Equal Opportunities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised at the meeting of the Finance Committee in December 2002, the Management agreed to present a short information document . At its meeting in May 2003, TREF discussed the content of this information document and took note of supplementary information provided in a presentation by CERN's Equal Opportunities Officer, accompanied by the Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. The Forum concluded that this supplementary information should be included in a revised version of the document, as indicated in section 3 and Annex 1 below. Finally, the Forum took note of a main issue raised by the Panel, namely the need for crèche facilities available to CERN staff. This led to a study commissioned by the Management, recommending the setting up of crèche facilities on the CERN site (Annex 2). However, given the current financial constraints, funding could only be found by setting priorities in the next 5-Yearly Review.

  19. Globalization and Gender Equality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas Potrafke; Heinrich Ursprung

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically assesses the influence of globalization on the institutional root causes of gender equality as measured by the new OECD Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI). We capture the multifaceted concept of globalization with the KOF index and its three sub-indices which measure the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization. Observing the progress of globalization for a sample of almost one hundred countries at ten year intervals starting in 1970, we find ...

  20. Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator pro...... provides substantial computational advantage over propagation of two inequality constraints, and that the advantage increases when the maximum width of the MDD store increases....

  1. Measuring Gender inequality and equality in education

    OpenAIRE

    Unterhalter, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, considerable expertise has built up in measuring aspects of gender inequality and equality, and in researching these in education, particularly formal schooling. Existing international and national measures used for reporting on gender in formal schooling chart gender parity in school enrolment, attendance, progression, and learning outcomes. Gender parity measures the number of girls as a proportion of the number of boys. This measure generates some insights regard...

  2. Democracy, property rights, income equality, and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality...

  3. Gender Equality and Economic Growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto

    2013-01-01

    This note studies the long-run impacts of policies aimed at fostering gender equality on economic growth in Brazil. After a brief review of gender issues in Brazil, this note describes a framework for quantifying the growth effects of gender-based policies in developing economies. The analysis is based on a computable overlapping generations (OLG) model that accounts for the impact of acce...

  4. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  5. Privacy and equality in diagnostic genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrhinen, Tarja; Hietala, Marja; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which the principles of privacy and equality were observed during diagnostic genetic testing according to views held by patients or child patients' parents (n = 106) and by staff (n = 162) from three Finnish university hospitals. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analysed using the SAS 8.1 statistical software. In general, the two principles were observed relatively satisfactorily in clinical practice. According to patients/parents, equality in the post-analytic phase and, according to staff, privacy in the pre-analytic phase, involved the greatest ethical problems. The two groups differed in their views concerning pre-analytic privacy. Although there were no major problems regarding the two principles, the differences between the testing phases require further clarification. To enhance privacy protection and equality, professionals need to be given more genetics/ethics training, and patients individual counselling by genetics units staff, giving more consideration to patients' world-view, the purpose of the test and the test result.

  6. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  7. Valuing Equal Protection in Aviation Security Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kenneth D; Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S

    2017-12-01

    The growing number of anti-terrorism policies has elevated public concerns about discrimination. Within the context of airport security screening, the current study examines how American travelers value the principle of equal protection by quantifying the "equity premium" that they are willing to sacrifice to avoid screening procedures that result in differential treatments. In addition, we applied the notion of procedural justice to explore the effect of alternative selective screening procedures on the value of equal protection. Two-hundred and twenty-two respondents were randomly assigned to one of three selective screening procedures: (1) randomly, (2) using behavioral indicators, or (3) based on demographic characteristics. They were asked to choose between airlines using either an equal or a discriminatory screening procedure. While the former requires all passengers to be screened in the same manner, the latter mandates all passengers undergo a quick primary screening and, in addition, some passengers are selected for a secondary screening based on a predetermined selection criterion. Equity premiums were quantified in terms of monetary cost, wait time, convenience, and safety compromise. Results show that equity premiums varied greatly across respondents, with many indicating little willingness to sacrifice to avoid inequitable screening, and a smaller minority willing to sacrifice anything to avoid the discriminatory screening. The selective screening manipulation was effective in that equity premiums were greater under selection by demographic characteristics compared to the other two procedures. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Nonparametric tests for equality of psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2017-12-07

    Many empirical studies measure psychometric functions (curves describing how observers' performance varies with stimulus magnitude) because these functions capture the effects of experimental conditions. To assess these effects, parametric curves are often fitted to the data and comparisons are carried out by testing for equality of mean parameter estimates across conditions. This approach is parametric and, thus, vulnerable to violations of the implied assumptions. Furthermore, testing for equality of means of parameters may be misleading: Psychometric functions may vary meaningfully across conditions on an observer-by-observer basis with no effect on the mean values of the estimated parameters. Alternative approaches to assess equality of psychometric functions per se are thus needed. This paper compares three nonparametric tests that are applicable in all situations of interest: The existing generalized Mantel-Haenszel test, a generalization of the Berry-Mielke test that was developed here, and a split variant of the generalized Mantel-Haenszel test also developed here. Their statistical properties (accuracy and power) are studied via simulation and the results show that all tests are indistinguishable as to accuracy but they differ non-uniformly as to power. Empirical use of the tests is illustrated via analyses of published data sets and practical recommendations are given. The computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these tests is available as Electronic Supplemental Material.

  9. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkel, Jean, E-mail: jean.rinkel@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael [CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-11-21

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discretization error limited by the number of equalization bits.

  10. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New England region (including the 6 New Englandstates plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,matched by an equally diverse economy and humanpopulation. Livelihoods throughout the region are basedon service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  11. Automated Area Beam Equalization Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molloi, Sabee

    2004-01-01

    ...) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions...

  12. Assessing Mobile Phone Access and Perceptions for Texting-Based mHealth Interventions Among Expectant Mothers and Child Caregivers in Remote Regions of Northern Kenya: A Survey-Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Carmichael, Jason-Louis; Hapanna, Galgallo Waqo; Wangoo, Patrick Gikaria; Karanja, Sarah; Wanyama, Denis; Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Loolpapit, Mores; Wangalwa, Gilbert Bwire; Kinagwi, Koki; Lester, Richard Todd

    2017-01-30

    With a dramatic increase in mobile phone use in low- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) has great potential to connect health care services directly to participants enrolled and improve engagement of care. Rural and remote global settings may pose both significant challenges and opportunities. The objective of our study was to understand the demographics, phone usage and ownership characteristics, and feasibility among patients in rural and remote areas of Kenya of having text messaging (short messaging service, SMS)-based mHealth intervention for improvements in antenatal care attendance and routine immunization among children in Northern Kenya. A survey-based descriptive study was conducted between October 2014 and February 2015 at 8 health facilities in Northern Kenya as part of a program to scale up an mHealth service in rural and remote regions. The study was conducted at 6 government health facilities in Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties in remote and northern arid lands (NAL). Two less remote health facilities in Laikipia and Meru counties in more populated central highlands were included as comparison sites. A total of 284 participants were surveyed; 63.4% (180/284) were from NAL clinics, whereas 36.6% (104/284) were from adjacent central highland clinics. In the NAL, almost half (48.8%, 88/180) reported no formal education and 24.4% (44/180) self-identified as nomads. The majority of participants from both regions had access to mobile phone: 99.0% (103/104) of participants from central highlands and 82.1% (147/180) of participants from NAL. Among those who had access to a phone, there were significant differences in network challenges and technology literacy between the 2 regions. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants from NAL and central highlands who indicated that they would like to receive a weekly SMS text message from their health care provider (90.0% vs 95.0%; P=.52). Overall, 92

  13. Calidad de las accesiones colectadas en la región centro-oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Quality of accessions collected in the central-eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección en el 2005, en la región centro-oriental de Cuba, y se colectaron semillas de 43 accesiones (36 de leguminosas arbóreas y siete de herbáceas. Posteriormente se realizó una prueba de germinación para conocer la calidad de las semillas (con corte de cubierta, en placas de petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas en cada accesión fue diferente (según las colectadas y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las accesiones Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (de Nuevitas y Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. y Centrosema brasilianum (100% de germinación, así como Calopogonium caeruleum (90% y Albizia lucida (91,6%. Siete accesiones no germinaron. La mayoría logró una alta sobrevivencia (en bolsas, aunque en especies como Bauhinia hookeli, B. acuminata, Albizia lebbeck, C. caeruleum, C. brasilianum, Desmodium sp. y Teramnus sp. fue baja y dos accesiones no sobrevivieron. El germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» se incrementó en 34 accesiones. Se demostró la importancia de conocer la calidad de las semillas y la relación entre este indicador y su deterioro, debido a la gran variabilidad que mostró el porcentaje de germinación en semillas colectadas en un mismo período de tiempo.A prospection was made in 2005, in the central-eastern region of Cuba and seeds from 43 accessions (36 tree legumes and seven herbaceous ones were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted in order to learn the quality of the seeds (with seed coat cut, in Petri dishes on river sand. The number of seeds used in each accession was different (according to the collected ones and only one replication was used (without statistical design. The best-quality seeds corresponded to the accessions Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (from Nuevitas and Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. and

  14. On Equal Opportunities at CERN: A report prepared for the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, E M

    2001-01-01

    This report has been prepared at the request of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. It is an attempt to demonstrate, simply and clearly, some additional facts relating to gender differences shown in previous reports of the Panel.

  15. Equal-Time and Equal-Space Poisson Brackets of the N -Component Coupled NLS Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ru-Guang; Li Pei-Yao; Gao Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Two Poisson brackets for the N-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation are derived by using the variantional principle. The first one is called the equal-time Poisson bracket which does not depend on time but only on the space variable. Actually it is just the usual one describing the time evolution of system in the traditional theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The second one is equal-space and new. It is shown that the spatial part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-time Poisson bracket and temporal part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-space Poisson bracket share the same r-matrix formulation. These properties are similar to that of the NLS equation. (paper)

  16. Toward Gender Equality in East Asia and the Pacific : A Companion to the World Development Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, women across the globe have made positive strides toward gender equality. Literacy rates for young women and girls are higher than ever before, while gender gaps in primary education have closed in almost all countries. In the last three decades, over half a billion women have joined the world's labor force (World Bank 2011c). Progress toward gender equality in East Asia and the Pacific has been similarly noteworthy. Most countries in the region have either reached or surpa...

  17. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  18. The Impact of Migration on Access to Credit Markets: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sought to explore whether rural-urban migration and urban dwellers have equal access to credit ... The model identified annual income, membership to local network/associations ...... Economics of Rural Organizations: Theory,.

  19. Public Access ICT across Cultures: Diversifying Participation in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Public access venues – most often Internet cafés in cities and ... 35 years working as an economist for international development agencies. ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  20. Equal employment opportunity plan development guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide instructions for the development of EEO Plans for Fiscal Year 1979. It supplements the National EEO Plan for the Department of Energy issued in August 1978 (DOE/S-0002). The material included should be used immediately as guidance to develop, document, and implement subordinate echelon commitments to EEO. A schedule for the development and submission of EEO Plans is included. Most of the continuing requirements will be published at a later date as part of the directives system. Any comments or helpful suggestions concerned with the program outlined would be appreciated by the Office of Equal Opportunity.

  1. GENDER EQUALITY AS A MODERN PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work. Forming the axiological system of Western society, with the intentions to establish gender equality as a guarantee of a just society being taken into account, on the one hand, and preserving the traditional gender stereotypes inherent to patriarchal gender roles in a considerable part of the world, on the other hand, is actualizing the study of the factors that have contributed to realizing the problem of gender inequality and discrimination. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to highlight the factors that stipulated the awareness of gender equality in European social and cultural space, while leaving alive the traditional gender values in a number of other cultural environments. Methodology of the study is determined by interdisciplinary approach involving the use of general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, etc. The leading role belonged to the principle of the historical and logical unity. At the same time the study applies the basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics and the contextual analysis method. Originality lies in putting forward the new theoretical statements aimed to show that in the ancient and pre-modern society, gender inequality and discrimination did not exist, because at that time gender relations were considered either as a result of the biological characteristics of a human body, or were explained by worldview ideas about the origin and structural features of the world, prevailing in a specific historical dimension. Consequently, gender roles were taken for granted and were not subject to any doubt. Conclusions. Despite all the worldview shifts that had been taking place in the pre-modern era social outlook, nevertheless, as history has shown, they failed to generate sufficient philosophical foundations either for recognizing the equality of women, or changing their social, legal and political status. This led to accumulating the unconscious internal resistance to

  2. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  3. 12 CFR 268.101 - General policy for equal opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)), or the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General policy for equal opportunity. 268.101... RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.101...

  4. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or she...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.25 - Equalization of rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equalization of rates. 1620.25 Section 1620.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.25 Equalization of rates. Under the express terms of the EPA, when a prohibited sex-based wage differential has...

  6. 77 FR 43498 - Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... on the basis of age; the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which prohibits sex-based wage discrimination; and... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1614 RIN Number 3046-AA73 Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.14... must be met in order for the equal pay standard to apply. It should be kept in mind that “equal” does..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay standard...

  8. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part. ...

  9. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,” the...

  10. Why Should We Demand Equality of Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals how equal educational opportunities, equal job opportunities and equality of opportunity for welfare are related to each other, and how they are related to other demands for justice. There are several important objections to the emphasis on equal educational opportunities. Nevertheless, this paper shows that demanding equal…

  11. The Equal Sign: Teachers' Knowledge and Students' Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Cornelis; Meyer, Bronwin

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the extent to which 57 Grade 6 students at a particular school have misconceptions regarding equality, with the equal sign as focus. It also investigated this school's three Grade 5 and 6 teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching regarding equality, again focusing on the equal sign. The…

  12. Managing and monitoring equality and diversity in UK sport: An evaluation of the sporting equals Racial Equality Standard and its impact on organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, K; Hylton, K; Long, J

    2006-01-01

    Despite greater attention to racial equality in sport in recent years, the progress of national sports organizations toward creating equality of outcomes has been limited in the United Kingdom. The collaboration of the national sports agencies, equity organizations and national sports organizations (including national governing bodies of sport) has focused on Equality Standards. The authors revisit an earlier impact study of the Racial Equality Standard in sport and supplement it with another...

  13. Seeking electoral equality for IDP voters

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Grace; Jeff Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Guiding Principle 22 affirms IDPs’ “right to vote and toparticipate in governmental and public affairs, includingthe right to have access to the means necessary to exercisethis right.” Despite the clarity of this language, there is noset of universally accepted policies and practices protectingIDP voting rights.

  14. Seeking electoral equality for IDP voters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Grace

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiding Principle 22 affirms IDPs’ “right to vote and toparticipate in governmental and public affairs, includingthe right to have access to the means necessary to exercisethis right.” Despite the clarity of this language, there is noset of universally accepted policies and practices protectingIDP voting rights.

  15. Economic perspectives on transport and equality

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, inequality and social exclusion are closely tied to personal mobility and the accessibility of goods and services. Evidence of the economic role of transport in promoting better living standards and greater wellbeing can be seen in the effects of both overall public investment in transport infrastructure, and in the impacts of specific transport policies, projects and multi-project plans.

  16. KAUST Open Access policy

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2017-03-07

    The transition to open access (OA) is being driven by funders, libraries, researchers and publishers around the world, and is having an impact on us all. It is inevitable that different countries, organisations and disciplines are moving at different rates towards an OA model, and it is this that we will focus on in this session. Drawing on experiences from across Europe and the Middle East we will provide perspectives from both a global publisher and institutions based in the region. Taylor & Francis take a flexible, evidence-based approach to open access, providing a choice of publication routes for our authors, and a choice of agreements for our library customers. Carolyn will outline some of the open access developments, opportunities and challenges at Taylor & Francis. The library plays a critical role in facilitating open access for their researchers, from managing a repository to providing support and information on the OA publication process to their authors. Janis Tyhurst and Dr Imad Bachir will each give an overview of how this is being managed by their institution. There will be an opportunity for questions and discussion with the panel.

  17. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  18. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  19. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  20. Equality marker in the language of bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, Majid; Subiyanto, Paulus

    2018-01-01

    The language of Bali could be grouped into one of the most elaborate languages of the world since the existence of its speech levels, low and high speech levels, as the language of Java has. Low and high speech levels of the language of Bali are language codes that could be used to show and express social relationship between or among its speakers. This paper focuses on describing, analyzing, and interpreting the use of the low code of the language of Bali in daily communication in the speech community of Pegayaman, Bali. Observational and documentation methods were applied to provide the data for the research. Recoding and field note techniques were executed to provide the data. Recorded in spoken language and the study of novel of Balinese were transcribed into written form to ease the process of analysis. Symmetric use of low code expresses social equality between or among the participants involves in the communication. It also implies social intimacy between or among the speakers of the language of Bali. Regular and patterned use of the low code of the language of Bali is not merely communication strategy, but it is a kind of communication agreement or communication contract between the participants. By using low code during their social and communication activities, the participants shared and express their social equality and intimacy between or among the participants involve in social and communication activities.