WorldWideScience

Sample records for epoxy resin nanocomposites

  1. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers.

  2. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  3. Role of Interphase in the Mechanical Behavior of Silica/Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoscale representative volume element has been developed to investigate the effect of interphase geometry and property on the mechanical behavior of silica/epoxy resin nanocomposites. The role of interphase–matrix bonding was also examined. Results suggested that interphase modulus and interfacial bonding conditions had significant influence on the effective stiffness of nanocomposites, while its sensitivities with respect to both the thickness and the gradient property of the interphase was minimal. The stiffer interphase demonstrated a higher load-sharing capacity, which also increased the stress distribution uniformity within the resin nanocomposites. Under the condition of imperfect interfacial bonding, the effective stiffness of nanocomposites was much lower, which was in good agreement with the documented experimental observations. This work could shed some light on the design and manufacturing of resin nanocomposites.

  4. Improvement of Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of Epoxy Resin Using CNTs/ZnO Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Pham Gia; Truc, Trinh Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Tham, Do Quang; Trung, Tran Huu; Oanh, Vu Ke; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Olivier, Marjorie; Hoang, Thai

    2018-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/ZnO composites had been prepared using the sol-gel method and then incorporated into an epoxy resin for reinforcement of mechanical and electrical properties. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) analyses show that the ZnO nanoparticles deposited on CNTs were crystallized in a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Average particle size of ZnO deposited on the CNT was about 8 nm. The mechanical and dielectric properties of epoxy containing CNTs/ZnO were investigated in comparison to epoxy resin and epoxy resin containing only CNT or ZnO nanoparticles. The results indicated that tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposite were substantially improved with the presence of CNTs/ZnO at the equal volume. The DSC analysis associate with the dielectric results shows that the behavior of epoxy/CNTs/ZnO is identical to epoxy/ZnO composite, and the CNTs is essential to the distributed arrangement of ZnO in the epoxy resin.

  5. Organo-modified bentonites as new flame retardant fillers in epoxy resin nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Tiziana; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Saraga, Federico; Sambri, Letizia; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    The present work deals with two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds: these organoclays were synthesized via an ion exchange process starting from pristine bentonite with 6-(4-butylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (BFTDA) and 11-amino-N-(pyridine-2yl)undecanamide (APUA) and then used for the production of epoxy-based flame retardant nanocomposites. The amount of organic modifier in the organoclays Bento-BFTDA and Bento-APUA was determined with a TGA analysis and is around 0.4mmol/g for both samples. The effect of the organoclays on a commercial epoxy resin nanocomposite's thermo-mechanical and flammability properties was investigated. Composites containing 3wt% and 5wt% of the nanofillers were prepared by solventless addition of each organoclay to the epoxy resin, followed by further addition of the hardener component. For the sake of comparison a similar nanocomposite with the plain unmodified bentonite was produced in similar condition. The nanocomposites's thermo-mechanical properties of all the produced samples were measured and they resulted slightly improved or practically unaffected. On the contrary, when the flame behaviour was assessed in the cone-calorimeter, an encouraging decrease of 17% in the peak heat released rate (pHRR) was obtained at 3wt% loading level with Bento-APUA. This is a promising result, assessing that the APUA modified organoclay might act as flame retardant.

  6. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  7. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  8. Green Preparation of Epoxy/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Using a Glycidylamine Epoxy Resin as the Surface Modifier and Phase Transfer Agent of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinlei; Zhou, Yang; Peng, Mao

    2016-01-27

    In studies of epoxy/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites, organic solvents are commonly used to disperse GO, and vigorous mechanical processes and complicated modification of GO are usually required, increasing the cost and hindering the development and application of epoxy nanocomposites. Here, we report a green, facile, and efficient method of preparing epoxy/GO nanocomposites. When triglycidyl para-aminophenol (TGPAP), a commercially available glycidyl amine epoxy resin with one tertiary amine group per molecule, is used as both the surface modifier and phase transfer agent of GO, GO can be directly and rapidly transferred from water to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and other types of epoxy resins by manual stirring under ambient conditions, whereas GO cannot be transferred to these epoxy resins in the absence of TGPAP. The interaction between TGPAP and GO and the effect of the TGPAP content on the dispersion of GO in the epoxy matrix were investigated systematically. Superior dispersion and exfoliation of GO nanosheets and remarkably improved mechanical properties, including tensile and flexural properties, toughness, storage modulus, and microhardness, of the epoxy/GO nanocomposites with a suitable amount of TGPAP were demonstrated. This method is organic-solvent-free and technically feasible for large-scale preparation of high-performance nanocomposites; it opens up new opportunities for exploiting the unique properties of graphene or even other nanofillers for a wide range of applications.

  9. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  10. Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-min; Liu, Di; Liu, Gui-feng; Chen, Jian; Huo, Shu-ping; Kong, Zhen-wu

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset nanocomposites were prepared from a waterborne terpene-maleic ester type epoxy resin (WTME) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The curing behaviors of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were measured with rotational rheometer. The results show that the storage modulus (G') of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites increased with the increase of CNWs content. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate that the incorporation of CNWs in WTME matrix caused microphase separation and destroyed the compactness of the matrix. This effect leads to the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites slightly decrease with the increase of CNWs content, which were confirmed by both DSC and DMA tests. The mechanical properties of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were investigated by tensile testing. The Yong's modulus (E) and tensile strength (σb) of the nanocomposites were significantly reinforced by the addition of CNWs. These results indicate that CNWs exhibit excellent reinforcement effect on WTME matrix, due to the formation and increase of interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonds between CNWs nano-filler and the WTME matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Barium ferrite/epoxy resin nanocomposite system: Fabrication, dielectric, magnetic and hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanapitsas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite systems of epoxy resin and barium ferrite nanoparticles have been prepared, and studied varying the content of the inclusions. Morphology of prepared samples has been examined via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, while electrical and magnetic properties were investigated by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and magnetization tests respectively. Finally, water vapor sorption measurements were conducted in order to study the water sorption dynamics of the system. Electron microscopy images revealed the successful fabrication of nanocomposites. Dielectric permittivity increases with filler content, while three relaxation processes were detected in the relative spectra. These processes are attributed to interfacial polarization, glass to rubber transition of the matrix, and re-orientation of polar side groups of the polymer’s chain. Magnetization and magnetic saturation increase with magnetic nano-powder content. Nanocomposites absorb a small amount of water, not exceeding 1.7 wt%, regardless filler content, indicating their hydrophobic character.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polyhedral oligomer silsesquioxane nanocomposites incorporated in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi; Birriel, Eliena Jonko; Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Zattera, Ademir Jose

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofiller in thermosetting like epoxy resin as has been studied in order to modify its properties. In this research, nanocomposites were obtained by incorporating 5% by weight of three polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with different number of functionalization: Glicidilisobutil-POSS, Triglicidilisobutil- POSS and Glicicil POSS in an epoxy matrix by sonification process. The nanocomposites were characterized by analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DRX analysis showed the characteristic peak of POSS and TEM images showed that there is a difference in the dispersion of nanocages for the difference in the number of epoxy groups on the POSS. The incorporation of Glicidilisobutil-POSS showed a significant increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) value, and also that the most effective from the viewpoint of the dispersion, on the other hand, the Glycidyl-POSS had a greater influence on the thermal stability demonstrating that the dispersion medium is an important characteristic to define the most desirable properties. (author)

  13. Characteristics of epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposite insulation: effects of plasma surface treatment on the nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Phung, B T; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2013-05-01

    The present study compares the effects of two different material processing techniques on modifying hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles. In one method, the nanoparticles undergo plasma treatment by using a custom-developed atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma reactor. With the other method, they undergo chemical treatment which grafts silane groups onto their surface and turns them into hydrophobic. The treated nanoparticles are then used to synthesize epoxy resin-based nanocomposites for electrical insulation applications. Their characteristics are investigated and compared with the pure epoxy resin and nanocomposite fabricated with unmodified nanofillers counterparts. The dispersion features of the nanoparticles in the epoxy resin matrix are examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. All samples show evidence that the agglomerations are smaller than 30 nm in their diameters. This indicates good dispersion uniformity. The Weibull plot of breakdown strength and the recorded partial discharge (PD) events of the epoxy resin/plasma-treated hydrophilic SiO2 nanocomposite (ER/PTI) suggest that the plasma-treated specimen yields higher breakdown strength and lower PD magnitude as compared to the untreated ones. In contrast, surprisingly, lower breakdown strength is found for the nanocomposite made by the chemically treated hydrophobic particles, whereas the PD magnitude and PD numbers remain at a similar level as the plasma-treated ones.

  14. Nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and montmorillonite: effect of clay percent and dispersion state on thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaioncz, Soraia; Soares, Bluma G.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites of epoxy resin modified with PMMA and montmorillonite organophilic were synthesized with clay content equal to 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5 and 7 (wt %). Dispersion state and the nano structure of materials has been investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The nanocomposites containing 0.1 (wt %) of clay showed an exfoliated morphology, while the nanocomposites with higher clay content (1 to 7 wt %) show that the dispersion state is less uniform and that large aggregates coexist with tactoids stacks of two or three platelets. The nano structure of materials was correlated with its thermomechanical properties obtained by DMTA. The results showed an increase in Tg of the materials to clay content of up to 5 wt % and an increase in the storage modulus for the epoxy matrix. (author)

  15. Nanocomposite of photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and carbon nanotubes: dynamic-mechanical, thermal and tribological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nunes dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal, dynamic-mechanical and tribological behavior of nanocomposites of a photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT are investigated. A route consisting of a combination of sonication, mechanical and magnetic stirring is used to disperse 0.25-0.75 wt. (% MWCNT into the resin. Two photocuring cycles using 12 hours and 24 hours of UV-A radiation are studied. The storage modulus, the loss modulus and the tan delta are obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis. Thermal stability is investigated by thermogravimetry, morphology by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and tribological performance using a pin-on-disk apparatus. The results indicate an increase in stiffness and higher ability to dissipate energy, as well as a shift in the glass transition temperature for the nanocomposites. The addition of nanofillers also decreased friction coefficient and wear rate of the nanocomposites but did not change the observed wear mechanisms.

  16. Nanocomposite of photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and carbon nanotubes: dynamic-mechanical, thermal and tribological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nunes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal, dynamic-mechanical and tribological behavior of nanocomposites of a photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT are investigated. A route consisting of a combination of sonication, mechanical and magnetic stirring is used to disperse 0.25-0.75 wt. (% MWCNT into the resin. Two photocuring cycles using 12 hours and 24 hours of UV-A radiation are studied. The storage modulus, the loss modulus and the tan delta are obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis. Thermal stability is investigated by thermogravimetry, morphology by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and tribological performance using a pin-on-disk apparatus. The results indicate an increase in stiffness and higher ability to dissipate energy, as well as a shift in the glass transition temperature for the nanocomposites. The addition of nanofillers also decreased friction coefficient and wear rate of the nanocomposites but did not change the observed wear mechanisms.

  17. Biodegradation Study of Nanocomposites of Phenol Novolac Epoxy/Unsaturated Polyester Resin/Egg Shell Nanoparticles Using Natural Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials refer to those materials whose reinforcing phase has dimensions on a scale from one to one hundred nanometers. In this study, the nanocomposite biodegradation of the phenol Novolac epoxy and the unsaturated polyester resins was investigated using the egg shell nanoparticle as bioceramic as well as starch and glycerin as natural polymers to modify their properties. The phenol Novolac epoxy resin has a good compatibility with the unsaturated polyester resin. The prepared samples with different composition of materials for specified time were buried under soil and their biodegradation was studied using FTIR and SEM. The FTIR results before and after degradation showed that the presence of the hydroxyl group increased the samples degradation. Also adding the egg shell nanoparticle to samples had a positive effect on its degradation. The SEM results with and without the egg shell nanoparticle also showed that use of the egg shell nanoparticle increases the samples degradation. Additionally, increasing the amount of starch, and glycerol and the presence of egg shell nanoparticles can increase water adsorption.

  18. In Situ Exfoliation of Graphene in Epoxy Resins: A Facile Strategy to Efficient and Large Scale Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Crespo, Maria; Porwal, Harshit; Picot, Olivier; Santagiuliana, Giovanni; Huang, Zhaohui; Barbieri, Ettore; Pugno, Nicola M; Peijs, Ton; Bilotti, Emiliano

    2016-09-14

    Any industrial application aiming at exploiting the exceptional properties of graphene in composites or coatings is currently limited by finding viable production methods for large volumes of good quality and high aspect ratio graphene, few layer graphene (FLG) or graphite nanoplatelets (GNP). Final properties of the resulting composites are inherently related to those of the initial graphitic nanoparticles, which typically depend on time-consuming, resource-demanding and/or low yield liquid exfoliation processes. In addition, efficient dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrices, and their interaction, is of paramount importance. Here we show that it is possible to produce graphene/epoxy nanocomposites in situ and with high conversion of graphite to FLG/GNP through the process of three-roll milling (TRM), without the need of any additives, solvents, compatibilisers or chemical treatments. This readily scalable production method allows for more than 5 wt % of natural graphite (NG) to be directly exfoliated into FLG/GNP and dispersed in an epoxy resin. The in situ exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets, with average aspect ratios of 300-1000 and thicknesses of 5-17 nm, were demonstrated to conferee exceptional enhancements in mechanical and electrical properties to the epoxy resin. The above conclusions are discussed and interpreted in terms of simple analytical models.

  19. Nanocomposites with Liquid-Like Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Epoxy Resin without Solvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-like multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared with as-received carboxylic MWNTs-COOH and poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(propylene oxide-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO through hydrogen bonding. The sample has liquid-like behavior above 58°C. The MWNTs content is 26.6 wt%. The liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids were incorporated into epoxy matrix with solvent-free process and dispersed well. When the liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids content is up to 1 wt%, the impact toughness of the nanocomposite is 153% higher than the pure epoxy matrix.

  20. Investigation of nanoscopic free volume and interfacial interaction in an epoxy resin/modified clay nanocomposite using positron annihilation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pushkar N; Sudarshan, Kathi; Sharma, Sandeep K; Maheshwari, Priya; Rath, Sangram K; Patri, Manoranjan; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2012-12-07

    Epoxy/clay nanocomposites are synthesized using clay modified with the organic modifier N,N-dimethyl benzyl hydrogenated tallow quaternary ammonium salt (Cloisite 10A). The purpose is to investigate the influence of the clay concentration on the nanostructure, mainly on the free-volume properties and the interfacial interactions, of the epoxy/clay nanocomposite. Nanocomposites having 1, 3, 5 and 7.5 wt. % clay concentrations are prepared using the solvent-casting method. The dispersion of clay silicate layers and the morphologies of the fractured surfaces in the nanocomposites are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The observed XRD patterns reveal an exfoliated clay structure in the nanocomposite with the lowest clay concentration (≤1 wt. %). The ortho-positronium lifetime (τ(3)), a measure of the free-volume size, as well as the fractional free volume (f(v)) are seen to decrease in the nanocomposites as compared to pristine epoxy. The intensity of free positron annihilation (I(2)), an index of the epoxy-clay interaction, decreases with the addition of clay (1 wt. %) but increases linearly at higher clay concentrations. Positron age-momentum correlation measurements are also carried out to elucidate the positron/positronium states in pristine epoxy and in the nanocomposites. The results suggest that in the case of the nanocomposite with the studied lowest clay concentration (1 wt. %), free positrons are primarily localized in the epoxy-clay interfaces, whereas at higher clay concentrations, annihilation takes place from the intercalated clay layers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The influence of value of intensity of constant electric field on structure, thermal physic and conductivity nanocomposites epoxy resin-oxide metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, V.O.; Demchenko, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    Influence of constant electric field on structure, specific thermal capacity, thermomechanical properties and electrical conduction nanocomposites on a basis epoxy resin and fillers Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 is investigated. The received results show, that application of constant electric field gives the chance to influence level of perfection of crystal structure filler (Fe 2 O 3 ) in structure to a composite, thus the size of crystals decreases from 18.0 nm (for initial samples of composites) to 7.7 nm (for the composites generated under the influence of CEF). Nanocomposites generated in CEF characterization the higher values of a electrical conduction

  2. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  3. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  4. Thermomechanical Behavior of High Performance Epoxy/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Soares Cavalcanti Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of epoxy resin containing bentonite clay were fabricated to evaluate the thermomechanical behavior during heating. The epoxy resin system studied was prepared using bifunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, crosslinking agent diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS, and diethylenetriamine (DETA. The purified bentonite organoclay (APOC was used in all experiments. The formation of nanocomposite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Specimens of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. According to the DMA results a significant increase in glass transition temperature and storage modulus was evidenced when 1 phr of clay is added to epoxy resin.

  5. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  6. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, Subhra; Sarkar, Niladri; Rout, Dibyaranjan; Swain, Sarat K.

    2017-01-01

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  7. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantayat, Subhra [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Sarkar, Niladri [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); Rout, Dibyaranjan [School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India)

    2017-01-15

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  8. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  9. Microwave absorption properties of polypyrrole-SrFe12O19-TiO2-epoxy resin nanocomposites: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Dorraji, M. S.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Amani-Ghadim, A. R.; Khodabandeloo, M. H.; Felekari, M.; Khoshrou, M. R.; hajimiri, I.

    2016-10-01

    At a few works are discussed about formation of heterogeneous composites with different distribution of particle shape and size that are used for electromagnetic absorption purposes. In this study a novel heterogeneous nanocpmposites is investigated. The nanocomposite has been successfully prepared based on epoxy resin including various nano-metal oxides (TiO2, SrFe12O19) and polypyrrole (PPy) by sol-gel and the solution chemistry method, respectively. The performance of prepared nanocomposite in absorption of microwave in X-band range was investigated and transmission line method by X-band waveguide straight was used to measure EM parameters of nanocomposites. The Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was utilized to study the effects of the wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19, wt.% Tio2-SrFe12O19 in PPy and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy resin, on the microwave absorption properties with the absorber thickness of only 2 mm. The proposed quadratic model was in accordance with the experimental results with correlation coefficient of 96.5%. The optimum condition for maximum microwave absorption efficiency were wt.% TiO2 in SrFe12O19 of 70, wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19 in PPy of 10 and wt.% TiO2-SrFe12O19-PPy in epoxy of 25. The sample prepared in optimal conditions indicated reflection loss of -15 dB corresponding to 97% absorption, at the range of 9.2-10.8 GHz.

  10. Preparation and characterization of polyhedral oligomer silsesquioxane nanocomposites incorporated in epoxy resin; Elaboracao e caracterizacao de nanocompositos de oligomero poliedrico de silsesquioxano incorporados na resina epoxidica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi; Birriel, Eliena Jonko; Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Zattera, Ademir Jose, E-mail: marielen_longhi@hotmail.com [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (LPOL/UCS), RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Polimeros; Pistor, Vinicius [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The incorporation of nanofiller in thermosetting like epoxy resin as has been studied in order to modify its properties. In this research, nanocomposites were obtained by incorporating 5% by weight of three polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with different number of functionalization: Glicidilisobutil-POSS, Triglicidilisobutil- POSS and Glicicil POSS in an epoxy matrix by sonification process. The nanocomposites were characterized by analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The DRX analysis showed the characteristic peak of POSS and TEM images showed that there is a difference in the dispersion of nanocages for the difference in the number of epoxy groups on the POSS. The incorporation of Glicidilisobutil-POSS showed a significant increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) value, and also that the most effective from the viewpoint of the dispersion, on the other hand, the Glycidyl-POSS had a greater influence on the thermal stability demonstrating that the dispersion medium is an important characteristic to define the most desirable properties. (author)

  11. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments.

  12. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  13. Improved Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage Density of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite with Hydantoin Epoxy Resin Coated BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-04-22

    Energy storage materials are urgently demanded in modern electric power supply and renewable energy systems. The introduction of inorganic fillers to polymer matrix represents a promising avenue for the development of high energy density storage materials, which combines the high dielectric constant of inorganic fillers with supernal dielectric strength of polymer matrix. However, agglomeration and phase separation of inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix remain the key barriers to promoting the practical applications of the composites for energy storage. Here, we developed a low-cost and environmentally friendly route to modifying BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles by a kind of water-soluble hydantoin epoxy resin. The modified BT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) matrix and strong interfacial adhesion with the polymer matrix. The dielectric constants of the nanocomposites increased significantly with the increase of the coated BT loading, while the dielectric loss of the nanocomposites was still as low as that of the pure P(VDF-HFP). The energy storage density of the nanocomposites was largely enhanced with the coated BT loading at the same electric field. The nanocomposite with 20 vol % BT exhibited an estimated maximum energy density of 8.13 J cm(-3), which was much higher than that of pure P(VDF-HFP) and other dielectric polymers. The findings of this research could provide a feasible approach to produce high energy density materials for practical application in energy storage.

  14. Behaviour of Epoxy Silica Nanocomposites Under Static and Creep Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Picu, Radu Catalin; Sandu, Marin; Apostol, Dragos Alexandru; Sandu, Adriana; Baciu, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Specific manufacturing technologies were applied for the fabrication of epoxy-based nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles. For dispersing the fillers in the epoxy resin special equipment such as a shear mixer and a high energy sonicator with temperature control were used. Both functionalized and unfunctionalized silica nanoparticles were added in three epoxy resins. The considered filling fraction was in most cases 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt%.. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to monotonic uniaxial and creep loading at room temperature. The static mechanical properties were not significantly improved regardless the filler percentage and type of epoxy resin. Under creep loading, by increasing the stress level, the nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% silica creeps less than all other materials. Also the creep rate is reduced by adding silica nanofillers.

  15. Flame retardancy and thermal properties of epoxy acrylate resin/alpha-zirconium phosphate nanocomposites used for UV-curing flame retardant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Weiyi; Jie Ganxin; Song Lei; Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi; Hu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reported the UV-curing flame retardant film, which consisted of epoxy acrylate resin (EA) used as an oligomer, tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) used as flame retardant (FR). The flame retardancy and thermal properties of films were reinforced by using alpha-zirconium phosphate (α-Zr (HPO 4 ) 2 H 2 O, α-ZrP). The morphology of nanocomposite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the organophilic α-ZrP (OZrP) layers were dispersed well in epoxy acrylate resin. Microscale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR) were used to characterize the flame retardant property and thermal stability. It was found that the incorporation of TAEP and TGICA can reduce the flammability of EA. Moreover, further reductions were observed due to the addition of OZrP. The char residue for systems with or without OZrP was also explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Islam, Muhammad S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the matrix properties by introducing nanosize TiO 2 (5-40 nm, 0.5-2% by weight) fillers into an epoxy resin. Ultrasonic mixing process, via sonic cavitations, was employed to disperse the particles into the resin system. The thermal, mechanical, morphology and the viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposite and the neat resin were measured with TGA, DMA, TEM and Instron. The nano-particles are dispersed evenly throughout the entire volume of the resin. The nanofiller infusion improves the thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the epoxy resin. The nanocomposite shows increase in storage modulus, glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, flexural modulus and short beam shear strength from neat epoxy resin. The mechanical performance and thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites are depending on with the dispersion state of the TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix and are correlated with loading (0.0015-0.006% by volume). In addition, the nanocomposite shows enhanced flexural strength. Several reasons to explain these effects in terms of reinforcing mechanisms were discussed

  17. Behaviour of Water Droplets Under the Influence of a Uniform Electric Field in Nanocomposite Samples of Epoxy Resin/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. Bairaktari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nanocomposite samples of epoxy resin and TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated with water droplets on their surface. A uniform electric field was applied and the behaviour of the water droplets was observed. Parameters that were studied were the water conductivity, the droplet volume, the number of droplets and the droplet positioning with respect to (w.r.t. the electrodes. All above mentioned parameters influence the flashover voltage of the samples. It is to be noted that – at least in some cases – the water droplet positioning w.r.t. the electrodes was more important in determining the flashover voltage than the droplet volume.

  18. Epoxy-silicate nanocomposites: Cure monitoring and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Farzana; Chen, Jihua; Hojjati, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were prepared with organically modified layered clay with varying clay contents (1-8 wt.%). Neat resin and nanocomposite were characterized using different techniques. At first, the effect of nanoclay concentration on the cure behaviour was investigated using an on-line dielectric cure monitoring technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to verify the dielectric measurement results. Furthermore, mechanical and thermal properties were studied using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), respectively. Experimental results showed that properties of the epoxy were changed evidently because of the nanoclay loading. The tensile modulus of the nanocomposites increased by 47%, however, no improvement in tensile strength and glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed. Fracture surface of the tensile samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The nanocomposites structures were characterized with Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction (WAXD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which revealed the intercalated morphology of clay layers in the epoxy resin systems

  19. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment.

  20. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  1. Effects of Nanofillers on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistivity of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Joo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    MWCNTs was synthesized using Ni-Cr/MgO by CVD method and were purified. The purified MWCNT was used as a filler material for the fabrication of epoxy nanocomposites. The epoxy nanocomposites with different amount (wt% = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) of nanofillers (CB, SiO2 and MWCNTs) were prepared by casting method. The effects of nanofillers on the properties of neat epoxy matrix were well studied. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were studied using DSC, TGA and flame retardant, and also the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, determination of hardness and chemical resistance were studied extensively. Based on the experiment's results, 2 wt% MWCNTs loading in epoxy resin showed the highest improvement in tensile strength, as compared to neat epoxy and to other epoxy systems (CB/epoxy, SiO2/epoxy). Improvements in tensile strength, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were observed by the addition of MWCNTs. The mechanical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were improved due to the interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and epoxy resin. Strain hardening behavior was higher for MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites compared with CB/epoxy and SiO2/epoxy nanocomposites. The investigation of thermal and mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the epoxy nanocomposites increases its thermal stability to a great extent. Discrete increase of glass transition temperature of nanocomposites is linearly dependent on MWCNTs content. Due to strong interfacial bonding between MWCNTs and epoxy resin, the chemical resistivity of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites is superior to neat epoxy and other epoxy systems.

  2. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on dynamic impact responses of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Halil B. Kaybal; Hasan Ulus; Okan Demir; Ömer S. Şahin; Ahmet Avcı

    2018-01-01

    The influence of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles addition upon low-velocity impact behaviors of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced laminated epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated. For this purpose, different amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 5 wt% were added to the epoxy resin in order to observe the effect of nanoparticle loadings. CF reinforced epoxy based laminated nanocomposites were produced using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method (VARIM). The low velocity impact (LVI) t...

  3. Performance of epoxy-nanocomposite under corrosive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials consisting of polymeric matrix materials and natural or synthetic layered minerals like clay are currently an expanding field of study because these new materials often exhibit a wide range of improved properties over their unmodified starting polymers. Epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites have been prepared by intercalating epoxy into the organoclay via direct mixing process. The clay exfoliation was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Water diffusion and sulfuric acid corrosion resistance of epoxy-based nanocomposites were evaluated. Diffusion was studied through epoxy samples containing up to 6 phr (parts per hundred resin of an organically treated montmorillonite. The diffusion of the environmental solution was measured by noting the increase in weight of the samples as a function of immersion time in these solutions at 80°C. The effect of the degree of exfoliation of the organoclay on water barrier and corrosion resistance was specifically studied. The data have been compared to those obtained from the neat epoxy resin to evaluate the diffusion properties of the nanocomposites. The flexural strength of the epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites samples made was examined to compare their mechanical performance under corrosive conditions as a function of immersion time and temperature. It was found, that the organoclay was mainly intercalated with some exfoliation and that addition of the organoclay yields better flexural strength retention under immersion into sulfuric acid.

  4. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  5. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  6. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments. (paper)

  7. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  8. Epoxy based nanocomposites with fully exfoliated unmodified clay: mechanical and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binghai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gao, Jianming; Song, Zhihai; Qi, Guicun; Liu, Yiqun; Qiao, Jinliang

    2010-09-01

    The unmodified clay has been fully exfoliated in epoxy resin with the aid of a novel ultrafine full-vulcanized powdered rubber. Epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposites with exfoliated morphology have been successfully prepared. The microstructures of the nanocomposites were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the unmodified clay was fully exfoliated and uniformly dispersed in the resulting nanocomposite. Characterizations of mechanical properties revealed that the impact strength of this special epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposite increased up 107% over the neat epoxy resin. Thermal analyses showed that thermal stability of the nanocomposite was much better than that of epoxy nanocomposite based on organically modified clay.

  9. The Influence of Hydroxylated Carbon Nanotubes on Epoxy Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs/epoxy resin nanocomposites were prepared with ultrasonic dispersion and casting molding. The effect of hydroxylated MWNTs content on reactive activity of composites is discussed. Then the flexural and electrical properties were studied. Transmission electron microscope was employed to characterize the microstructure of nanocomposites. As a result, the reactive activity of nanocomposites obtained increases with the increasing content of MWNTs. When MWNTs content of the composites is 1 wt%, as compared to neat resin, the flexural strength increases from 143 Mpa to 156 MPa, the modulus increases from 3563 Mpa to 3691 MPa, and the volume and surface resistance of nanocomposites decrease by two orders of magnitude, respectively.

  10. Characterization of Epoxy Functionalized Graphite Nanoparticles and the Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Bauer, Jonathan L.; Maryanski, Michael J.; Heimann, Paula J.; Barlow, Jeremy P.; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Allred, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to the functionalization of graphite nanoparticles. The technique provides a mechanism for covalent bonding between the filler and matrix, with minimal disruption to the sp2 hybridization of the pristine graphene sheet. Functionalization proceeded by covalently bonding an epoxy monomer to the surface of expanded graphite, via a coupling agent, such that the epoxy concentration was measured as approximately 4 wt.%. The impact of dispersing this material into an epoxy resin was evaluated with respect to the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the graphite-epoxy nanocomposite. At a loading as low as 0.5 wt.%, the electrical conductivity was increased by five orders of magnitude relative to the base resin. The material yield strength was increased by 30% and Young s modulus by 50%. These results were realized without compromise to the resin toughness.

  11. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  12. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. PMID:28348313

  13. Enhancing Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites via Alignment of Magnetized SiC Whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James; Burtovyy, Ruslan; Aprelev, Pavel; Kornev, Konstantin G; Luzinov, Igor

    2017-07-12

    This research is focused on the fabrication and properties of epoxy nanocomposites containing magnetized SiC whiskers (MSiCWs). To this end, we report an original strategy for fabrication of magnetically active SiCWs by decorating the whiskers with magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles via polymer-polymer (poly(acrylic acid)/poly(2-vinyl pyridine)) complexation. The obtained whiskers demonstrated a substantial magnetic response in the polymerizing epoxy resin, with application of only a 20 mT (200 G) magnetic field. We also found that the whiskers chemically reacted with the epoxy resin, causing formation of an extended interphase near the boundary of the whiskers. The SiC whiskers oriented with the magnetic field demonstrated positive effects on the behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites. Namely, the aligned MSiCWs enhanced the thermomechanical properties of the materials significantly above that of the neat epoxy and epoxy nanocomposite, with randomly oriented whiskers.

  14. Studies on preparation and properties of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huayang; Cao Qi; Wang Xianyou; Chen Quanqi; Kuang Hao; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We use the modified MWNTs as fillers fabricated epoxy nanocomposites. → The mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of nanocomposites are measured. → The nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical and dielectric properties. - Abstract: The MWNTs were coated with polyaniline (PANI) by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the MWNTs were coated with PANI. The MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by using the solution blending method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, HP 4294A impedance analyzer and SEM were used to investigate the properties of the nanocomposites. The results showed that the modified carbon nanotubes were well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The nanocomposites have enhancements in mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties compare with the neat epoxy resin. The nanocomposites were proven to be a good polymer dielectric material.

  15. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  16. Epoxy polyurethane nanocomposites filled with fullerite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhnova, R.A.; Galatenko, N.A.; Lukashevich, S.A.; Shirokov, O.D.; Levenets', Je.G.

    2015-01-01

    New nanocomposite materials based on epoxy polyurethane (EPU) containing nanoscale fullerite in its composition are produced. The influence of small impurities of fullerite on physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites is established. The effect of a nanofiller and its concentration on the structure and properties of the composite and the ability to biodegradation in vitro is studied. The developed nanocomposites exhibit the biodegradability, and the presence of nanofillers in the EPU facilitates the course of the process

  17. Fabrication and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Tai, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have better physical and mechanical behavior than the traditional materials. In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were added to the epoxy resin as a reinforcement to fabricate MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites. The pressure and temperature were applied to cure the MWNTs/epoxy compound by hot press method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio were measured. The effect of weight percentages of the MWNTs was investigated. Morphologies of the fracture surface of MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were observed by scanning electron microscope

  18. Preparation and Various Characteristics of Epoxy/Alumina Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozako, Masahiro; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    Epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites were newly prepared by dispersing 3, 5, 7, and 10 weight (wt) % boehmite alumina nanofillers in a bisphenol-A epoxy resin using a special two-stage direct mixing method. It was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging that the nanofillers were homogeneously dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties were investigated. It was elucidated that nanofillers affects various characteristics of epoxy resins, when they are nanostructrued. Such nano-effects we obtained are summarized as follows. Partial discharge resistance increases as the filler content increases; e.g. 7 wt% nanofiller content creates a 60 % decrease in depth of PD-caused erosion. Weibull analysis shows that short-time electrical treeing breakdown time is prolonged to 265 % by 5 wt% addition of nanofillers. But there was more data scatter in nanocomposites than in pure epoxy. Permittivity tends to increase from 3.7 to 4.0 by 5 wt% nanofiller addition as opposed to what was newly found in the recent past. Glass transition temperature remains unchanged as 109 °C. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength and flexural modulus increase; e.g. flexural strength and flexural modulus are improved by 5 % and 8 % with 5 wt% content, respectively. Excess addition causes a reverse effect. It is concluded from permittivity and glass transition temperature characteristics that interfacial bonding seems to be more or less weak in the nanocomposite specimens prepared this time, even though mechanical strengths increase. There is a possibility that the nanocomposites specimens will be improved in interfacial quality.

  19. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  20. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  1. Preparation and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with polyglycidyl methacrylate grafted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Viswanath, Anand; Schadler, Linda S; Benicewicz, Brian C; Siegel, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Visibly highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing polyglycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) grafted ITO nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy resin. The oleic acid stabilized, highly crystalline, and near monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a nonaqueous synthetic route with multigram batch quantities. An azido-phosphate ligand was synthesized and used to exchange with oleic acid on the ITO surface. The azide terminal group allows for the grafting of epoxy resin compatible PGMA polymer chains via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide "click" chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that PGMA grafted ITO particles were homogeneously dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Optical properties of ITO/epoxy nanocomposites with different ITO concentrations were studied with an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrometer. All the ITO/epoxy nanocomposites show more than 90% optical transparency in the visible light range and absorption of UV light from 300 to 400 nm. In the near-infrared region, ITO/epoxy nanocomposites demonstrate low transmittance and the infrared (IR) transmission cutoff wavelength of the composites shifts toward the lower wavelength with increased ITO concentration. The ITO/epoxy nanocomposites were applied onto both glass and plastic substrates as visibly transparent and UV/IR opaque optical coatings.

  2. Epoxy Nanocomposites filled with Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallego, M; Yuste-Sanchez, V; Sanchez-Hidalgo, R; Verdejo, R; Lopez-Manchado, M A

    2018-01-10

    Over the past decades, the development of high performance lightweight polymer nanocomposites and, in particular, of epoxy nanocomposites has become one the greatest challenges in material science. The ultimate goal of epoxy nanocomposites is to extrapolate the exceptional intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles to the bulk matrix. However, in spite of the efforts, this objective is still to be attained at commercially attractive scales. Key aspects to achieve this are ultimately the full understanding of network structure, the dispersion degree of the nanoparticles, the interfacial adhesion at the phase boundaries and the control of the localization and orientation of the nanoparticles in the epoxy system. In this Personal Account, we critically discuss the state of the art and evaluate the strategies to overcome these barriers. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Epoxy/α-alumina nanocomposite with high electrical insulation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to improve the electrical insulation of epoxy resin. The effects of boehmite, γ-alumina and α-alumina nanoparticles on the volume resistivity, dielectric strength and glass transition temperature of epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. The results showed that α-alumina nanoparticles displayed obvious advantages in enhancing electrical insulation performance of epoxy nanocomposites, compared to boehmite and γ-alumina nanoparticles. The direct current volume resistivity and breakdown strength of epoxy nanocomposite with 2.0 wt% α-alumina nanoparticles was improved to 2.2 × 1018 Ω cm and 76.1 kV mm−1 respectively. And these improved values of electrical insulation properties are much higher than these of epoxy nanocomposites reported in previous studies. The main reason of these improvements may be that the epoxy/α-alumina interaction zone was enhanced by crosslink. Keywords: Nanocomposite, Epoxy resin, Insulation, α-alumina

  4. Epoxy Nanocomposites Containing Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Mullins, Michael; Hawkins, Spencer; Kotaki, Masaya; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2018-01-10

    Zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) is utilized as a functional filler and a curing agent in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites. The imidazole group on the surface of the ZIF-8 initiates epoxy curing, resulting in covalent bonding between the ZIF-8 crystals and epoxy matrix. A substantial reduction in dielectric constant and increase in tensile modulus were observed. The implication of the present study for utilization of metal-organic framework to improve physical and mechanical properties of polymeric matrixes is discussed.

  5. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  6. Rapid microwave processing of epoxy nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Luhyna, Nataliia; Inam, Fawad; Winnington, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Microwave processing is one of the rapid processing techniques for manufacturing nanocomposites. There is very little work focussing on the addition of CNTs for shortening the curing time of epoxy nanocomposites. Using microwave energy, the effect of CNT addition on the curing of epoxy nanocomposites was researched in this work. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the degree of cure for epoxy and nanocomposite samples. CNT addition significantly reduced the duration ...

  7. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  8. Improving Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Akherati Sany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin was modified by silica nanoparticles and cured with an anhydride. The particles with different batches of 12, 20, and 40 nm sizes were each distributed into the epoxy resin ultrasonically. Electron microscopy images showed that the silica particles were well dispersed throughout the resin. Tensile test results showed that Young’s modulus and tensile strength increased with the volume fraction and surface area of the silica particles. The simultaneous use of two average sizes of 20 and 40 nm diameter silica particles still increased these mechanical properties but other combinations of silica particles were unsuccessful. A three-point bending test on each pre-cracked specimen was performed to measure the mode I fracture toughness energy. The fracture energy increased from 283 J/m2 for the unmodified epoxy to about 740 J/m2 for the epoxy with 4.5 wt% of 12 nm diameter silica nanoparticles. The fracture energy of smaller particles was greater because of their higher surface to volume ratio. The fracture energy results showed also that the combined nanoparticles has a synergic effect on the fracture toughness of nanocomposites. Simultaneous use of 10 and 20 nm particles increased the fracture energy to about 770 J/m2. Finally, crack-opening displacement was calculated and found to be in the range of several micrometers which was much larger than the sizes of particles studied. Thus, the toughening mechanisms of crack pinning and crack deflection have a negligible effect on improvement of toughness, nevertheless, the plastic deformation and plastic void growth are dominant mechanisms in epoxy toughening by nanoparticles.

  9. Influence of hematite nanorods on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of nanocomposites obtained by incorporation of fairly uniform hematite nanorods (α-Fe2O3 NRs into epoxy resin were studied as a function of the content of the inorganic phase. A thorough microstructural characterization of the α-Fe2O3 NRs and the nanocomposites was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The TEM measurements revealed rod-like morphology of the nanofiller with a uniform size distribution (8.5 nm×170 nm, diameter×length. High-magnification TEM and AFM measurements indicated agglomeration of α-Fe2O3 NRs embedded in the epoxy resin. Stress at break, strain at break, elastic modulus and tensile toughness of the nanocomposites were compared with the data obtained for pure epoxy resin. Significant influence of nanofiller on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin, as well as on the glass transition temperature, could be noticed for samples with low contents of the inorganic phase (up to 1 wt. %. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 45020

  10. Elaboration, structural and optical investigations of ZnO/epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, S.; Namouchi, F.; Guermazi, H.

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites were elaborated by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a transparent epoxy polymer matrix, using the direct dispersion method. The effect of the nanoparticles on the structural and optical properties of the polymer matrix was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Nanocomposites FTIR spectra showed a variation of band intensities attributed to nanoparticles agglomeration within the polymer. The UV-Visible measurements showed a redshift on the band gap energy of the nanocomposites differently from neat epoxy resin, caused by interactions between ZnO NPs and polymer chains. Raman spectra confirm these interactions and the formation of hydrogen bonds in the nanocomposites. The UV-Visible transmittance spectra revealed that addition of a very low concentration (0.2wt%) of ZnO nanoparticles to a transparent epoxy matrix would maintain high visible-light transparency. The decrease of transmittance with increasing ZnO percentage is due to light scattering which originates from the agglomeration of nanoparticles in the matrix, the mismatch between the refractive index of ZnO and that of the epoxy matrix, and the increase of the surface roughness of the nanocomposite with increasing ZnO addition. Moreover, the UV-vis absorption spectra revealed that adding more than 1wt% ZnO leads to the improvement of the UV shielding properties of the nanocomposites. These results prove that the elaborated ZnO/epoxy nanocomposites can be used as UV shielding materials.

  11. Improvement of epoxy resin properties by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallic acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoman, Tijana S.; Džunuzović, Jasna V.; Jeremić, Katarina B.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Miličević, Dejan S.; Popović, Ivanka G.; Džunuzović, Enis S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites of epoxy resin and TiO 2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallates. • The T g of epoxy resin was increased by incorporation of surface modified TiO 2 . • WVTR of epoxy resin decreased in the presence of surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles. • WVTR of nanocomposites was reduced with increasing gallates hydrophobic chain length. • Modified TiO 2 nanoparticles react as oxygen scavengers, inhibiting steel corrosion. - Abstract: Epoxy resin/titanium dioxide (epoxy/TiO 2 ) nanocomposites were obtained by incorporation of TiO 2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallic acid esters in epoxy resin. TiO 2 nanoparticles were obtained by acid catalyzed hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide and their structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three gallic acid esters, having different hydrophobic part, were used for surface modification of the synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles: propyl, hexyl and lauryl gallate. The gallate chemisorption onto surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, while the amount of surface-bonded gallates was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The influence of the surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles, as well as the length of hydrophobic part of the gallate used for surface modification of TiO 2 nanoparticles, on glass transition temperature, barrier, dielectric and anticorrosive properties of epoxy resin was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, water vapor transmission test, dielectric spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurements. Incorporation of surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles in epoxy resin caused increase of glass transition temperature and decrease of the water vapor permeability of epoxy resin. The water vapor transmission rate of epoxy/TiO 2 nanocomposites was reduced with increasing hydrophobic part chain length of

  12. Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/epoxy polysulfide nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad; Mahdavi Javid, Kimya; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Preparation of epoxy polysulfide nanocomposite. ► Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been modified and dispersed in epoxy polysulfide matrix. ► Mechanical properties of MWNT/epoxy polysulfide have been studied. - Abstract: In this research, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by acid functionalization (H 2 SO 4 :HNO 3 = 1:3 by volume) and then mechanical properties of reinforced epoxy polysulfide resin by the both pure and treated MWNTs have been evaluated. For achieving this goal, different weight percentages of pure and treated MWCNT (0.1–0.3 wt%) were dispersed in the epoxy polysulfide resin separately and then mixed with curing agent. Experimental results have shown significant difference between acid treated and untreated MWCNTs in mechanical properties of epoxy polysulfide nanocomposites. In nanocomposite with 0.1–0.3% acid treated MWCNTs we observed increase of Young’s modulus from 458 to 723 MPa, tensile strength from 5.29 to 8.83 MPa and fracture strain from 0.16% to 0.25%. For understanding the structure and morphology of nanocomposite, the dispersion states were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed better dispersion of modified carbon nanotube than unmodified in polymeric matrix

  13. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  14. Epoxy Resin Based Composites, Mechanical and Tribological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Bello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles built from legacy alloys has been a great challenge to global design and material engineers. This has called for researches into material development for the production of lighter materials of the same or even superior mechanical properties to the existing materials in this area of applications. This forms a part of efforts to achieve the global vision 2025 i.e to reduce the fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles by at least 75 %. Many researchers have identified advanced composites as suitable materials in this regard. Among the common matrices used for the development of advanced composites, epoxy resin has attained a dominance among its counterparts because of its excellent properties including chemical, thermal and electrical resistance properties, mechanical properties and dimensional stability. This review is a reflection of the extensive study on the currently ongoing research aimed at development of epoxy resin hybrid nanocomposites for engineering applications. In this paper, brief explanation has been given to different terms related to the research work and also, some previous works (in accordance with materials within authors’ reach in the area of the ongoing research have been reported.

  15. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  16. Epoxy resin/phosphonium ionic liquid/carbon nanofiller systems: Chemorheology and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy nanocomposites with commercial carbon nanotubes (CNT or graphene (GN have been prepared using phosphonium ionic liquid [trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinate, IL-f]. IL-f served simultaneously as nanofiller dispersing medium and epoxy resin catalytic curing agent. An influence of IL-f/epoxy weight ratio (3, 6 and 9/100, phr, carbon nanofiller type and content on viscosity of epoxy compositions during storage at ambient temperature was evaluated. Curing process was controlled for neat and CNT or GN modified epoxy compositions (0.25-1.0 wt.% load using differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry. Epoxy nanocomposites exhibited slightly increased glass transition temperature values (146 to 149°C whereas tan δ and storage modulus decreased (0.30 to 0.27 and 2087 to 1070 MPa, respectively as compared to reference material. Crosslink density regularly decreased for composites with increasing CNT content (11 094 to 7 020 mol/m3. Electrical volume resistivity of the nanocomposites was improved in case of CNT to 4•101 Ω•m and GN to 2•105 Ω•m (nanofiller content 1 wt.%. Flame retardancy was found for modified epoxy materials with as low GN and phosphorus content as 0.25 and 0.7 wt.%, respectively (increase of limiting oxygen index to 26.5%.

  17. Modification of (DGEBA epoxy resin with maleated depolymerised natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA type epoxy resin has been modified with maleated depolymerised natural rubber (MDPR. MDPR was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride onto depolymerised natural rubber. MDPR has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. MDPR was blended with epoxy resin at three different ratios (97/3, 98/2 and 99/1, by keeping the epoxy resin component as the major phase and maleated depolymerised natural rubber component as the minor phase. The reaction between the two blend components took place between the acid/anhydride group in the MDPR and the epoxide group of the epoxy resin. The proposed reaction schemes were supported by the FT-IR spectrum of the uncured Epoxy/MDPR blends. The neat epoxy resin and Epoxy/MDPR blends were cured by methylene dianiline (DDM at 100°C for three hours. Thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy and the blends were investigated. Free volume studies of the cured, neat epoxy and Epoxy/MDPR blends were correlated with the morphological and mechanical properties of the same systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Studies.

  18. Boron nitride-MWCNT/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites: Preparation and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulus, Hasan; Üstün, Tugay; Eskizeybek, Volkan; Şahin, Ömer Sinan; Avcı, Ahmet; Ekrem, Mürsel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of BN nanoplatelets on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • We investigated the synergetic effects of BN nanoplatelets and MWCNTs on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • Fracture surfaces were examined by SEM analysis. - Abstract: In this study, production and mechanical properties of hybrid nanocomposites have been investigated. Hybrid nanocomposites are consisting of boron nitride nanoplatelets (BN) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) embedded in epoxy resin. The BN and MWCNT were mixed to epoxy resin in different weight fractions and mixtures were utilized for tensile test specimen production. The synthesized BN and produced hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA analyses. The elasticity modulus and tensile strength values were obtained via tensile tests. The fracture morphologies were investigated after tensile test by means of scanning electron microscopy

  19. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Jen Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropyleneamine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  20. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chan, Ying-Nan; Lan, Yi-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene)-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH) with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction) as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropylene)amine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT) clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness) in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  1. Effects of Surface Treatments of Montmorillonite Nanoclay on Cure Behavior of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherbi-Narteh, A.; Hosur, M.V.; Triggs, E.; Jelaani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) based SC-15 epoxy resin was modified with three different commercially available montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay: Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and 30B. Cure behavior of nanocomposites was studied using a variety of techniques. Primary focus of this study was to investigate influence of different surface modifications of MMT nanoclay on rheological properties and cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin. By adding MMT to SC-15 epoxy resin, chemistry of the epoxy is altered leading to changes in rheological properties and ultimately enthalpy and activation energy of reactions. Addition of Nanomer I.28E delayed gelation, while Cloisite 10A and 30B accelerated gelation, regardless of the curing temperature. Activation energy of reaction was lower with the addition of Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and higher for Cloisite 30B compared to neat SC-15 epoxy composite.

  2. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  3. Mechanical, thermal and microstructural characteristics of cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-10-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibres (RCFs) and organoclay platelets (30B) have been fabricated and investigated in terms of WAXS, TEM, mechanical properties and TGA. Results indicated that mechanical properties generally increased as a result of the addition of nanoclay into the epoxy matrix. The presence of RCF significantly enhanced flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength and impact toughness of the composites. However, the inclusion of 1 wt.% clay into RCF/epoxy composites considerably increased the impact strength and toughness. The presence of either nanoclay or RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy, but at high temperature, thermal stability was enhanced with increased char residue over neat resin. The failure micromechanisms and energy dissipative processes in these nanocomposites were discussed in terms of microstructural observations. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolongo, S G; Gude, M R; Ureña, A

    2009-10-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated using two kinds of nanofiller, amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and non-treated long carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The non-cured mixtures were analysed through viscosity measurements. The effect of the nanoreinforcement on the curing process was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the characterisation of cured nanocomposites was carried out studying their thermo-mechanical and electrical behaviour. At room temperature, the addition of CNTs causes a viscosity increase of epoxy monomer much more marked than the introduction of CNFs due to their higher specific area. It was probed that in that case exists chemical reaction between amino-functionalized CNTs and the oxirane rings of epoxy monomer. The presence of nanoreinforcement induces a decrease of curing reaction rate and modifies the epoxy conversion reached. The glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites decreases with the contents of CNTs and CNFs added, which could be related to plasticization phenomena of the nanoreinforcements. The storage modulus of epoxy resin significantly increases with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. This augment is higher with amino-functionalized CNTs due, between other reasons, to the stronger interaction with the epoxy matrix. The electrical conductivity is greatly increased with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. In fact, the percolation threshold is lower than 0.25 wt% due to the high aspect ratio of the used nanoreinforcements.

  5. Corrosion Protection of Steel by Epoxy-Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Domna Merachtsaki; Panagiotis Xidas; Panagiotis Giannakoudakis; Konstantinos Triantafyllidis; Panagiotis Spathis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the corrosion behavior of steel coated with epoxy-(organo) clay nanocomposite films. The investigation was carried out using salt spray exposures, optical and scanning electron microscopy examination, open circuit potential, and electrochemical impedance measurements. The mechanical, thermomechanical, and barrier properties of pristine glassy epoxy polymer and epoxy-clay nanocomposites were examined. The degree of intercalation/exfoliation of clay ...

  6. Fabrication of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite and characterization of its mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubin, Muhammad Shamsul Huda

    2007-02-15

    In this study, carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites have been fabricated incorporating single walled carbon nantubes (SWNTs) or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a thermosetting polymer matrix, epoxy resin. Nanoindentation measurements showed that elastic modulus of epoxy polymer matrix has changed from 3.5 GPa to 4.0 GPa (∼ 15 % increase) only for 0.005 wt% single walled carbon nanotubes loading. The hardness of the single walled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites remained nearly unchanged for 0.005 wt % nanotube loading. Multiwalled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed deterioration of both the hardness, from 0.2 GPa to 0.08 GPa (∼factor 2.5), and elastic modulus, from 3.5 GPa to 2.1 GPa (∼ factor 1.6), for 0.02 wt % nanotube loading. Homogeneity study using continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) mode of indentation techniques revealed the lack in homogeneity of the fabricated nancomposite may be responsible for deteriorating mechanical properties. High resolution scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images taken from cross section of carbon nanotubes incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed several poorly attached thin layers of nanocomposites staked on each other which may be another cause of property deterioration.

  7. Fabrication of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite and characterization of its mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, Muhammad Shamsul Huda

    2007-02-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites have been fabricated incorporating single walled carbon nantubes (SWNTs) or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a thermosetting polymer matrix, epoxy resin. Nanoindentation measurements showed that elastic modulus of epoxy polymer matrix has changed from 3.5 GPa to 4.0 GPa (∼ 15 % increase) only for 0.005 wt% single walled carbon nanotubes loading. The hardness of the single walled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites remained nearly unchanged for 0.005 wt % nanotube loading. Multiwalled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed deterioration of both the hardness, from 0.2 GPa to 0.08 GPa (∼factor 2.5), and elastic modulus, from 3.5 GPa to 2.1 GPa (∼ factor 1.6), for 0.02 wt % nanotube loading. Homogeneity study using continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) mode of indentation techniques revealed the lack in homogeneity of the fabricated nancomposite may be responsible for deteriorating mechanical properties. High resolution scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images taken from cross section of carbon nanotubes incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed several poorly attached thin layers of nanocomposites staked on each other which may be another cause of property deterioration

  8. Carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: the effects of interfacial modifications on the dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Lebrón-Colón, Marisabel; Scheiman, Daniel; Meador, Michael A

    2014-10-08

    Surface functionalization of pretreated carbon nanotubes (CNT) using aromatic, aliphatic, and aliphatic ether diamines was performed. The pretreatment of the CNT consisted of either acid- or photo-oxidation. The acid treated CNT had a higher initial oxygen content compared to the photo-oxidized CNT and this resulted in a higher density of functionalization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to verify the presence of the oxygenated and amine moieties on the CNT surfaces. Epoxy/0.1 wt % CNT nanocomposites were prepared using the functionalized CNT and the bulk properties of the nanocomposites were examined. Macroscale correlations between the interfacial modification and bulk dynamic mechanical and thermal properties were observed. The amine modified epoxy/CNT nanocomposites exhibited up to a 1.9-fold improvement in storage modulus (G') below the glass transition (Tg) and up to an almost 4-fold increase above the Tg. They also exhibited a 3-10 °C increase in the glass transition temperature. The aromatic diamine surface modified epoxy/CNT nanocomposites resulted in the largest increase in shear moduli below and above the Tg and the largest increase in the Tg. Surface examination of the nanocomposites with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed indications of a greater adhesion of the epoxy resin matrix to the CNT, most likely due to the covalent bonding.

  9. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  10. Effect of Sonification Time on Synthesisi and Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Bahrami Panah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many research works have been carried out on anti-corrosive nanocomposites coatings containing mineral reinforcements. The most important criteria in these attempts are polymerization method and the type of matrix and reinforcement of nanocomposites. In this regard, the physical and mechanical properties of the polymers in which a small amount of filler is used can be improved. In this research, an epoxy-clay nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ polymerization method using a resin matrix based on bisphenol-A type epoxy and montmorillonite clay (Closite 15A. The treatment was used at different ultrasonic stirring times to disperse 1-4 weight percentages of clay particles into the matrix. The structure of synthesized epoxy-clay nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average size of clay particles was determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. Then, anti-corrosion properties of epoxy-clay coatings, prepared under different ultrasonic durations and applied on carbon steel panels, were investigated by Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. For this purpose, the carbon steel panels coated with these coatings were immersed in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and tested at different immersion times. The results indicated that a nanocomposite containing 1% clay, synthesized, stirred 60 min ultrasonically, produced smaller particle size, lower corrosion current density and higher coating corrosion resistance than the other composite formulations. This nanocomposite provided superior protection against corrosion in sodium chloride solution.

  11. In-situ Elevated Temperature Mechanical Performance of MWCNT/epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been focused on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT addition on the mechanical performance of epoxy under different in-service elevated temperature environments. Room temperature flexural test results revealed that addition of 0.1 wt. % MWCNT into epoxy resin resulted in modulus and strength enhancement of 21 % and 9 % respectively. With increase in service temperature, significant decrement in both modulus and strength was noticed for both materials (neat epoxy and MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite, but the rate of degradation was found to be quite drastic for the nanocomposite. At 90 °C temperature, the CNT/epoxy nanocomposite exhibited inferior modulus and strength, which are 41 % and 59 % lower than neat epoxy respectively. The variation trend in elastic modulus with temperature obtained from both flexural testing and DMA for both these materials was also analyzed. It was found that addition of 0.1 % CNT in the epoxy reduced the glass transition temperature by about 16°C.

  12. Selective Clay Placement within a Silicate Clay-Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite and the Effect on Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Scheiman, Daniel A; Kohlmman, Lee W.

    2009-01-01

    Many epoxy systems under consideration for composite pressure vessels are composed of toughened epoxy resins. In this work, epoxy blends containing both rigid aromatic and flexible aliphatic components were prepared, to model toughened systems, and determine the optimum route of silicate addition. Compositions were chosen such that both glassy and rubbery resins were obtained at room temperature. The physical properties of the nanocomposites varied with T(g) and silicate placement, however, nanocomposite T(g)s were observed which exceeded that of the base resin by greater than 10 C. The tensile strength of the glassy resin remained constant or decreased on the dispersion of clay while that of the rubbery material doubled. Selectively placing the clay in the aliphatic component of the rubbery blend resulted in a greater than 100% increase in material toughness.

  13. Variation of mechanical properties due to hygrothermal ageing and permanent changes upon redrying in clay/epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamim, Salah Uddin Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Epoxy polymers are an important class of material for use in various applications. Due to their hydrophilic nature, epoxy resins tend to absorb moisture. Absorption of moisture degrades the functional, structural and mechanical properties. For polymers, moisture absorption can lead to both reversible and irreversible changes. In this study, the combined effect of moisture and elevated temperature on the mechanical properties of Epon 862 and its nanocomposites were investigated. The extent of permanent damage on fracture toughness and flexural properties of epoxy, due to the aggressive degradation provided by hygrothermal ageing, was determined by drying the epoxy and their clay/epoxy nanocomposites after moisture absorption. From the investigation it was found out that, clay can help in reducing the negative effect of hygrothermal ageing. Significant permanent damage was observed for fracture toughness and modulus, while the extent of permanent damage was less significant for flexural strength. Failure mechanism of this nanocomposites were studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  14. The effects of alumina nanofillers on mechanical properties of high-performance epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Longcheng; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Daijun; Zhou, Lingyun; Zhang, Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade extensive studies have been focused on mechanical properties of inorganic nanofiller/epoxy matrices. In this work we systematically investigated the mechanical properties of nano-alumina-filled E-54/4, 4-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) epoxy resins, which were prepared via combining high-speed mixing with three-roll milling. Homogeneous dispersion of nano-alumina with small agglomerates was obtained in epoxy resin, which was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The static/dynamic modulus, tensile strength and fracture toughness of the nanocomposites were found to be simultaneously enhanced with addition of nano-alumina fillers. About 50% and 80% increases of K(IC) and G(IC) were achieved in nanocomposite filled with 18.4 wt% alumina nanofillers, as compared to that of the unfilled epoxy resin. Furthermore, the corresponding fracture surfaces of tensile and compact tension samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques in order to identify the relevant fracture mechanisms involved. Various fracture features including cavities/debonding of nanofiller, local plastic deformation as well as crack pinning/deflection were found to be operative in the presence of nano-alumina fillers.

  15. A biomimetic approach to enhancing interfacial interactions: polydopamine-coated clay as reinforcement for epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Phua, Si Lei; Teo, Jun Kai Herman; Toh, Cher Ling; Lau, Soo Khim; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong

    2011-08-01

    A facile biomimetic method was developed to enhance the interfacial interaction in polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was constructed on clay surface by a controllable coating method. The modified clay (D-clay) was incorporated into an epoxy resin, it is found that the strong interfacial interactions brought by the polydopamine benefits not only the dispersion of the D-clay in the epoxy but also the effective interfacial stress transfer, leading to greatly improved thermomechanical properties at very low inorganic loadings. Rheological and infrared spectroscopic studies show that the interfacial interactions between the D-clay and epoxy are dominated by the hydrogen bonds between the catechol-enriched polydopamine and the epoxy.

  16. Positron lifetime study of electron-irradiated epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; Wojnarovits, L.; Foeldiak, G.; Liszkai, L.; Kajcsos, Zs.

    1990-01-01

    Two bisphenol-A type epoxy resins were irradiated by electron beam and studied afterwards by positron lifetime spectroscopy. An interesting result is that despite of the considerable amount of free-radicals, no inhibition of positronium formation was observed in the two epoxies. Nevertheless, several serious differences were detected between the studied polymers. The results suggest that the radiation-resistant properties of epoxies depend strongly on the amount of the curing agent. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Zirconium tungstate/epoxy nanocomposites: effect of nanoparticle morphology and negative thermal expansivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchao; Rogalski, Mark; Kessler, Michael R

    2013-10-09

    The ability to tailor the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a polymer is essential for mitigating thermal residual stress and reducing microcracks caused by CTE mismatch of different components in electronic applications. This work studies the effect of morphology and thermal expansivity of zirconium tungstate nanoparticles on the rheological, thermo-mechanical, dynamic-mechanical, and dielectric properties of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites. Three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles were synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and their distinct properties were characterized, including morphology, particle size, aspect ratio, surface area, and CTE. Nanoparticles with a smaller particle size and larger surface area led to a more significant reduction in gel-time and glass transition temperature of the epoxy nanocomposites, while a higher initial viscosity and significant shear thinning behavior was found in prepolymer suspensions containing ZrW2O8 with larger particle sizes and aspect ratios. The thermo- and dynamic-mechanical properties of epoxy-based nanocomposites improved with increasing loadings of the three types of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles. In addition, the introduced ZrW2O8 nanoparticles did not negatively affect the dielectric constant or the breakdown strength of the epoxy resin, suggesting potential applications of ZrW2O8/epoxy nanocomposites in the microelectronic insulation industry.

  18. Enhanced mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites by mixing noncovalently functionalized boron nitride nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongju; Song, Sung Ho; Hwang, Jaewon; Jin, Sung Hwan; Park, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Bo Hyun; Hong, Soon Hyung; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2013-08-12

    The influence of surface modifications on the mechanical properties of epoxy-hexagonal boron nitride nanoflake (BNNF) nanocomposites is investigated. Homogeneous distributions of boron nitride nanoflakes in a polymer matrix, preserving intrinsic material properties of boron nitride nanoflakes, is the key to successful composite applications. Here, a method is suggested to obtain noncovalently functionalized BNNFs with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) molecules and to synthesize epoxy-BNNF nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties. The incorporation of noncovalently functionalized BNNFs into epoxy resin yields an elastic modulus of 3.34 GPa, and 71.9 MPa ultimate tensile strength at 0.3 wt%. The toughening enhancement is as high as 107% compared to the value of neat epoxy. The creep strain and the creep compliance of the noncovalently functionalized BNNF nanocomposite is significantly less than the neat epoxy and the nonfunctionalized BNNF nanocomposite. Noncovalent functionalization of BNNFs is effective to increase mechanical properties by strong affinity between the fillers and the matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical emission behavior and radiation resistance of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Udagawa, Akira; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-11-01

    To make clear a mechanism of radiation resistance of epoxy resin systems, a role of energy trapping site induced in bisphenol A type epoxy resins cured with 4 kinds of aromatic amines (Φ N ) was studied in comparison with the case of aliphatic amine curing system through a measurement of optical emission. In the system of the epoxy resin cured with DETA, the optical emission from an excited state of bisphenol A unit of epoxy resin and a charge transfer complex was observed. On the other hand, the optical emission from Φ N was observed in the aromatic amine curing system. Their excitation spectrum consists of peaks of absorption spectrum of BA and those of Φ N , showing that the excited state of Φ N is formed through the excitation of both BA and Φ N . Therefore, the excited energy of BA transfers to the excited state of Φ N . Emission intensity of Φ N band was 20 ∼ 100 times as large as that of BA. These results indicate that the radiation energy is effectively released as an optical emission from excited state of Φ N in the epoxy resin when cured with aromatic amine. It can be concluded from the above results that aromatic amine hardeners contribute to enhancement of the radiation resistance of epoxy resin by acting as an energy transfer agent. (author)

  20. A Study of Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites Consisting of Unmodified Clay and Organo Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Edward

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Clay-epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized from DGEBA resin and montmorillonite clay with an in-situ polymerization. One type of untreated clay and two types of organo clay were used to produce the nanocompsoites. The aims of this study were to examine the nanocomposite structure using different tools and to compare the results between the unmodified clay and modified clays as nanofillers. Although diffractogram in reflection mode did not show any apparent peak of both types of materials, the transmitted XRD (X-Ray Difraction graphs, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter analysis and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope images revealed that the modified clay-epoxy and unmodified clay-epoxy provides different results. Interestingly, the micrographs showed that some of the modified clay layers possessed non-exfoliated layers in the modified clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Clay aggregates and a hackle pattern were found from E-SEM images for both types of nanocomposite materials. It is shown that different tools should be used to determine the nanocomposite structure.

  1. Development of silane grafted ZnO core shell nanoparticles loaded diglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites film for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Saravanan, P; Jayamoorthy, K; Ananda Kumar, S; Karthikeyan, S

    2016-07-01

    In this article a series of epoxy nanocomposites film were developed using amine functionalized (ZnO-APTES) core shell nanoparticles as the dispersed phase and a commercially available epoxy resin as the matrix phase. The functional group of the samples was characterized using FT-IR spectra. The most prominent peaks of epoxy resin were found in bare epoxy and in all the functionalized ZnO dispersed epoxy nanocomposites (ZnO-APTES-DGEBA). The XRD analysis of all the samples exhibits considerable shift in 2θ, intensity and d-spacing values but the best and optimum concentration is found to be 3% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposites supported by FT-IR results. From TGA measurements, 100wt% residue is obtained in bare ZnO nanoparticles whereas in ZnO core shell nanoparticles grafted DGEBA residue percentages are 37, 41, 45, 46 and 52% for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% ZnO-APTES-DGEBA respectively, which is confirmed with ICP-OES analysis. From antimicrobial activity test, it was notable that antimicrobial activity of 7% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposite film has best inhibition zone effect against all pathogens under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of in Situ-Formed Silver Nanoparticles on the Electrical Properties of Epoxy Resin Filled with Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Seok Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for preparing epoxy/silver nanocomposites was developed via the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs within the epoxy resin matrix while using silver nanowires (AgNWs as a conductive filler. The silver–imidazole complex was synthesized from silver acetate (AgAc and 1-(2-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (imidazole. AgNPs were generated in situ during the curing of the epoxy resin through the thermal decomposition of the AgAc–imidazole complex, which was capable of reducing Ag+ to Ag by itself. The released imidazole acted as a catalyst to cure the epoxy. Additionally, after the curing process, the in situ-generated AgNPs were stabilized by the formed epoxy network. Therefore, by using the thermal decomposition method, uniformly dispersed AgNPs of approximately 100 nm were formed in situ in the epoxy matrix filled with AgNWs. It was observed that the nanocomposites containing in situ-formed AgNPs exhibited isotropic electrical properties in the epoxy resins in the presence of AgNWs.

  3. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO{sub 2} fixation process and nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein, E-mail: H.boohendi@ippi.ac.ir; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-10-15

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO{sub 2} fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO{sub 2} fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO{sub 2} fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T{sub max}), and the decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T{sub g} of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO{sub 2} fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO{sub 2} fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO{sub 2} fixation reaction consumes CO{sub 2} which is a harmful greenhouse gas.

  4. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO2 fixation process and nanoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO 2 fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO 2 fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO 2 fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T max ), and the decomposition activation energy (E d ) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T g of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO 2 fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO 2 fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO 2 fixation reaction consumes CO 2 which is a harmful greenhouse gas

  5. Enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Karim, M. A. A.; Manshoor, B.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.; Meng, Q.

    2017-10-01

    Graphene is a novel class of nanofillers possessing outstanding characteristics including most compatible with most polymers, high absolute strength, high aspect ratio and cost effectiveness. In this study, graphene was used to reinforce epoxy as a matrix, to enhance its mechanical properties. Two types of epoxy composite were developed which are epoxy/graphene nanocomposite and epoxy/modified graphene nanocomposite. The fabrication of graphene was going through thermal expansion and sonication process. Chemical modification was only done for modified graphene where 4,4’-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is used. The mechanical properties of both nanocomposite, such as Young’s modulus and maximum stress were investigated. Three weight percentage were used for this study which are 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt%. At 0.5 wt%, modified and unmodified shows the highest value compared to neat epoxy, where the value were 8 GPa, 6 GPa and 0.675 GPa, respectively. For maximum stress, neat epoxy showed the best result compared to both nanocomposite due to the changes of material properties when adding the filler into the matrix. Therefore, both nanocomposite increase the mechanical properties of the epoxy, however modification surface of graphene gives better improvement.

  6. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  7. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Zunjarrao, S.C.; Pandey, G.; Khait, M.; Korach, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  8. Multidimensional Nanocomposites of Epoxy Reinforced with 1D and 2D Carbon Nanostructures for Improve Fracture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juventino López-Barroso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanocomposites based on epoxy reinforced with a combination of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for improving impact resistance are reported. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized-multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used as 1D nanoreinforcements, and graphene derivative materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are utilized as 2D nanoreinforcements. In this research, the impact resistance of epoxy matrix reinforced with 1D or 2D and the mixture of both nanomaterials is studied. The research is focused on evaluation of the influence of adding different combinations of nanomaterials into epoxy resin and their Izod impact response. Moreover, fracture surface of nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Images show differences between the surfaces of brittle nature on thermoset epoxy polymer and tough nanocomposites. Synergy created with 1D and 2D nanomaterials produces stable dispersions in the processing, reflected in the interface. The interactions in nanocomposites are evidenced by infrared spectra, principally on the peaks related to oxygenated functional groups present in nanomaterials and absent in polymer matrix. Consequently, an increase of 138% in fracture strength of nanocomposites is exhibited, in comparison to the neat epoxy matrix. In addition, hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized in two different methods to evaluate the influence of manufacturing method on final properties of nanocomposites.

  9. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application in resin based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shahid Nisar; Hakeem, Saira; Alvi, Rashid Ahmed; Farooq, Khawar; Farooq, Naveed; Yasmin, Farida; Saeed, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon gas using chemical vapor deposition method. Synthesis was done at different growth temperatures and catalyst ratios. These MWCNTs were dispersed in epoxy resin (E-51) and their effect on mechanical strength of epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Increase in the mechanical strength of epoxy was observed with the addition of CNTs. The surface characterization was done by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were determined by the general tensile strength testing method.

  10. Carbon nanotube (CNT)–epoxy nanocomposites: a systematic investigation of CNT dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Amit K.; Plyhm, Tiia; Barbezat, Michel; Necola, Adly; Terrasi, Giovanni P.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 1–6 nm in diameter and a few microns in length, in a bisphenol F-based epoxy resin has been presented. Several dispersing techniques including high-speed dissolver, ultrasonic bath/horn, 3-roll mill, etc. have been employed. Optical microscopy has been extensively used to systematically characterise the state of CNT dispersion in the epoxy resin during the entire processing cycle from mixing CNT with resin to adding and curing with hardener. Complimentary viscosity measurements were also performed at various stages of nanocomposite processing. A method to produce a good CNT dispersion in resin was established, but the state of CNT dispersion was found to be extremely sensitive to its physical and chemical environments. The cured nanocomposites were further tested for their thermo-mechanical properties by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and for flexural and compressive mechanical properties. The measured properties of various nanocomposite plates were then discussed in view of the corresponding CNT dispersion.

  11. AC electrical breakdown phenomena of epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite in needle-plate electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    Epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite for the insulation of heavy electric equipments were prepared by dispersing 1 wt% of a layered silicate into an epoxy matrix with a homogenizing mixer and then AC electrical treeing and breakdown tests were carried out. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that nano-sized monolayers were exfoliated from a multilayered silicate in the epoxy matrix. When the nano-sized silicate layers were incorporated into the epoxy matrix, the breakdown rate in needle-plate electrode geometry was 10.6 times lowered than that of the neat epoxy resin under the applied electrical field of 520.9 kV/mm at 30 degrees C, and electrical tree propagated with much more branches in the epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite. These results showed that well-dispersed nano-sized silicate layers retarded the electrical tree growth rate. The effects of applied voltage and ambient temperature on the tree initiation, growth, and breakdown rate were also studied, and it was found that the breakdown rate was largely increased, as the applied voltage and ambient temperature increased.

  12. Physical and chemical durability of cement impregnated epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of simulation radioactive waste contains Cs and Sr with cement impregnated epoxy resin has been done. Low level liquid waste in 30% weight mixed cement homogeneously and then set in its curing time about 28 days. Waste from was impregnated with epoxy resin (Bisphenol-A-diglycidylether) and use Triethylenteramin as catalyst. the sample of cement impregnated epoxy resin 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm in diameter and length was tested by Paul Weber. The compressive strength was obtained of 4.08 kN.cm - 2. The sochxlet apparatus was run on flow rate of 300 ml/hour at 100 o C and during 24 hours. The leaching rate of Cs was round on 5.5 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 and Sr was 6.1 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 (author)

  13. E-Beam-Cured Layered-Silicate and Spherical Silica Epoxy Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang; Anderson, David P

    2007-01-01

    .... The nanofillers can be two dimensional (layered-silicate) and zero dimensional (spherical silica). Both the spherical silica epoxy nanocomposite and the layered-silicate epoxy nanocomposite can be cured to a high degree of curing...

  14. Thermoset Blends of an Epoxy Resin and Polydicyclopentadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Brian J.; Le, Kim Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan L.

    2016-12-13

    The mechanical properties of two chemically distinct and complementary thermoset polymers were manipulated through development of thermoset blends. The thermoset blend system was composed of an anhydride-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin, contributing high tensile strength and modulus, and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD), which has a higher toughness and impact strength as compared to other thermoset polymers. Ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis explored the morphology of concurrently cured thermoset blends, revealing a macroscopically phase separated system with a surface fractal structure across blended systems of varying composition. The epoxy resin rich and PDCPD rich phases exhibited distinct glass transitions (Tg’s): the Tg observed at higher temperature was associated with the epoxy resin rich phase and was largely unaffected by the presence of PDCPD, whereas the PDCPD rich phase Tg systematically decreased with increasing epoxy resin content due to inhibition of dicyclopentadiene ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The mechanical properties of these phase-separated blends were in reasonable agreement with predictions by the rule of mixtures for the blend tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the tensile and fracture specimen fracture surfaces showed an increase in energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crazing, shear banding, and surface roughness, as the fraction of the more ductile component, PDPCD, increased. These results present a facile method to tune the mechanical properties of a toughened thermoset network, in which the high modulus and tensile strength of the epoxy resin can be largely retained at high epoxy resin content in the blend, while increasing the fracture toughness.

  15. Evaluation of the nanoparticle treatment effect on the development of nanocomposite resin epoxy/kaolinite;Avaliacao do efeito do tratamento da nanoparticula no desenvolvimento de nanocomposito resina epoxi/caulinita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tharsia C.C.; Mendonca, Rannier M., E-mail: tharsia@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Ito, Edson N; Melo, Jose D.D.; Paskocimas, Carlos A., E-mail: ito@ufrnet.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The nanocomposites formed from polymer matrices and mineral clays have been studied since the decade of 60s when Blumstein demonstrated the intercalation the polymer molecules between lamellae of montmorillonite. The application of the kaolinite in nanocomposite polymeric is rare, however the kaolinite is expandable and it is possible to do the process of the superficial functionalization. The present work demonstrates that after leaching process of the kaolinite through a chemical treatment with hydrogen peroxide combined with acid solutions the kaolinite inside presents a surface activated with good resulted of dispersion of a polymers matrix by a mechanical agitation, in high-energy mill. The samples had been characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed the potential of using the functionalized kaolinite as an agent of reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites. (author)

  16. Mechanical properties of hybrid SiC/CNT filled toughened epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratim, S.; Ahmad, S.; Bonnia, N. N.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites filled single filler have been extensively studied by various researchers. However, there are not much discovery on the behavior of hybrid nanocomposite. In this study, single and hybrid nanocomposites of toughened epoxy filled CNT/SiC nanoparticles were investigated. The hybrid nanocomposites samples were prepared by combining CNT and SiC nanoparticles in toughened epoxy matrix via mechanical stirring method assisted with ultrasonic cavitations. Epoxy resin and liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) mixture were first blend prior to the addition of nanofillers. Then, the curing process of the nanocomposite samples were conducted by compression molding technique at 130°C for 2 hours. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hybridization effect of CNT and SiC nanoparticles on mechanical properties toughened epoxy matrix. The total loading of single and hybrid nanofillers were fixed to 4% volume are 0, 4C, 4S, 3S1C, 2S2C, and 1S3C. Mechanical properties of hybrid composites show that the highest value of tensile strength achieved by 3S1C sample at about 7% increment and falls between their single composite values. Meanwhile, the stiffness of the same sample is significantly increased at about 31% of the matrix. On the other hand, a highest flexural property is obtained by 1S3C sample at about 20% increment dominated by CNT content. However, the impact strength shows reduction trend with the addition of SiC and CNT into the matrix. The hybridization of SiC and CNT show highest value in sample 1S3C at about 3.37 kJ/m2 of impact energy absorbed. FESEM micrograph have confirmed that better distributions and interaction observed between SiC nanoparticles and matrix compared to CNT, which contributed to higher tensile strength and modulus.

  17. A study on resistance to ultraviolet radiation of POSS-TiO2/epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dequn; Qin, Wei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a severe space environmental factor, which is harmful to the durability of the polymeric materials of the spacecraft. For this reason, a novel POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating the POSS-TiO2 organic-inorganic hybrid into the epoxy (EP) resin. The effects of UV radiation on EP resin and on POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposites were investigated in a ground-based simulator that simulates space radiation conditions. Compared with EP resin, the value of bend strength for 5.0 wt% POSS-TiO2/EP varied in a small range before and after UV radiation. Meanwhile, a typical tough feature was observed from the SEM photo for POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposite after UV exposure. This result indicated that the POSS-TiO2/EP exhibited the excellent properties of anti-space ultraviolet radiation. The thermo gravimetric (TG) results showed that the addition of POSS-TiO2 improved the thermal-stability of EP resin matrix. The synthesized nanocomposites in this work could be used in the satellites to enhance their adaptability to the space environment and extend their service life.

  18. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yun-Yuan; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Su, Wei-Fang; Chen, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Novel liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced polymerization shrinkage and effectively bond to tooth structures, can be applied in esthetic dentistry, including core and post systems, direct and indirect restorations, and dental brackets. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites including biocompatibility, microhardness, and frictional forces of bracket-like blocks with different filler contents for further clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials that exhibited various filler contents, by assessing their cell activity performance using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and their microhardness with or without thermocycling. We also evaluated the frictional force between bracket-like duplicates and commercially available esthetic bracket systems using Instron 5566. The liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials showed good biocompatibility. The materials having high filler content demonstrated greater microhardness compared with commercially available bracket materials, before and after the thermocycling treatment. Thus, manufacturing processes are important to reduce frictional force experienced by orthodontic brackets. The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of Interfacial Polarization and Water Absorption on the Dielectric Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Marx

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Five types of nanofillers, namely, silica, surface-silylated silica, alumina, surface-silylated alumina, and boron nitride, were tested in this study. Nanocomposites composed of an epoxy/amine resin and one of the five types of nanoparticles were tested as dielectrics with a focus on (i the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles and (ii the water absorption by the materials. The dispersability of the nanoparticles in the resin correlated with the composition (OH content of their surfaces. The interfacial polarization of the thoroughly dried samples was found to increase at lowered frequencies and increased temperatures. The β relaxation, unlike the interfacial polarization, was not significantly increased at elevated temperatures (below the glass-transition temperature. Upon the absorption of water under ambient conditions, the interfacial polarization increased significantly, and the insulating properties decreased or even deteriorated. This effect was most pronounced in the nanocomposite containing silica, and occurred as well in the nanocomposites containing silylated silica or non-functionalized alumina. The alternating current (AC breakdown strength of all specimens was in the range of 30 to 35 kV·mm−1. In direct current (DC breakdown tests, the epoxy resin exhibited the lowest strength of 110 kV·mm−1; the nanocomposite containing surface-silylated alumina had a strength of 170 kV·mm−1. In summary, water absorption had the most relevant impact on the dielectric properties of nanocomposites containing nanoparticles, the surfaces of which interacted with the water molecules. Nanocomposites containing silylated alumina particles or boron nitride showed the best dielectric properties in this study.

  20. Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling of Carbon Nanofiber/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Hui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of systematic investigations on both mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber (CNF-reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites. In this paper, an in-depth study of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and electrical properties of CNF/epoxy nanocomposites with various contents of CNFs is provided. A modified Halpin-Tsai equation is used to evaluate the Young's modulus and storage modulus of the nanocomposites. The values of Young's modulus predicted using this method account for the effect of the CNF agglomeration and fit well with those obtained experimentally. The results show that the highest tensile strength is found in the epoxy nanocomposite with a 1.0 wt% CNFs. The alternate-current (AC electrical properties of the CNF/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit a typical insulator-conductor transition. The conductivity increases by four orders of magnitude with the addition of 0.1 wt% (0.058 vol% CNFs and by ten orders of magnitude for nanocomposites with CNF volume fractions higher than 1.0 wt% (0.578 vol%. The percolation threshold (i.e., the critical CNF volume fraction is found to be at 0.057 vol%.

  1. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  2. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; T. Vo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  3. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shiravand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  4. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domun, Nadiim; Paton, Keith R; Hadavinia, Homayoun; Sainsbury, Toby; Zhang, Tao; Mohamud, Hibaaq

    2017-10-19

    In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, G IC , by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly.

  5. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiim Domun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, GIC, by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly.

  6. The study of epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins as corrosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion resistance of two commonly used protective coatings (epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been assessed. The coatings on low carbon steel were subjected to varying conditions of pH, temperature and exposure time and the corrosion rates calculated. At a pH of 2, 3, 4, ...

  7. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  8. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Inam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by indentation. For comprehensive comparison, fracture toughness and percolation threshold were analysed as well. Because of the systematically induced indentation damage, a sharp decrease of 89% was observed in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CNT nanocomposite as compared to 25% in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CB nanocomposite. CNTs impart superior damage sensing capability in brittle nanocomposite structures, in comparison to CB, due to their high aspect ratio (fibrous nature and high electrical conductivity.

  9. MWCNTs/Resin Nanocomposites: Structural, Thermal, Mechanical and Dielectric Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Alexopoulos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were manufactured, characterized and added to a typical aeronautical resin matrix at different concentrations as nano-reinforcement. The carbon content of produced MWCNTs was determined to be around 98.5% while they consisted of 13-20 wall-layers and their external diameter had an average size in between 20 and 50 nm. MWCNTs were dispersed in an epoxy resin system and tensile specimens for different MWCNTs concentrations were prepared in an open mould. Electrical wiring was attached to the specimens’ surface and surface electrical resistance change was in-situ monitored during monotonic tension till fracture. Performed tensile tests showed that the MWCNTs addition increased both modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength on the nano-composites with a simultaneously dramatic ductility decrease. The MWCNTs addition enhanced the investigated resin matrix with monitoring ability; electrical resistance change of the investigated tensile tests was correlated in the elastic regime with axial nominal strain and the gauge factor of the different MWCNTs concentration specimens were calculated. It was found that lowest MWCNTs concentration gave the best results in terms of piezo-resistivity and simultaneously the least enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  10. Comparison of the Nanostructure and Mechanical Performance of Highly Exfoliated Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Three Different Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravand, Fatemeh; Hutchinson, John M; Calventus, Yolanda; Ferrando, Francesc

    2014-05-30

    Three different protocols for the preparation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon a tri-functional epoxy resin, triglycidyl para -amino phenol (TGAP), have been compared in respect of the cure kinetics, the nanostructure and their mechanical properties. The three preparation procedures involve 2 wt% and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), and are: isothermal cure at selected temperatures; pre-conditioning of the resin-clay mixture before isothermal cure; incorporation of an initiator of cationic homopolymerisation, a boron tri-fluoride methyl amine complex, BF₃·MEA, within the clay galleries. It was found that features of the cure kinetics and of the nanostructure correlate with the measured impact strength of the cured nanocomposites, which increases as the degree of exfoliation of the MMT is improved. The best protocol for toughening the TGAP/MMT nanocomposites is by the incorporation of 1 wt% BF₃·MEA into the clay galleries of nanocomposites containing 2 wt% MMT.

  11. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  12. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  13. Electrical and thermomechanical properties of epoxy-POSS nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, J.; Matějka, Libor; Mentlík, V.; Trnka, P.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 861-872 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : POSS * epoxy nanocomposite * electrical/dielectrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  14. Synthesis and characterization of rubbery epoxy/organoclay hectorite nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the morphology, the mechanical, and the viscoelastic properties of rubbery epoxy/clay nanocomposites synthesized by in situ polymerisation of a prepolymer diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A crosslinked with an aliphatic diamine based on a polyoxypropylene backbone. The inorganic phase was hectorite, exchanged with octadecylammonium ions in order to give organophilic properties to the phyllosilicate. An ultrasonicator was used to disperse the silicate clay layer into epoxy-amine matrix. The morphology of epoxy-hectorite nanocomposites examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that mixed delamination or intercalation or microdispersion could occur depending on type of organoclay. Moreover, the mechanical and viscoelastic properties were found to be improved with only the treated hectorite.

  15. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  16. Influence of the molecular structure on hydrolyzability of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has decided to use glass reinforced composites for certain pipework in Pressurized Water Reactors (service water, emergency-supplied service water, fine pipe works, etc...) as a replacement for traditional materials. In practice, steel is prone to rapid corrosion in these circuits; introducing composites could prove economically viable if their long term behaviour can be demonstrated. However, composite materials can undergo deterioration in service through hydrolysis of the resin or the fibre-matrix interface. Different resins can be chosen depending on the programmed use. A first study has covered the hydrolyzability of polyester and vinyl ester resins. The present document undertakes the resistance to hydrolysis of epoxy resins, concentrating on those reputed to withstand high temperatures. This research uses model monomer, linking the molecular structure of the materials to their resistance to hydrolysis. (author)

  17. Electrodeposition properties of modified cational epoxy resin-type photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong He; Yunlong Zhang; Feipeng Wu; Miaozhen Li; Erjian Wang

    1999-01-01

    Multi-component cationic epoxy and acrylic resin system for ED photoresist was used in this work, since they can provide better storage stability for ED emulsion and better physical and chemical properties of deposited film than one-component system. The cationic main resin (AE) was prepared from amine modified epoxy resins and then treated with acetic acid. The amination degree was controlled as required. The synthetic procedure of cationic main resins is described in scheme I. The ED photoresist (AME) is composed of cationic main resin (AE) and nonionic multifunctional acrylic crosslinkers (PETA), in combination with suitable photo-initiator. They can easily be dispersed in deionized water to form a stable ED emulsion. The exposed part of deposited film upon UV irradiation occurs crosslinking to produce an insoluble semi-penetrating network and the unexposed part remains good solubility in the acidic water solution. It is readily utilized for fabrication of fine micropattern. The electrodeposition are carried out on Cu plate at room temperature. To evaluate the electrodeposition properties of ED photoresist (AME), the different influences are examined

  18. Epoxy resin casting of trim coils for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, D.P.; Sarkar, S.C.; Saha, Subimal; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The life of any magnet depends on the soundness of the coil insulation, its aging properties and initial and final endurance limitations. The insulation of water-cooled trim coils for superconducting cyclotron is made of glass fibre tape with heat cured unfilled epoxy resin combination. This type of insulation has been selected to achieve excellent stability against thermal and electromagnetic stresses, tight dimensional control, good dielectric strength, non-hygroscopic and considerably low vapour-pressure as it will be inside rough vacuum. The process development and the difficulties encountered for appropriate selection of epoxy resin combination, potting, vacuum process, curing cycle, control of coil dimension to achieve a sound coil absolutely free from cracks, trapped air and voids has been discussed. (author)

  19. Experiences with testing PCRV concrete and epoxy resin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.; Schnellenbach, G.

    1979-01-01

    A 1:5 scale model of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel was used to investigate its operating behaviour when only partially prestressed so as to allow cracking even under operating conditions. Further experimental work consisted in the building and testing of epoxy resin models to check the results of three-dimensional numerical calculations. Results show that a partially prestressed vessel will operate reliably and that deformations under both short and long-term internal pressure are essentially reversible. The results from the epoxy resin models show that building such models also with complicated geometries and with embedded strain gauges can be successfully carried out and that testing such models is a good tool for checking computer calculations

  20. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  1. Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal aging

    KAUST Repository

    Quispe, Gustavo Q.

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal ageing Gustavo Quino Quispe The aim of this work is to characterize the e ects of hygrothermal aging in the plain strain fracture toughness of the epoxy system composed by cycloaliphatic epoxy resin and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). For this, after having been under hygrothermal aging in a climatic chamber, epoxy samples were studied using ASTM D5045 fracture toughness test, and micrography and roughness measurements of the fracture surface. It is reported a rapid decrease of GIc and KIc during the rst 2 days. Moreover, a numerical model [13] was used to simulate and see with more detail the water absorption in the aged samples. From that, it was observed the heterogeneous distribution of water. Accordingly, it was proposed that the results should be correlated with the water content at the vicinity of the crack tip. Consequently, it was possible to obtain, by quasi-static simulations, the ideal load-displacement curves of crack propagation in the heterogeneous samples. Finally, another contribution of this work is the study of the fracture surface, that gives a clue of the relationship among the fracture energy, the appearance of microcracks in the fracture surface, and the roughness (Ra).

  2. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovannelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young’s modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  3. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Andrea; Di Maio, Dario; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2017-10-24

    The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young's modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  4. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-02-26

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influences of RCF/HNTs dispersion on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of these composites have been characterized in terms of flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, impact toughness, impact strength, and thermogravimetric analysis. The fracture surface morphology and toughness mechanisms were investigated by SEM. Results indicated that mechanical properties increased because of the addition of HNTs into the epoxy matrix. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact toughness increased by 20.8, 72.8, 56.5, and 25.0%, respectively, at 1 wt% HNTs load. The presence of RCF dramatically enhanced flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and impact toughness of the composites by 160%, 350%, 444%, and 263%, respectively. However, adding HNTs to RCF/epoxy showed only slight enhancements in flexural strength and fracture toughness. The inclusion of 5 wt% HNTs into RCF/epoxy ecocomposites increased the impact toughness by 27.6%. The presence of either HNTs or RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy. However, at high temperature, samples reinforced with RCF and HNTs displayed better thermal stability with increased char residue than neat resin. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  5. Enhanced actuation performance of piezoelectric fiber composites induced by incorporated BaTiO3 nanoparticles in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yuan, Xi; Luo, Hang; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) have attracted much interest owing to their flexibility and toughness compared with conventional monolithic piezoceramic wafers. The free strain values and actuation property of PFCs strongly depend on the active electric field applied in Pb(Zr 1−x Ti x )O 3 (PZT) fibers. Reducing the dielectric constant mismatch between PZT fiber and the assembling epoxy resin would greatly increase the active electric field in PZT fiber. Therefore, BaTiO 3 (BT) nanoparticles were introduced into the epoxy resin to enhance the dielectric constant. Homogeneous dispersion of BT nanoparticles and tight adhesion with the epoxy resin were achieved through a surface modification by dopamine. The maximum dielectric constant of dopamine modified BT/epoxy (BT@Dop/epoxy) nanocomposites was 10.38 with 12 wt% BT@Dop content at 1 kHz. The maximum free strain of PFCs reached 1820 ppm with 6 wt% BT@Dop content, while PFCs assembled by pure epoxy showed 790 ppm at the same processing condition. The tip displacement of cantilever beam actuated by PFCs reached the peak of 19 mm at the resonance frequency with 6 wt% BT@Dop, which was improved by 90% comparing to PFCs with pure epoxy. - Highlights: • The effect of dielectric mismatch on effective electric field in piezoceramic fibers was explained by a model. • The dispersibility and adhesion of BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in epoxy was improved by the dopamine modification. • The actuation performance increased firstly and then decreased with adding BaTiO 3 nanoparticles. • The maximum free strain and displacement of cantilever beam were up to 1820 ppm and 19 mm, respectively.

  6. Enhanced actuation performance of piezoelectric fiber composites induced by incorporated BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingliang; Yuan, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Luo, Hang, E-mail: xtluohang@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Dou, E-mail: dzhang@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) have attracted much interest owing to their flexibility and toughness compared with conventional monolithic piezoceramic wafers. The free strain values and actuation property of PFCs strongly depend on the active electric field applied in Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} (PZT) fibers. Reducing the dielectric constant mismatch between PZT fiber and the assembling epoxy resin would greatly increase the active electric field in PZT fiber. Therefore, BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) nanoparticles were introduced into the epoxy resin to enhance the dielectric constant. Homogeneous dispersion of BT nanoparticles and tight adhesion with the epoxy resin were achieved through a surface modification by dopamine. The maximum dielectric constant of dopamine modified BT/epoxy (BT@Dop/epoxy) nanocomposites was 10.38 with 12 wt% BT@Dop content at 1 kHz. The maximum free strain of PFCs reached 1820 ppm with 6 wt% BT@Dop content, while PFCs assembled by pure epoxy showed 790 ppm at the same processing condition. The tip displacement of cantilever beam actuated by PFCs reached the peak of 19 mm at the resonance frequency with 6 wt% BT@Dop, which was improved by 90% comparing to PFCs with pure epoxy. - Highlights: • The effect of dielectric mismatch on effective electric field in piezoceramic fibers was explained by a model. • The dispersibility and adhesion of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in epoxy was improved by the dopamine modification. • The actuation performance increased firstly and then decreased with adding BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The maximum free strain and displacement of cantilever beam were up to 1820 ppm and 19 mm, respectively.

  7. Epoxy resin-inspired reconfigurable supramolecular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Balkenende Diederik; Olson Rebecca; Balog Sandor; Weder Christoph; Montero de Espinosa Lucas

    2016-01-01

    With the goal to push the mechanical properties of reconfigurable supramolecular polymers toward those of thermoset resins we prepared and investigated a new family of hydrogen bonded polymer networks that are assembled from isophthalic acid terminated oligo(bisphenol A co epichlorohydrin) and different bipyridines. These materials display high storage moduli of up to 3.9 GPa can be disassembled upon heating to form melts with a viscosity of as low as 2.1 Pa·s and fully reassemble upon coolin...

  8. Surface modification of montmorillonite on surface Acid-base characteristics of clay and thermal stability of epoxy/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Dong-Il; Lee, Jae-Rock

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on smectitic clay was investigated in surface energetics and thermal behaviors of epoxy/clay nanocomposites. The pH values, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze the effect of cation exchange on clay surface and the exfoliation phenomenon of clay interlayer. The surface energetics of clay and thermal properties of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were investigated in contact angles and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. From the experimental results, the surface modification of clay by dodecylammonium chloride led to the increases in both distance between silicate layers of about 8 A and surface acid values, as well as in the electron acceptor component (gamma(+)(s)) of surface free energy, resulting in improved interfacial adhesion between basic (or electron donor) epoxy resins and acidic (electron acceptor) clay interlayers. Also, the thermal stability of nanocomposites was highly superior to pure epoxy resin due to the presence of the well-dispersed clay nanolayer, which has a barrier property in a composite system.

  9. High performance, rapid thermal/UV curing epoxy resin for additive manufacturing of short and continuous carbon fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James

    2018-04-17

    An additive manufacturing resin system including an additive manufacturing print head; a continuous carbon fiber or short carbon fibers operatively connected to the additive manufacturing print head; and a tailored resin operatively connected to the print head, wherein the tailored resin has a resin mass and wherein the tailored resin includes an epoxy component, a filler component, a catalyst component, and a chain extender component; wherein the epoxy component is 70-95% of the resin mass, wherein the filler component is 1-20% of the resin mass, wherein the catalyst component is 0.1-10% of the resin mass, and wherein the chain extender component is 0-50% of the resin mass.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Epoxy Resin-Coated Micro-Sized Ferrosilicon Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ku,Jiangang; Chen,Huihuang; He,Kui; Yan,Quanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Ferrosilicon powder surface coated with a dense epoxy resin membrane was prepared via coating precipitation methods using silane coupling agents as the modifier and epoxy resin as the coating agent. FTIR, FESEM, MPMS-XL, and TG-DSC were used to analyze the morphology, surface composition, magnetic property and thermostability of ferrosilicon powder before and after the modification and coating. The experimental results indicate that epoxy resin membranes of a certain thickness were successful...

  11. Formulation of eb-curable epoxy resin : some important parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd; Hosoi, Fumio; Sasaki, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    The works on the electron-beam curing of surface coatings using epoxy acrylic-based resins were discussed. The works covered among other things the effect of molecular weights of the resins on the physical properties of coatings and their physical and chemical characterizations. The emphasis was given to formulating the resins applicable to surface coatings. Curings were done on a low-energy electron beam accelerator operating at 250 kV. A number of parameters deemed important to formulations, such as the molecular weights of the oligomers and monomers, monomer ratios, and HEA additions were explored. It was found that one could modify the physical properties of the coatings by changing or adjusting those parameters. (author)

  12. Dielectric properties of nanosilica filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Veena

    Polymer nanocomposites are the 21st century engineering materials with wide range of ... the electronic industry for dielectric materials in electrical insulation ..... be ascribed to the interface barriers and chain entangle- ments towards the ...

  13. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-06-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature ( T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  14. Identification of nanostructural development in epoxy polymer layered silicate nanocomposites from the interpretation of differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Frida, E-mail: roman@mmt.upc.edu [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Departament de Maquines i Motors Termics, ETSEIAT, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Carrer Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Calventus, Yolanda, E-mail: calventus@mmt.upc.edu [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Departament de Maquines i Motors Termics, ETSEIAT, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Carrer Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Colomer, Pere, E-mail: colomer@mmt.upc.edu [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Departament de Maquines i Motors Termics, ETSEIAT, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Carrer Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Hutchinson, John M., E-mail: hutchinson@mmt.upc.edu [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Departament de Maquines i Motors Termics, ETSEIAT, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Carrer Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of DSC and DRS in the cure of epoxy nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of exfoliation of nanocomposite on clay content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionically initiated homopolymerisation in PLS nanocomposites. - Abstract: The effect of nanoclay on the non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin is studied by calorimetric techniques (DSC and TGA) and by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) in non-isothermal cure at constant heating rate. The cure process takes place by homopolymerisation, initiated anionically using 3 wt% dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and the influence of the nanoclay content has been analysed. Interesting differences are observed between the nanocomposites with 2 wt% and 5 wt% clay content. At low heating rates, these samples vitrify and then devitrify during the cure. For the sample with 2 wt% clay, the devitrification is accompanied by a thermally initiated homopolymerisation, which can be identified by DRS but not by DSC. The effect of this is to improve the exfoliation of the nanocomposite with 2 wt% clay, as verified by transmission electron microscopy, with a corresponding increase in the glass transition temperature. These observations are interpreted in respect of the nanocomposite preparation method and the cure kinetics.

  15. Identification of nanostructural development in epoxy polymer layered silicate nanocomposites from the interpretation of differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comparison of DSC and DRS in the cure of epoxy nanocomposites. ► Dependence of exfoliation of nanocomposite on clay content. ► Anionically initiated homopolymerisation in PLS nanocomposites. - Abstract: The effect of nanoclay on the non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin is studied by calorimetric techniques (DSC and TGA) and by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) in non-isothermal cure at constant heating rate. The cure process takes place by homopolymerisation, initiated anionically using 3 wt% dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and the influence of the nanoclay content has been analysed. Interesting differences are observed between the nanocomposites with 2 wt% and 5 wt% clay content. At low heating rates, these samples vitrify and then devitrify during the cure. For the sample with 2 wt% clay, the devitrification is accompanied by a thermally initiated homopolymerisation, which can be identified by DRS but not by DSC. The effect of this is to improve the exfoliation of the nanocomposite with 2 wt% clay, as verified by transmission electron microscopy, with a corresponding increase in the glass transition temperature. These observations are interpreted in respect of the nanocomposite preparation method and the cure kinetics.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of optically transparent epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito Corcione, C.; Manera, M.G.; Maffezzoli, A.; Rella, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work optically transparent nanocomposites were prepared and characterized from an optical and morphological point of view. An organically modified boehmite was added at different concentrations in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy matrix, hardened with a polyether diamine. Nanocomposites were characterized structurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optically by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry and their morphology was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Morphological investigation reveals the presence of boehmite particles dispersed in the epoxy matrix in different dimensions ranging from ten to hundreds of nanometers; some aggregation in the particles is the tendency noticed in the AFM images. The acquisition of multiple AFM images in different areas of the sample was used for a statistical analysis of the volumetric distribution of boehmite aggregates. The obtained result, (3.6 ± 0.3)%vol, is well comparable to thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. A New Epoxy-Based Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Using a Hyperbranched Polymer: Study of the Curing Reaction and Nanostructure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Pilar; Fraga, Iria; Calventus, Yolanda; Román, Frida; Hutchinson, John M; Ferrando, Francesc

    2014-03-04

    Polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites have been prepared with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin as the matrix and organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) as the clay nanofiller. Resin-clay mixtures with different clay contents (zero, two, five and 10 wt%) were cured, both isothermally and non-isothermally, using a poly(ethyleneimine) hyperbranched polymer (HBP), the cure kinetics being monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanostructure of the cured nanocomposites was characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their mechanical properties were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and impact testing. The results are compared with an earlier study of the structure and properties of the same DGEBA-MMT system cured with a polyoxypropylene diamine, Jeffamine. There are very few examples of the use of HBP as a curing agent in epoxy PLS nanocomposites; here, it is found to enhance significantly the degree of exfoliation of these nanocomposites compared with those cured with Jeffamine, with a corresponding enhancement in the impact energy for nanocomposites with the low clay content of 2 wt%. These changes are attributed to the different cure kinetics with the HBP, in which the intra-gallery homopolymerization reaction is accelerated, such that it occurs before the bulk cross-linking reaction.

  18. A New Epoxy-Based Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Using a Hyperbranched Polymer: Study of the Curing Reaction and Nanostructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer layered silicate (PLS nanocomposites have been prepared with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA epoxy resin as the matrix and organically modified montmorillonite (MMT as the clay nanofiller. Resin-clay mixtures with different clay contents (zero, two, five and 10 wt% were cured, both isothermally and non-isothermally, using a poly(ethyleneimine hyperbranched polymer (HBP, the cure kinetics being monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The nanostructure of the cured nanocomposites was characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their mechanical properties were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and impact testing. The results are compared with an earlier study of the structure and properties of the same DGEBA-MMT system cured with a polyoxypropylene diamine, Jeffamine. There are very few examples of the use of HBP as a curing agent in epoxy PLS nanocomposites; here, it is found to enhance significantly the degree of exfoliation of these nanocomposites compared with those cured with Jeffamine, with a corresponding enhancement in the impact energy for nanocomposites with the low clay content of 2 wt%. These changes are attributed to the different cure kinetics with the HBP, in which the intra-gallery homopolymerization reaction is accelerated, such that it occurs before the bulk cross-linking reaction.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.

    Epoxy-composites are widely used in the aerospace industry. In order to improve upon stiffness and thermal conductivity; carbon nanotube additives to epoxies are being explored. This dissertation presents multiscale modeling techniques to study the engineering properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-epoxy nanocomposites, consisting of pristine and covalently functionalized systems. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD), thermomechanical properties were calculated for a representative polymer unit cell. Finite Element (FE) and orientation distribution function (ODF) based methods were used in a multiscale framework to obtain macroscale properties. An epoxy network was built using the dendrimer growth approach. The epoxy model was verified by matching the experimental glass transition temperature, density, and dilatation. MD, via the constant valence force field (CVFF), was used to explore the mechanical and dilatometric effects of adding pristine and functionalized SWNTs to epoxy. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors were obtained. The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for the various nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. To obtain continuum-scale elastic properties from the MD data, multiscale modeling was considered to give better control over the volume fraction of nanotubes, and investigate the effects of nanotube alignment. Two methods were considered; an FE based method, and an ODF based method. The FE method probabilistically assigned elastic properties of elements from the MD lattice results based on the desired volume fraction and alignment of the nanotubes. For the ODF method, a distribution function was generated based on the desired amount of nanotube alignment

  20. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yuan Tai

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment.

  1. The characteristics of epoxy resin cured by {gamma}-ray and E-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y.C. E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr; Kang, Phil Hyun; Park, Jong Seok

    2004-10-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used as high-performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications. In this study, the effect of an electron beam (E-beam) and {gamma}-ray irradiation on the curing of epoxy resins was investigated. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA), diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F(DGEBF) as epoxy resins, triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate(TASHFA), and triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate(TASHFP) as initiators were used in this study. The chemical and mechanical characteristics of irradiated epoxy resins were compared after curing of E-beam and {gamma}-ray irradiation up to 50 kGy in N{sub 2} and air atmosphere. We ascertained the effect of oxygen on the radiation curing of epoxy resin. The thermal properties of cured epoxy were investigated using DMA and TGA. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength were measured. The chemical structures of cured epoxy were characterized by FT-NIR. The gel fraction and the stress at yield of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in N{sub 2} atmosphere were also compared with those of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in air.

  2. Effect of aluminium particles on mechanical and morphological properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Sefiu A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumper is a front or rear part of automobiles. It is designed and shaped to be impact absorbing and protecting automobiles from damage in low impact collisions. Initially, they were made from heavy steels, increasing the weight of automobiles and fuel consumption. Also, high impacts of steel bumpers on pedestrians during accidental collision cause fatalities and or disabilities. An effort to enhance fuel efficiency, safety, freedom of design and shape detailing, heavy alloys for automobile applications are now being replaced with polymeric composites. Aluminium micro particles and nanoparticles were prepared from aluminium cans through sand casting, lathe machine spinning, and ball milling techniques. Both types of aluminium particles were incorporated into a mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, epoxy resin cured with amine base hardener (ABH. Phases of the epoxy polymer and composites were identified using Xray Diffraction (XRD. Spatial arrangement of the phases within the matrix and their elemental composition were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope with attached energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX. Tensile, impact and micro hardness tests were conducted on the prepared epoxy/aluminium composites. Results of the XRD showed the presence of aluminium compounds/phases due to chemical reactions between aluminium particles and DGEBA/ABH system. SEM confirmed a homogeneous distribution of the phases within the epoxy matrix, and that there is a strong adhesion between the epoxy matrix and aluminium particles. Correlation between the mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposite and the procured bumper materials exhibited a fair suitability of the prepared nanocomposites for automobile applications.

  3. Polymerization of epoxy resins studied by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Radiation Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Fine Chemical Research Lab., Sumitomo Chemical, Tsukuba (Japan); Ito, Y. [Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been applied to study polymerization of epoxy resins of cresole novolac with a hardener of phenol novolac. PALS uses positrons to probe the microstructure of a nanometer (nm) size. Using PALS polymerization can be followed through three states: powder (monomer), liquid and solid. PALS is a unique method for the detection of intermolecular spaces, hence polymerization was followed from the point of view of free spaces (inter-molecular spaces) between polymer networks. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) was determined from the temperature dependence of the positronium (Ps) lifetime. Although Tg determined by PALS is usually lower than that determined by a mechanical analysis (TMA), it was observed that T{sub g} approached the value determined by TMA after long curing. Ps can form bubbles in a liquid, and the surface tension of a mixture of the resin and the hardener was calculated from a simple empirical formula using the Ps lifetime; the resulting value is similar to that of the bisphenol-A epoxy resin. Gelation was observed as an increase in the intensity of Ps and a sharp decrease in the lifetime. (orig.)

  4. Silane coupling agent for enhanced epoxy-iron oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy M. Naguib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silane-treated Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES. The chemical structure and morphology of the obtained nanoparticles were investigated by several analysis techniques including FTIR, XRD, TEM and DLS. Both of untreated Fe2O3 (IO and silane-treated Fe2O3 (SIO nanoparticles were used in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites with 5% by weight fraction. FTIR and XRD approved that SIO was successfully prepared with highly crystalline structure. TEM and DLS indicated the good dispersion of treated nanoparticles in the nanocomposite matrix, also the average particle size of nanofiller decreased to ∼200 nm after silane treatment. The dynamic properties for the prepared nanocomposites were studied using DMA and confirmed by nanoindentation technique. The results indicated that silane-treated nanoparticles can improve the hardness and Tg by 87.5% and 5 °C respectively at 5% weight fraction.

  5. Development of epoxy resin-type neutron shielding materials (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Kim, Ik Soo; Shin, Young Joon; Do, Jae Bum; Ro, Seung Gy

    1997-12-01

    Because the exposure to radiation in the nuclear facilities can be fatal to human, it is important to reduce the radiation dose level to a tolerable level. The purpose of this study is to develop highly effective neutron shielding materials for the shipping and storage cask of radioactive materials or in the nuclear /radiation facilities. On this study, we developed epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their various materials properties, including neutron shielding ability, fire resistance, combustion characteristics, radiation resistance, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated experimentally. (author). 31 refs., 22 tabs., 17 figs.

  6. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin...... product is essential....

  7. Modeling and mechanical performance of carbon nanotube/epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MWCNT fillers are uniformly dispersed in the epoxy resin, which improved the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. ► Modified Halpin–Tsai model is useful to calculate the Young’s modulus of MWCNT/epoxy resin composite. ► The experimental moduli are within the variation of 27% with the theoretical values. -- Abstract: The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) addition on mechanical properties of epoxy resin was investigated to obtain the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus from load versus displacement graphs. The result shows that the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus of epoxy resin were increased with the addition of MWCNT fillers. The significant improvements in tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus were obtained due to the excellent dispersion of MWCNT fillers in the epoxy resin. The dispersion of MWCNT fillers in epoxy resin was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Also, Halpin–Tsai model was modified by considering the average diameter of internal/external of multi-walled nanotube and orientation factor (α) to calculate the Young’s modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy resin composite. There was a good correlation between the experimentally obtained Young’s modulus and modified Halpin–Tsai model.

  8. Fracture behavior of α-zirconium phosphate-based epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, H.-J.; Gam, K.T.; Bestaoui, N.; Clearfield, A.; Miyamoto, M.; Miyatake, N.

    2004-01-01

    The fracture behaviors of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) based epoxy nanocomposites, with and without core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening, were investigated. The state of exfoliation and dispersion of α-ZrP nanofiller in epoxy were characterized using X-ray scattering and various microscopy tools. The level of enhancement in storage moduli of epoxy nanocomposite against neat epoxy is found to depend on the state of exfoliation of α-ZrP as well as the damping characteristics of the epoxy matrix. The fracture process in epoxy nanocomposite is dominated by preferred crack propagation along the weak intercalated α-ZrP interfaces, and the presence of α-ZrP does not alter the fracture toughness of the epoxy matrix. However, the toughening using CSR can significantly improve the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite. The fracture mechanisms responsible for such a toughening effect in CSR-toughened epoxy nanocomposite are rubber particle cavitation, followed by shear banding of epoxy matrix. The ductility and toughenability of epoxy do not appear to be affected by the incorporation of α-ZrP. Approaches for producing toughened high performance polymer nanocomposites are discussed

  9. Preparation and characterization of a novel epoxy based nanocomposite using tryptophan as an eco-friendly curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motahari, Ahmad; Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali; Ehsani, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy cured with tryptophan in the presence of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole. • Kinetic study on the epoxy nanocomposite using advanced isoconversional method. • Structural study and characterization of nanocomposite using SEM, XRD, AFM and DMTA. - Abstract: In this study, kinetics of the curing reaction between DGEBA epoxy resin and tryptophan as an environmentally friendly curing agent in the presence of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole was reported. The role of silica nanoparticles (SiNP) in changing the mechanism of the curing reaction was also studied. The optimum molar ratio of DGEBA/tryptophan and the optimum content of SiNP were determined by calorimetry analyses. Kinetic analysis using the advanced isoconversional method revealed that the system undergoes the vitrification. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that addition of SiNP does not improve the thermal stability of the tryptophan based thermosets. Impedance spectroscopy and also the standard four-probe method were performed to investigate the effect of curing agent and SiNP loading level on the electrical properties of the cured epoxy. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy imaging. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis revealed that the crosslinking density cannot be significantly affected with the addition of SiNP

  10. Dichlorobenzene: an effective solvent for epoxy/graphene nanocomposites preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiacheng; Saharudin, Mohd Shahneel; Vo, Thuc; Inam, Fawad

    2017-10-01

    It is generally recognized that dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol are good media to uniformly disperse graphene, and therefore have been used widely in the preparation of epoxy/graphene nanocomposites. However, as a solvent to disperse graphene, dichlorobenzene (DCB) has not been fully realized by the polymer community. Owing to high values of the dispersion component ( δ d ) of the Hildebrand solubility parameter, DCB is considered as a suitable solvent for homogeneous graphene dispersion. Therefore, epoxy/graphene nanocomposites have been prepared for the first time with DCB as a dispersant; DMF and ethanol have been chosen as the reference. The colloidal stability, mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopic images of nanocomposites have been obtained. The results show that with the use of DCB, the tensile strength of graphene has been improved from 64.46 to 69.32 MPa, and its flexural strength has been increased from 97.17 to 104.77 MPa. DCB is found to be more effective than DMF and ethanol for making stable and homogeneous graphene dispersion and composites.

  11. The Effect of Nanoparticles Percentage on Mechanical Behavior of Silica-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Masoodi, R.; Rostami, H.

    2013-01-01

    Silica-epoxy nanocomposites are very common among nanocomposites, which makes them very important. Several researchers have studied the effect of nanoparticle’s size, shape, and loading on mechanical behavior of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. This paper reviews the most important research done on the effect of nanoparticle loading on mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. While the main focus is the tensile behavior of nanocomposite, the compressive behavior and flexural behavior were also reviewed. Finally, some of the published experimental data were combined in the graphs, using dimensionless parameters. Later, the best fitted curves were used to derive some empirical formulas for mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites as functions of weight or volume fraction of nanoparticles.

  12. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanimozhi, K.; Sethuraman, K.; Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix. PMID:25279372

  13. Thermal properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M. T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research study was to fabricate nano oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and to make comparative study on the thermal properties of nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites with the montmorillonite (MMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and organically modified MMT (OMMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Epoxy based kenaf hybrid nanocomposites was prepared by dispersing the nano filler (nano OPEFB filler, MMT, OMMT) at 3% loading through high speed mechanical stirrer followed by hand lay-up technique. Thermal properties of hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed through thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Obtained results specified that addition of nano OPEFB filler improves the thermal stability and char yield of kenaf/epoxy composites. Furthermore, the increase in decomposition temperature by the nano OPEFB filler was quite comparable to the MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively less than OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. We concluded from overall consequences that the nano OPEFB filler can be used as the promising and innovative alternative of existing expensive nano filler, with relatively lesser impact on the environment having marked pronounced impact on the construction, automotive, aerospace, electronics and semiconducting sectors as future industries based on bio-wastes with satisfactory light weight and thermal stability on other side.

  14. Effect of mixing sequence on the curing of amine-hardened epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites as assessed by optical refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High performance refractometry has been proven to be a useful tool to elucidate the isothermal curing process of nanocomposites. As a model system an amine-hardening epoxy filled with non-surface-treated alumina nanoparticles was selected. The tremendous resolution of this experimental technique is used to study morphological changes within nanocomposites via the refractive index. It is shown that these morphological changes are not simply due to the curing process but also depend on the sequence of mixing the nanoparticles either first into the resin or first into the hardener. Independent of the resin/hardener composition, the type of the mixing sequence discriminates systematically between two distinct refractive index curves produced by the curing process. The difference between the two refractive index curves increases monotonically with curing time, which underlines the importance of the initial molecular environment of the nanoparticles.

  15. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of a Novel Nitrogen-containing Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Hong ZHANG; Hong Mei WAN; Yu Qin MIN; Zuo FANG; Guo Rong QI

    2005-01-01

    A new nitrogen-containing epoxy resin (XT resin) was synthesized from chain extension of xylenephenolformaldehyde resin (XPF) and triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in the presence of base catalyst. FT-IR and 1H-NMR analysis confirmed the chemical structure of XT resin. It was cured with dicyandiamide (DICY) and diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed that the introduction of triazine ring provides epoxy polymer with good thermal stability. Furthermore, high char yields at 800℃ in thermogravimetric (TGA)analysis indicated that XT resin had potential flame retardance.

  16. Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin via microwave-assisted ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Rong; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Qianxia; Bian, Zhibing; Dai, Haixiong; Zhang, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiH 2 was modified with epoxy resin by microwave-assisted ball milling. • The epoxy ring was opened under the coupling effect of microwave and ball milling. • Microwave-assisted ball milling improved the compatibility of TiH 2 with epoxy. - Abstract: Surface modification of titanium hydride with epoxy resin was carried out via microwave-assisted ball milling and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A sedimentation test was performed to investigate the compatibility of the modified nano titanium hydride with the epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy resin molecules were grafted on the surface of nano titanium hydride particles during the microwave-assisted ball milling process, which led to the improvement of compatibility between the nanoparticles and epoxy resin. According to the FT-IR, the grafting site was likely to be located around the epoxy group due to the fact that the epoxy ring was opened. However, compared with microwave-assisted ball milling, the conventional ball milling could not realize the surface modification, indicating that the coupling effect of mechanical force and microwave played a key role during the process

  17. Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding of epoxy nanocomposite foams containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhang, Hongming; Fan, Xun; Zhou, Lisheng; Shang, Zhengyang; Shi, Xuetao

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy/functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (EP/F-MWCNT) microcellular foams were fabricated through a supercritical CO2 (scCO2) foaming method. MWCNTs with carboxylation treatment were disentangled by using alpha-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) assisting dispersion method and functionalized with sulfanilamide. The F-MWCNTs were redispersed in acetone for mixing with epoxy resins to prepare nanocomposites. It was found that the dispersion of MWCNTs could be improved, thus heterogeneous nucleation effect of F-MWCNTs took place effectively during the foaming process, resulting in the formation of microcellular structure with larger cell density and smaller cell size. The volume conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding performance of foamed EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites were studied. When the F-MWCNT addition was 5 wt%, the conductivity of the foamed EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites was 3.02 × 10-4 S/cm and the EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) reached 20.5 dB, significantly higher than the corresponding results of nanocomposite counterparts, indicating that introducing microcellular structure in EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites would beneficial to improve their electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding performance.

  18. UV curing silicon-containing epoxy resin and its glass cloth reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Tang Zhuo; Huang Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    A UV-curable cationic silicon-containing epoxy resin formulation was developed. The gel conversion of the cured resin after 10-min UV irradiation reached 80% in the presence of 5% diaryliodonium salt photoinitiator and 5.5% polyol chain transfer agent by cationic ring-opening polymerization. The glass cloth-reinforced composites were fabricated with the silicon-containing epoxy resin using the wet lay-up technique and UV irradiation. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. Compared with glass cloth reinforced bisphenol A epoxy resin matrix composites, the silicon-containing epoxy resin matrix composites possessed higher tensile strength and interlayer shear strength which was 158.5MPa and 9.9MPa respectively while other mechanical properties such as flexural property and tensile modulus were similar. (authors)

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Epoxy Resins by Silicic Acid Tetraethyl Ester and Nano-SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 张之圣

    2004-01-01

    A kind of modified epoxy resins was obtained by condensation of epoxy resin with silicic acid tetraethyl ester(TEOS) and nano-SiO2. The reactions were performed with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst at 63 °C.The structure, thermal stability and morphological characteristics of the modified epoxy resins were studied through infrared spectra(FT-IR) analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscopy respectively. It has been found from the IR and TG study that modified epoxy resins have greater thermal stability than epoxy resins, and its thermal stability has been improved by the formation of inter-crosslinked network structure. The modified epoxy resins exhibit heterogeneous morphology and heterogeneity increases with more TEOS feeding, which in turn confirms the formation of inter-crosslinked network structure in modified epoxy resins.

  20. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or up-gradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252 Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use. (authors)

  1. Study on epoxy resin modified by polyether ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. C.; Guo, L. Y.; Deng, L. L.; Wu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Chloride 1-carboxyl polyether-3-methyl imidazole ionic liquid (PIIL) was synthesized. Then blended with epoxy resin(EP) to prepare the composite materials of PIIL/EP, which cured with aniline curing agent. The structure and curing performance of PIIL/EP were determined by FT-IR and DSC. The effects of the content of PIIL on strength of EP were studied. The results show that the PIIL was the target product. The strength was improved significantly with increase of the PIIL content. The obvious rubber elasticity of PIIL/EP after cured was showed when the content of PIIL accounts for 40% and the impact strength was up to 15.95kJ/m2.

  2. Analysis of sulphone based organic–inorganic hybrid epoxy nanocomposites for advanced engineering applications—Study of the mechanical, thermomechanical, XRD, EDS and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shree Meenakshi, K.; Pradeep Jaya Sudhan, E.; Menon, Prathibha G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel sulphone based tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites were developed for aerospace applications. ► Nano-reinforcements were incorporated and curing was done. ► Excellent results were obtained in the mechanical studies. The nanocomposites developed were flame retardant and hydrophobic. - Abstract: A study was made in the present investigation on sulphone containing tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites to find its suitability for use in high performance applications. The synthesis and characterization of the sulphone tetraglycidyl epoxy resin denoted as ‘B’ was done as reported in our previous study. Nanoclay and POSS-amine nano-reinforcements denoted as N1 and N2 were incorporated into the synthesized epoxy resin. Curing was done with diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) and bis(3-aminophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO) curing agents denoted as X and Y respectively. In our current research, we continue this research and study the mechanical, thermo-mechanical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), viscosity, epoxy equivalent weight (EEW) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies.

  3. Dry sliding wear behaviour of organo-modified montmorillonite filled epoxy nanocomposites using Taguchi's techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashmi; Renukappa, N.M.; Suresha, B.; Devarajaiah, R.M.; Shivakumar, K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Successful fabrication of OMMT filled epoxy nanocomposites by high-shear mixing mehod. → Systematic tribological behaviour of the nanocomposites was made using Taguchi method. → Worn surface morphologies of the samples were discussed for different wear mechanisms. → Generation of wear data for sliding/bearing parts for different industries. -- Abstract: The aim of the research article is to study the dry sliding wear behaviour of epoxy with different wt.% of organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) filled nanocomposites. An orthogonal array (L 9 ) was used to investigate the influence of tribological parameters. The results indicate that the sliding distance emerges as the most significant factor affecting wear rate of epoxy nanocomposites. Experimental results showed that the inclusion of 5 wt.% OMMT nanofiller increased the wear resistance of the epoxy nanocomposite significantly. Furthermore, the worn surfaces of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the wear mechanisms and to correlate them with the wear test results.

  4. Cure monitoring of epoxy resin by using fiber bragg grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk [KEPCO, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In several industrial fields, epoxy resin is widely used as an adhesive for co-curing and manufacturing various structures. Controlling the manufacturing process is required for ensuring robust bonding performance and the stability of the structures. A fiber optic sensor is suitable for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin owing to the thready shape of the sensor. In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was applied for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin. Based on the experimental results, it was demonstrated that the FBG sensor can monitor the status of epoxy resin curing by measuring the strain caused by volume shrinkage and considering the compensation of temperature. In addition, two types of epoxy resin were used for the cure-monitoring; moreover, when compared to each other, it was found that the two types of epoxy had different cure-processes in terms of the change of strain during the curing. Therefore, the study proved that the FBG sensor is very profitable for the cure-monitoring of epoxy resin.

  5. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured

  6. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, Christophe [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rain, Pascal [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques (LEMD), CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rowe, Stephen W [Schneider Electric Industries S.A.S., 37 quai Paul-Louis Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-02-07

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm{sup -1} with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T{sub g}, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T{sub g}, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm{sup -1} have been measured.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Phenolic Resin/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Soltan-Dehghan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins have been widely used for selective high technology applications due to their excellent ablative properties, structural integrity and thermal stability that make them appropriate for thermal insulation materials, wood products industry, coatings, moulding compounds and composite materials. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based on montmorillonite (MMT have attracted a great deal of attention because of enhanced properties in mechanical, thermal, barrier and clarity properties without a significant increase in density, which is not possible with conventional fillers. Phenolic resin/montmorillonite (Cloisite 15A nanocomposite was prepared by a combined route of solution blending and in-situ polymerization. Theoptimized conditions for preparation of nanocomposite were achieved by evaluation of various processing parameters (mechanical mixer, high speed disperser and high energy ultrasonic source, mixing time (0.5, 1, 3, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and different amounts of montmorillonite (5 and 10 weight percents of montmorillonite relative to resol. X-Ray Diffractometer and thermal gravimetric analyzer were used accordingly to show the degree of nanodispersions of organomontmorillonite in polymeric matrix and the effect of nanofiller on thermal stability of nanocomposite with respect to neatresol. The results of high energy ultrasonic source show that a nanocomposite of phenolic resin with 5 wt% montmorillonite displays the best dispersion of clay layers. Thermal stability of nanocomposite was increased by 27% in comparison with neat resol.

  8. Thermal conductivity of pillared graphene-epoxy nanocomposites using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, A.; Srivastava, S.; Ramazani, A.; Sundararaghavan, V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal conductivity in a pillared graphene-epoxy nanocomposite (PGEN) is studied using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. PGEN is a proposed material for advanced thermal management applications because it combines high in-plane conductivity of graphene with high axial conductivity of a nanotube to significantly enhance the overall conductivity of the epoxy matrix material. Anisotropic conductivity of PGEN has been compared with that of pristine and functionalized carbon nanotube-epoxy nanocomposites, showcasing the advantages of the unique hierarchical structure of PGEN. Compared to pure carbon allotropes, embedding the epoxy matrix also promotes a weaker dependence of conductivity on thermal variations. These features make this an attractive material for thermal management applications.

  9. Radiation curing of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filled epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Kim, Dong Jin; Nho, Young Chang [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Epoxy resins are widely utilized as high performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications but characterized by a relatively low toughness. Recently, the incorporation with rigid inorganic was suggested to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy resins. In the present work, an attempt has been taken to disperse nano-sized {gamma}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resins for improvement of the mechanical properties. These hybrid epoxy-alumina composites were prepared using by the {gamma}-ray curing technique that was conducted with 100kGy under nitrogen at room temperature. The composites were characterized by determining gel content, UTM (Instron model 4443), SEM, FT-IR studies.

  10. Leaching of iodine from composites based on epoxy resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The scope for using solid composites obtained by incorporating dry powdery lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxy resin for prolonged immobilization of iodine-129 under monitorable storage conditions has been assessed by a study of leaching of iodine

  11. Radiation curing of γ-Al2O3 filled epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Kim, Dong Jin; Nho, Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    Epoxy resins are widely utilized as high performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications but characterized by a relatively low toughness. Recently, the incorporation with rigid inorganic was suggested to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy resins. In the present work, an attempt has been taken to disperse nano-sized γ- Al 2 O 3 particles into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resins for improvement of the mechanical properties. These hybrid epoxy-alumina composites were prepared using by the γ-ray curing technique that was conducted with 100kGy under nitrogen at room temperature. The composites were characterized by determining gel content, UTM (Instron model 4443), SEM, FT-IR studies

  12. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins: effect of alcohols on cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable ... generate ionic species, free radicals, and/or molecules in .... bisphenol A) and the effect of presence of different OH.

  13. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  14. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  15. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by aniline epoxy resins in the aircraft industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri; Jolanki, Riitta; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Valtanen, Ilona; Alanko, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    Tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline (TGMDA) is an aniline epoxy resin used in, for example, resin systems of pre-impregnated composite materials (prepregs) of the aircraft industry. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in prepregs has been described previously. To report on 9 patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in epoxy glues used in helicopter assembly. The patients were examined with patch testing at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2004-2009. The first patient was diagnosed by testing both components of two epoxy glues from the workplace, and was also tested with glue ingredients, including TGMDA. The following patients were tested with the glues and TGMDA. The resin parts of the glues were analysed for their epoxy compounds, including TGMDA. All of the patients had a patch test reaction to one or both of the resin parts of the TGMDA-containing glues. Eight of them had a strong allergic reaction to TGMDA, and one had a doubtful reaction to TGMDA. Two of the patients also had an allergic reaction to triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP), another aniline epoxy resin, which was not present in the TGMDA-containing glues. In aircraft industry workers with suspected occupational dermatitis, aniline epoxy resins should be considered and patch tested as possible contact allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.; Low, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission

  17. Effect of Saline Solution on the Electrical Response of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Younes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of saline solution on the electrical resistance of single wall carbon nanotubes-epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated experimentally. Ultrasonic assisted fabricated 1.0% and 0.5 W/W% SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites are integrated into a Kelvin structure by smear cast the nanocomposites on a glass wafer. Four metal pads are deposited on the nanocomposites using the beam evaporator and wires are tethered using soldering. The effect of saline solution on the electrical resistance of the nanocomposites is studied by adding drop of saline solution to the surface of the fabricated nanocomposites and measuring electrical resistance. Moreover, the nanocomposites are soaked completely into 3 wt.% saline solution and real-time measurement of the electrical resistance is conducted. It is found that a drop of saline solution on the surface of the nanocomposites film increases the resistance by 50%. Furthermore, the real-time measurement reveals a 40% increase in the resistance of the nanocomposites film. More importantly, the nanocomposites are successfully reset by soaking in DI water for four hours. This study may open the door for using SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites as scale sensors in oil and gas industry.

  18. Comparison of the Nanostructure and Mechanical Performance of Highly Exfoliated Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Three Different Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shiravand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three different protocols for the preparation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon a tri-functional epoxy resin, triglycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP, have been compared in respect of the cure kinetics, the nanostructure and their mechanical properties. The three preparation procedures involve 2 wt% and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (MMT, and are: isothermal cure at selected temperatures; pre-conditioning of the resin-clay mixture before isothermal cure; incorporation of an initiator of cationic homopolymerisation, a boron tri-fluoride methyl amine complex, BF3·MEA, within the clay galleries. It was found that features of the cure kinetics and of the nanostructure correlate with the measured impact strength of the cured nanocomposites, which increases as the degree of exfoliation of the MMT is improved. The best protocol for toughening the TGAP/MMT nanocomposites is by the incorporation of 1 wt% BF3·MEA into the clay galleries of nanocomposites containing 2 wt% MMT.

  19. Reinforced carbon fiber laminates with oriented carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: Magnetic field assisted alignment and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Yang, Song; Liu, Hu; Shao, Qian; Chen, Qiuyu; Lu, Chang; Jiang, Yuanli; Liu, Chuntai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-05-01

    The epoxy nanocomposites with ordered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77 K, Oxidized MWCNTs functionalized with Fe 3 O 4 (Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs) with good magnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy (EP) for cryogenic applications. Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composites were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs were observed to have effectively improved the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77 K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs also obviously improved the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77 K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites was decreased 37.6%. Compared to CF/EP composites, the micro-cracks density of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites at 77 K was decreased 37.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal properties and corrosion resistance of organoclay/epoxy resin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiquni, M.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid materials organoclay/epoxy resin films were prepared by varying organoclay content in epoxy resin as a matrix. The film were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal conductivity. TGA and FT-IR results confirmed that the melting temperature shifted to a lower point. The thermal conductivity and corrosion resistant generally increase with increasing organoclay content. The changes on these properties may due to cross link between organoclay and epoxy.

  1. Properties of B4C–PbO–Al(OH)3-epoxy nanocomposite prepared by ultrasonic dispersion approach for high temperature neutron shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Lee, J.K.; Kim, J.W.; Lee, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    High functional epoxy nanocomposites with three different filler materials, i.e., B 4 C, PbO, and Al(OH) 3 , were fabricated using an effective fabrication method consisting of an ultrasonic dispersion of nanoparticles in low-viscosity hardener and a subsequent mixing of a hardener-nanoparticle colloid with epoxy resins. It was confirmed that this approach provided not only an uniform dispersion but also an excellent wetting with enhanced interfacial adhesion of nano-particulate fillers within the matrix. By incorporating those three fillers, a synergistic effect was verified in multiple properties such as mechanical strength properties, thermal degradation, flame retardancy, and radiation shielding performance

  2. Partial discharges within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, H A; Mokhlis, H; Tunio, M A; Chen, G; Bakar, A H A

    2013-01-01

    A void in a dielectric insulation material may exist due to imperfection in the insulation manufacturing or long term stressing. Voids have been identified as one of the common sources of partial discharge (PD) activity within an insulation system, such as in cable insulation and power transformers. Therefore, it is important to study PD phenomenon within void cavities in insulation. In this work, a model of PD activity within two spherical voids in a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed using finite element analysis software to study the parameters affecting PD behaviour. The parameters that have been taken into account are the void surface conductivity, electron generation rate and the inception and extinction fields. Measurements of PD activity within two spherical voids in an epoxy resin under ac sinusoidal applied voltage have also been performed. The simulation results have been compared with the measurement data to validate the model and to identify the parameters affecting PD behaviour. Comparison between measurements of PD activity within single and two voids in a dielectric material have also been made to observe the difference of the results under both conditions. (paper)

  3. Electrical Tracking Formation on Silane Epoxy Resin under Various Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Rochmadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination at the surface of the insulator becomes a serious problem in power system operation, especially for the tropical area. Humidity and rainfall play an important role in wetness by the water at the surface of the insulator, which result in the presence of contaminant and leakage current flowing at the surface of the insulator. This leakage current will generate heat which occurs at the surface of an insulator, so that dry band area will be formed. This ultimately leads to flashover. This paper presents the influence of contaminants to leakage current and formation of electrical tracking at the surface of epoxy resin compound wit silicon rubber. The test was based on Inclined-Planed Tracking method with NH4Cl as contaminants. The industrial and coastal contaminants are used to explain the effect of contaminant at surface tracking process. The flow rate of contaminant was 0.3 ml/min. The 3.5 kV AC high voltage 50 Hz was applied to the top electrodes. It is found that industrial contamination resulting in the smallest surface leakage current is 327.6 mA. Also it is found that coastal contaminant (1420 mS/cm showed the severest damage at surface of test sample. Therefore, special treatment of the sample are needed under these conditions so that the material performance can be improved, especially against the electrical tracking.

  4. Effect of Hygrothermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamim, Salah U; Singh, Raman P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic nature of epoxy polymers can lead to both reversible and irreversible/permanent changes in epoxy upon moisture absorption. The permanent changes leading to the degradation of mechanical properties due to combined effect of moisture and elevated temperature on EPON 862, Nanomer I.28E, and Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites are investigated in this study. The extent of permanent degradation on fracture and flexural properties due to the hygrothermal aging is determined by drying the epoxy and their clay-epoxy nanocomposites after moisture absorption. Significant permanent damage is observed for fracture toughness and flexural modulus, while the extent of permanent damage is less significant for flexural strength. It is also observed that permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites is higher compared to Nanomer I.28E clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that both clays retained their original chemical structure after the absorption-desorption cycle without undergoing significant changes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces provide evidence that Somasif MAE clay particles offered very little resistance to crack propagation in case of redried specimens when compared to Nanomer I.28E counterpart. The reason for the observed higher extent of permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy system has been attributed to the weakening of the filler-matrix interface.

  5. Role of interfacial effects in carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécastaings, G; Delhaès, P; Derré, A; Saadaoui, H; Carmona, F; Cui, S

    2004-09-01

    The interfacial effects are critical to understand the nanocomposite behavior based on polymer matrices. These effects are dependent upon the morphology of carbon nanotubes, the type of used polymer and the processing technique. Indeed, we show that the different parameters, as the eventual surfactant use, the ultrasonic treatment and shear mixing have to be carefully examined, in particular, for nanotube dispersion and their possible alignment. A series of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) have been mixed with a regular epoxy resin under a controlled way to prepare nanocomposites. The influence of nanotube content is examined through helium bulk density, glass transition temperature of the matrix and direct current electrical conductivity measurements. These results, including the value of the percolation threshold, are analyzed in relationship with the mesostructural organization of these nanotubes, which is observed by standard and conductive probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The wrapping effect of the organic matrix along the nanotubes is evidenced and analyzed to get a better understanding of the final composite characteristics, in particular, for eventually reinforcing the matrix without covalent bonding.

  6. Effect of Nanocomposite Structures on Fracture Behavior of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Different Dispersion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic modifier and processing method on morphology and mechanical properties of epoxy-clay nanocomposites were investigated. In this study, the preparation of nanocomposites by exfoliation-adsorption method involved an ultrasonic mixing procedure, and mechanical blending was used for in situ intercalative polymerization. The microstructure study revealed that the organoclay, which was ultrasonically mixed with the epoxy, partially exfoliated and intercalated. In contrast, organoclay remained in phase-separated and flocculated state after the mechanical blending process. Tensile stiffness increased significantly for the nanocomposite prepared by ultrasonic dispersion method through realizing the reinforcing potential of exfoliated silicate layers. Nanocomposites with exfoliated and intercalated nanoclay morphology were ineffective in enhancing the fracture toughness whereas nanocomposites with phase-separated and flocculated morphology have improved crack resistance predominantly by crack deflecting and pinning mechanisms.

  7. A One-Component, Fast-Cure, and Economical Epoxy Resin System Suitable for Liquid Molding of Automotive Composite Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole cured epoxy resin systems were evaluated for one-component, fast-curing resins for liquid molding of automotive composite parts according to industry requirements. It was demonstrated that an epoxy resin-1-(cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol(EP-1C2E4MIM system would cure in a few minutes at 120 °C, while exhibiting acceptable pot life, viscosity profiles, and low water absorption. Moreover, this system yielded high Tg parts with mechanical properties similar to the amine-epoxy systems, which are the mainstream two-component epoxy resin systems for automobiles.

  8. ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON OCTA(AMINOPHENYL)SILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-bo Fan; Rong-jie Yang; Xiang-mei Li

    2013-01-01

    Octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) was used as the curing agent of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin.A study on comparison of DGEBA/OAPS with DGEBA/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) epoxy resins was achieved.Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the curing reaction and its kinetics,and the glass transition of DGEBA/OAPS.Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate thermal decomposition of the two kinds of epoxy resins.The reactions between amino groups and epoxy groups were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of the two epoxy resins.The results indicated that OAPS had very good compatibility with DGEBA in molecular level,and could form a transparent DGEBA/OAPS resin.The curing reaction of the DGEBA/OAPS prepolymer could occur under low temperatures compared with DGEBA/DDS.The DGEBA/OAPS resin didn't exhibit glass transition,but the DGEBA/DDS did,which meant that the large cage structure of OAPS limited the motion of chains between the cross-linking points.Measurements of the contact angle indicated that the DGEBA/OAPS showed larger angles with water than the DGEBA/DDS resin.Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of OAPS into epoxy system resulted in low mass loss rate and high char yield,but its initial decomposition temperature seemed to be lowered.

  9. Prediction of energy absorption characteristics of aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidt, D; Figiel, Ł; Buggy, M

    2012-01-01

    This research aims ultimately at improving the impact performance of laminates by applying a coating of epoxy containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here, 2D and 3D computational modelling was carried out to predict energy absorption characteristics of aligned CNT/epoxy nanocomposites subjected to macroscopic compression under different strain rates (quasi-static and impact rates). The influence of the rate-dependent matrix behaviour, CNT aspect ratio and CNT volume fraction on the energy absorption characteristics of the nanocomposites was evaluated. A strong correlation between those parameters was found, which provides an insight into a rate-dependent behaviour of the nanocomposites, and can help to tune their energy absorption characteristics.

  10. Mechanical properties and environmental effects of epoxy resins in the neat state and in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of graphite fiber reinforced, epoxy matrix composite laminates subjected to loading perpendicular to the plane of lamination and of neat epoxy resin are reported. The centrosymmetric deformation (CSD) test geometry provides an accurate and convenient test mode for the study of the viscoelastic behavior of very stiff graphite-epoxy laminates. It is found that the in-phase and out-of-phase stiffness superpose to form master curves covering a frequency range of 12 decades. By a suitable scaling procedure of the master curves, it is found that the in-phase stiffness has the same shape and the out-of-phase has the same dispersion for all laminates irrespective of the stacking sequence. The dispersion characteristics of in-situ and neat resin epoxy were nearly identical, but with the neat resin having a lower glass-transition temperature. The graphite/epoxy composites and neat resin epoxy have been shown to be sensitive to hygrothermal environment. For postcured specimens the plasticization and inhomogeneous swelling effects due to the moisture absorbed are found to be reversible, in the sense that the initially dry properties of the laminate are recovered after redrying the wet specimen. On the other hand, for as cured specimens, the plasticization and inhomogeneous swelling effects are found to be irreversible under the same hygrothermal environment

  11. Fracture Analysis of MWCNT/Epoxy Nanocomposite Film Deposited on Aluminum Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Chien, Pao-Chu

    2017-04-13

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced epoxy films were deposited on an aluminum substrate by a hot-pressing process. Three-point bending tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus of MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite films. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 21% in the Young's modulus. Four-point-bending tests were conducted to investigate the fracture toughness of the MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite film deposited on an aluminum substrate with interfacial cracks. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the strain energy in a film/substrate composite beam is derived. The difference of strain energy before and after the propagation of the interfacial crack are calculated, leading to the determination of the strain energy release rate. Experimental test results show that the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite film deposited on the aluminum substrate increases with the increase in the MWCNT content.

  12. Effect of epoxide equivalent on microstructure of epoxy/rectorite nanocomposite studied by positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.M.; Fang, P.F.; Zhang, S.P.; Wang, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The epoxy/rectorite nanocomposites with different epoxide equivalent ranging from 188 to 1110 were prepared and the effects of epoxide equivalent on microstructure of materials were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscope (PALS). In nanocomposites, the formation of exfoliated structure was observed from XRD pattern at epoxide equivalent >263. The PALS measurements reveal that the fractional free volume in nanocomposites was strongly affected by epoxide equivalent, in particular, the free-volume concentration was dramatically decreased with the increasing epoxide equivalent from 188 to 263, and the S parameter indicates the rectorite structure change and the high sensitivity of positron annihilation to the entry of rectorite into epoxy. These results indicate that positron annihilation characteristics are useful for study the microstructure of epoxy/rectorite nanocomposites

  13. Proton-conducting membrane based on epoxy resin-poly(vinyl alcohol)-sulfosuccinic acid blend and its nanocomposite with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes for fuel-cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGB) in the presence of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was investigated as hydrolytically-stable proton-conducting membrane. The PVA modification was carried out by varying the DGB:SSA ratio (20:20, 10:20, and 5:20). A nanocomposite of the blend (20:20) was prepared with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes (viz., 1, 3 and 5 wt%). The water uptake behavior and the proton conductivity of the prepared membranes were evaluated. The ionic conductivity of the membranes and the water uptake behavior depended on the s-MWCNT and the DGB contents. The ionic conductivity showed an enhancement for the blend and for the nanocomposite membrane as compared to the pristine polymer.

  14. Mechanism of adhesion of epoxy resin to steel surface; Tekko hyomen to epoxy jushino secchaku mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    In the present research, an adhesion-breaking test and a molecular-scale model experiment were conducted to elucidate the adhesion mechanism of epoxy resin (R) to the cold rolled steel sheet (CR) and galvanized steel sheet (GI). As for the adhesive joint strength in the humid environment, the GI is inferior in residual strength to the CR. The GI joint fracture is an interfacial fracture between the plating and adhesive agent, while the CR joint fracture is a combination of cohesive fracture and interfacial fracture. It is attributable to the difference in adhesion mechanism of R and degradation due to humidity between the surface solely of zinc and iron-containing surface. The adhesion state of R to the zinc oxide and iron oxide was observed by temperature-programed desorption in an ultrahigh vacuum. On each of both oxides, the R chemically adsorbs through bond scission between the phenoxy oxide and carbon. If the water dissociatively adsorbs onto the surface, the bond is destroyed between the zinc oxide and R. The formation of interfacial chemical bond contributes to the adhesion of R to the CR and GI. In case of GI, this band is destroyed by the interfacial infiltration of water, while it is not done in case of CR. The CR excels the GI in adhesive durability. 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Thermosetting epoxy resin/thermoplastic system with combined shape memory and self-healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Wang, Jingjie; Lu, Haibao; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Xu, Ben; Fu, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile strategy was proposed to construct a thermosetting/thermoplastic system with both shape memory and self-healing properties based on commercial epoxy resin and poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-PCL. Thermoplastic material is capable of re-structuring and changing the stiffness/modulus when the temperature is above melting temperature. PCL microfiber was used as a plasticizer in epoxy resin–based blends, and served as a ‘hard segment’ to fix a temporary shape of the composites during shape memory cycles. In this study, the electrospun PCL membrane with a porous network structure enabled a homogenous PCL fibrous distribution and optimized interaction between fiber and epoxy resin. The self-healing capability is achieved by phase transition during curing of the composites. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of the thermosetting (rubber)/thermoplastic composite is attributed to the structural design of the thermoplastic network inside the thermosetting resin/rubber matrix. (paper)

  16. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007......BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which...

  17. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  18. Molecular Mechanics of the Moisture Effect on Epoxy/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lik-ho Tam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The strong structural integrity of polymer nanocomposite is influenced in the moist environment; but the fundamental mechanism is unclear, including the basis for the interactions between the absorbed water molecules and the structure, which prevents us from predicting the durability of its applications across multiple scales. In this research, a molecular dynamics model of the epoxy/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT nanocomposite is constructed to explore the mechanism of the moisture effect, and an analysis of the molecular interactions is provided by focusing on the hydrogen bond (H-bond network inside the nanocomposite structure. The simulations show that at low moisture concentration, the water molecules affect the molecular interactions by favorably forming the water-nanocomposite H-bonds and the small cluster, while at high concentration the water molecules predominantly form the water-water H-bonds and the large cluster. The water molecules in the epoxy matrix and the epoxy-SWCNT interface disrupt the molecular interactions and deteriorate the mechanical properties. Through identifying the link between the water molecules and the nanocomposite structure and properties, it is shown that the free volume in the nanocomposite is crucial for its structural integrity, which facilitates the moisture accumulation and the distinct material deteriorations. This study provides insights into the moisture-affected structure and properties of the nanocomposite from the nanoscale perspective, which contributes to the understanding of the nanocomposite long-term performance under the moisture effect.

  19. Molecular Mechanics of the Moisture Effect on Epoxy/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lik-Ho; Wu, Chao

    2017-10-13

    The strong structural integrity of polymer nanocomposite is influenced in the moist environment; but the fundamental mechanism is unclear, including the basis for the interactions between the absorbed water molecules and the structure, which prevents us from predicting the durability of its applications across multiple scales. In this research, a molecular dynamics model of the epoxy/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nanocomposite is constructed to explore the mechanism of the moisture effect, and an analysis of the molecular interactions is provided by focusing on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) network inside the nanocomposite structure. The simulations show that at low moisture concentration, the water molecules affect the molecular interactions by favorably forming the water-nanocomposite H-bonds and the small cluster, while at high concentration the water molecules predominantly form the water-water H-bonds and the large cluster. The water molecules in the epoxy matrix and the epoxy-SWCNT interface disrupt the molecular interactions and deteriorate the mechanical properties. Through identifying the link between the water molecules and the nanocomposite structure and properties, it is shown that the free volume in the nanocomposite is crucial for its structural integrity, which facilitates the moisture accumulation and the distinct material deteriorations. This study provides insights into the moisture-affected structure and properties of the nanocomposite from the nanoscale perspective, which contributes to the understanding of the nanocomposite long-term performance under the moisture effect.

  20. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periolatto, M.; Sangermano, M.; Spena, P. Russo

    2016-05-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  1. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, Bolzano (Italy); Sangermano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  2. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo; Sangermano, M.

    2016-01-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  3. Grafting of polyethylenimine onto cellulose nanofibers for interfacial enhancement in their epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangqi; Li, Qingye; Zhang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Meijie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2017-02-10

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were surface-modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI), which brought plentiful amine groups on the surface of CNFs, leading to a reduced hydrogen bond density between CNFs and consequently less CNFs agglomerates. The amine groups could also react with the epoxy as an effective curing agent that could increase the interfacial crosslinking density and strengthen interfacial adhesion. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of CNFs-PEI/Epoxy nanocomposites were 88.1% and 237.6% higher than those of neat epoxy, respectively. The tensile storage modulus of the nanocomposites also increased significantly at the temperature either below or above the Tg. The coefficient of thermal expansion for the CNFs-PEI/Epoxy nanocomposites was 22.2ppmK -1 , much lower than that of the neat epoxy (88.6ppmK -1 ). In addition, the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites was observed to increase as well. The exceptional and balanced properties may provide the nanocomposites promising applications in automotive, construction and electronic devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  5. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Resin Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zijun; Zhang, Tianchi; Qiao, Sen; Zhang, Luyihang

    2017-11-01

    The multilayer graphene powder as filler, epoxy modified silicone resin as film-forming agent, anticorrosion composite coating has been created using sand dispersion method, the electrochemical performance was compared with different content of graphene composite coating and pure epoxy resin coating. The open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel Plot) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were tested. The test results showed that the anti-corrosion performance of multilayer graphene added has improved greatly, and the content of the 5% best corrosion performance of graphene composite coating.

  6. Nonlinear DC Conduction Behavior in Graphene Nanoplatelets/Epoxy Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/Epoxy resin (ER) with a low percolation threshold were fabricated. Then the nonlinear DC conduction behavior of GNPs/ER composites was investigated, which indicates that dispersion, exfoliation level and conductivity of GNPs in specimens are closely related to the conduction of composites. Moreover, it could be seen that the modified graphene nanoplatelets made in this paper could be successfully used for increasing the electric conductivity of the epoxy resin, and the GNPs/ER composites with nonlinear conduction behavior have a good application prospects in the field of intelligent electromagnetic protection.

  7. Syntheses and characterization of novel P/Si polysilsesquioxanes/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu Yiechan; Liu Fangyi; Ma, C.-C.M.; Chou, I.-C.; Riang Linawati; Chiang, C.-L.; Yang, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing polysilsesquioxane (PSSQ) was introduced into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy (DGEBA) to generate a novel P/Si PSSQ nanocomposite. A series of nanocomposites was fabricated by changing the content of the 2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyltriethoxysilane (DPPETES) monomer or P/Si PSSQ cured with DGEBA epoxy and modified epoxy. The structure, thermal properties and flame-retardancy of the P/Si PSSQ nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state 29 Si NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and limited oxygen index (LOI) instruments. The nano-sizes of the particles in P/Si PSSQ were approximately 30-50 nm, and the polarity of nanocomposites might generate the nanophase-separated structure from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urethane-like side group of the modified epoxy and the fabrication of oligomers in the curing reaction affected the T d5 values of nanocomposites. TGA and LOI results indicated that the char yield (29 wt%) increased and the nanocomposites were not very flammable (LOI = 30). The hybrid materials also exhibited high thermal stability, good flame-retardance and a lack of phase separation

  8. Experimental Investigation on Fatigue Behavior of Epoxy Resin under Load and Displacement Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mehrdad Shokrieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of epoxy resin including tensile and flexural modulus, tensile and flexural strength for static conditions are currently studied. The frequency effect as significant parameter at room temperature is investigated and fatigue behavior of the epoxy resin in tension-tension loading conditions for different frequencies of 2, 3 and 5 Hz are obtained. The epoxy resin has been taken under flexural bending fatigue loading and fatigue life is investigated. The results of the experiments show the values of 2.5 and 3 GPa of tensile and flexural modules and 59.98 and 110.02 MPa of tensile and flexural strengths for the resin, respectively. To achieve a linear load-deflection relationship in a three-point bending experiment, a maximum allowable deflection of 5 mm is acquired. The relationship between the frequency and fatigue life shows higher frequency results in lower fatigue life. Loading with frequency of 2 Hz has provided 5.8 times more fatigue life compared with 5 Hz loading. For a tension-tension fatigue loading condition, the variation of tensile module of epoxy resin shows no noticeable change during the fatigue loading condition. This module decreases significantly only in the primary and failure cycles close to the fracture point. In further experiments, fatigue behavior of epoxy resin was tested under flexural bending fatigue loadings with controlled deflection at room temperature. Maximum applied normalized stresses versus the number of cycles to failure curve are illustrated and it can be performed in order to predict the number of cycles to failure for the resin in arbitrary applied normal stresses as well.

  9. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.; Newey, H.A.

    Primary diamines are prepared for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and preimpregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses a room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  10. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than n...

  11. Synthesis of a new hardener agent for self-healing epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata; Naddeo, Carlo; Longo, Pasquale; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Agovino, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Actually, the development of smart composites capable of self-repair in aeronautical structures is still at the planning stage owing to complex issues to overcome. One of the critical points in the development of self-healing epoxy resin is related to the impossibility to employ primary amines as hardeners. In this paper, the synthesis of a new hardener for self-healing resins is shown together with applicability conditions/ranges.

  12. The Role of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes on Fracture Mechanism of Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hooshiar Sadegian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the role of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on fracture mechanism of epoxy nanocomposites, a series of tensile standard specimens reinforced with different carbon nanotube contents (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1 wt% were produced. The fracture surfaces of the produced nanocomposites were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results show that the surface fracture of epoxy nanocomposites comprised of three regions, i.e. mirror, transition and final propagation zones. The extension of all zones depends strongly on curing agent as well asMWCNTs content. The mirror zone is disappeared as curing agent and MWCNTs content increases, while the transition zone depends on the nucleation rate of secondary microcrack. The pattern of final propagation zone becomes coarser as MWCNTs are added to epoxy system.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Three Nanoclay Dispersion Methods of Epoxy/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Keyoonwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study, firstly, to obtain high degree of clay exfoliation in the epoxy matrix by three dispersion methods such as normal mixing, shear mixing, and high-speed mixing and, secondly, to investigate corrosion behavior of epoxy/organoclay nanocomposite, immersion test, weight change, and penetration behavior were conducted. From the three mixing methods, the high-speed mixing method showed larger clay interlayer distance, smaller clay aggregate, and more homogeneity and expectedly resulted in high anticorrosive properties. Penetration depths of these nanocomposites showed a small difference; however, the most noticeable improvements in anticorrosion performance for epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites under high-speed mixing method were found to reduce penetration and weight uptake which are described via the model of nanoparticulate-filled structure and discussed in corrosion protection mechanism against environmental liquid penetration.

  14. Allergic Reaction to Polyether Ether Ketone Following Cross-Reactivity to Epoxy Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Lukas; Wambacher, Markus; Schweinzer, Katrin; Scherl, Maritta; Kofler, Heinz

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a thermoplastic polymer frequently used in engineering but also in medical devices. Only 1 case of allergic reaction to PEEK used as an implanted medical device has been reported so far; however, the route of sensitization remained unclear. Here we report on a 62-year-old male patient with a preknown, severe type IV allergy to epoxy resin. He reported strong pain in his shoulder after implantation of a PEEK-containing device after a rotator cuff injury. For testing, the device was implanted in a small pouch subcutaneously on the abdomen. The patient reported massive pain starting 8 hours after the implantation, strictly limited to the procedural area and showing perifocal erythema. A possible explanation of the sensitization mode is the source material for PEEK and epoxy resin, as both are mainly based on bisphenols. An allergic reaction to PEEK with preknown epoxy resin sensitization has not been reported so far. As epoxy resins are a frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis and PEEK is widely used for medical and nonmedical devices, we believe that this is of great clinical relevance.

  15. Study of Dielectric Properties and Morphology of Epoxy Resin with Silicon Dioxide Microparticles and Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, Jiří; Neděla, Vilém

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1896-1897 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : epoxy resin ESEM * Nanoparticles * silicon dioxide * ESEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  16. Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Modified Graphene Oxide: As a Reinforcing Filler and Catalyst in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lyu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphene oxide (GO is one of the most important issues to produce high performance GO/epoxy composites. In this paper, the imidazole ionic liquid (IMD-Si was introduced onto the surface of GO sheets by a cheap and simple method, to prepare a reinforcing filler, as well as a catalyst in epoxy resin. The interlayer spacing of GO sheets was obviously increased by the intercalation of IMD-Si, which strongly facilitated the dispersibility of graphene oxide in organic solvents and epoxy matrix. The addition of 0.4 wt % imidazolium ionic liquid modified graphene oxide (IMD-Si@GO, yielded a 12% increase in flexural strength (141.3 MPa, a 26% increase in flexural modulus (4.69 GPa, and a 52% increase in impact strength (18.7 kJ/m2, compared to the neat epoxy. Additionally the IMD-Si@GO sheets could catalyze the curing reaction of epoxy resin-anhydride system significantly. Moreover, the improved thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of epoxy composites filled with IMD-Si@GO were also demonstrated.

  17. Influence of the Organophilisation Process on Properties of the Bentonite Filler and Mechanical Properties of the Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapacz-Kmita A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this comparative study, the influence of the organophilisation process on the properties of resulting organobentonite fillers and their capability to improve the mechanical properties of clay/polymer nanocomposites were investigated. The organobentonites were obtained by activation with the use of two organic quaternary ammonium salts (QAS with alkyl chains of significantly different lengths. The organophilisation resulted in an increase in the interlayer space of clays, which was confirmed by XRD analysis. The obtained organofillers were used to produce nanoclay/epoxy resin composites and the effects of alkyl chain length on the resulting properties of composites were compared based on the examination of mechanical behaviour and morphology, and a composite filled with the non organophilised bentonite was used as a reference material. It was demonstrated that the organophilisation process using distearyldimethyl ammonium chloride salt with a longer alkyl chain (C18-C20 created a more superior conditions for the compatibility of nanofiller with a polymer matrix, resulting in a 25 % increase in the bending strength of the epoxy composite material filled with 3 %wt of the organophilised bentonite, comparing to neat epoxy.

  18. Biocompatible epoxy modified bio-based polyurethane nanocomposites: mechanical property, cytotoxicity and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suvangshu; Karak, Niranjan; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Konwar, Bolin Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Epoxy modified Mesua ferrea L. seed oil (MFLSO) based polyurethane nanocomposites with different weight % of clay loadings (1%, 2.5% and 5%) have been evaluated as biocompatible materials. The nanocomposites were prepared by ex situ solution technique under high mechanical shearing and ultrasonication at room temperature. The partially exfoliated nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength and scratch hardness were improved 2 and 5 times, respectively by nanocomposites formation. Even the impact resistance improved a little. The thermostability of the nanocomposites was enhanced by about 40 degrees C. Biodegradation study confirmed 5-10 fold increase in biodegradation rate for the nanocomposites compared to the pristine polymers. All the nanocomposites showed non-cytotoxicity as evident from RBC hemolysis inhibition observed in anti-hemolytic assay carried over the sterilized films. The study reveals that the epoxy modified MFLSO based polyurethane nanocomposites deserve the potential to be applicable as biomaterials.

  19. Influence of the silica fillers on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various studies were carried out on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations. In all cases, pure polymers were studied. The aim of our work managed by the CEA and the CNRS consists on studying the part of fillers and particularly the part of silica on ageing process under electron beam irradiations. Because of their wide use in industrial applications and especially in nuclear environment, the DGEBA-TETA resins (Diglycidylether of Bisphenol A - Triethylenetetramine) were chosen. Those epoxy resins are difficult to analyse because of their insolubility. Some pure and nano-metric silica filled chemical models which chemical structure very close to the one the DGEBA/TETA resin were synthesized and analysed with classical methods in organic chemistry. A major phenomenon of rupture of the C-O and C-N chemical bonds with creation of phenolic extremities, methylketone extremities, of primary and tertiary amines and notably enamine functions were revealed by the analyses. The quantitative 1 H and 13 C NMR analyses revealed the screen effect due to the silica and the reactions between the chemical species created by the irradiations and the silica surface. Thermic and thermodynamic analyses of the different epoxy resins in function of the irradiation dose and of the kind of silica showed the decrease of the glass transition temperature, of the relaxation temperature and of the crosslink density confirming the major phenomenon of bond ruptures during irradiations. With silica, the decrease of the crosslink density is slowed. This phenomenon can be explained with interactions between the nano-metric silica surface and the epoxy resin offsetting the effect of the chain rupture on the resin mechanical properties. The 13 C solid state NMR analyses confirmed the choice of the chemical models and permitted to detect the chemical species created by the irradiations. The analyse of the polarization transfers with 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed the stiffening of the nano

  20. Fabrication of High Gas Barrier Epoxy Nanocomposites: An Approach Based on Layered Silicate Functionalized by a Compatible and Reactive Modifier of Epoxy-Diamine Adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the drawbacks of poor dispersion and weak interface in gas barrier nanocomposites, a novel epoxy-diamine adduct (DDA was synthesized by reacting epoxy monomer DGEBA with curing agent D400 to functionalize montmorillonite (MMT, which could provide complete compatibility and reactivity with a DGEBA/D400 epoxy matrix. Thereafter, sodium type montmorillonite (Na-MMT and organic-MMTs functionalized by DDA and polyether amines were incorporated with epoxy to manufacture nanocomposites. The effects of MMT functionalization on the morphology and gas barrier property of nanocomposites were evaluated. The results showed that DDA was successfully synthesized, terminating with epoxy and amine groups. By simulating the small-angle neutron scattering data with a sandwich structure model, the optimal dispersion/exfoliation of MMT was observed in a DDA-MMT/DGEBA nanocomposite with a mean radius of 751 Å, a layer thickness of 30.8 Å, and only two layers in each tactoid. Moreover, the DDA-MMT/DGEBA nanocomposite exhibited the best N2 barrier properties, which were about five times those of neat epoxy. Based on a modified Nielsen model, it was clarified that this excellent gas barrier property was due to the homogeneously dispersed lamellas with almost exfoliated structures. The improved morphology and barrier property confirmed the superiority of the adduct, which provides a general method for developing gas barrier nanocomposites.

  1. High performance, freestanding and superthin carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinzhu; Gao, Yun; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Luqi; Zhang, Zhong; Niu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zeng, Qingshen; Dong, Haibo; Zhao, Duan; Cai, Le; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen

    2011-09-01

    We develop a facile, effective and filter free infiltration method to fabricate high performance, freestanding and superthin epoxy nanocomposite films with directly synthesized Sing-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) film as reinforcement skeleton. It is found that the thicknesses of the nanocomposite films can be easily controlled in the range of 0.5-3 μm by dripping target amount of acetone diluted epoxy through the skeleton film. The consequent measurements reveal that the mechanical and electrical properties of SWNTs/epoxy nanocomposite films could be tailored in a quite wide range. For examples, the Young's modulus of nanocomposite films can be tuned from 10 to 30 GPa, and the electrical conductivity can be ranged from 1000 S·cm(-1) to be insulated. Moreover, high load transfer efficiency in the nanocomposite films is demonstrated by the measured ultrahigh Raman bands shift rate (-30 ± 5 cm(-1)/% strain) under strain. The high effective modulus is derived as 774 ± 70 GPa for SWNTs inside this nanocomposite film.

  2. Effect of epoxy resin sealing on corrosion resistance of arc spraying aluminium coating using cathode electrophoresis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuming; Wang, Runqiu; Wei, Qian; Zhou, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Arc-sprayed Al coating was sealed with epoxy resin using the cathode electrophoresis method. The anti-corrosion performance of the coatings sealed with epoxy resin was studied by means of a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution test at 40 °C. For comparison, the anti-corrosion performance of Al coating sealed with boiling water was also performed under the same conditions. The results show that epoxy resin with a thickness of about 20 microns can entirely cover open pores and decreases the surface roughness of the as-sprayed Al coating, and the epoxy resin even permeates into the gaps among lamellar splats from open pores. After corrosion, the thickness of the epoxy resin layer is unchanged and can still cover the as-sprayed Al coating entirely. However, the thickness of Al coating sealed with boiling water decreases from 100 to 40 microns, which indicates that the arc-sprayed Al coating has much better corrosion resistance than the Al coating sealed with boiling water. Meanwhile, the content of substituted benzene ring in the epoxy resin increases, but aromatic ring decreases according to the fourier transform infrared spectra, which will cause the rigidity of the epoxy resin to increase, but the toughness slightly decreases after corrosion.

  3. Surface flashover performance of epoxy resin microcomposites improved by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin; Min, Daomin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Shengtao, E-mail: stli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Li, Zhen; Xie, Dongri [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and its Application, Ministry of Education, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Lin, Shengjun [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Pinggao Group Company Ltd., State Grid High Voltage Switchgear Insulation Materials Laboratory, Pingdingshan 467001 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin microcomposites were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV. • Surface flashover voltage increase with the increase of electron beam energy. • Both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. • Deposition energy in epoxy resin microcomposites increases with electron beam energy, and surface trap properties are determined by deposition energy. • The influence of surface conductivity and trap distribution on flashover voltage is discussed. - Abstract: The influencing mechanism of electron beam irradiation on surface flashover of epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite was investigated. Epoxy resin/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcomposite samples with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 1 mm were prepared. The samples were irradiated by electron beam with energies of 10 and 20 keV and a beam current of 5 μA for 5 min. Surface potential decay, surface conduction, and surface flashover properties of untreated and irradiated samples were measured. Both the decay rate of surface potential and surface conductivity decrease with an increase in the energy of electron beam. Meanwhile, surface flashover voltage increase. It was found that both the untreated and irradiated samples have two trap centers, which are labeled as shallow and deep traps. The increase in the energy and density of deep surface traps enhance the ability to capture primary emitted electrons. In addition, the decrease in surface conductivity blocks electron emission at the cathode triple junction. Therefore, electron avalanche at the interface between gas and an insulating material would be suppressed, eventually improving surface flashover voltage of epoxy resin microcomposites.

  4. Thermal contraction effects in epoxy resin composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Morgan, J.T.

    1979-10-01

    Because of their electrical and thermal insulation characteristics, high strength fibreglass/epoxy composites are widely used in the construction of bubble chamber and other cryogenic equipment. Thermal contraction effects on cooling to operating temperature present problems which need to be taken into account at the design stage. This paper gives results of thermal contraction tests carried out on fibreglass/epoxy composites including the somewhat anomalous results obtained with rings and tubes. Also considered are some of the problems associated with the use of these materials at temperatures in the region of 20K. (author)

  5. Preparation and Characterization of New Geopolymer-Epoxy Resin Hybrid Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars containing an organic epoxy resin are presented here for the first time. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative in situ co-reticulation process, in mild conditions, of commercial epoxy based organic resins and geopolymeric slurry. In this way, geopolymer based hybrid mortars characterized by a different content of normalized sand (up to 66% in weight and by a homogeneous dispersion of the organic resin have been obtained. Once hardened, these new materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the neat geopolymer and the hybrid pastes since the organic polymer provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced amount of microcracks. The microstructural characterization allows to point out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars and concretes. A correlation between microstructural features and mechanical properties has been studied too.

  6. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  7. Carbon black reinforced C8 ether linked bismaleimide toughened electrically conducting epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandhakini, M.; Chandramohan, A.; Jayanthi, K.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • The toughness of the epoxy is improved with C8e-BMI. • Conduction through ohmic contact chain takes the leading mechanism for electrical conduction instead of tunneling with 5 wt% CB. • The phase segregation between epoxy/C8 e-BMI improves the toughness of the nanocomposite. • Both toughening and flexibilization effect is responsible for improvement in impact strength. • The largest challenge of appropriate balance between the electrical conductivity and mechanical behavior is attained in a cost effective manner. - Abstract: The present work deals with the toughening of brittle epoxy matrix with C8 ether linked bismaleimide (C8 e-BMI) and then study the reinforcing effect of carbon black (CB) in enhancing the conducting properties of insulating epoxy matrix. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis indicate the formation of strong covalent bonds between CB and C8 e-BMI/epoxy matrix. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis indicate the event of phase separation in 5 wt% CB loaded epoxy C8 e-BMI nanocomposites. The impact strength increased up to 5 wt% of CB loading with particle pull and crack deflection to be driving mechanism for enhancing the toughness of the nanocomposite and beyond 5 wt% the impact strength started to decrease due to aggregation of CB. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) also indicates the toughness of the nanocomposites was improved with 5 wt% of CB loading due to the phase segregation between epoxy and C8 e-BMI in the presence of CB. The electrical conductivity was also increased with 5 wt% of CB due to classical conduction by ohmic chain contact

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  9. Noncovalently Functionalized Tungsten Disulfide Nanosheets for Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Megha; Narashimhan, Lakshmi; Prakash, Om; Raichur, Ashok M

    2017-04-26

    In the present study, noncovalently functionalized tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) nanosheets were used as a toughening agent for epoxy nanocomposites. WS 2 was modified with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) to increase the degree of interaction of nanosheets with the epoxy matrix and prevent restacking and agglomeration of the sheets in the epoxy matrix. The functionalization of WS 2 sheets was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The exfoliation of the bulk WS 2 was confirmed through X-ray diffraction and various microscopic techniques. Epoxy nanocomposites containing up to 1 wt % of WS 2 -PEI nanosheets were fabricated. They showed a remarkable improvement in fracture toughness (K IC ). K IC increased from 0.94 to 1.72 MPa m -1/2 for WS 2 -PEI nanosheet loadings as low as 0.25 wt %. Compressive and flexural properties also showed a significant improvement as incorporation of 0.25 wt % of WS 2 -PEI nanosheets resulted in 43 and 65% increase in the compressive and flexural strengths of epoxy nanocomposites, respectively, compared with neat epoxy. Thermal stability and thermomechanical properties of the WS 2 -PEI-modified epoxy also showed a significant improvement. The simultaneous improvement in the mechanical and thermal properties could be attributed to the good dispersion of WS 2 -PEI nanosheets in the matrix, intrinsic high strength and thermal properties of the nanosheets, and improved interaction of the WS 2 nanosheets with the epoxy matrix owing to the presence of PEI molecules on the surface of the WS 2 nanosheets.

  10. Influence of hematite nanorods on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogdanović, G.; Kovač, T. S.; Džunuzović, E. S.; Špírková, Milena; Ahrenkiel, P. S.; Nedeljković, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2017), s. 437-447 ISSN 0352-5139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposites * thermosetting resin * mechanical measurements Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2016

  11. Polymer dynamics in rubbery epoxy networks/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kourkoutsaki, T.; Logakis, E.; Kroutilová, Irena; Matějka, Libor; Nedbal, J.; Pissis, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2009), s. 2569-2582 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanocomposites * dielectric properties * rubbery epoxy networks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.203, year: 2009

  12. Comparison of Dust Release from Epoxy and Paint Nanocomposites and Conventional Products during Sanding and Sawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, V.; Levin, Marcus; Saber, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber...

  13. Fabrication process and electromagnetic wave absorption characterization of a CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Mo, Chan Bin; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Since carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered in 1991, it has been considered as a viable type of conductive filler for electromagnetic wave absorption materials in the GHz range. In this paper, pearl-necklace-structure CNT/Ni nano-powders were fabricated by a polyol process as conductive fillers. Compared to synthesized CNT, pearl-necklace Ni-decorated CNT increased the electrical conductivity by an order of 1 due to the enhancement of the Ni-conductive network. Moreover, the decorated Ni particles prevented the agglomeration of CNTs by counterbalancing the Van der Walls interaction between the CNTs. A CNT/Ni nanocomposite showed a homogeneous dispersion in an epoxy-based matrix. This enhanced physical morphology and electrical properties lead to an increase in the loss tangent and reflection loss in the CNT/Ni/Epoxy nanocomposite compared to these characteristics of a CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite in range of 8-12 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposites will provide enormous opportunities for electronic applications where lightweight EMI shielding or electro-magnetic wave absorption properties are necessary.

  14. The multifunctional role of ionic liquids in the formation of epoxy-silica nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donato, Ricardo Keitel; Matějka, Libor; Schrekker, H. S.; Pleštil, Josef; Jigounov, Alexander; Brus, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 36 (2011), s. 13801-13810 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : epoxy -silica nanocomposite * ionic liquids * sol–gel process Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  15. Effects of Al(OH)O nanoparticle agglomerate size in epoxy resin on tension, bending, and fracture properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jux, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.jux@dlr.de [TU Braunschweig, Institute of Adaptronic and Functional Integration (IAF) (Germany); Finke, Benedikt [TU Braunschweig, Institute for Particle Technology (IPAT) (Germany); Mahrholz, Thorsten [DLR Braunschweig, Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems (FA) (Germany); Sinapius, Michael [TU Braunschweig, Institute of Adaptronic and Functional Integration (IAF) (Germany); Kwade, Arno; Schilde, Carsten [TU Braunschweig, Institute for Particle Technology (IPAT) (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Several epoxy Al(OH)O (boehmite) dispersions in an epoxy resin are produced in a kneader to study the mechanistic correlation between the nanoparticle size and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The agglomerate size is set by a targeted variation in solid content and temperature during dispersion, resulting in a different level of stress intensity and thus a different final agglomerate size during the process. The suspension viscosity was used for the estimation of stress energy in laminar shear flow. Agglomerate size measurements are executed via dynamic light scattering to ensure the quality of the produced dispersions. Furthermore, various nanocomposite samples are prepared for three-point bending, tension, and fracture toughness tests. The screening of the size effect is executed with at least seven samples per agglomerate size and test method. The variation of solid content is found to be a reliable method to adjust the agglomerate size between 138–354 nm during dispersion. The size effect on the Young’s modulus and the critical stress intensity is only marginal. Nevertheless, there is a statistically relevant trend showing a linear increase with a decrease in agglomerate size. In contrast, the size effect is more dominant to the sample’s strain and stress at failure. Unlike microscaled agglomerates or particles, which lead to embrittlement of the composite material, nanoscaled agglomerates or particles cause the composite elongation to be nearly of the same level as the base material. The observed effect is valid for agglomerate sizes between 138–354 nm and a particle mass fraction of 10 wt%.

  16. Effects of Al(OH)O nanoparticle agglomerate size in epoxy resin on tension, bending, and fracture properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jux, Maximilian; Finke, Benedikt; Mahrholz, Thorsten; Sinapius, Michael; Kwade, Arno; Schilde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Several epoxy Al(OH)O (boehmite) dispersions in an epoxy resin are produced in a kneader to study the mechanistic correlation between the nanoparticle size and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The agglomerate size is set by a targeted variation in solid content and temperature during dispersion, resulting in a different level of stress intensity and thus a different final agglomerate size during the process. The suspension viscosity was used for the estimation of stress energy in laminar shear flow. Agglomerate size measurements are executed via dynamic light scattering to ensure the quality of the produced dispersions. Furthermore, various nanocomposite samples are prepared for three-point bending, tension, and fracture toughness tests. The screening of the size effect is executed with at least seven samples per agglomerate size and test method. The variation of solid content is found to be a reliable method to adjust the agglomerate size between 138–354 nm during dispersion. The size effect on the Young’s modulus and the critical stress intensity is only marginal. Nevertheless, there is a statistically relevant trend showing a linear increase with a decrease in agglomerate size. In contrast, the size effect is more dominant to the sample’s strain and stress at failure. Unlike microscaled agglomerates or particles, which lead to embrittlement of the composite material, nanoscaled agglomerates or particles cause the composite elongation to be nearly of the same level as the base material. The observed effect is valid for agglomerate sizes between 138–354 nm and a particle mass fraction of 10 wt%.

  17. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic films with fractal structures using epoxy resin microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Li-Zhi, E-mail: lzzhang@scut.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    A simple method has been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with fractal structures with epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs). The ERMs is produced by phase separation in an epoxy-amine curing system with a silica sol (SS) dispersant. The transparent epoxy solution becomes cloudy and turns into epoxy suspension (ES) in this process. The fractal structure (two tier structure) generated by synthetic epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs) and deposited nanoincrutations on the surfaces of these ERMs, which have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The curing time of ES is an important condition to obtain films with good comprehensive performances. Superhydrophobic films can be prepared by adding extra SS into ES with a curing time longer than 5 h. The optimal curing time is 10 h to fabricate a film with good mechanical stability and high superhydrophobicity. In addition, a surface with anti-wetting property of impacting microdroplets can be fabricated by prolonging the curing time of ES to 24 h. The gradually decreased hydrophilic groups resulted from a longer curing time enable the surface to have smaller surface adhesions to water droplets, which is the main reason to keep its superhydrophobicity under impacting conditions. The coated surface is highly hydrophobic and the impacting water droplets are bounced off from the surface.

  18. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic films with fractal structures using epoxy resin microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2014-02-01

    A simple method has been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with fractal structures with epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs). The ERMs is produced by phase separation in an epoxy-amine curing system with a silica sol (SS) dispersant. The transparent epoxy solution becomes cloudy and turns into epoxy suspension (ES) in this process. The fractal structure (two tier structure) generated by synthetic epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs) and deposited nanoincrutations on the surfaces of these ERMs, which have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The curing time of ES is an important condition to obtain films with good comprehensive performances. Superhydrophobic films can be prepared by adding extra SS into ES with a curing time longer than 5 h. The optimal curing time is 10 h to fabricate a film with good mechanical stability and high superhydrophobicity. In addition, a surface with anti-wetting property of impacting microdroplets can be fabricated by prolonging the curing time of ES to 24 h. The gradually decreased hydrophilic groups resulted from a longer curing time enable the surface to have smaller surface adhesions to water droplets, which is the main reason to keep its superhydrophobicity under impacting conditions. The coated surface is highly hydrophobic and the impacting water droplets are bounced off from the surface.

  19. Interphases, gelation, vitrification, porous glasses and the generalized Cauchy relation: epoxy/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Jimenez Rioboo, R J; Baller, J; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, University of Luxembourg, 162A avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Fachbereich Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: martine.philipp@uni.lu

    2009-02-15

    The generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) of epoxy/silica nano-composites does not show either the chemically induced sol-gel transition or the chemically induced glass transition in the course of polymerization. Astonishingly, by varying the silica nanoparticles' concentration between 0 and 25 vol% in the composites, the Cauchy parameter A of the gCR remains universal and can be determined from the pure epoxy's elastic moduli. Air-filled porous silica glasses are considered as models for percolated silica particles. A longitudinal modulus versus density representation evidences the aforementioned transition phenomena during polymerization of the epoxy/silica nanocomposites. The existence of optically and mechanically relevant interphases is discussed.

  20. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-03-16

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube-alumina (CNT-Al₂O₃) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al₂O₃ particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al₂O₃ particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C , compared to neat epoxy.

  1. Interphases, gelation, vitrification, porous glasses and the generalized Cauchy relation: epoxy/silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Jimenez Rioboo, R J; Baller, J; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K; Possart, W

    2009-01-01

    The generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) of epoxy/silica nano-composites does not show either the chemically induced sol-gel transition or the chemically induced glass transition in the course of polymerization. Astonishingly, by varying the silica nanoparticles' concentration between 0 and 25 vol% in the composites, the Cauchy parameter A of the gCR remains universal and can be determined from the pure epoxy's elastic moduli. Air-filled porous silica glasses are considered as models for percolated silica particles. A longitudinal modulus versus density representation evidences the aforementioned transition phenomena during polymerization of the epoxy/silica nanocomposites. The existence of optically and mechanically relevant interphases is discussed.

  2. Biocompatible high performance hyperbranched epoxy/clay nanocomposite as an implantable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, Shaswat; Dutta, Nipu; Karak, Niranjan; Karmakar, Sanjeev; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Aidew, Lipika; Buragohain, Alak K

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are in extensive use in the domain of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. High performance hyperbranched epoxy is projected here as a potential biomaterial for tissue regeneration. Thermosetting hyperbranched epoxy nanocomposites were prepared with Homalomena aromatica rhizome oil-modified bentonite as well as organically modified montmorillonite clay. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques confirmed the strong interfacial interaction of clay layers with the epoxy matrix. The poly(amido amine)-cured thermosetting nanocomposites exhibited high mechanical properties like impact resistance (>100 cm), scratch hardness (>10 kg), tensile strength (48–58 MPa) and elongation at break (11.9–16.6%). Cytocompatibility of the thermosets was found to be excellent as evident by MTT and red blood cell hemolytic assays. The nanocomposites exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC14468) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) strains. In vivo biocompatibility of the best performing nanocomposite was ascertained by histopathological study of the brain, heart, liver and skin after subcutaneous implantation in Wistar rats. The material supported the proliferation of dermatocytes without induction of any sign of toxicity to the above organs. The adherence and proliferation of cells endorse the nanocomposite as a non-toxic biomaterial for tissue regeneration. (paper)

  3. Biocompatible high performance hyperbranched epoxy/clay nanocomposite as an implantable material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaswat; Dutta, Nipu; Karmakar, Sanjeev; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Aidew, Lipika; Buragohain, Alak K; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-04-01

    Polymeric biomaterials are in extensive use in the domain of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. High performance hyperbranched epoxy is projected here as a potential biomaterial for tissue regeneration. Thermosetting hyperbranched epoxy nanocomposites were prepared with Homalomena aromatica rhizome oil-modified bentonite as well as organically modified montmorillonite clay. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques confirmed the strong interfacial interaction of clay layers with the epoxy matrix. The poly(amido amine)-cured thermosetting nanocomposites exhibited high mechanical properties like impact resistance (>100 cm), scratch hardness (>10 kg), tensile strength (48-58 MPa) and elongation at break (11.9-16.6%). Cytocompatibility of the thermosets was found to be excellent as evident by MTT and red blood cell hemolytic assays. The nanocomposites exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC14468) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) strains. In vivo biocompatibility of the best performing nanocomposite was ascertained by histopathological study of the brain, heart, liver and skin after subcutaneous implantation in Wistar rats. The material supported the proliferation of dermatocytes without induction of any sign of toxicity to the above organs. The adherence and proliferation of cells endorse the nanocomposite as a non-toxic biomaterial for tissue regeneration.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE LIGNINS FOR USE IN PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE AND EPOXY RESINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eddine El Mansouri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides polyurethanes and polyesters, phenolic and epoxy resins are the most prominent applications for technical lignins in thermosetting materials. To evaluate the potential application of lignin raw materials in phenol formaldehyde and epoxy resins, three types of alkaline lignins were characterized in terms of their structures and thermal properties. The lignin samples analyzed were kraft lignin (LIG-1, soda–rice straw lignin (LIG-2, and soda-wheat straw lignin (LIG-3. FTIR and 1H-NMR methods were used to determine their structure. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC was used to determine the molecular weight distribution (MWD. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal stability of lignin samples. Results showed that kraft lignin (LIG-1 has moderate hydroxyl-group content, is rich in G-type units, and has good thermal stability. These properties make it more suitable for direct use in phenol formaldehyde resins, and it is therefore a good raw material for this purpose. The alkaline soda-rice straw lignin (LIG-2 with a high hydroxyl-group content and excellent thermal stability is most suited to preparing lignin-based epoxy resins.

  5. Thermosetting polymer for dynamic nuclear polarization: Solidification of an epoxy resin mixture including TEMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Yohei, E-mail: noda.yohei@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumada, Takayuki [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Shamoto, Shin-ichi [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-11

    We investigated the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of typical thermosetting polymers (two-component type epoxy resins; Araldite{sup ®} Standard or Araldite{sup ®} Rapid) doped with a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) radical. The doping process was developed by carefully considering the decomposition of TEMPO during the solidification of the epoxy resin. The TEMPO electron spin in each two-component paste decayed slowly, which was favorable for our study. Furthermore, despite the dissolved TEMPO, the mixture of the two-component paste successfully solidified. With the resulting TEMPO-doped epoxy-resin samples, DNP experiments at 1.2 K and 3.35 T indicated a magnitude of a proton-spin polarization up to 39%. This polarization is similar to that (35%) obtained for TEMPO-doped polystyrene (PS), which is often used as a standard sample for DNP. To combine this solidification of TEMPO-including mixture with a resin-casting technique enables a creation of polymeric target materials with a precise and complex structure.

  6. Chemical recycling of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites in oxygen in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yongping; Wang, Zhi; Feng, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    The carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites were recovered in oxygen in supercritical water at 30 ± 1 MPa and 440 ± 10 o C. The microstructure of the recovered carbon fibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the clean carbon fibers were recovered and had higher tensile strength relative to the virgin carbon fibers when the decomposition rate was above 85 wt.%, although the recovered carbon fibers have clean surface, the epoxy resin on the surface of the recovered carbon fibers was readily observed. As the decomposition rate increased to above 96 wt.%, no epoxy resin was observed on the surface of the carbon fibers and the oxidation of the recovered carbon fibers was readily measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The carbon fibers were ideally recovered and have original strength when the decomposition rates were between 94 and 97 wt.%. This study clearly showed the oxygen in supercritical water is a promising way for recycling the carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced resin composites.

  7. Experimental Investigation and Taguchi Optimisation of Drilling Properties on Teak Wood Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly Mercy, J.; Shaqir Tanvir, Mohamed; Swaroopkanth, K.

    2017-05-01

    The drilling properties of teak reinforced epoxy resin composite are explored in this work. The thrust force and temperature during the drilling process was found and optimised. Nine holes were drilled in accordance with L9 orthogonal array on Medium Density Fibre board and Teak wood reinforced epoxy composite board and the thrust force and temperature induced during drilling is measured. Drilling experiments were conducted using CNC Vertical drilling machine and the thrust force was measured using dynamometer and temperature using infra-red thermometer. The experiments were conducted with varying levels of spindle speed and feed rate and optimised using Taguchi optimisation. It was observed that higher thrust and temperature were observed while drilling teak wood composite due to the high mechanical strength of teak wood. The hard and brittle properties of the resin seemed to be more pronounced in the composite. The experimental results were optimised to find the best combination of input parameters for reduced thrust and temperature. When speed increases, thrust force decreases and temperature increases. When feed increases, thrust force increases and temperature decreases. Experimental findings encouragesto use teak wood reinforced epoxy resin as a substitute for the traditionally used Medium Density Fibre Board. The percentage of mixing of teak dust can be increased with various resin combinations to arrive at the best suitable combination for obtaining optimal mechanical properties.

  8. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  9. Thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Hiroaki; Rich, Michael J.; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by fluorinated single wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT) and vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were investigated. A sonication technique using a suspension of FSWCNT and VGCF in acetone was utilized to process nanocomposites in anhydride-cured epoxy. The viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites were measured with dynamic mechanical analysis. The glass transition temperature decreased approximately 30 deg. C with an addition of 0.14 vol.% (0.2 wt.%) FSWCNT. The depression in T g is attributed to non-stoichiometric balance of the epoxy matrix caused by the fluorine on single wall carbon nanotubes. The correct amount of the anhydride curing agent needed to achieve stoichiometry was experimentally determined by DMA measurements. After adjusting the amount of the anhydride curing agent for stoichiometry, the storage modulus of the epoxy at room temperature increased 0.63 GPa with the addition of only 0.21 vol.% (0.30 wt.%) of FSWCNT, a 20% improvement compared with the anhydride-cured neat epoxy. For VGCF, the storage modulus at room temperature increased 0.48 GPa with the addition of only 0.94 vol.% (1.5 wt.%) and then reached a plateau for larger amounts of VGCF. To understand the influence of VGCF on thermo-physical properties, the microstructure of the nanocomposites was interrogated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study discusses the chemical effects of fluorine on matrix properties and the effect of stoichiometric balance on the thermo-physical properties of nanocomposites

  10. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  11. Effects of graphene oxides on the cure behaviors of a tetrafunctional epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of graphene oxides (GOs on the cure behavior and thermal stability of a tetrafunctional tetraglycidyl-4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane cured with 4,4’-diaminodiphenylsulfone was investigated by using dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The dynamic DSC results showed that the initial reaction temperature and exothermal peak temperature decreased with the increase of GO contents. Furthermore, the addition of GO increased the enthalpy of epoxy cure reaction. Results from activation energy method showed that activation energies of GO/epoxy nanocomposites greatly decreased with the GO content in the latter stage, indicating that GOs significantly hindered the occurrence of vitrification. The oxygen functionalities, such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, on the surface of GOs acted as catalysts and facilitated the curing reaction and the catalytic effect increased with the GO contents. TGA results revealed that the addition of GOs decreased the thermal stability of epoxy.

  12. Fluorinated epoxy resins with high glass transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Easily processed liquid resins of low dielectric constants and high glass transition temperatures are useful for the manufacture of certain composite electronic boards. That combination of properties is difficult to acquire when dielectric constants are below 2.5, glass transition temperatures are above 200 C and processability is of conventional practicality. A recently issued patent (US 4,981,941 of 1 Jan. 1991) teaches practical materials and is the culmination of 23 years of research and effort and 15 patents owned by the Navy in the field of fluorinated resins of several classes. In addition to high fluorine content, practical utility was emphasized.

  13. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-14

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix.

  14. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin

    2007-01-01

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix

  15. Fullerene–epoxy nanocomposites-enhanced mechanical properties at low nanofiller loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Yavari, Fazel; Rafiee, Javad; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the mechanical properties of fullerence (C 60 ) epoxy nanocomposites at various weight fractions of fullerene additives in the epoxy matrix. The mechanical properties measured were the Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, and the material’s resistance to fatigue crack propagation. All of the above properties of the epoxy polymer were significantly enhanced by the fullerene additives at relatively low nanofiller loading fractions (∼0.1 to 1% of the epoxy matrix weight). By contrast, other forms of nanoparticle fillers such as silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles require up to an order of magnitude higher weight fraction to achieve comparable enhancement in properties.

  16. Study on polyethylene glycol/epoxy resin composite as a form-stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yutang; Kang Huiying; Wang Weilong; Liu Hong; Gao Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)/epoxy resin (EP) composite as a novel phase change material (PCM) was prepared using casting molding method. In this new material, PEG acts as the latent heat storage material and EP polymer serves as the supporting material, which provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the melted PEG. The structure and morphology of the novel composite were observed using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermo-mechanical property and transition behavior were characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), static thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The experimental results show that, as a result of the physical tangled function of the epoxy resin carrier to the PEG segment, the composite macroscopically presents the solid-solid phase change characteristic.

  17. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  18. Development of highly effective neutron shielding material made of phenol-novolac type epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Jeong, Myeong Soo; Hong, Sun Seok; Lee, Won Kyoung; Kim, Ik Soo; Shin, Young Joon; Do, Jae Bum; Ro, Seung Gy; Oh, Seok Jin

    1998-06-01

    Because the exposure to radiation in the nuclear facilities can be fatal to human, it is important to reduce the radiation dose level to a tolerable level. The purpose of this study is to develop highly effective neutron shielding materials for the shipping and storage cask of radioactive materials or in the nuclear/radiation facilities. On this study, we developed epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their various material properties, including neutron shielding ability, fire resistance, combustion characteristics, radiation resistance, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated experimentally. Especially we developed phenol-novolac type epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their characteristics were also evaluated. (author). 22 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs

  19. Distribution and avoidance of debris on epoxy resin during UV ns-laser scanning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltrup, Markus; Lukasczyk, Thomas; Ihde, Jörg; Mayer, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    In this paper the distribution of debris generated by a nanosecond UV laser (248 nm) on epoxy resin and the prevention of the corresponding re-deposition effects by parameter selection for a ns-laser scanning process were investigated. In order to understand the mechanisms behind the debris generation, in-situ particle measurements were performed during laser treatment. These measurements enabled the determination of the ablation threshold of the epoxy resin as well as the particle density and size distribution in relation to the applied laser parameters. The experiments showed that it is possible to reduce debris on the surface with an adapted selection of pulse overlap with respect to laser fluence. A theoretical model for the parameter selection was developed and tested. Based on this model, the correct choice of laser parameters with reduced laser fluence resulted in a surface without any re-deposited micro-particles.

  20. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  1. Effect of cure cycle on curing process and hardness for epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.

  2. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  3. Some Aspects of Thermal Transport across the Interface between Graphene and Epoxy in Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Chunhui; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yingyan

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the superior thermal properties of graphene, graphene-reinforced polymer nanocomposites hold great potential as the thermal interface materials (TIMs) dissipating heat for electronic packages. However, this application is greatly hindered by the high thermal resistance at the interface between graphene and polymer. In this paper, some important aspects of the improvement of the thermal transport across the interface between graphene and epoxy in graphene-epoxy nanocomposites, including the effectiveness of covalent and noncovalent functionalization, isotope doping, and acetylenic linkage in graphene are systematically investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulation results show that the covalent and noncovalent functionalization techniques could considerably reduce the graphene-epoxy interfacial thermal resistance in the nanocomposites. Among different covalent functional groups, butyl is more effective than carboxyl and hydroxyl in reducing the interfacial thermal resistance. Different noncovalent functional molecules, including 1-pyrenebutyl, 1-pyrenebutyric acid, and 1-pyrenebutylamine, yield a similar amount of reductions. Moreover, it is found that the graphene-epoxy interfacial thermal resistance is insensitive to the carbon isotope doping in graphene, while it can be reduced moderately by replacing the sp(2) bonds in graphene with acetylenic linkages.

  4. Aging of Organic Matrices, Epoxy Resins; Causas de envejecimiento de matrices organicas. Resinas epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Prendes, P.; Varela, M.; Paz, S. [Departamento de I mas D de Gairesa, La Coruna (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Epoxy resins are very important polymers widely used in advance materials. Approximately 200.000 Tns/year are used in different fields such as coating, floor and paving, adhesives, composites, etc. Due to the importance of these polymers, aging studies are necessary. In this work most important aging-factors are described. We have observed that the water plays a very important role in the degradation-process. (Author)

  5. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Artificial Stone with Marble Calcite Waste and Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernanda Souza; Ribeiro, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of calcite marble waste in epoxy resin for the production of artificial stone can represent a technical-economical method and environmentally viable, reducing the amount of discarded residue in the environment, and adding economic value to marble waste and enabling the generation of jobs. The production of natural stone in Brazil recorded an exorbitant amount of waste generated in marble processing. Only 75% of marble taken from the deposits it becomes the finished product t...

  6. Manufacturing of microcapsules with liquid core and their healing performance in epoxy for resin transfer molding

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Çağatay; Yilmaz, Cagatay

    2013-01-01

    Microcapsules with different active core materials have been receiving a great deal of attention for developing polymer based materials with selfhealing abilities. The self-healing ability is crucial in particular for matrix materials having brittle nature such as epoxy resin. In order for abstaining from an abrupt failure of structural brittle manner polymeric materials, microcapsules can be used excellently as a viable repair agent. In this work, we present a study on the catalyst-free micr...

  7. Effect of epoxy resin and hardener containing microcapsules on healing efficiency of epoxy adhesive based metal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nazrul Islam; Halder, Sudipta; Goyat, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Dual component microcapsules of epoxy resin and polyamine hardener with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shell were synthesized using a water-oil-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The high concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to reduce the thickness of shell wall of dual component microcapsules. The dual microcapsules of 1:1 weight ratio were introduced in the epoxy adhesive to study the healing effect. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal characteristics of the microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The insertion of dual component microcapsules in epoxy matrix reduced the lap shear strength of adhesive joints, which may be attributed to the generation of stress concentration cites because of micron sized capsules. However, the extension and absorbed failure energy of adhesive joints under uniaxial loading increased with the increase of concentration of dual microcapsules. The viscoelastic nature of the dual microcapsules may be responsible for this enhancement. Significant enhancement in the healing efficiency (90.93%) of the joints was achieved for 10 wt% of dual microcapsules. The crack pinning and crack blunting mechanisms at the vicinity of the crack path adjacent to the microcapsules were found responsible for significant enhancement in the healing efficiency of the adhesive joints. - Highlights: • High SDS concentration was used to control the dual component microcapsules shell wall thickness. • Self-healing performance of dual component microcapsules reinforced epoxy adhesive based single lap joints was studied. • 90.93% of the damage healing was achieved for self-healing adhesive based single lap joints. • Increase in concentration of microcapsules reduces the lap shear properties of the self-healing joints.

  8. Effect of epoxy resin and hardener containing microcapsules on healing efficiency of epoxy adhesive based metal joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nazrul Islam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar 788010, Assam (India); Halder, Sudipta, E-mail: shalder@nits.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar 788010, Assam (India); Goyat, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248007 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Dual component microcapsules of epoxy resin and polyamine hardener with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shell were synthesized using a water-oil-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The high concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to reduce the thickness of shell wall of dual component microcapsules. The dual microcapsules of 1:1 weight ratio were introduced in the epoxy adhesive to study the healing effect. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal characteristics of the microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The insertion of dual component microcapsules in epoxy matrix reduced the lap shear strength of adhesive joints, which may be attributed to the generation of stress concentration cites because of micron sized capsules. However, the extension and absorbed failure energy of adhesive joints under uniaxial loading increased with the increase of concentration of dual microcapsules. The viscoelastic nature of the dual microcapsules may be responsible for this enhancement. Significant enhancement in the healing efficiency (90.93%) of the joints was achieved for 10 wt% of dual microcapsules. The crack pinning and crack blunting mechanisms at the vicinity of the crack path adjacent to the microcapsules were found responsible for significant enhancement in the healing efficiency of the adhesive joints. - Highlights: • High SDS concentration was used to control the dual component microcapsules shell wall thickness. • Self-healing performance of dual component microcapsules reinforced epoxy adhesive based single lap joints was studied. • 90.93% of the damage healing was achieved for self-healing adhesive based single lap joints. • Increase in concentration of microcapsules reduces the lap shear properties of the self-healing joints.

  9. Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Reinforced with Amino-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Applications in Underwater Oil Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Saliba; Alexandra A. P. Mansur; Herman S. Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The performance of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings can be improved through advanced composite coatings reinforced with nanomaterials. Hence, in this study a novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite finish was designed, synthesized, and characterized, achieved by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles produced via sol-gel process in epoxy-based powder. After the curing process of the coating reinforced with nanoparticles, the formation of a homogenous novel nanocomposite w...

  10. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT

  11. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT.

  12. Curing behaviour of epoxy resin/graphite composites containing ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochun; Wan Jingjing; Lei Yanda; Jia Demin

    2009-01-01

    By adopting the isoconversional method, subtle changes in the curing activation energy (E α ) among epoxy resin/graphite composites by the inclusion of expanded graphite (EG), ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm]PF 6 ) or their combination are shown in the whole conversion range. At lower concentrations (1 phr) of EG, compared with the E α of the neat epoxy resin, the composite with EG has a lower E α before the gelation, and a higher E α after the gelation. At higher concentrations of EG, however, in the whole conversion range, the composite with EG shows a higher E α compared with the neat epoxy resin. As the curing proceeded, a peculiar increase in E α is found in systems containing [BMIm]PF 6 . Due to the formation of hydrogen bonding between [BMIm]PF 6 and the hardener (Jeffamine), the reactivity of Jeffamine is considerably decreased, leading to a much higher E α in [BMIm]PF 6 -containing systems, especially at higher conversion. In systems containing a combination of [BMIm]PF 6 and EG, due to the interactions between EG and [BMIm]PF 6 , the shielding effect provided by the well-dispersed EG sheets constrains the formation of the hydrogen bonding between [BMIm]PF 6 and Jeffamine, leading to lowered E α compared with that for the system containing [BMIm]PF 6 only.

  13. Optimization of the rheological properties of epoxy resins for glass and carbon reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Malysheva, G.; Romanova, I.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) offers advantages such as simplicity, low cost of consumables, and the ability to carry out the impregnation process and curing without using expensive equipment and tooling. In the VARTM process, rheological properties of resin have a critical impact on the impregnation and curing process. In this article, the experimental results of viscosity are presented, including the glass transition temperature, and the tensile and bending strength of the epoxy binders with the amine hardener, which depend on the quantity of its active solvent composition. The active solvent used is diethylene glycol. It shows that for an increase in the content of the active solvent, a reduction in the viscosity and a reduction of the glass transition temperature and strength occurs. The optimum composition of the binder is selected by using the Pareto optimization criteria and the Cayley - Smorodinskaya method. By using the epoxy binder, the active solvent should not exceed 10-15% by weight. This approach helps to optimize the amount of active solvent added to the epoxy resins for the criterion of viscosity, strength, and heat resistance.

  14. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  15. Creep behavior of an epoxy resin and an epoxy-based FRP in condition of simultaneous supply of radiation and stress at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Tetsuya; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Okada, Toichi

    1995-01-01

    Creep tests of an epoxy resin and an epoxy-based FRP in bending under irradiation condition have been carried out, to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation and stress on mechanical properties of FRP. Simultaneous supply of stress and irradiation on the epoxy resin and the FRP enhanced creep rates in comparison with that supply of the stress on a post-irradiated one did. ESR spectra measurement was also carried out to study the change of molecule of the resin irradiated. Increase of molecular weight between crosslinks was found out to be enhanced by the synergistic effect of radiation and stress. The mechanism of increased damage of FRP induced by the effects of simultaneous stress and irradiation is discussed. (author)

  16. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2018-06-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  17. Synthesis and Mechanical Properties Investigation of Nano TiO2/Glass/Epoxy Hybrid Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Salehi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of epoxy and glass/epoxy filled with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 vol% of TiO2 nanoparticles have been studied using tensile and three-point bending tests. For the TiO2/epoxy nanocomposites, the results showed that the strength and stiffness were improved, though the strain at ultimate strength point and breaking strain decreased. Moreover, the hybrid nanocomposites composed of 4 layers of woven E-glass fabric and TiO2/epoxy matrix were fabricated and cut onaxis and 45° off-axis by water jet. The results of tensile and three-point bending tests indicated a remarkable improvement in the strength and stiffness that could not be related to the mechanical improvement of the matrix. The samples containing 1 vol% nano TiO2 were improved relative to samples without the nanoparticles. The tensile strength of the on-axis and off-axis samples containing 1 vol% TiO2 increased by about 25.9% and 17.9%, in the order given, compared to that of the glass/epoxy specimens. In three-point bending test, the strength of the on-axis and off-axis specimens was improved 26% and 23.2%, respectively. In addition, the tensile stiffness of the onaxis and off-axis samples containing 1 vol% TiO2 increased, respectively, by about 14.4% and 17.5% compared to that of the glass/epoxy specimens. Also for the same on-axis and off-axis samples the three-point bending stiffness increased about 19.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The whole investigation on the microstructure of the hybrid nanocomposites illustrated that stronger interfaces between the fiber and TiO2/epoxy matrix were formed and improvement was noticed on mechanical properties of ternary composite compared to those of the fiber/epoxy composites. The analysis of damage zones of hybrid nanocomposites showed that the surface area of the damaged zone declined considerably due to the brittle behavior of TiO2-filled specimens but the area below the stress-strain curve, showing energy absorption during the test

  18. Nanostructure of tetrafunctional epoxy resins and composites: Correlation to moisture absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Brett Andrew

    The effect that changes in network topology, while maintaining a constant network polarity (i.e. thermodynamic driving force was kept constant), had upon the moisture absorption properties of an aerospace grade tetrafunctional epoxy (TGMDA) cured with multifunctional amines were investigated. Utilizing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) to characterize the nanoscale structure of these epoxies, it was found that as the "static" hole volume (a measurement of packing defects at 0K) increased so did the equilibrium uptake. PALS studies of one of these resins cured to varying extents, found that this static amount increased with degree of cure indicating that the network becomes more open as a direct consequence of crosslinking. Polar groups, which are the attractive force for diffusion, are in the vicinity of these crosslinks, therefore it is believed that the increase in static hole volume results in exposing more polar groups for absorption. The diffusion coefficient, which is representative of the kinetic aspect of diffusion, was also investigated. It was discovered that the amount of nanohole volume in the polymer; whether the total, the static, or dynamic (i.e. thermally activated) does not correlate to the diffusion coefficient in anyway. Furthermore, at an isotherm the diffusion coefficients for all these materials were relatively constant. From this it is hypothesized that it is the similar sub-Tsb{g} motions of these resins which is the rate limiting step in diffusion. This was bolstered by the fact that the activation energy for diffusion and for the sub-Tsb{g} motions for these epoxies are of the same order of magnitude. The nanostructure of fiber reinforced epoxy composites (i.e. a boron/epoxy and a graphite/epoxy) were probed with the bulk PALS technique as well. It was observed that for the graphite/epoxy composite and its flash (i.e. no fibers present) cured under identical conditions, that the nanoholes in the composite were larger than

  19. Physico-Chemical Studies Involving Incorporation of Radioactive and Industrial Waste In Cement-Epoxy Resin Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.; Hafez, N.

    1999-01-01

    Cement and epoxy resin as chemical additives are proposed to incorporate different types of wastes. The study was extended to prepare different mixtures of cement and epoxy resin in presence of some toxic ions. The studied ions were Cd II, Ni II, Cu II, Fe III, Ce IV, 154+152 Eu, phenol and toluene. The physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the mixtures were studied. The thermal analysis and infrared spectra were also investigated. It was observed that all the studied properties of the epoxy modified cement as a disposal matrix was improved

  20. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  1. Assessment of nanoparticles release into the environment during drilling of carbon nanotubes/epoxy and carbon nanofibres/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, Kristof; Frijns, Evelien; Van Laer, Jo; Faisal, Nadimul; Egizabal, Ainhoa; Elizextea, Cristina; Blazquez, Maria; Nelissen, Inge; Njuguna, James

    2017-10-15

    The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer. In comparison to the neat epoxy, the study results revealed that the nano-filled samples produced an increase of 102% and 227% for the EP/CNF and EP/CNT sample respectively in average particle number concentration emission. The particle mass concentration indicated that the EP/CNT and EP/CNF samples released demands a vital new perspective on CNTs and CNFs embedded within nanocomposite materials to be considered and evaluated for occupational exposure assessment. Importantly, the increased concentration observed at 10nm aerosol particle sizes measurements strongly suggest that there are independent CNTs being released at this range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with mixed dimers and trimers of unsaturated C18 monobasic fatty acids derived from animal and... basic thermosetting epoxy resin is made by reacting 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol with epi-chloro-hydrin...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin basic resin and limited to use in contact with alcoholic beverages containing not...

  3. Dermatosis profesional por resina epoxi: Presentación de un caso clínico Professional dermatosis for epoxy resin: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaviola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostramos un caso de dermatosis profesional originado por plásticos (resinas epoxi y la importancia de la detección precoz. Las resinas epoxi son de gran utilización en todo tipo de industrias (artes graficas, construcción, electrónica, componentes de prótesis traumatológicas, prótesis odontológicas, etc. y sus componentes pueden ser causa de dermatitis de contacto irritativa y por sensibilización.We describe a case of professional dermatosis caused by exposition to plastic products (epoxy resin and importance of early detection. The epoxy resins are widely used in all types of industries (graphics arts, construction, electronics, traumathological and odontological prothesis, etc. and their components may be the cause of contact dermatitis and sensitivity. Risk factors at work with epoxy resins are present during the production base resins, hardening agents, plasticizers and dilutants increase the risk of exposition at work. This requires preventive measures and early diagnosis.

  4. Recyclable epoxy resins: An example of green approach for advanced composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Gianluca; Rosa, Daniela La; Musarra, Marco; Saccullo, Giuseppe; Banatao, Rey; Pastine, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Automotive composite applications are increasingly growing due to demand for lightweight structures to comply to the requirements for fuel reduction. HP-RTM is gaining relevance as one of the preferred production technologies for high volume applications. The BMW i3 life module being a notable example of HP-RTM application. The key aspects of HP-RTM are the short injection times (i.e. less than 1min) and the fast curing of the thermoset resins (i.e. less than 10min). The choice of using thermosets poses relevant issues for their limited recycling options. The standard recycling solution is the incineration but, this solution poses some concerns in terms of global environmental impact. Novel solutions are presented in this work based on the use of recyclable epoxy systems. In our work the results of experimentation carried out by our group with cleavable ammines by Connora Technologies and bioepoxy resins by Entropy Resins will be discussed. The multiple uses of recycled matrices obtained treating the recyclable epoxy resins are discussed in the framework of a "cradle" to "crave" approach. Finally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the environmental benefits of the proposed approach.

  5. Syringaresinol: A Renewable and Safer Alternative to Bisphenol A for Epoxy-Amine Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Marine; Hollande, Louis; Jaufurally, Abdus Samad; Pernes, Miguel; Ménard, Raphaël; Grimaldi, Marina; Beaugrand, Johnny; Balaguer, Patrick; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Allais, Florent

    2017-02-22

    A renewable bisepoxide, SYR-EPO, was prepared from syringaresinol, a naturally occurring bisphenol deriving from sinapic acid, by using a chemo-enzymatic synthetic pathway. Estrogenic activity tests revealed no endocrine disruption for syringaresinol. Its glycidylation afforded SYR-EPO with excellent yield and purity. This biobased, safe epoxy precursor was then cured with conventional and renewable diamines for the preparation of epoxy-amine resins. The resulting thermosets were thermally and mechanically characterized. Thermal analyses of these new resins showed excellent thermal stabilities (T d5 % =279-309 °C) and T g ranging from 73 to 126 °C, almost reaching the properties of those obtained with the diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), extensively used in the polymer industry (T d5 % =319 °C and T g =150 °C for DGEBA/isophorone diamine resins). Degradation studies in NaOH and HCl aqueous solutions also highlighted the robustness of the syringaresinol-based resins, similar to bisphenol A (BPA). All these results undoubtedly confirmed the potential of syringaresinol as a greener and safer substitute for BPA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) of the gamma radiation effect on epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Riella, H.G.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on Epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes, were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The spectra showed no significant modifications on Epoxy resin functional groups (irradiated with dose from 0 to 1 MGy). Up to 1 MGy Epoxy resin did not oxidize, confirming the Epoxy good radiation strength. The presence of aromatic chain and amine group, mainly tertiary amine, give good radiolytic stability to the Epoxy, increasing the interest to use this material in nuclear facilities. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs

  7. Influence of particle surface properties on the dielectric behavior of silica/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lihong; Zheng Liaoying; Li Guorong; Zeng Jiangtao; Yin Qingrui

    2008-01-01

    Silica/epoxy composites have been widely used in functional electric device applications. Silica nanoparticles, both unmodified and modified with the coupling agent KH-550, were used to prepare epoxy composites. Dielectric measurements showed that nanocomposites exhibit a higher dielectric constant than the control sample, and had more obvious dielectric relaxation characteristics. Results showed that particle surface properties have a profound effect on the dielectric behavior of the nanocomposites. These characteristics are attributed to the local ununiformity of the microstructure caused by the large interface area and the interaction between the filler and the matrix. This phenomenon is explained in terms of prolonging chemical chains created during the curing process. The mechanism is discussed with measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

  8. Gamma ray induced electrical conductivity in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin and polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideaki; Nakakita, Tsuneo

    1978-01-01

    The insulation materials to support magnets for nuclear fusion reactors are exposed to high energy neutron beam and the gamma ray due to the accompanying induced radio activity through blankets or radiation shields. In such materials, radiation-induced conduction (RIC) is a problem, which occurs due to the charged particles generated in the insulation materials during irradiation. As one of such materials, use of epoxy composite material is expected, but its RIC has been scarcely measured. An approach to measure the wave form of transient current (or electric charge) caused by irradiating the radiation pulses of nano-second order to the materials has been developed. This paper reports the results of having measured RIC in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin at the electric field from 1 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 V/cm and γ dose rate from 9 x 10 3 to 9 x 10 5 R/h over the temperature range of -170 deg. C to +110 deg. C. The RIC of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was also measured in the same regions, whose molecular structure is comparatively similar to the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, and of which the fundamental processes for RIC have been clarified pretty well. The radiation sources of 4.3 kCi 60 Co of NAIG and 45 kCi 60 Co of JAERI were used. The experimental circuits and the cryostat are described, then as for the results, explanation and discussion are given to the characteristics of induced current, dependence on dose rate and dependence on temperature of RIC conductivity. The process of capturing carrier in deep traps seems to be dominant in the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, similarly to that of PET. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Synthesis of cuprous oxide epoxy nanocomposite as an environmentally antimicrobial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M El Saeed, Ashraf; Abd El-Fattah, M; Azzam, Ahmed M; Dardir, M M; Bader, Magd M

    2016-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment; paint manufacturers begin to employ cuprous oxide as booster biocides in their formulations, to replace the banned organotins as the principal antifouling compounds. Epoxy coating was reinforced with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs). The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of Cu2O epoxy nanocomposite (Cu2O EN) coating films was investigated. Cu2O NPs were also experimented for antibiofilm and time-kill assay. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of Cu2O EN coating films were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity results showed slowdown, the growth of organisms on the Cu2O EN coating surface. TGA results showed that incorporating Cu2O NPs into epoxy coating considerably enhanced the thermal stability and increased the char residue. The addition of Cu2O NPs at lower concentration into epoxy coating also led to an improvement in the mechanical resistance such as scratch and abrasion. Cu2O NPs purity was confirmed by XRD. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the synthesized Cu2O NPs were of cubic shape and the average diameter of the crystals was around 25nm. The resulting perfect dispersion of Cu2O NPs in epoxy coating revealed by SEM ensured white particles embedded in the epoxy matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: Effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Naveed A.; Li, Erin L.; Sham, Man-Lung; Tang, Ben Zhong; Gao, Shang Lin; Mäder, Edith; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A study has been made of a concept of 'healing' coatings applied onto the brittle fibre surface to reduce the stress concentrations and thus to improve the reinforcing efficiency in a composite. Coatings made from neat epoxy and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced epoxy nanocomposite were applied onto the individual glass fibres as well as rovings. It is shown that the 0.3 wt.% CNT–epoxy nanocomposite coating gave rise to a significant increase in tensile strength of the single fibre for all gau...

  11. Functionalization of Graphene Nanoplatelets Using Sugar Azide for Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    supercapacitor electrode . Nanotechnology, 22, 295202(2011). doi:10.1088/0957-4484/22/29/295202 20. Leinonen H, Pettersson M, Lajunen M, Water-soluble...Azide for Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites Saswata Bose1, Lawrence T. Drzal 1* Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Composite Materials ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science,Composite Materials and Structures Center,2100 Engineering

  12. Impact behavior of f-silica and amine terminated polybutadiene co-acrylonitrile rubber modified novolac epoxy/Kevlar nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita, Pal, Vijayeta; Tiwari, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, nano-fumed silica treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxy silane (f-silica) was used as a nanoreinforcement in the fabrication of amine terminated polybutadiene co-acrylonitrile rubber (ATBN) modified Kevlar/epoxy based nanocomposites. Nanocomposites with different f-silica loading (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt. %) and having same ATBN (10 wt. %) were made and characterized by Izod impact test for evaluating impact strength values. All the nanocomposites showed better impact strength than neat Kevlar/novolac epoxy based composite.

  13. The effect of carbon nanotube dimensions and dispersion on the fatigue behavior of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W; Picu, R C; Koratkar, N

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the primary reasons for failure in structural materials. It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can suppress fatigue in polymer composites via crack-bridging and a frictional pull-out mechanism. However, a detailed study of the effects of nanotube dimensions and dispersion on the fatigue behavior of nanocomposites has not been performed. In this work, we show the strong effect of carbon nanotube dimensions (i.e. length, diameter) and dispersion quality on fatigue crack growth suppression in epoxy nanocomposites. We observe that the fatigue crack growth rates can be significantly reduced by (1) reducing the nanotube diameter, (2) increasing the nanotube length and (3) improving the nanotube dispersion. We qualitatively explain these observations by using a fracture mechanics model based on crack-bridging and pull-out of the nanotubes. By optimizing the above parameters (tube length, diameter and dispersion) we demonstrate an over 20-fold reduction in the fatigue crack propagation rate for the nanocomposite epoxy compared to the baseline (unfilled) epoxy

  14. Influence of nanoclay particles modification by polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer on the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjaee Sari, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Shahbazi, M.; Pakdel, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoclay particles were modified with polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer. • Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared using modified clay particles. • Surface modification enhanced the clay particles exfoliation properties. • Surface modified clay particles enhanced corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanoclay particles was carried out by various amounts of polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer (HBP). Thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to estimate the efficiency of the HPB grafting on the clay particles. Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared by addition of 1 wt.% unmodified and modified clays. The corrosion protection properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that surface modification of the clay particles by HBP caused significant enhancement of the epoxy coating corrosion resistance especially when the ‘polymer/clay’ ratios were 10/1 and 5/1

  15. The influence of montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the attention was paid at the investigation of montmorillonite dispersion in epoxy/amine systems due to improved final properties of the nanocomposites. The influence of different montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 systems was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The curing of epoxy nanocomposites was performed using dynamic regime at three different heating rates: 5, 10 and 20°C/min. Three isoconversional methods were applied: two integral (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods and one differential (Friedman method. The presence of montmorillonite (MMT causes the beginning of curing at lower temperatures. The shape of the DSC curves has been changed by the addition of MMT, supporting the hypothesis of a change in the reaction mechanism. For hybrids with 3 and 5 wt.% of MMT, the Eα dependence is very similar to those found for the reference system (epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 for the curing degree less than 60%. The hybrid with 10 wt.% of MMT has lower energy activation in regard to the referent system without montmorillonite. Greater differences are observed in the second part of the reaction, where it is known that the curing process is more controlled by diffusion (α>0.60. The Ea value increases at the end of the reaction (α→1, which was observed for all systems, and is more pronounced in the presence of montmorillonite. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45022

  16. Enhanced protective properties and UV stability of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite coating on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alhumade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy-Graphene (E/G nanocomposites with different loading of graphene were prepared via in situ prepolymerization and evaluated as protective coating for Stainless Steel 304 (SS304. The prepolymer composites were spin coated on SS304 substrates and thermally cured. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were utilized to examine the dispersion of graphene in the epoxy matrix. Epoxy and E/G nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR techniques and the thermal behavior of the prepared coatings is analyzed using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The corrosion protection properties of the prepared coatings were evaluated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV measurements. In addition to corrosion mitigation properties, the long-term adhesion performance of the coatings was evaluated by measuring the adhesion of the coatings to the SS304 substrate after 60 days of exposure to 3.5 wt% NaCl medium. The effects of graphene loading on the impact resistance, flexibility, and UV stability of the coating are analyzed and discussed. SEM was utilized to evaluate post adhesion and UV stability results. The results indicate that very low graphene loading up to 0.5 wt % significantly enhances the corrosion protection, UV stability, and impact resistance of epoxy coatings.

  17. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51 was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups of lignin during the curing process of rubber compounds, as was particularly evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies and maximum torque of the curing analysis. The existence of lignin-F51 networks were also detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The structure of the SBR/lignin/F51 was also characterized by rubber process analyzer (RPA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and determination of crosslinking density. Due to rigid lignin-F51 networks achieved in SBR/lignin/F51 composites, it was found that the hardness, modulus, tear strength, crosslinking density, the temperature of 5 and 10% weight-loss were significantly enhanced with the loading of F51.

  18. Ultrasonic Characterisation of Epoxy Resin/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran ORAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out in order to determine the elastic properties of the Epoxy Resin (ER / Polyethylene terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites by ultrasonic wave velocity measurement method. Plastic waste was recycled as raw material for the preparation of epoxy composite materials. The supplied chars were mixed with epoxy resin matrix at weight percentages of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % for preparing ER/PET Char Powder (PCP composites. The effect of PET char powder on the elastic properties of ER/PCP composites were investigated by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. According to the obtained results, the composition ratio of 80:20 is the most appropriate composition ratio, which gave the highest elastic constants values for ER/PCP composites. On the other hand, the best electrical conductivity value was obtained for 70:30 composition ratio. It was observed that ultrasonic shear wave velocity correlated more perfectly than any other parameters with hardness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12190

  19. Biodeterioration of epoxy resin: a microbial survey through culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Domenico; Bučková, Maria; Kraková, Lucia; Puškárová, Andrea; Šaková, Nikoleta; Grivalský, Tomaš; Chovanová, Katarina; Zemánková, Milina

    2015-02-01

    During the 20th century, synthetic polymers were greatly used in the field of art. In particular, the epoxy resins were used for both conservation and for creating sculptures. The biodeterioration of these polymers has not been adequately studied. The aim of this investigation was to examine the microflora responsible for the deterioration of an epoxy statue exposed to outdoor conditions. Fungal and bacterial microflora were isolated from the art object, clustered by fluorescence-ITS (internal transcribed spacer), identified by ITS and 16S rRNA sequencing and tested for their lipolytic abilities by three agar assays. Different algal, bacterial, cyanobacterial and fungal clone libraries were constructed. The surrounding airborne microflora was analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The results indicated the presence, on the statue surface, of an interesting and differentiate microbial community composed of rock-inhabiting members, algal photobionts (Trebouxia spp., Chloroidium ellipsoideum and Chlorella angustoellipsoidea), Cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbya sp., Phormidium sp., Cylindrospermum stagnale, Hassallia byssoidea and Geitlerinema sp.), black yeasts related to the species Friedmanniomyces endolithicus, Pseudotaeniolina globosa, Phaeococcomyces catenatus and Catenulostroma germanicum and several plant-associated fungi. This investigation provides new information on the potential microfloral inhabitants of epoxy resin discovering a new ecological niche, occupied mainly by several members of rock-colonizing microbial species. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A contribution from dielectric analysis to the study of the formation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes percolated networks in epoxy resin under an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, Celso L.S.; Hattenhauer, Irineu; Ramos, Airton; Coelho, Luiz A.F.; Pezzin, Sérgio H.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of percolation networks in epoxy matrix nanocomposites reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) during the curing process, at different MWNT contents, was studied by using a parallel plate cell subjected to a 300 V/cm AC electric field at 1 kHz. The percolation was verified by the electrical current output measured during and after the resin curing. The behavior of electric dipoles was characterized by impedance spectroscopy and followed the Debye first order dispersion model, by which an average relaxation time of 6.0 × 10 −4 s and a cut-off frequency of 1.7 kHz were experimentally found. By applying the theory of percolation, a critical probability, p c , equal to 0.038 vol% and an exponent of conductivity of 2.0 were found. Both aligned and random samples showed dipole relaxation times typical of interfacial and/or charge-hopping polarization, while the permittivity exhibited an exponential decrease with frequency. This behavior can be related to the increased ability to trap electrical charges due to the formation of the carbon nanotubes network. Optical and electron microscopies confirm the theoretical prediction that the application of an electric field during cure helps the process of MWNT debundling in epoxy resin. - Highlights: • We report the formation of percolating networks of MWNTs under AC electric field. • MWNT/epoxy dielectric properties were measured by impedance spectroscopy. • Lower percolation thresholds were obtained for composites with aligned CNTs. • Application of AC electric field helps the debundling of CNTs. • CNT/Epoxy with percolated networks presents interfacial and hopping polarizations

  1. Tunable reinforcement of epoxy-silica nanocomposites with ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donato, Ricardo Keitel; Donato, Katarzyna Zawada; Schrekker, H. S.; Matějka, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 19 (2012), s. 9939-9948 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1459 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200500903 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * ionic liquid * tensile properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.968, year: 2011

  2. Silver-embedded modified hyperbranched epoxy/clay nanocomposites as antibacterial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Buddhadeb; Bharali, Pranjal; Konwar, B K; Karak, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    Silver-embedded modified hyperbranched epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different wt.% of octadecyl amine-modified montmorillonite at a constant silver concentration (1 wt.%). UV-visible, XRD and TEM studies confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. Compared to the system without silver and clay, the gloss from 70° to 94°, scratch hardness from 4 to 5.8 kg, impact strength from 60 to 90 cm, tensile strength from 8.5 to 15.5 MPa, adhesive strength from 5 to 7.1 × 10(9)N/m, flexibility from >6 to nanocomposites showed antibacterial activity in well diffusion assays against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC11632), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC11774), Escherichia coli (MTCC40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7814) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC10031). The results showed that these nanocomposites have potential to be used as antimicrobial materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facile fabrication of epoxy-TiO2 nanocomposites: A critical analysis of TiO2 impact on mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyat, M S; Rana, S; Halder, Sudipta; Ghosh, P K

    2018-01-01

    Optimized ultrasonic assisted dispersion of un-functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (0.5-20wt%) into epoxy resin is reported. The investigation shows that there is a direct relation among nanoparticles content, inter-particle spacing and cluster size of the particles on the glass transition temperature (T g ) and tensile properties of the prepared nanocomposites. A significant improvement in tensile strength and modulus with minimal detrimental effect on the toughness was observed for the prepared composites, where compared to pristine epoxy resins, about 26% and 18% improvement in tensile strength and strain-to-break %, respectively, was observed for 10wt% particles loading, whereas a maximum improvement of about 54% for tensile toughness was observed for 5wt% particles loaded resins. The investigations found that a strong particle-matrix interface results in the enhancement of the mechanical properties due to leading toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, particle pull out and plastic deformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mader, Lothar [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Surface modifications of epoxy resins with polydopamine and grafted polyamines can significantly increase the adhesion toward electroless deposited copper. • A clear characterization of the copper/epoxy interphase is provided by SEM analyses of cross sections. • Tailored conditions such as etching time (roughness) and electroless deposition temperature are needed to increase the adhesion of the modified surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  6. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with "6"0Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0–1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite. - Highlights: • The properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite under "6"0Co γ irradiation up to 2.0 MGy were studied. • Basalt fiber can weaken the aging effects of γ irradiation on the resin matrix. • Tensile property of basalt fiber composite remains stable and flexural property has a low degree of attenuation. • Basalt fiber composite is an ideal candidate of structural material for nuclear industry.

  7. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Curing Studies of Thermosetting Epoxy Resin with Amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, B.; Mahendra, K. N.; Shivananda, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid thermosetting maleimido epoxy compound 4-(N-maleimidophenyl) glycidylether (N-MPGE) is prepared by reacting N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide (HPM) with Epichlorohydrin by using benzyltrimethylammonium chloride as a catalyst. The resulting compound possesses both the oxirane ring and maleimide group. The curing reaction of these maleimidophenyl glycidylether epoxy compound (N-MPGE) with amines as curing agents such as ethylendiamine (EDA), diethylentriamine (DETA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA), aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) and isophoronediamine, IPDA), are studied. Incorporation of maleimide groups in the epichlorohydrin provides cyclic imide structure and high cross-linking density to the cured resins. The cured samples exhibited good thermal stability, excellent chemical (acid/alkali/solvent) and water absorption resistance. Morphological studies by the SEM technique further confirmed the phase homogeneity net work of the cured systems

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Curing Studies of Thermosetting Epoxy Resin with Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, B.; Mahendra, K. N. [Bangalore University, Bangalore (India); Shivananda, K. N. [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2010-08-15

    A new hybrid thermosetting maleimido epoxy compound 4-(N-maleimidophenyl) glycidylether (N-MPGE) is prepared by reacting N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide (HPM) with Epichlorohydrin by using benzyltrimethylammonium chloride as a catalyst. The resulting compound possesses both the oxirane ring and maleimide group. The curing reaction of these maleimidophenyl glycidylether epoxy compound (N-MPGE) with amines as curing agents such as ethylendiamine (EDA), diethylentriamine (DETA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA), aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) and isophoronediamine, IPDA), are studied. Incorporation of maleimide groups in the epichlorohydrin provides cyclic imide structure and high cross-linking density to the cured resins. The cured samples exhibited good thermal stability, excellent chemical (acid/alkali/solvent) and water absorption resistance. Morphological studies by the SEM technique further confirmed the phase homogeneity net work of the cured systems.

  10. Robust synthesis of epoxy resin-filled microcapsules for application to self-healing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, Patryk A; Bond, Ian P; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-02-28

    Mechanically and thermally robust microcapsules containing diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-based epoxy resin and a high-boiling-point organic solvent were synthesized in high yield using in situ polymerization of urea and formaldehyde in an oil-in-water emulsion. Microcapsules were characterized in terms of their size and size distribution, shell surface morphology and thermal resistance to the curing cycles of commercially used epoxy polymers. The size distribution of the capsules and characteristics such as shell thickness can be controlled by the specific parameters of microencapsulation, including concentrations of reagents, stirrer speed and sonication. Selected microcapsules, and separated core and shell materials, were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It is demonstrated that capsules lose minimal 2.5 wt% at temperatures no higher than 120°C. These microcapsules can be applied to self-healing carbon fibre composite structural materials, with preliminary results showing promising performance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Fabrication and mechanical properties of clay/epoxy nanocomposite and its polymer concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Kefayati, Amir R.; Chitsazzadeh, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Obtaining optimum sonication power and time to fabricate clay/epoxy nanocomposites. ► Improving the tensile and flexural moduli of clay/epoxy nanocomposites. ► Increasing the fracture toughness and compressive strength of nanocomposites. ► Nanoclay enhanced the tensile and compressive strengths of polymer concrete. ► Improving the fracture toughness of polymer concrete by addition of nanoclay. -- Abstract: In this research, the effects of adding modified nanoclay (Cloisite 30B) on the mechanical properties (tensile, compression, flexural and fracture toughness) of epoxy polymer (ML-506) were investigated. Subsequently, the mechanical properties of polymer concrete (PC) made of nanoclay/epoxy were also studied. The nanoclay dispersion was achieved by sonication technique. Therefore, optimum sonication output power and time for achieving the highest d-spacing of nanoclay layers were obtained. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that changing sonication output power and time during fabrication process did not have any remarkable effects on increasing the d-spacing of clay layers. In all production processes, the d-spacing was increased from 18.4Å to about 42Å and thus the intercalated nanocomposites were fabricated. In addition to XRD, the dispersion state and the d-spacing of nanoclay particles were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Also, the effects of various filler contents on the mechanical properties, i.e., tensile, compression, flexural and fracture toughness of nanocomposite were investigated. The results of mechanical testing showed that enhancement in the tensile and flexural moduli, compressive strength and fracture toughness were gained by 12.5%, 13.3%, 7.4% and 25.5% respectively. On the other hand, tensile and flexural strengths as well as strain to failure were decreased. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to study the fracture mechanism of nanocomposites. Finally, by adding the

  12. Pristine and γ-irradiated halloysite reinforced epoxy nanocomposites - Insight study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Naveed, Muhammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on development of epoxy system reinforced with naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). A comparative study is presented describing the performance of pristine and γ-irradiated HNTs in an epoxy matrix. The γ-irradiation treatment was used for structural modification of natural pristine HNTs under air sealed environment at different absorbed doses and subsequently these irradiated HNTs were incorporated in epoxy resin with various wt% loadings. The consequences of γ-irradiation on HNTs were studied by FTIR and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in terms of changes in functional groups and crystalline characteristics. An improvement is observed in mechanical properties and crack resistance of composites reinforced with γ-irradiated HNTs. The irradiated HNTs imparted an improved flexural and tensile strength/modulus along with better thermal performance.

  13. Mobility restrictions and glass transition behaviour of an epoxy resin under confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemour, A; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J

    2015-04-07

    Confinement can have a big influence on the dynamics of glass formers in the vicinity of the glass transition. Already 40 to 50 K above the glass transition temperature, thermal equilibration of glass formers can be strongly influenced by the confining substrate. We investigate the linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity cp of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) in a temperature interval of 120 K around the glass transition temperature. The epoxy resin is filled into controlled pore glasses with pore diameters between 4 and 111 nm. Since DGEBA can form H-bonds with silica surfaces, we also investigate the influence of surface silanization of the porous substrates. In untreated substrates a core/shell structure of the epoxy resin can be identified. The glass transition behaviours of the bulk phase and that of the shell phase are different. In silanized substrates, the shell phase disappears. At a temperature well above the glass transition, a second transition is found for the bulk phase - both in the linear expansion data as well as in the specific heat capacity. The cp data do not allow excluding the glass transition of a third phase as being the cause for this transition, whereas the linear expansion data do so. The additional transition temperature is interpreted as a separation between two regimes: above this temperature, macroscopic flow of the bulk phase inside the porous structure is possible to balance the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between DGEBA and the substrate. Below the transition temperature, this degree of freedom is hindered by geometrical constraints of the porous substrates. Moreover, this second transition could also be found in the linear expansion data of the shell phase.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ACCURACY AND PROCESS STABILITY PRODUCTION OF EPOXY RESIN ED-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zhelninskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical methods play an important role in the objective evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the process and are one of the most important elements of the quality assurance system production and total quality management process. To produce a quality product, one must know the real accuracy of existing equipment, to determine compliance with the accuracy of a selected technological process specified accuracy products, assess process stability. Most of the random events in life, particularly in manufacturing and scientific research, are characterized by the presence of a large number of random factors, is described by a normal distribution, which is the main in many practical studies. Modern statistical methods is quite difficult to grasp and wide practical use without in-depth mathematical training of all participants in the process. When we know the distribution of a random variable, you can get all the features of this batch of products, to determine the mean value and the variance. Using statistical control methods and quality control in the analysis of accuracy and stability of the technological process of production of epoxy resin ED20. Estimated numerical characteristics of the law of distribution of controlled parameters and determined the percentage of defects of the investigated object products. For sustainability assessment of manufacturing process of epoxy resin ED-20 selected Shewhart control charts, using quantitative data, maps of individual values of X and sliding scale R. Using Pareto charts identify the causes that affect low dynamic viscosity in the largest extent. For the analysis of low values of dynamic viscosity were the causes of defects using Ishikawa diagrams, which shows the most typical factors of the variability of the results of the process. To resolve the problem, it is recommended to modify the polymer composition of carbon fullerenes and to use the developed method for the production of

  15. Performance characterization of VGCF/epoxy nanocomposite sensors under static load cycles and in static structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; Hu, Ning; Cai, Yindi; Furukawa, Manabu; Matsushita, Makoto; Yuan, Weifeng; Cai, Yong; Yan, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Compared to conventional metal-foil strain gauges, nanocomposite piezoresistive strain sensors have demonstrated high strain sensitivity and have been attracting increasing attention in recent years. To fulfil their ultimate success, the performance of vapor growth carbon fiber (VGCF)/epoxy nanocomposite strain sensors subjected to static cyclic loads was evaluated in this work. A strain-equivalent quantity (resistance change ratio) in cantilever beams with intentionally induced notches in bending was evaluated using the conventional metal-foil strain gauges and the VGCF/epoxy nanocomposite sensors. Compared to the metal-foil strain gauges, the nanocomposite sensors are much more sensitive to even slight structural damage. Therefore, it was confirmed that the signal stability, reproducibility, and durability of these nanocomposite sensors are very promising, leading to the present endeavor to apply them for static structural health monitoring. (paper)

  16. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  17. Surface characterization and stability of an epoxy resin surface modified with polyamines grafted on polydopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Vercammen, Yannick; Van Vaeck, Luc [Biomolecular and Analytical Mass Spectrometry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Vanderleyden, Els; Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolac (ECN) resin using the ‘grafting to’ method. Three different polyamines are used for the grafting reactions: branched polyethyleneimine (B-PEI), linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). These modifications are compared to control materials prepared via direct deposition of polyamines. The stability of the modifications toward a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) environment is evaluated. The modified surfaces are characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-S-SIMS).

  18. The Reverse Thermal Effect in Epoxy Resins and Moisture Absorption in Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sa'Ad, Leila

    1989-12-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Epoxy resins exhibit many desirable properties which make them ideal subjects for use as matrices of composite materials in many commercial, military and space applications. However, due to their high cross-link density they are often brittle. Epoxy resin networks have been modified by incorporating tough, ductile thermoplastics. Such systems are referred to as Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (Semi-IPN). Systematic modification to the thermoplastics backbone allowed the morphology of the blend to be controlled from a homogeneous one-phase structure to fully separated structures. The moisture absorption by composites in humid environments has been found to lead to a deterioration in the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix. Therefore, in order to utilize composites to their full potential, their response to hot/wet environments must be known. The aims of this investigation were two-fold. Firstly, to study the effect of varying the temperature of exposure at different stages in the absorption process on the water absorption behaviour of a TGDDM/DDS epoxy resin system. Secondly, to study water absorption characteristics, under isothermal conditions, of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks possessing different morphologies, and develop a theoretical model to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of the two-phase structures. The mathematical treatment used in this analysis was based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Tests were performed on specimens immersed in water at 10 ^circ, 40^circ and 70^circC, their absorption behaviour and swelling behaviour, as a consequence of water absorption, were investigated. The absorption results of the variable temperature absorption tests indicated a saturation dependence on the absorption behaviour. Specimens saturated at a high temperature will undergo further absorption when transferred to a lower temperature. This behaviour was

  19. Structure and Performance of Epoxy Resin Cladded Graphite Used as Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhentao; Li, Haijun

    This paper is concerning to prepare modified natural graphite which is low-cost and advanced materials used as lithium ion battery anode using the way of cladding natural graphite with epoxy resin. The results shows that the specific capacity and circular performance of the modified natural graphite, which is prepared in the range of 600°C and 1000°C, have been apparently improved compare with the not-modified natural graphite. The first reversible capacity of the modified natural graphite is 338mAh/g and maintain more than 330mAh/g after 20 charge/discharge circles.

  20. Novel thermal curing of cycloaliphatic resins by thiol-epoxy click process with several multifunctional thiols

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Dailyn; Mateu, Blai; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    Novel thermosets were prepared by the base-catalysed reaction between a cycloaliphatic resin (ECC) and various thiol crosslinkers. 4-(N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine) (DMAP) was used as base catalyst for the thiol–epoxy reaction. A commercial tetrathiol (PETMP) and three different thiols synthesized by us, 6SH-SQ, 3SH-EU and 3SH-ISO, were tested. 6SH-SQ and 3SH-EU were prepared from vinyl or allyl compounds from renewable resources such as squalene and eugenol, respectively. Thiol 3SH-ISO was prepa...

  1. The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in the crack propagation analysis of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D. P.; Al-Hassani, A. H. M.; Richardson, M. O. W.

    The ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) technique at high magnification levels is demonstrated to be of considerable value in interpreting the fracture behaviour of epoxy resins. The fracture toughness of powder coating system at different thicknesses has been measured using a TDCB (tapered double cantilever beam) technique and the deformation zone at the tip of the moving crack monitored. Initial indications are that a mechanistic changeover occurs at a critical bond (coating) thickness and that this is synonymous with the occurence of a fracture toughness maximum, which in turn is associated with a deformation zone of specific diameter.

  2. A study on the characteristics of modified and novolac type epoxy resin based neutron shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Hong, Sun Seok; Oh, Seung Chul; Do, Jae Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-10-01

    Because the exposure to radiation in the nuclear facilities can be fatal to human, it is important to reduce the radiation dose level to a tolerable level. The purpose of this study is to develop highly effective neutron shielding materials for the shipping and storage cask of radioactive materials or in the nuclear/radiation facilities. In this study, we developed modified and novolac type epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their various material properties, including neutron shielding ability, prolonged time heat resistance, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated experimently. (author). 31 refs., 27 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  4. Voltage-Induced Nonlinear Conduction Properties of Epoxy Resin/Micron-Silver Particles Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaoming; Lu, Pin; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear conduction properties of epoxy resin (ER)/micron-silver particles (MP) composites were investigated. Under sufficient high intensity applied constant voltage, the obvious nonlinear conduction properties of the samples with volume fraction 25% were found. With increments in the voltage, the conductive switching effect was observed. The nonlinear conduction mechanism of the ER/MP composites under high applied voltages could be attributed to the electrical current conducted via discrete paths of conductive particles induced by the electric field. The test results show that the ER/MP composites with nonlinear conduction properties are of great potential application in electromagnetic protection of electron devices and systems.

  5. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Dehghanian, Changiz; Kosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  6. Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Polymer Concrete With Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Harja Ioniţă

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the results of some experimental researches concerning polymer mortars and concretes realized of epoxy resin, silica fume and crushed aggregates. The mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete were determined. The silica fume content varied between 6.5% and 30% to polymer mortar and 6.4% and 9.6% to polymer concrete. The obtained results show maximum characteristics for a dosage of 24% resin and maximum dosage of silica fume to the polymer mortar, and for the polymer concrete the mechanical characteristics are influenced by all mixture factors: the compressive strength increases with the increase of silica fume dosage, and the flexure strength and split strength increase with the decreasing of silica fume dosage.

  7. Influence of Electrolytical Oxidising of Silumine Surfaces on the Quality of Bonding with Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preparation process of AC-AlSi12 aluminum alloy surface by application of anodic oxidation method. The method enables the formation of a porous oxide layer (Al2O3 which generates the substrate of durable adhesive bond with an epoxy resin. It also presents the influence of the form of silicon precipitates in the modified alloy upon anodizing process, uniform structure and thickness of the oxide layer as well as the topography of its surface which is expected to improve adhesion of the resin and silumin. The paper describes how the position of oxidized surface against the negative electrode influences the coating structure. The studied silumins are intended to form the material for casting of 3 dimensional objects whose parts will change the distribution of electric field strength that may cause non-uniform structure of the coating.

  8. Influence of epoxy resin as encapsulation material of silicon photovoltaic cells on maximum current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Gómez David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis about how the performance of silicon photovoltaic cells is influenced by the use of epoxy resin as encapsulation material with flat roughness. The effect of encapsulation on current at maximum power of mono-crystalline cell was tested indoor in a solar simulator bench at 1000 w/m² and AM1.5G. The results show that implementation of flat roughness layer onto cell surface reduces the maximum current inducing on average 2.7% less power with respect to a cell before any encapsulation. The losses of power and, in consequence, the less production of energy are explained by resin light absorption, reflection and partially neutralization of non-reflective coating.

  9. EPR and rheological study of hybrid interfaces in gold-clay-epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Verislav; Velichkova, Hristiana; Ivanov, Evgeni; Kotsilkova, Rumiana; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Cangiotti, Michela; Fattori, Alberto; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2014-11-11

    With the aim to obtain new materials with special properties to be used in various industrial and biomedical applications, ternary "gold-clay-epoxy" nanocomposites and their nanodispersions were prepared using clay decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), at different gold contents. Nanocomposites structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rheology and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used in order to evaluate the molecular dynamics in the nanodispersions, as well as dynamics at interfaces in the nanocomposites. The percolation threshold (i.e., the filler content related to the formation of long-range connectivity of particles in the dispersed media) of the gold nanoparticles was determined to be ϕp = 0.6 wt % at a fixed clay content of 3 wt %. The flow activation energy and the relaxation time spectrum illustrated the presence of interfacial interactions in the ternary nanodispersions around and above the percolation threshold of AuNPs; these interfacial interactions suppressed the global molecular dynamics. It was found that below ϕp the free epoxy polymer chains ratio dominated over the chains attracted on the gold surfaces; thus, the rheological behavior was not significantly changed by the presence of AuNPs. While, around and above ϕp, the amount of the bonded epoxy polymer chains on the gold surface was much higher than that of the free chains; thus, a substantial increase in the flow activation energy and shift in the spectra to higher relaxation times appeared. The EPR signals of the nanocomposites depended on the gold nanoparticle contents and the preparation procedure thus providing a fingerprint of the different nanostructures. The EPR results from spin probes indicated that the main effect of the gold nanoparticles above ϕp, was to form a more homogeneous, viscous and polar clay-epoxy mixture at the nanoparticle surface. The knowledge

  10. Influence of Nanoclay Dispersion Methods on the Mechanical Behavior of E-Glass/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh V. Hosur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Common dispersion methods such as ultrasonic sonication, planetary centrifugal mixing and magnetic dispersion have been used extensively to achieve moderate exfoliation of nanoparticles in polymer matrix. In this study, the effect of adding three roll milling to these three dispersion methods for nanoclay dispersion into epoxy matrix was investigated. A combination of each of these mixing methods with three roll milling showed varying results relative to the unmodified polymer laminate. A significant exfoliation of the nanoparticles in the polymer structure was obtained by dispersing the nanoclay combining three roll milling to magnetic and planetary centrifugal mixing methods. This exfoliation promoted a stronger interfacial bond between the matrix and the fiber, which increased the final properties of the E-glass/epoxy nanocomposite. However, a combination of ultrasound sonication and three roll milling on the other hand, resulted in poor clay exfoliation; the sonication process degraded the polymer network, which adversely affected the nanocomposite final properties relative to the unmodified E-glass/epoxy polymer.

  11. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland); Nüesch, Frank [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: Jing.Wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  12. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected

  13. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of shock and shear wave propagation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation in epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecault, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; Boustie, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; Lescoute, Emilien; Sollier, Arnaud; Voillaume, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    In this work, original shock experiments are presented. Laser-induced shock and shear wave propagations have been observed in an epoxy resin, in the case of femtosecond laser irradiation. A specific time-resolved shadowgraphy setup has been developed using the photoelasticimetry principle to enhance the shear wave observation. Shear waves have been observed in epoxy resin after laser irradiation. Their propagation has been quantified in comparison with the main shock propagation. A discussion, hinging on numerical results, is finally given to improve understanding of the phenomenon. (paper)

  15. The role of the epoxy resin: Curing agent ratio in composite interfacial strength by single fibre microbond test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minty, Ross; Thomason, James L.; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an investigation into the role of the epoxy resin: curing agent ratio in composite interfacial shear strength of glass fibre composites. The procedure involved changing the percentage of curing agent (Triethylenetetramine [TETA]) used in the mixture with several different...... percentages used, ranging from 4% up to 30%, including the stoichiometric ratio. It was found by using the microbond test, that there may exist a relationship between the epoxy resin to curing agent ratio and the level of adhesion between the reinforcing fibre and the polymer matrix of the composite....

  16. Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelkarim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and mechanical properties of polymer composite materials are investigated through the determination of resistivity and hardness for composites samples. Epoxy composite samples have been prepared with different concentrations of certain inorganic fillers such as; Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Silica (SiO2, of various size (micro, nano and hybrid to study the electrical and mechanical behavior. The volume resistivity reaches 3.23×1014 ohm.cm for the micro silica composite. Surface of composite material has been mechanically examined by hardness test. The results show that the resistivity of microcomposites and nanocmposites are increased with the decrease of filler concentration. But the resistivity of hybrid composites is increased with the increase of filler concentration. Maximum hardness value was obtained from hybrid silica composite with 0.1% filler concentration.

  17. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K

    2018-01-03

    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  18. Effect of epoxy resin on bending momentum in L type corner joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri Yıldırım

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the furniture industry, the joining points of frame and box construction furniture according to the loads to be affected by the use place is important for the security of the user and service life of the furniture element. In this direction, it is aimed to determine the diagonal compression and diagonal tensile moment values of "L" type corner joints of box framed construction furniture prepared from solid wood materials. The Pinus Nigra, Fagus Orientalis L and Populus Nigra were used as solid wood materials. Wood-based biscuit joining elements were used in corner joints of the test construction and epoxy resin was used as glue for materials. The static loads were applied to construction according to ASTM-D1037. The results show that, the highest tensile and compression values were obtained from Fagus Orientalis L and the lowest values were obtained from Populus Nigra specimens. In the statistical study, the difference between the tensile and compressive bending moment values of the biscuit connection element was found to be statistically significant. This study indicates that, it is suggested to use of L type joints prepared from Fagus Orientalis L by using epoxy resin and wood based biscuit joining element in frame constructions.

  19. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  20. Leaching test of bituminized waste and waste solidified by epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Kazuyuki; Sugaya, Atsushi; Onizawa, Toshikazu; Takano, Yugo; Kimura, Yukihiko

    2008-10-01

    About 30,000 bituminized waste drums and about 1800 drums of waste solidified by epoxy resin, generated from Tokai Reprocessing Plant, were stored in storage facilities. And study for disposal of these waste is performed. It was considered that radioactive nuclides and chemical components were released from these waste by contact of underground water, when disposed there waste. This paper is reported that result of leaching tests for these waste, done from 2003 to 2006. We've get precious knowledge and data, as follows. (1) In leaching tests for bituminized waste, it has detected iodine-129 peak, considered difficult too low energy gamma to detect. We've get data and knowledge of iodine-129 behavior first. Leached radioactivity for 50 days calculated by peak area was equal for about 40% and 100% of including radioactivity in bituminized waste sample. And we've get data of behavior of nitric acid ion and so on, important to study for disposal, in various condition of sample shape or leaching liquid temperature. (2) In leaching test for waste solidified by epoxy resin, we've get data of behavior of TBP, radionuclides and so on, important to study for disposal. Leached TBP was equal about 1% of including of sample. And we've get data of iodine-129 behavior, too. It was confirmed that leached iodine-129 was equal for about 60% and 100% of including sample, for 90 days. (author)

  1. The Effect of High Concentration and Small Size of Nanodiamonds on the Strength of Interface and Fracture Properties in Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A. Haleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and small size of nanodiamonds (NDs plays a crucial role in the mechanical performance of epoxy-based nanocomposites by modifying the interface strength. Herein, we systemically analyzed the relation between the high concentration and small size of ND and the fracture properties of its epoxy-based nanocomposites. It was observed that there is a two-fold increase in fracture toughness and a three-fold increase in fracture energy. Rationally, functionalized-NDs (F-NDs showed a much better performance for the nanocomposite than pristine NDs (P-NDs because of additional functional groups on its surface. The F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited rougher surface in contrast with the P-ND/epoxy, indicating the presence of a strong interface. We found that the interfaces in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites at high concentrations of NDs overlap by making a web, which can efficiently hinder further crack propagation. In addition, the de-bonding in P-ND/epoxy nanocomposites occurred at the interface with the appearance of plastic voids or semi-naked particles, whereas the de-bonding for F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites happened within the epoxy molecular network instead of the interface. Because of the strong interface in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites, at high concentrations the de-bonding within the epoxy molecular network may lead to subsequent cracks, parallel to the parent crack, via crack splitting which results in a fiber-like structure on the fracture surface. The plastic void growth, crack deflection and subsequent crack growth were correlated to higher values of fracture toughness and fracture energy in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites.

  2. Structural investigation of e-beam cured epoxy resins through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio; Dispenza, Clelia; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the network structure of e-beam cured DGEBF based epoxy resins is investigated. Two epoxy systems, having different reactivity and cured in different process conditions, were analyzed through solid state NMR spectroscopy. The analysis shows that the more reactive system has higher cross-linking density and higher uniformity of network distribution. Similar information were obtained, in a previous work, on the same systems through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. It is worth noting that unlike DMTA tests, which interfere with the molecular structure of the analyzed material, due to the heating during the analysis itself, more reliable information, without any artefact, are obtained by solid state NMR, carried out at constant room temperature. - Highlights: ► The structure of two e-beam cured epoxy systems is investigated through solid state NMR. ► The aim is to have direct information about the structure without inducing modifications. ► The different molecular structures are able to emphasize the response of solid state NMR. ► T 1 H, T 1ρ H and T CH measurements indicate different cross-linking degrees. ► The NMR results are in agreement with DMTA analysis performed in a previous paper.

  3. MWCNTs/P(St-co-GMA) composite nanofibers of engineered interface chemistry for epoxy matrix nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden-Yenigün, Elif; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z; Papila, Melih

    2012-02-01

    Strengthened nanofiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites are demonstrated by engineering composite electrospun fibers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reactive P(St-co-GMA). MWCNTs are incorporated into surface-modified, reactive P(St-co-GMA) nanofibers by electrospinning; functionalization of these MWCNT/P(St-co-GMA) composite nanofibers with epoxide moieties facilitates bonding at the interface of the cross-linked fibers and the epoxy matrix, effectively reinforcing and toughening the epoxy resin. Rheological properties are determined and thermodynamic stabilization is demonstrated for MWCNTs in the P(St-co-GMA)-DMF polymer solution. Homogeneity and uniformity of the fiber formation within the electrospun mats are achieved at polymer concentration of 30 wt %. Results show that the MWCNT fraction decreases the polymer solution viscosity, yielding a narrower fiber diameter. The fiber diameter drops from an average of 630 nm to 460 nm, as the MWCNTs wt fraction (1, 1.5, and 2%) is increased. The electrospun nanofibers of the MWCNTs/P(St-co-GMA) composite are also embedded into an epoxy resin to investigate their reinforcing abilities. A significant increase in the mechanical response is observed, up to >20% in flexural modulus, when compared to neat epoxy, despite a very low composite fiber weight fraction (at about 0.2% by a single-layer fibrous mat). The increase is attributed to the combined effect of the two factors the inherent strength of the well-dispersed MWCNTs and the surface chemistry of the electrospun fibers that have been modified with epoxide to enable cross-linking between the polymer matrix and the nanofibers.

  4. Investigation of dielectric breakdown in silica-epoxy nanocomposites using designed interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Krentz, Timothy; Keith Nelson, J; Schadler, Linda; Wu, Ke; Breneman, Curt; Zhao, Su; Hillborg, Henrik; Benicewicz, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Adding nano-sized fillers to epoxy has proven to be an effective method for improving dielectric breakdown strength (DBS). Evidence suggests that dispersion state, as well as chemistry at the filler-matrix interface can play a crucial role in property enhancement. Herein we investigate the contribution of both filler dispersion and surface chemistry on the AC dielectric breakdown strength of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. Ligand engineering was used to synthesize bimodal ligands onto 15nm silica nanoparticles consisting of long epoxy compatible, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains, and short, π-conjugated, electroactive surface ligands. Surface initiated RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize multiple graft densities of PGMA chains, ultimately controlling the dispersion of the filler. Thiophene, anthracene, and terthiophene were employed as π-conjugated surface ligands that act as electron traps to mitigate avalanche breakdown. Investigation of the synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles was effective in defining the maximum particle spacing or free space length (L f ) that still leads to property enhancement, as well as giving insight into the effects of varying the electronic nature of the molecules at the interface on breakdown strength. Optimization of the investigated variables was shown to increase the AC dielectric breakdown strength of epoxy composites as much as 34% with only 2wt% silica loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on Fracture Behavior of Epoxy/DWNT Nanocomposites by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shadlou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanoscale fracture behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites reinforced with double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD simulations technique. In order to prepare a nanocomposite model including polymer and DWNT, the exact atomic structure of epoxy was adopted as in previous experimental studies made by authors. Tersoff and Amber potential, which are well known potentials, were used for simulation of polymer and DWNT, respectively. Among different available methods to simulate the cross-linking process, a technique was adopted with closer similarity to what happens in real conditions. Therefore, when some especial atoms of monomer and hardener molecules were closer than a specific potential distance, the chemical bonds were created between them. To verify the prepared model, a pull-out simulation was carried out and the results were compared with those of previous studies. It was found that although a rather wide range for interface strength has been presented by different researchers and different techniques, the strength obtained in this study is in the middle of this range. In addition, the fracture energy obtained from the simulations for pure epoxy was compared with that of experimental results and good agreement was obtained. To evaluate the effect of nanocomposite structure at nanometer scale, DWNT was modeled in three different angles relative to the loading direction, including 0°, 45°and 90°. It was found that when DWNT is parallel with the loading direction (i.e. 90° it has the least impact on the fracture energy. The maximum fracture energy was obtained when MWNT was at 45° relative to loading direction. These results were compared with the theories provided for conventional composites.

  6. Direction sensitive bending sensors based on multi-wall carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, Malte H G; Buschhorn, Samuel T; Boeger, Lars; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a direction sensitive bending strain sensor consisting of a single block of epoxy/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite was developed. Moreover, the manufacturing could be realized in a straightforward single-step processing route. The directional sensitivity to bending deformations is related to the change in electrical resistance, which becomes positive or negative, depending on the direction of bending deflection. This effect is achieved by generating a gradient in electrical conductivity throughout the material. The resistance versus strain behaviour of these devices is investigated in detail and related to the microstructure of the nanocomposites.

  7. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, K. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y. [MIcroSystems Engineering Centre (MISEC), Institute of Signals, Sensors and Systems, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Arrighi, V., E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T{sub g}.

  8. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, K.; Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y.; Arrighi, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T g ) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T g

  9. Temperature-dependent piezoresistivity in an MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite temperature sensor with ultrahigh performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamusi; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Wu, Liangke; Liu, Yaolu; Ning, Huiming; Li, Jinhua; Surina; Yuan, Weifeng; Chang, Christiana; Atobe, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    A temperature sensor was fabricated from a polymer nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as nanofiller (i.e., MWCNT/epoxy). The electrical resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the temperature sensor were characterized experimentally. The effects of temperature (within the range 333–373 K) and MWCNT content (within the range 1–5 wt%) were investigated thoroughly. It was found that the resistance increases with increasing temperature and decreasing MWCNT content. However, the resistance change ratio related to the TCR increases with increasing temperature and MWCNT content. The highest value of TCR (0.021 K −1 ), which was observed in the case of 5 wt% MWCNT, is much higher than those of traditional metals and MWCNT-based temperature sensors. Moreover, the corresponding numerical simulation—conducted to explain the above temperature-dependent piezoresistivity of the nanocomposite temperature sensor—indicated the key role of a temperature-dependent tunneling effect. (paper)

  10. Self-assembly of a superparamagnetic raspberry-like silica/iron oxide nanocomposite using epoxy-amine coupling chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-02-28

    The fabrication of colloidal nanocomposites would benefit from controlled hetero-assembly of ready-made particles through covalent bonding. Here we used epoxy-amine coupling chemistry to promote the self-assembly of superparamagnetic raspberry-like nanocomposites. This adaptable method induced the covalent attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles sparsely coated with amine groups onto epoxylated silica cores in the absence of other reactants.

  11. Evolution of carbon nanotube dispersion in preparation of epoxy-based composites: From a masterbatch to a nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Aravand, Mohammadali; Lomov, Stepan Vladimirovitch; Verpoest, Ignace; Gorbatikh, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    The state of carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion in epoxy is likely to change in the process of composite production. In the present work CNT dispersion is characterized at different stages of nanocomposite preparation: in the original masterbatch with high CNT concentration, after masterbatch dilution, in the process of curing and in the final nanocomposite. The evaluation techniques included dynamic rheological analysis of the liquid phases, optical, environmental and charge contrast scanning ...

  12. Literature Review: An Overview of Epoxy Resin Syntactic Foams with Glass Microballoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Syntactic foams are an important category of composite materials that have abundant applications in a wide variety of fields. The bulk phase of syntactic foams is a three-part epoxy resin formulation that consists of a base resin, a curative (curing agent) and a modifier (diluent and/or accelerator) [12]. These thermoset materials [12] are used frequently for their thermal stability [9], low moisture absorption and high compressive strength [10]. The characteristic feature of a syntactic foam is a network of beads that forms pores within the epoxy matrix [3]. In this review, hollow glass beads (known as glass microballoons) are considered, however, solid beads or microballoons made from materials such as ceramic, polymer or metal can also be used [3M, Peter]. The network of hollow beads forms a closed-cell foam; the term closed-cell comes from the fact that the microspheres used in the resin matrix are completely closed and filled with gas (termed hollow). In contrast, the microspheres used in open-cell foams are either not completely closed or broken so that matrix material can fill the spheres [11]. Although closed foams have been found to possess higher densities than open cell foams, their rigid structures give them superior mechanical properties [12]. Past research has extensively studied the effects that changing the volume fraction of microballoons to epoxy will have on the resulting syntactic foam [3,4,9]. In addition, published literature also explores how the microballoon wall thickness affects the final product [4,9,10]. Findings detail that indeed both the mechanical and some thermal properties of syntactic foams can be tailored to a specific application by varying either the volume fraction or the wall thickness of the microballoons used [10]. The major trends in syntactic foam research show that microballoon volume fraction has an inversely proportionate relationship to dynamic properties, while microballoon wall thickness is proportional to those

  13. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY COATING CONTAINING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLY ORTHO AMINOPHENOL NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bahrami Panah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy coatings containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/ poly ortho aminophenol nanocomposite were prepared and used as anticorrosive coatings. The nanocomposites with different contents of carbon nanotube were synthesized in a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonium peroxy disulfate as a surfactant and an oxidant, respectively. The morphology and structural properties were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The mean size of nanocomposite particles was 20-35 nm determined by scanning electron microscopy. The epoxy coatings containing the nanocomposites were applied over mild steel panels and their corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The results showed that epoxy coatings consisting of nanocomposite with 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotube exhibited higher anticorrosive properties than other prepared coatings of different carbon nanotube contents, which could be due to the strong interaction between the mild steel surface and the conjugated nanocomposite.

  14. Evaluation of the use of inorganic pigments and fillers in cure of epoxy resins by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersting, Daniel; Wiebeck, Helio

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave in chemical processes began soon after the WW II. The mechanism of curing via microwave heating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the irradiated material and offers a good solution to operate with materials that do not have a good thermal conductivity, such as polymers. Despite these advantages, the use of multimode microwave ovens, the main source used today, indicates some challenges to overcome. Associated with the use of epoxy resins in various applications, the use of pigments and inorganic fillers has added more variables to be studied. Much of the inorganic fillers used commercially are good absorbers of microwave providing changes in the amount of radiation absorbed, and thus the amount of heat transferred to the epoxy resin curing process. After selecting the key fillers and pigments traditionally used in the production of parts with epoxy resins they were subjected to the same microwave irradiation for evaluation of their behavior alone. In order to observe the effect of mixtures 1, 2, and 5% by weight of filler were added to epoxy resin, and it was verified these effects in the curing process. The preliminary results are promising, because for the same cure cycle for different types of fillers added separately, gains in curing time were obtained, making the process of cure via microwave quick and efficient without substantial losses in thermal properties of the final products obtained. (author)

  15. Space charge distributions in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites under dc 10 kV mm-1 electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidesato; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Fukunaga, Kaori; Maeno, Takashi; Okamoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss one- and three-dimensional space charge distributions in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites. By the conventional pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method, only a one-dimensional distribution of the average charge over a whole area parallel to the two electrodes can be observed. Therefore, the authors have developed a new PEA system capable of measuring a three-dimensional space charge distribution. Using this system, they measured the charge distribution in glass fibre/epoxy resin composites made of lattice-woven glass fibre and epoxy resin. It has become clear that spatial variation in signal intensity observed depends on the internal structure of the composite. There appear repetitious positions where a high charge density is observed on the same lateral cross section along the vertical direction in the composite. Such positions are consistent with the intersections of the glass fibres. Accumulation of mobile charge carriers or appearance of polarization charge due to mismatch of the ratio of the conductivity and permittivity between the glass fibre and the epoxy resin is thought to be responsible for the PEA signals

  16. Relationship Between the Process Parameters and Resin Content of a Glass/Epoxy Prepreg Produced by Dipping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of prepregs are characterized in terms of their volatile content, resin content, the degree of pre-cure, void content, tack and flow ability. Resin content is one of the most important properties of prepregs so that its changing will result in altered properties such as, tack and resin flow. In order to monitor the resin content, a quantitative relation to the processing parameters such as line speed, viscosity and distance between the resin up taking rollers have to be determined. In this study, a tri-axial E-glass fabric with the areal weight of 1025 g/m2 and an epoxy resin (Epon 828 were used to produce the prepreg by the dipping method. In the theoretical part of this work, the free coating is studied and as a result the thickness layer of the coating resin through the resin bath is calculated by Landau-Levich model. In continuation, the achieved thickness was considered as a feed for the calendering process. Using the momentum equation for the passing impregnated fibres through the extra resin uptake rollers, the relation between the internal resin layer thickness and final coating resin layer thickness was achieved in an integral equation form. In order to solve this integral equation, MAPLE software was applied. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental data and showed that the resin content increased linearly with increasing the distance between rollers, the radius and roller angular velocity. In contrast, the resin content decreased with increasing the line speed. According to our calculations, the effect of the resin viscosity variation on the resin content was negligibly small.

  17. The orientation-enhancing effect of diphenyl aluminium phosphate nanorods in a liquid-crystalline epoxy matrix ordered by magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, November (2015), s. 238-255 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : liquid-crystalline epoxy resins * magnetic field orientation * nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2015

  18. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  19. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh, E-mail: pourali2020@ut.ac.ir; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  20. Morphological Study on Room-Temperature-Cured PMMA-Grafted Natural Rubber-Toughened Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study was conducted on ternary systems containing epoxy, PMMA-grafted natural rubber, and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B. Optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were used. The following four materials were prepared at room temperature: cured unmodified epoxy, cured toughened epoxy, cured unmodified epoxy/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites, and cured toughened epoxy/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites. Mixing process was performed by mechanical stirring. Poly(etheramine was used as the curing agent. The detailed TEM images revealed co-continuous and dispersed spherical rubber in the epoxy-rubber blend, suggesting a new proposed mechanism of phase separation. High-magnification TEM analysis showed good interactions between rubber and Cloisite 30B in the ternary system. Also, it was found that rubber particles could enhance the separation of silicates layers. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. No distinct exfoliated silicates were observed by TEM. Aggregates of layered silicates (tactoids were observed by SEM and EDX, in addition to TEM at low magnification. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of organic and inorganic elements in the binary and ternary epoxy systems containing Cloisite 30B.

  1. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  3. Effect of carbon nanotube dispersion on glass transition in cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: role of interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ketan S; Khare, Rajesh

    2013-06-20

    We have used atomistic molecular simulations to study the effect of nanofiller dispersion on the glass transition behavior of cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites. Specific chemical interactions at the interface of CNTs and cross-linked epoxy create an interphase region, whose impact on the properties of their nanocomposites increases with an increasing extent of dispersion. To investigate this aspect, we have compared the volumetric, structural, and dynamical properties of three systems: neat cross-linked epoxy, cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs, and cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. We find that the nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs shows a depression in the glass transition temperature (Tg) by ~66 K as compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy, whereas such a large depression is absent in the nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. Our results suggest that the poor interfacial interactions between the CNTs and the cross-linked epoxy matrix lead to a more compressible interphase region between the CNTs and the bulk matrix. An analysis of the resulting dynamic heterogeneity shows that the probability of percolation of immobile domains becomes unity near the Tg calculated from volumetric properties. Our observations also lend support to the conceptual analogy between polymer nanocomposites and the nanoconfinement of polymer thin films.

  4. Microstructure aspects of radiation-cured networks: Cationically polymerized aromatic epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowandy, Christelle; Ranoux, Guillaume; Walo, Marta; Vissouvanadin, Bertrand; Teyssedre, Gilbert; Laurent, Christian; Berquand, Alexandre; Molinari, Michaël; Coqueret, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    The thermo-mechanical properties and nanostructural features of epoxy aromatic resins cationically cured by UV-visible or electron beam radiation have been studied by FT-NIR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), dielectric spectroscopy (DS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of formulation (nature and content of onium salt) and of curing parameters (doses, thermal treatment) on the thermophysical have been investigated. The presence of several relaxation domains observed by DMA and DS analysis confirms the presence of heterogeneities in the cured materials. Network formation is described by the percolation of glassy nanoclusters which are evidenced by AFM analyses. AFM probing by quantitative nanomechanical measurements confirms the gradual build-up of the local Young's modulus in good agreement with the macroscopic value.

  5. Cure Kinetics of Benzoxazine/Cycloaliphatic Epoxy Resin by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouni, Sreeja Reddy

    Understanding the curing kinetics of a thermoset resin has a significant importance in developing and optimizing curing cycles in various industrial manufacturing processes. This can assist in improving the quality of final product and minimizing the manufacturing-associated costs. One approach towards developing such an understanding is to formulate kinetic models that can be used to optimize curing time and temperature to reach a full cure state or to determine time to apply pressure in an autoclave process. Various phenomenological reaction models have been used in the literature to successfully predict the kinetic behavior of a thermoset system. The current research work was designed to investigate the cure kinetics of Bisphenol-A based Benzoxazine (BZ-a) and Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CER) system under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The cure characteristics of BZ-a/CER copolymer systems with 75/25 wt% and 50/50 wt% have been studied and compared to that of pure benzoxazine under nonisothermal conditions. The DSC thermograms exhibited by these BZ-a/CER copolymer systems showed a single exothermic peak, indicating that the reactions between benzoxazine-benzoxazine monomers and benzoxazine-cycloaliphatic epoxy resin were interactive and occurred simultaneously. The Kissinger method and isoconversional methods including Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Freidman were employed to obtain the activation energy values and determine the nature of the reaction. The cure behavior and the kinetic parameters were determined by adopting a single step autocatalytic model based on Kamal and Sourour phenomenological reaction model. The model was found to suitably describe the cure kinetics of copolymer system prior to the diffusion-control reaction. Analyzing and understanding the thermoset resin system under isothermal conditions is also important since it is the most common practice in the industry. The BZ-a/CER copolymer system with

  6. Nuclear characteristics of epoxy resin as a space environment neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeli, Ruhollah [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Central Iran Research Complex; Shirmardi, Seyed Pezhman [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Mazinani, Saideh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2017-03-15

    In recent years many investigations have been done for choosing applicable light neutron shielding in space environmental applications. In this study, we have considered the neutron radiation-protective characteristics of neat epoxy resin, a thermoplastic polymer material and have compared it with various candidate materials in neutron radiation protection such as Al 6061 alloy and Polyethylene. The aim of this investigation is the effect of type of moderator for fast neutron, notwithstanding neutron absorbers fillers. The nuclear interactions and the effective dose at shields have been studied with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP), using variance reductions to reduce the relative error. Among the candidates, polymer matrix showed a better performance in attenuating fast neutrons and caused a lower neutron and secondary photon effective dose.

  7. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  8. Low Temperature Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Biss, Emily J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of cryogenic fuels (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) in current space transportation vehicles, in combination with the proposed use of composite materials in such applications, requires an understanding of how such materials behave at cryogenic temperatures. In this investigation, tensile intralaminar shear tests were performed at room, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen temperatures to evaluate the effect of temperature on the mechanical response of the IM7/8551-7 carbon-fiber/epoxy-resin system. Quasi-isotropic lay-ups were also tested to represent a more realistic lay-up. It was found that the matrix became both increasingly resistant to microcracking and stiffer with decreasing temperature. A marginal increase in matrix shear strength with decreasing temperature was also observed. Temperature did not appear to affect the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond.

  9. Effects of ultraviolet and electron radiations on graphite-reinforced polysulfone and epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1984-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms have been investigated for graphite/polysulfone and graphite/epoxy laminates exposed to ultraviolet and high-energy electron radiations in vacuum up to 960 equivalent sun hours and 10 9 rads, respectively. Based on GC and combined GC/MS analysis of volatile by-products evolved during irradiation, several free radical mechanisms of composite degradation have been identified. All the composite materials evaluated have shown high electron radiation stability and relatively low ultraviolet stability as indicated by low G values and high quantum yields for gas formation. Mechanical property measurements of irradiated samples did not reveal significant changes, with the possible exception of UV exposed polysulfone laminates. Hydrogen and methane have been identified as the main byproducts of irradiation, along with unexpectedly high levels of CO and CO 2 . Initial G values for methane relative to hydrogen formation are higher in the presence of isopropylidene linkages, which occur in bisphenol-A resins

  10. Effect of amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile/clay combinations on the structure and properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelnar, Ivan; Rotrekl, Jakub; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Hromádková, Jiřina; Strachota, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 5 (2012), s. 3477-3483 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200500904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : epoxy nanocomposites * mechanical properties * microstructure Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  11. Optimization of process variables on flexural properties of epoxy/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposite by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the preparation and optimization of the flexural properties for epoxy/organomontmorillonite (OMMT nanocomposites. In-situ polymerization method was used to prepare epoxy/OMMT nanocomposites. The diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA and curing agent were mixed first, followed by the addition of OMMT. In this study, computer aided statistical methods of experimental design (Response Surface Methodology, RSM was used to investigate the process variables on the flexural properties of epoxy/4wt% OMMT nanocomposites. Speed of mechanical stirrer, post-curing time and post-curing temperature were chosen as process variables in the experimental design. Results showed that the speed of mechanical stirrer, post-curing time and post-curing temperature were able to influence the flexural modulus and flexural yield stress of epoxy/4 wt% OMMT nanocomposites. The results of optimization showed that the design of experiment (DOE has six combination of operating variables which have been obtained in order to attain the greatest overall desirability.

  12. Mechanism of Particle Formation in Silver/Epoxy Nanocomposites Obtained through a Visible-Light-Assisted in Situ Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Erba, Ignacio E; Martínez, Francisco D; Hoppe, Cristina E; Eliçabe, Guillermo E; Ceolín, Marcelo; Zucchi, Ileana A; Schroeder, Walter F

    2017-10-03

    A detailed understanding of the processes taking place during the in situ synthesis of metal/polymer nanocomposites is crucial to manipulate the shape and size of nanoparticles (NPs) with a high level of control. In this paper, we report an in-depth time-resolved analysis of the particle formation process in silver/epoxy nanocomposites obtained through a visible-light-assisted in situ synthesis. The selected epoxy monomer was based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, which undergoes relatively slow cationic ring-opening polymerization. This feature allowed us to access a full description of the formation process of silver NPs before this was arrested by the curing of the epoxy matrix. In situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering investigation was carried out to follow the evolution of the number and size of the silver NPs as a function of irradiation time, whereas rheological experiments combined with near-infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies were performed to interpret how changes in the rheological properties of the matrix affect the nucleation and growth of particles. The analysis of the obtained results allowed us to propose consistent mechanisms for the formation of metal/polymer nanocomposites obtained by light-assisted one-pot synthesis. Finally, the effect of a thermal postcuring treatment of the epoxy matrix on the particle size in the nanocomposite was investigated.

  13. Corrosion protection and delamination mechanism of epoxy/carbon black nanocomposite coating on AA2024-T3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyet, A.; Wu, T.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Ven, van der L.G.J.; With, de G.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The barrier property of a nanocomposite epoxy coating containing 1 or 1.25 vol% of carbon black (CB) applied on AA2024-T3 was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Micro-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and optical microscopy were also used to investigate the

  14. Tuning the adhesion between polyimide substrate and MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite by surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhamed, Ayda; Kia, Alireza Mohammadian; Naifar, Slim; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Müller, Christian; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Choura, Slim; Kanoun, Olfa

    2017-11-01

    MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite thin films are coated on the polyimide (PI) flexible substrate, to be used as a strain sensor. Previous studies showed that the adhesion between polyimide and other materials are very poor. In this work, two approaches, oxygen plasma cleaning and simple solvent cleaning are performed for activation of the polyimide surface. In order to understand the impact of both cleaning techniques, the physicochemical properties of PI are measured and characterized using contact angle measurements (CAMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the adhesion properties of PI/[MWCNTs/epoxy] systems by varying surface treatment time are investigated and evaluated using force-distance measurements by AFM. The results illustrate that the activated surface exhibits higher surface energy for oxygen plasma cleaning in comparison with the solvent cleaning method. The improvement can be related to the increase of oxygen concentration, which is accompanied by the enhancement of the polar component to 53.79 mN/m due to the formation of functional groups on the surface and the change of the substrate surface roughness from 1.72 nm to 15.5 nm. As a result, improved adhesion was observed from force-distance measurement between PI/[MWCNTs/epoxy] systems due to oxygen plasma effects.

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites: Correlation and Integration of Dynamic Impedance, Dielectric, and Mechanical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Moudam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of MWNT-epoxy composites for different MWNT concentrations of 0–7 wt% by correlating different dynamic analysis techniques, including DMA, impedance, and DEA. An optimum composition was established at 0.1 wt% MWNTs corresponding to the best MWNT dispersion which resulted in the formation of an optimum MWNT network. The addition of this low fraction of MWNTs in epoxy resulted in stiffening the molecular structure and suppressing certain molecular transitions, raising the dielectric constant especially in the low-to-medium frequency range, raising the electrical conductivity especially at the high frequencies, and increasing the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. The 0.1% MWNT-epoxy nanocomposite switched the electromagnetic shielding behaviour from being a very effective absorber at low frequencies to being an effective reflector at high frequencies. Finally, the Nyquist plot derived from the dynamic impedance spectroscopy proved most useful at providing evidence of multiple size distribution of MWNT agglomerates.

  16. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Schuman, Thomas P., E-mail: tschuman@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Dogan, Fatih [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 1400N. Bishop Avenue, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. > A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T{sub g} measurements. > Composite T{sub g} was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. > A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. > The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity {approx}6.3 and at a 30 {mu}m thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm{sup 3}.

  17. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P.; Dogan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. → A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T g measurements. → Composite T g was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. → A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. → The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity ∼6.3 and at a 30 μm thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm 3 .

  18. Friction and wear behavior of nanosilica-filled epoxy resin composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yingke; Chen Xinhua; Song Shiyong; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles (abridged as nano-SiO 2 ) surface-capped with epoxide were dispersed in the solution of epoxy resin (abridged as EP) in tetrahydrofuran under magnetic stirring. Resultant suspension of nano-SiO 2 in EP was then coated onto the surface of glass slides and dried at 80 °C in a vacuum oven for 2 h, generating epoxy resin-nanosilica composite coatings (coded as EP/nano-SiO 2 ). EP coating without nano-SiO 2 was also prepared as a reference in the same manner. A water contact angle meter and a surface profiler were separately performed to measure the water contact angles and surface roughness of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings. The friction and wear behavior of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings sliding against steel in a ball-on-plate contact configuration under unlubricated condition was evaluated. Particularly, the effect of coating composition on the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings was highlighted in relation to their microstructure and worn surface morphology examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings have a higher surface roughness and water contact angle than EP coating. The EP-SiO 2 coatings doped with a proper amount of hydrophilic SiO 2 nanoparticles show lower friction coefficient than EP coating. However, the introduction of surface-capped nanosilica as the filler results in inconsistent change in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the filled EP-matrix composites; and it needs further study to achieve well balanced friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the composite coatings for tribological applications.

  19. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the fiber orientation angle is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all increase with increasing fiber volume fraction. A certain degree of fiber clustering appears in the epoxy resin when the basalt fiber volume fraction is >1.2%. The fiber equidistribution coefficient and clustering fiber content were used to characterize the basalt fiber clustering effect. With the increase of fiber volume fraction, the clustering fiber content gradually increased, but the fiber equidistribution coefficient decreased. Meanwhile, based on Tsai theory, a geometric model and a tensile mechanical model of the clustering fiber are established. By considering the fiber clustering effect, the BF/EP composite material tensile strength is calculated, and the calculated values are close to the experimental results.

  20. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Reinforced with Amino-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Applications in Underwater Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Saliba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings can be improved through advanced composite coatings reinforced with nanomaterials. Hence, in this study a novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite finish was designed, synthesized, and characterized, achieved by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles produced via sol-gel process in epoxy-based powder. After the curing process of the coating reinforced with nanoparticles, the formation of a homogenous novel nanocomposite with the development of interfacial reactions between organic-inorganic and inorganic-inorganic components was observed. These hybrid nanostructures produced better integration between nanoparticles and epoxy matrix and improved mechanical properties that are expected to enhance the overall performance of the system against underwater corrosion.

  2. Magnetic epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with hierarchical α-Fe2O3 nanoflowers: a study of mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we presented the potentiality of monodispersed 3D hierarchical α-Fe2O3 nanoflowers (α-Fe2O3) as reinforcement for epoxy polymer. α-Fe2O3 are synthesized through the thermal decomposition of iron alkoxide precursor in ethylene glycol. α-Fe2O3/epoxy nanocomposites (0.1 wt% of α-Fe2O3) show 109%, 59%, 13%, and 15% enhancement in impact (un-notched), impact (notched), flexural and tensile properties, respectively. The uniformly embedded α- Fe2O3 nanoflowers in epoxy polymer not only provide mechanical strength but also induced magnetic nature to the nanocomposite as observed from the Scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer.

  3. Hybrid MoS2/h-BN Nanofillers As Synergic Heat Dissipation and Reinforcement Additives in Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hélio; Trigueiro, João Paulo C; Silva, Wellington M; Woellner, Cristiano F; Owuor, Peter S; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Lopes, Magnovaldo C; Tiwary, Chandra S; Pedrotti, Jairo J; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Tour, James M; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Silva, Glaura G; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-09-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and their hybrid (MoS 2 /h-BN) were employed as fillers to improve the physical properties of epoxy composites. Nanocomposites were produced in different concentrations and studied in their microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties. The hybrid 2D mixture imparted efficient reinforcement to the epoxy leading to increases of up to 95% in tensile strength, 60% in ultimate strain, and 58% in Young's modulus. Moreover, an enhancement of 203% in thermal conductivity was achieved for the hybrid composite as compared to the pure polymer. The incorporation of MoS 2 /h-BN mixture nanofillers in epoxy resulted in nanocomposites with multifunctional characteristics for applications that require high mechanical and thermal performance.

  4. Fracture toughness of epoxy/multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites under bending and shear loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, M.R.; Shadlou, S.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mode I and mode II fracture tests were conducted on epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites. → Addition of MWCNT to epoxy increased both K Ic and K IIc of nano-composites. → The improvement in K IIc was more pronounced than in K Ic . → Mode I and mode II fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were studied with emphasis on fracture toughness under bending and shear loading conditions. Several finite element (FE) analyses were performed to determine appropriate shear loading boundary conditions for a single-edge notch bend specimen (SENB) and an equation was derived for calculating the shear loading fracture toughness from the fracture load. It was seen that the increase in fracture toughness of nano-composite depends on the type of loading. That is to say, the presence of MWCNTs had a greater effect on fracture toughness of nano-composites under shear loading compared with normal loading. To study the fracture mechanisms, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken from the fracture surfaces. A correlation was found between the characteristics of fracture surface and the mechanical behaviors observed in the fracture tests.

  5. Comparison of dust release from epoxy and paint nanocomposites and conventional products during sanding and sawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Levin, Marcus; Saber, Anne T; Irusta, Silvia; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hanoi, Roberto; Santamaria, Jesus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Koponen, Ismo K

    2014-10-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber. The temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured simultaneously. The morphology of collected dust by scanning electron microscopy was different depending on the type of nanocomposites: particles from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites had protrusions on their surfaces and aggregates and agglomerates are attached to the paint matrix in particles emitted from alkyd paints. We observed no significant differences in the particle size distributions when comparing sanding dust from nanofiller containing products with dust from conventional products. Neither did we observe release of free nanomaterials. Instead, the nanomaterials were enclosed or partly enclosed in the matrix. A source strength term Si (cm(-3) s(-1)) that describes particle emission rates from continuous sources was introduced. Comparison between the Si parameters derived from sanding different materials allows identification of potential effects of addition of engineered nanoparticles to a composite. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. Steady-shear rheological properties of graphene-reinforced epoxy resin for manufacturing of aerospace composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Marialaura; Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Laurenzi, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the steady-shear rheological behavior and the absolute viscosity of epoxy matrix reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP) before cure. Three different grades of xGnP (grades C, M and H) were dispersed homogenously at different weight percentages (wt%) into the epoxy matrix, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt%. It is found that nanocomposite fluids with xGnP-C exhibit a Newtonian behavior at shear rate in the range 0.1-100 s-1, conversely, nanocomposite fluids with xGnP of grade M and H exhibit a shear-thinning behavior with the increase of nanoplatelet loading. Results from this analysis indicate how the steady shear rheological properties of the nano-reinforced polymer fluids depend on the geometrical characteristics of the graphene nanoplatelets.

  7. Evolution of carbon nanotube dispersion in preparation of epoxy-based composites: From a masterbatch to a nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aravand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion in epoxy is likely to change in the process of composite production. In the present work CNT dispersion is characterized at different stages of nanocomposite preparation: in the original masterbatch with high CNT concentration, after masterbatch dilution, in the process of curing and in the final nanocomposite. The evaluation techniques included dynamic rheological analysis of the liquid phases, optical, environmental and charge contrast scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The evolution of the CNT dispersion was assessed for two CNT/epoxy systems with distinctly different dispersion states induced by different storage time. Strong interactions between CNT clusters were revealed in the masterbatch with a longer storage time. Upon curing CNT clusters in this material formed a network-like structure. This network enhanced the elastic behaviour and specific conductivity of the resulting nanocomposite, leading to a partial electrical percolation after curing.

  8. Analysis of ultraviolet exposure effects on the surface properties of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite films on Mylar substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Marialaura; Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Schirone, Luigi; Laurenzi, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the effects generated by exposure to UV-C radiation on nanocomposite films made of graphene nanoplatelets dispersed in an epoxy matrix. The nanocomposite films, at different nanoparticle size and concentration, were fabricated on Mylar substrate using the spin coating process. The effects of UV-C irradiation on the surface hydrophobicity and on the electrical properties of the epoxy/graphene films were investigated using contact angle measurements and electrical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. According to our results, the UV-C irradiation selectively degrades the polymer matrix of the nanocomposite films, giving rise to more conductive and hydrophobic layers due to exposure of the graphene component of the composite material. The results presented here have important implications in the design of spacecraft components and structures destined for long-term space missions.

  9. Dielectric response, functionality and energy storage in epoxy nanocomposites: Barium titanate vs exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patsidis, A.C.; Kalaitzidou, K.; Psarras, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barium titanate/epoxy and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared and studied varying the filler content. Morphological characteristics were examined via scanning electron microscopy, while structural changes occurring in barium titanate as a function of temperature were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed for determining the dielectric response of the prepared systems. Based on the conducted analysis it was found that three relaxation processes are present in the spectra of the examined materials. From the slower to the faster one, these are interfacial polarization, glass to rubber transition of the polymer matrix, and rearrangement of polar side groups of the polymer chain. Systems' functionality and energy storing efficiency were assessed in terms of dielectric reinforcing function. Finally, the energy density of all systems was evaluated. Composite systems with embedded graphite nanoplatelets exhibit higher energy storing efficiency, while thermally induced structural changes in ferroelectric particles provide functional behavior to barium titanate composites. -- Graphical abstract: Systems' functionality, electrical relaxations and energy storing efficiency were assessed in terms of dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and dielectric reinforcing function (G). Further, the energy density (U) of all systems was evaluated. Composite systems with embedded graphite nanoplatelets exhibit higher energy storing efficiency, while thermally induced structural changes in ferroelectric particles provide functional behavior to barium titanate composites. Highlights: ► Relaxation phenomena were found to be present in all studied systems. ► Two processes emanate from the polymer matrix (α-mode and β-mode). ► Systems' electrical heterogeneity gives rise to interfacial polarization. ► BaTiO 3 /epoxy composites exhibit functional behavior due to structural changes. ► xGnP/epoxy

  10. Annealing effects of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites irradiated by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Akira; Sasuga, Tuneo; Ito, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-01-01

    Carbon cloth-reinforced epoxy resin composites were irradiated with 2 MeV electrons at room temperature and then annealed in air for 2 h at temperatures up to 180 deg C. A considerable decrease in the three-point bending strength occurred when the irradiated composites were annealed in the temperature range of 115 - 135 deg C which is below the glass transition temperature T g of the matrix resin, while the bending strength remained unchanged up to 180 deg C for the unirradiated composites. In the dynamic viscoelastic spectra of the irradiated matrix, a new relaxation appeared at the temperature extending from 50 deg C to just below the matrix T g and disappeared on annealing for 2 h at 135 deg C. Annealing also decreased the concentration of free radicals existing stably in the irradiated matrix at room temperature. After annealing, a large amount of clacks and voids were observed in the fractography of the composites by scanning electron microscopy. These results indicate: (1) Annealing brings about rearrangement of the radiation-induced molecular chain scission in the matrix; (2) The bending strength of the irradiated composites decreased owing to the increased brittleness of the matrix by annealing. (author)

  11. Carbon nanotube modification using gum arabic and its effect on the dispersion and tensile properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Tae; Park, Ho Seok; Hui, David; Rhee, Kyong Yop

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effects of a MWCNT treatment on the dispersion of MWCNTs in aqueous solution and the tensile properties of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. MWCNTs were treated using acid and gum arabic, and MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated with 0.3 wt.% unmodified, oxidized and gum-treated MWCNTs. The dispersion states of the unmodified, oxidized, and Gum-treated MWCNTs were characterized in distilled water. The tensile strengths and elastic modulus of the three nanocomposites were determined and compared. The results indicated that the gum treatment produced better dispersion of the MWCNTs in distilled water and that gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites had a better tensile strength and elastic modulus than did the unmodified and acid-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscope examination of the fracture surface showed that the improved tensile properties of the gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were attributed to the improved dispersion of MWCNTs in the epoxy and to interfacial bonding between nanotubes and the epoxy matrix.

  12. Pristine and γ-irradiated halloysite reinforced epoxy nanocomposites – Insight study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Naveed, Muhammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on development of epoxy system reinforced with naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). A comparative study is presented describing the performance of pristine and γ-irradiated HNTs in an epoxy matrix. The γ-irradiation treatment was used for structural modification of natural pristine HNTs under air sealed environment at different absorbed doses and subsequently these irradiated HNTs were incorporated in epoxy resin with various wt% loadings. The consequences of γ-irradiation on HNTs were studied by FTIR and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in terms of changes in functional groups and crystalline characteristics. An improvement is observed in mechanical properties and crack resistance of composites reinforced with γ-irradiated HNTs. The irradiated HNTs imparted an improved flexural and tensile strength/modulus along with better thermal performance. - Highlights: • The γ-irradiation was used for structural modification of halloysite nanotubes. • Composite materials with irradiated HNTs showed improved mechanical properties. • The γ-irradiation treatment is a promising surface modification method.

  13. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: The effect on the initial electroless copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mader, Lothar [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the influence of polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolak (ECN) resin on the initial electroless copper deposition. Three different strategies to introduce polyamines on a surface in aqueous environment are applied: via polyethyleneimine adsorption (PEI), via polydopamine and via polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next, the influence of these surface modifications on the catalytic palladium activation is investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Finally, the initial electroless copper deposition on modified epoxy surfaces is evaluated using SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Grafted polyamines on polydopamine surface modifications result in a large increase of the initial deposited copper.

  14. A novel specimen-preparing method using epoxy resin as binding material for LIBS analysis of powder samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linli; Lin, Qingyu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-11-01

    In view of the inevitable preprocessing of powder samples for LIBS detection, epoxy resin glue was investigated for the first time as a binder of powder samples due to its superior property of improved performance in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as a quantitative analytical tool. For comparative studies of the epoxy resin and traditional polyethylene (PE) pellets in soil, sample detection, the signal intensities of Fe (I) at 404.58 nm, Ca (I) at 443.57 nm, and Cr (I) at 453.52 nm, were studied and subsequently, the calibration curves for these elements were constructed using the standard samples with variable concentrations. The signal intensities of epoxy resin samples were, on average, about 2 times greater than those obtained with the traditional PE pellet samples. Meanwhile, the resin samples showed better R square values of 0.981, 0.985 and 0.979 for curves of Fe (I) 404.58 nm, Ca (I) 443.57 nm, and Cr (I) 453.52 nm, compared to the 0.974, 0.950 and 0.934, of the PE pellet samples. Furthermore, the former represented lower limits of detection (LOD) for Fe, Ca and Cr. These experimental results indicated that this proposed novel method based on epoxy resin can attach samples of properties of high homogeneity, cohesiveness, smoothness and hardness, which are conducive to system stability, testing accuracy and signal enhancement. This method can make LIBS more practical in powder sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed

  16. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi, E-mail: mizuno.katsutoshi.14@rtri.or.jp; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  17. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Prakash, V.R., E-mail: vinprakash101@gmail.com; Rajadurai, A., E-mail: rajadurai@annauniv.edu.in

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Particles dimension have reduced using Ball milling process. • Importance of surface modification was explored. • Surface modification has been done to improve adhesion of fiber/particles with epoxy. • Mechanical properties has been increased by adding modified fiber and particles. • Thermal properties have been increased. - Abstract: In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and <100 nm has been prepared by high energy ball milling and sol-gel methods respectively. To enhance better dispersion of particles and improve adhesion of fibers and fillers with epoxy matrix surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee’s disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved

  18. Tensile fracture and thermal conductivity characterization of toughened epoxy/CNT nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Anandh [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Saha, Mrinal C., E-mail: msaha@ou.edu [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Rubber toughened epoxy/CNT nanocomposites were manufactured at different weight percents between 0 and 1% of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) using a high intensity ultrasonic liquid processor with a titanium probe. Mechanical properties of manufactured dog bone samples were measured in tension and the results indicated a maximum of 23% increase in the elastic modulus at 0.6% by weight of MWNT. However, the fracture strength showed a maximum decrease of about 11% as a function of increasing MWNT loading. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images from the neat samples revealed a distinct circular pit at the top left edge of the specimen with an overall tearing deformation causing the fracture paths. Comparatively, all nanocomposite samples on an average seemed to show a prominent brittle fracture with little or no evidence of circular pit formation. The amount of tearing deformation seemed to be enhanced in the nanocomposite specimens as compare to the neat ones. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscopy images indicated that different states of dispersion exist in all of the nanocomposite samples. The data showed that agglomeration of nanotubes increases as a function of weight percent. In addition to mechanical property characterization, thermal conductivity of all the samples was determined as a function of temperature between 30 deg. C and 100 deg. C using the 3{omega} method. The tested samples showed an almost 16% increase in thermal conductivity. The minimal enhancement in thermal conductivity has been analyzed from the standpoint of the Effective Medium Theory. Interfacial thermal resistances exhibit no order of magnitude changes explaining the conductivity results.

  19. Tensile fracture and thermal conductivity characterization of toughened epoxy/CNT nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, Anandh; Saha, Mrinal C.

    2011-01-01

    Rubber toughened epoxy/CNT nanocomposites were manufactured at different weight percents between 0 and 1% of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) using a high intensity ultrasonic liquid processor with a titanium probe. Mechanical properties of manufactured dog bone samples were measured in tension and the results indicated a maximum of 23% increase in the elastic modulus at 0.6% by weight of MWNT. However, the fracture strength showed a maximum decrease of about 11% as a function of increasing MWNT loading. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images from the neat samples revealed a distinct circular pit at the top left edge of the specimen with an overall tearing deformation causing the fracture paths. Comparatively, all nanocomposite samples on an average seemed to show a prominent brittle fracture with little or no evidence of circular pit formation. The amount of tearing deformation seemed to be enhanced in the nanocomposite specimens as compare to the neat ones. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscopy images indicated that different states of dispersion exist in all of the nanocomposite samples. The data showed that agglomeration of nanotubes increases as a function of weight percent. In addition to mechanical property characterization, thermal conductivity of all the samples was determined as a function of temperature between 30 deg. C and 100 deg. C using the 3ω method. The tested samples showed an almost 16% increase in thermal conductivity. The minimal enhancement in thermal conductivity has been analyzed from the standpoint of the Effective Medium Theory. Interfacial thermal resistances exhibit no order of magnitude changes explaining the conductivity results.

  20. Analysis of the Mechanisms Determining the Thermal and Electrical Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites for High Voltage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsekmes, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    The addition of microsized fillers to polymers, in order to tailor their properties, has been extensively used in many industrial applications since the 1960s. The same approach applies to the field of electrical insulation. Epoxy resin is a widely used polymer in the electrical power sector, but it

  1. Rational interface design of epoxy-organoclay nanocomposites: role of structure-property relationship for silane modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex N; Lieber, Danielle; Hua, Inez; Howarter, John A

    2014-04-01

    Montmorillonite was modified by three silane surfactants with different functionalities to investigate the role of surfactant structure on the properties of a final epoxy-organoclay nanocomposite. N-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane (APDMES), an aminated monofunctional silane, was chosen as a promising surfactant for several reasons: (1) it will bond to silica in montmorillonite, (2) it will bond to epoxide groups, and (3) to overcome difficulties found with trifunctional aminosilane bonding clay layers together and preventing exfoliation. A trifunctional and non-aminated version of APDMES, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and n-propyldimethylmethoxysilane (PDMMS), respectively, was also studied to provide comparison to this rationally chosen surfactant. APDMES and APTES were grafted onto montmorillonite in the same amount, while PDMMS was barely grafted (nanocomposite gallery spacing was not dependent on the surfactant used. Different concentrations of APDMES modified montmorillonite yielded different properties, as concentration decreased glass transition temperature increased, thermal stability increased, and the storage modulus decreased. Storage modulus, glass transition temperature, and thermal stability were more similar for epoxy-organoclay composites modified with the same concentration of silane surfactant, neat epoxy, and epoxy-montmorillonite nanocomposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  4. The effect of strain-rate on the tensile and compressive behavior of graphene reinforced epoxy/nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadlou, Shahin; Ahmadi-Moghadam, Babak; Taheri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The epoxy/graphene nanocomposites were studied at various strain rates. • The variations in constitutive stress–strain response were scrutinized. • Positive reinforcing attributes of graphene diminished at higher strain rates. • Graphene particles have higher efficiency under compression loading than tension. • A new modification factor for Halpin–Tsai model was proposed. - Abstract: The effect of strain rate on the mechanical behavior of epoxy reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is investigated. Nanocomposites containing various amounts of GNP are prepared and tested at four different strain rates (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10/s) under compressive and tensile loading regimes. The results show that incorporation of GNP highly affects the behavior of epoxy. The fracture surfaces of tensile specimens are also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to discern the surface features and dispersion state of GNP. Finally, the predictive capability of some of the available models for evaluating the strength of nanocomposites are assessed and compared against the experimental results. Moreover, a modification factor to the widely used Halpin–Tsai model is proposed to improve the accuracy of the model when evaluating the Young’s modulus of nanocomposites at various strain rates

  5. Relationship between the dielectric and mechanical properties and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the hybrid thermosetting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; Aquino, Hermes Adolfo de; Pires, Geovanna; Caetano, Laercio

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the dielectric properties (dielectric constant, ε'', and loss factor, ε''; activation energy, E a ) and the ratio of epoxy resin (OG) to hardener of the epoxy resin thermosetting polymers was investigated. The amplitude of the ε'' peak decreases with increasing OG content until about 73 wt.% and slightly increases at higher OG content. The temperature of the position of the ε'' peak increases with the increasing of OG content, reaching maximum values for compositions in the range of 67 and 73 wt.%, and then it decreases sharply at higher OG content. The activation energy obtained from dielectric relaxation increased with increasing wt.% OG up to around 70 wt.%. Further increase in concentration of OG up to 83 wt.% reduced E a . The curves of tensile modulus and fracture (author)

  6. Relationship between the dielectric and mechanical properties and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the hybrid thermosetting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; Aquino, Hermes Adolfo de; Pires, Geovanna; Caetano, Laercio [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: nldias@dfq.feis.unesp.br

    2006-05-15

    The relationship between the dielectric properties (dielectric constant, {epsilon}'', and loss factor, {epsilon}''; activation energy, E{sub a}) and the ratio of epoxy resin (OG) to hardener of the epoxy resin thermosetting polymers was investigated. The amplitude of the {epsilon}'' peak decreases with increasing OG content until about 73 wt.% and slightly increases at higher OG content. The temperature of the position of the {epsilon}'' peak increases with the increasing of OG content, reaching maximum values for compositions in the range of 67 and 73 wt.%, and then it decreases sharply at higher OG content. The activation energy obtained from dielectric relaxation increased with increasing wt.% OG up to around 70 wt.%. Further increase in concentration of OG up to 83 wt.% reduced E{sub a}. The curves of tensile modulus and fracture (author)

  7. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Resin at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace (Registered TradeMark) MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/W epoxy resin. Resulting fracture toughness was evaluated by the use of Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electric Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Up to nominal 4.6% addition of the CSR nanoparticles, resulted in a nearly 5 times increase in the measured breaking energy. However, further increases in the amount of CSR nanoparticles had no appreciable affect on the breaking energy.

  8. Effect of light-curing units on the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Hur, Bock; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2010-12-01

    To examine the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites after light-curing using different light-curing units. Four different resin nanocomposites and four different light-curing units [quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), light emitting diode (LED), laser, and plasma arc] were chosen. Metal dies were filled with resin to make specimens and light-cured. The light intensity and light-curing time of the QTH and LED light-curing units were 1000 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds, 700 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds for the laser, and 1600 mW/cm2 and 3 seconds for the plasma arc. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was evaluated using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) at temperatures ranging from 30-80 degrees C. The CTE of the resin nanocomposites tested ranged from 28.5 to 65.8 (x 10(-6)/ degrees C), depending on the product and type of light-curing unit used. Among the specimens, Grandio showed the lowest CTE. The specimens cured using the plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E) showed the highest CTE. There was a linear correlation between the CTE and filler content (vol%) (R: -0.94-0.99 depending on the light-curing unit). The results may suggest a careful selection of the light-curing unit because there was more expansion in the specimens cured using the plasma arc unit than those cured by the other units.

  9. Isothermal and non-isothermal cure of a tri-functional epoxy resin (TGAP): a stochastic TMDSC study

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John M.; Shiravand, Fatemeh; Calventus Solé, Yolanda; Fraga Rivas, Iria

    2012-01-01

    The isothermal cure of a highly reactive tri-functional epoxy resin, tri-glycidyl para-amino phenol (TGAP), with diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS), at two different cure temperatures Tc has been studied by both conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by a stochastic temperature modulated DSC technique, TOPEM. From a series of isothermal cure experiments for increasing cure times, the glass transition temperature Tg as a function of isothermal cure time is determined by co...

  10. New experimental and analytical results for diffusion and swelling of resins used in graphite/epoxy composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, C. C.; Adamson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The epoxy resins currently in use can slowly absorb moisture from the atmosphere over a long period. This reduces those mechanical properties of composites which depend strongly on the matrix, such as compressive strength and buckling instabilities. The effect becomes greater at elevated temperatures. The paper will discuss new phenomena which occur under simultaneous temperature and moisture variations. An analytical model will also be discussed and documented.

  11. Influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the isothermal cure of an epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Becker, N; Krueger, J K; Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Ziehmer, M

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the curing of an epoxy thermoset based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was investigated using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and rheology. Diethylene triamine was used as a hardener. TMDSC not only allows for a systematic study of the kinetics of cure but simultaneously gives access to the evolution of the specific heat capacities of the thermosets. The technique thus provides insight into the glass transition behaviour of the nanocomposites and hence makes it possible to shed some light on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. The Al 2 O 3 fillers are shown to accelerate the growth of macromolecules upon isothermal curing. Several mechanisms which possibly could be responsible for the acceleration are described. As a result of the faster network growth chemical vitrification occurs at earlier times in the filled thermosets and the specific reaction heat decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentration. Rheologic measurements of the zero-shear viscosity confirm the faster growth of the macromolecules in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  12. The Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Thermal Stability of the Cured Epoxy/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yuhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic treatment on thermal stability of binary systems containing epoxy and organic chemically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analysis were utilized. The mixing of epoxy and Cloisite 30B nanocomposites was performed by mechanical stirring, followed by 1 or 3-hour ultrasonic treatment, and polyetheramine as the curing agent. Both XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the intercalation of Cloisite 30B was achieved. The d0 spacings for silicate in cured sample prepared at 1- and 3-hour duration of ultrasonic treatment were about 21 and 18 Å, respectively. This shows that shorter duration or ultrasonic treatment may be preferable to achieve higher d0 spacing of clay. This may be attributed to the increase in viscosity as homopolymerization process occurred, which restricts silicate dispersion. The 1-hour sonicated samples seem to be more thermally stable during the glass transition, but less stable during thermal decomposition process.

  13. Preparation of hyperbranched poly (amidoamine)-grafted graphene nanolayers as a composite and curing agent for epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour-Mahmoudalilou, Meysam; Roghani-Mamaqani, Hossein; Azimi, Reza; Abdollahi, Amin

    2018-01-01

    Thermal properties of epoxy resin were improved by preparation of a curing agent of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-grafted graphene oxide (GO). Hyperbranched PAMAM-modified GO (GD) was prepared by a divergent dendrimer synthesis methodology. Modification of GO with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), Michael addition of methacrylic acid, and amidation reaction with ethylenediamine results in the curing agent of GD. Then, epoxy resin was cured in the presence of different amounts of GD and the final products were compared with ethylenediamine-cured epoxy resin (E) in their thermal degradation temperature and char contents. Functionalization of GO with APTES and hyperbranched dendrimer formation at the surface of GO were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results. TGA results showed that the weight loss associated with chemical moieties in GONH2, GOMA, and GD is estimated to be 10.1, 12.2, and 14.1%, respectively. Covalent attachment of dendrimer at the surface of GO increases its thermal stability. TGA also showed that decomposition temperature and char content are higher for composites compared with E. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that flat and smooth graphene nanolayers are wrinkled in GO and re-stacking and flattening of nanolayers is observed in GD.

  14. Changes in mass loss and chemistry of AG-80 epoxy resin after 160 keV proton irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)]. E-mail: czq04@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Mingren [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Yang Dezhuang [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); He Shiyu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Jinhe [Precision Engineering Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Xiao Jingdong [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Zhijun [39th Institute, China Electronic Science and Technology Groups Inc., Xi-an 710065 (China)

    2005-06-01

    The AG-80 resin is a new type of thermosetting matrix for advanced carbon/epoxy composites. Mass loss effect and the related outgassing are major concerns for its application in space. The changes in mass loss, outgassing and chemical structure under 160 keV proton exposure were investigated for the AG-80 epoxy resin. The variation in chemistry was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results show that with increasing the proton fluence, the surface colour of specimens is getting darker. Mass loss ratios ascend remarkably until the fluence of approximately 5.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, and then tend to leveling off. The surface roughness of specimens exhibits an increasing trend followed by decreasing as a function of proton fluence. Under the exposure, the C-C, C-H, C-N and C-O bonds are broken, a variety of molecule ions with smaller molecule weight are formed, and carbon is enriched in the surface layer of specimens. The changes in mass loss and surface roughness of the AG-80 epoxy resin could be attributed to the formation of the molecule ions and the enrichment of carbon content in the surface layer due to proton radiation.

  15. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-01-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm 3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable. (paper)

  16. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-11-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable.

  17. On the Effect of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on the Electrical Characteristics of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Yeung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanosilica surface chemistry on the electrical behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites is described. The nanosilica was reacted with different volumes of (3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and the efficacy of the process was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and combustion analysis. Nanocomposites containing 2 wt % of nanosilica were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, AC ramp electrical breakdown testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dielectric spectroscopy. SEM examination indicated that, although the nanoparticle dispersion improved somewhat as the degree of surface functionalization increased, all samples nevertheless contained agglomerates. Despite the non-ideal nature of the samples, major improvements in breakdown strength (from 182 ± 5 kV·mm−1 to 268 ± 12 kV·mm−1 were observed in systems formulated from optimally treated nanosilicas. DSC studies of the glass transition revealed no evidence for any modified interphase regions between the nanosilica and the matrix, but interfacial effects were evident in the dielectric spectra. In particular, changes in the magnitude of the real part of the permittivity and variations in the interfacial α′-relaxation suggest that the observed changes in breakdown performance stem from variations in the polar character of the nanosilica surface, which may affect the local density of trapping states and, thereby, charge transport dynamics.

  18. A Nanomechanical Approach on the Measurement of the Elastic Properties of Epoxy Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mansour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of nanocomposite materials with multiwallcarbon nanotube ( MWCNT reinforcements is investigated in the present paper. Epoxy nanocomposites with different weight percentages of carbon nanotubes have been characterized following tensile tests and nanoindentations. The objective of this work was to investigate the efficiency of the reinforcement provided by nanotubes and to examine the agreement between the mechanical properties of the epoxynanocomposites obtained via a macroscale and nanoscale experimentalmethods. Higher increase in modulus was accomplished at weight fraction of nanotube reinforcement of 1 %. The modulus as measured by the tensile tests differed an average of 18% with the results obtained from the nanoindentations, however by utilizing a proper calibration method the resulting data were corrected to only a 3% difference. The modulus results obtained from the experiments were compared with the Halpin - Tsai model and with the Thostenson - Chou model accounting for the outer layer interactions of the nanotube with the hosting matrix. A relatively good agreement was found between the models and the experiments.

  19. Evolution of the macroscopic properties of two epoxy resins during ageing under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignoud, L.

    2001-11-01

    In this study, the thermomechanical properties of two epoxy resins (DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DDM systems) are analysed as a function of the irradiation dose. The maximum conversion and reticulation is obtained by post-curing treatment. Irradiation by electrons results in a decrease of the glass transition temperature and of the elastic modulus in the rubbery region. These results can be interpreted invoking a destruction of the crosslinks and chains breaks within the resin. The Arrhenius diagrams obtained for the various doses shows that the cooperative mobility associated with the α relaxation becomes faster after the irradiation. On the contrary, more local mobility corresponding to the γ relaxation is also modified, but in a lesser extent. The stress-strain curves are also discussed. In uniaxial compression test, the plastic flow stress σ p decreases when the irradiation dose increases and this effect can largely be accounted for by a variation of T g . Post-irradiative effects are studied in inert atmosphere. Reticulation increases when the material is heated to a higher temperature than its T g . This effect suggest the presence of radical formed during irradiation. For DGEBA/TETA system, glass transition temperature T g shifts towards lowest temperatures. This shift increases the molecular mobility and enhances the physical ageing process at the ambient temperature. The results are well described by the quasi point defects theory. Direct effect of irradiation and physical ageing evolve with the scale parameter t 0 . This parameter characterizes the gap (in time and/or temperature) between the principal relaxation and simplest ones. By connecting t 0 to the amount of irradiation, it is possible to predict the modifications of the behaviour and to predict these evolutions for various amounts. (author)

  20. Evaluation of epoxy resin for cryogenic use by positron annihilation method. Change of characteristics of epoxy resin with cross-linking density and positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Okada, Toichi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Namba, Shingo.

    1994-01-01

    The positron annihilation method has been applied to evaluate unoccupied space in epoxy aiming at the design of the molecular structure for cryogenic use. To confirm the model in which molecular free space is needed in the epoxy for cryogenic use, the molecular weight between cross-linkings in epoxy was changed. The increase of molecular weight between cross-linkings brought an increase of fracture toughness even at liquid helium temperature and the model was found to be confirmed. The increase of molecular weight between cross-linkings was also found to decrease the 3rd lifetime of positrons. It suggested that the epoxy main chains were folded and this was confirmed by the molecular mechanical calculation. (author)

  1. A Thermomechanical and Adhesion Analysis of Epoxy/Al2O3 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Primo Basílio de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanial properties of polymeric nanocom‐ posites are related to the quality of the adhesion between matrix and nanoparticle. Since the adhesion is related to the nature of the materials and the surface available for chemical, electrostatic and mechanical interactions among these materials, weak bonding forces between alumina (inorganic and polymer matrices (organic were expected. Furthermore, using nanoparticles with greater diameters means that the specific surface area reduction will have an adverse impact on the adhesive process. For epoxy matrices reinforced with alumina nanoparticles, different volume fractions and sizes were observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC: a relation between the glass transition temperature (Tg and the nanoparticle size. This observa‐ tion was tested by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and the cross-link density was calculated. In addition, the thermal stability enhanced by alumina addition to organic resins and the quality of the adhesion was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA.

  2. Radar Absorbing Nanocomposites Based MultiLayered Graphene Platelets/Epoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanostructures were synthesized by Hummer method. 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt% of graphene nanostructures were suspended in certain amount of acetone on a mechanical stirrer and stirred then added to epoxy resin. After 4 hours, solution and Graphene platelets (GPs were prepared. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM , Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The electromagnetic interference shielding was studied by reflection loss (RL. According to the results, the multilayered graphene  3% wt of has a completely smooth surface and its absorption average and maximum are reported as -13.5 dB and -30.3 dB.

  3. Curing behavior and thermal properties of trifunctional epoxy resin cured by 4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel trifunctional epoxy resin 4-(3, 3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2, 4, 4-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-1, 3-benzenediol glycidyl (shorted as TMBPBTH-EPOXY was synthesized in our lab to improve thermal performance. Its curing behavior and performance were studied by using 4, 4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS as hardener with the mass ratio of 100:41 of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS. The curing activation energy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to be 64.0 kJ/mol estimated by Kissinger’s method and 68.7 kJ/mol estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method respectively. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of cured compounds. It was found that when curing temperature was lower than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature increased with the rise of curing temperature and curing time. On the other hand, when the curing temperature was higher than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature went down instead with the increase of curing time that might be the over-crosslinking of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS hardener. The glass transition temperature (Tg of cured TMBPBTH-EPOXY/DDS compound determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is 290.1°C.

  4. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  5. Structure, thermal and fracture mechanical properties of benzoxazine-modified amine-cured DGEBA epoxy resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First, traditional diamine hardeners of epoxy resins (EP were checked as potential accelerators for the benzoxazine (BOX homopolymerization. It was established that the acceleration effect depends on both the type and amount of the diamine compounds. In the follow-up work amine-curable diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA type EP was modified with BOX keeping the EP/BOX ratio constant (75/25 wt.%. The amine hardeners, added in the EP in stoichiometric amounts, were of aliphatic and aromatic nature, viz. diethylenetriamine (DETA, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM, and their 1/1 mixture. The thermal, viscoelastic, flexural and fracture mechanical properties of the EP/BOX hybrids were determined and compared to those of the reference EPs. Based on dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis and atomic force microscopy the formation of co-network between EP and BOX was concluded. Homopolymerized BOX was built in the network in nanoscaled inclusions and it was associated with internal antiplasticization. Incorporation of BOX improved the charring, enhanced the flexural modulus and strength, and reduced the glass transition of the parent EP. The fracture toughness and energy were not improved by hybridization with BOX.

  6. Isothermal relaxation current and microstructure changes of thermally aged polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiongwei; Sun, Potao; Peng, Qingjun; Sima, Wenxia

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to understand the effect of thermal aging on polymer films degradation, specimens of polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin with different thermal aging temperatures (80 and 130 °C) and aging times (500, 1600, 2400 and 3000 h) are prepared, then charge de-trapping properties of specimens are investigated via the isothermal relaxation current (IRC) measurement, the distributions of trap level and its corresponding density are obtained based on the modified IRC model. It is found that the deep trap density increases remarkably at the beginning of thermal aging (before 1600 h), but it decreases obviously as the aging degree increases. At elevated aging temperature and, in particular considering the presence of air gap between two-layer insulation, the peak densities of deep traps decrease more significant in the late period of aging. It can be concluded that it is the released energy from de-trapping process leads to the fast degradation of insulation. Moreover, after thermal aging, the microstructure changes of crystallinity and molecular structures are analyzed via the x-ray diffraction experiment and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results indicate that the variation of the deep trap density is closely linked with the changes of microstructure, a larger interface of crystalline/amorphous phase, more defects and broken chains caused by thermal aging form higher deep trap density stored in the samples.

  7. Self-Healable and Reprocessable Polysulfide Sealants Prepared from Liquid Polysulfide Oligomer and Epoxy Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wentong; Bie, Mengyao; Liu, Fu; Chang, Pengshan; Quan, Yiwu

    2017-05-10

    Polysulfide sealants have been commercially applied in many industrial fields. In this article, we study the self-healing property of the epoxy resin-cured polysulfide sealants for the first time. The obtained sealants showed a flexible range of ultimate elongation of 157-478% and a tensile strength of 1.02-0.75 MPa corresponding to different polysulfide oligomers. By taking advantage of the dynamic reversible exchange of disulfide bonds, polysulfide sealants exhibited good self-healing ability under a moderate thermal stimulus. A higher molecular weight and a lower degree of cross-linking of polysulfide oligomer were helpful in improving the ultimate elongation and healing efficiency of the polysulfide sealants. After subjecting to a temperature of 75 °C for 60 min, both the tensile strength and ultimate elongation of a fully cut sample, LP55-F, were restored to 91% of the original values, without affecting the sealing property. Furthermore, the sample exhibited excellent reshaping and reprocessing abilities. These outcomes offer a paradigm toward sustainable industrial applications of the polysulfide-based sealants.

  8. Effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Gu Aijuan; Liang Guozheng; Yuan Li

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced epoxy (EP) resin composite is studied. Aqueous ammonia was applied to modify the surfaces of CFs. The morphologies and chemical compositions of original CFs and treated CFs (a-CFs) were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the smooth surface of original CF, the surface of a-CF has bigger roughness; moreover, the roughness increases with the increase of the treating time. On the other hand, no obvious change in chemical composition takes place, indicating that the treating mechanism of CFs by aqueous ammonia is to physically change the morphologies rather than chemical compositions. In order to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the interfacial properties of CF/EP composites, the wettability and Interfacial Shear Strength (IFSS) were measured. Results show that with the increase of the roughness, the wettabilities of CFs against both water and ethylene glycol improves; in addition, the IFSS value of composites also increases. These attractive phenomena prove that the surface roughness of CFs can effectively overcome the poor interfacial adhesions between CFs and organic matrix, and thus make it possible to fabricate advanced composites based on CFs.

  9. Synthesis on the durability of composite fiberglass/epoxy resin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, P.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to collect together in a systematic way information and results relating to the durability of composite fiberglass/ epoxy resin structures. First it is a matter of assessing the average level of understanding the long term behaviour of these structures which change under the combined effects of varied mechanical loading and stresses of a physico-chemical type linked to the environment. Looking at phenomena encountered and facts from current analyses, it will then be advisable to specify a methodology which can be applied to industrial piping used in PWR cooling systems for transporting raw water under pressure. In fact assessment of their service life is at present based on long and costly testing (ASTM D 2992 B standard), the appearance of which is inherited from metal piping testing.. Therefore it appears essential to study substitution test procedures, more composite specific and at the same time which can be conducted in reasonable time. For this purpose, by coherently accelerating and combining them in order not to underestimate their effects, ageing tests shall reproduce mechanisms representative of operating conditions. (author)

  10. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with 60Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0-1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite.

  11. Degradation of basalt fibre and glass fibre/epoxy resin composites in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Bin; Cao Hailin; Song Shenhua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → BFRP degradation process in seawater environment was first investigated. → The mass gain change includes two effects: absorption and extraction. → The interfacial adhesion of BFRP is bigger than GFRP. → After treated, the bending strength of BFRP is lower than GFRP. → Reducing the Fe 2+ in the basalt fibre could lead to a higher stability of BFRP. - Abstract: Epoxy resins reinforced, respectively, by basalt fibres and glass fibres were treated with a seawater solution for different periods of time. Both the mass gain ratio and the strength maintenance ratio of the composites were examined after the treatment. The fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The tensile and bending strengths of the seawater treated samples showed a decreasing trend with treating time. In general, the anti-seawater corrosion property of the basalt fibre reinforced composites was almost the same as that of the glass fibre reinforced ones. Based on the experimental results, possible corrosion mechanisms were explored, indicating that an effective lowering of the Fe 2+ content in the basalt fibre could lead to a higher stability for the basalt fibre reinforced composites in a seawater environment.

  12. Morphological and mechanical analyses of laminates manufactured from randomly positioned carbon fibre/epoxy resin prepreg scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Christiane S. R.; Cândido, Geraldo M.; Alves, Wellington; Marlet, José Maria F.; Rezende, Mirabel C.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to contribute to sustainability by proposing the reuse of composite prepreg scrap as an added value from discards. The research evaluates the microstructure and mechanical properties of laminates processed by the reuse of uncured carbon fibre/F155-epoxy resin prepreg scraps, waste from the ply cutting area of an aeronautical industry. The composite scraps were used as collected and were randomly positioned to produce laminates to be cured at an autoclave. The mechanical characterization shows a decrease of 39% for the compression property due to the discontinuous fibres in the laminate and an increase of 34% for the interlaminar shear strength, when compared to continuous fibre laminates. This increase is attributed to the higher crosslink density of the epoxy resin, as a result of the cure temperature used in autoclave (60 °C higher than suggested by supplier) and also to the randomly positioned scraps. Microscopic analyses confirm the consolidation of laminates, although show resin rich areas with different sizes and shapes attributed to the overlapping of the scraps with different sizes and shapes. These resin rich areas may contribute to decrease the mechanical properties of laminates. The correlation between mechanical and morphological results shows potential to be used on non-critical structural application, as composite jigs, contributing to sustainability.

  13. Study by dynamic light scattering of an o/w emulsion of an epoxi resin dispersed in water by means of a triblock copolymer of type PEO-PPO-PEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscanga, E. H.; Rio, J. M. del; Avendano-Gomez, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The curing epoxy resins are widely used in various fields of chemical industry, such as adhesives, automotive, coatings, etc. The process operation consisting of flow and mixing of epoxy resins become difficult due to their high viscosity. One solution is to dissolve the epoxy resin in volatile organic solvents (VOS) such as toluene, xylene or benzene. However, the use of VOS is not only expensive but harmful to the environment. (Author)

  14. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin /sup 14/C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyton, A; Wozniak, M; Dobryszycka, W [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with /sup 14/C-epidian 5 was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue.

  15. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin 14C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyton, A.; Wozniak, M.; Dobryszycka, W.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with 14 C-epidian 5, was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue. (author)

  16. Structure–property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang WG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weiguo Wang,1,* Xiang Sun,1,* Li Huang,2,* Yu Gao,1 Jinghao Ban,1 Lijuan Shen,1 Jihua Chen1 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS, have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group] and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups] were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials

  17. CNTs, Al2O3 and SiO2 Reinforced Epoxy: Tribological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ramadan,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the effect of filling epoxy matrix by different types and concentrations of nanoparticles on the friction and wear behaviors. Various concentrations (0.2 %, 0.4 %, 0.6 %, 0.8 % and 1 wt.% of multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs, aluminum oxide (Al2O3, and silica (SiO2 nanoparticles were used to reinforce epoxy matrix. These epoxy nanocomposites are widely used as indoor flooring tiles in schools, boutiques, hospitals, offices, conference rooms, homes, trade fair stands and homes for the aged. Experiments involved sliding of the epoxy nanocomposite specimens against rotating steel disc at dry sliding condition. Experiments were carried out using a test rig of pin-on-disc, designed and manufactured for the test. The friction force was measured using load cell which connected with a digital screen to detect the friction force. All experiments were done at room temperature and carried out at constant normal load (7 N, constant speed (0.93 m/sec and constant running time (300 seconds. The worn surfaces were investigated with back scattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Based on the observations in the present work, it was found that addition of the tested filling nanoparticles have greatly affected the friction and highly improves wear resistance.

  18. The nanoscale phase distinguishing of PCL-PB-PCL blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiqin; Sun, Limin; Shen, Guangxia; Liang, Qi

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we investigated the bulk phase distinguishing of the poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-polybutadiene-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-PB-PCL) triblock copolymer blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). We found that at a set-point amplitude ratio ( r sp) less than or equal to 0.85, a clear phase contrast could be obtained using a probe with a force constant of 40 N/m. When r sp was decreased to 0.1 or less, the measured size of the PB-rich domain relatively shrank; however, the height images of the PB-rich domain would take reverse (translating from the original light to dark) at r sp = 0.85. Force-probe measurements were carried out on the phase-separated regions by TM-AFM. According to the phase shift angle vs. r sp curve, it could be concluded that the different force exerting on the epoxy matrix or on the PB-rich domain might result in the height and phase image reversion. Furthermore, the indentation depth vs. r sp plot showed that with large tapping force (lower r sp), the indentation depth for the PB-rich domain was nearly identical for the epoxy resin matrix.

  19. Surface and buried interfacial structures of epoxy resins used as underfills studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Anne V; Holden, Brad; Kristalyn, Cornelius; Fuller, Mike; Wilkerson, Brett; Chen, Zhan

    2011-05-01

    Flip chip technology has greatly improved the performance of semiconductor devices, but relies heavily on the performance of epoxy underfill adhesives. Because epoxy underfills are cured in situ in flip chip semiconductor devices, understanding their surface and interfacial structures is critical for understanding their adhesion to various substrates. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface and buried interfacial structures of two model epoxy resins used as underfills in flip chip devices, bisphenol A digylcidyl ether (BADGE) and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). The surface structures of these epoxies were compared before and after cure, and the orientations of their surface functional groups were deduced to understand how surface structural changes during cure may affect adhesion properties. Further, the effect of moisture exposure, a known cause of adhesion failure, on surface structures was studied. It was found that the BADGE surface significantly restructured upon moisture exposure while the BDDGE surface did not, showing that BADGE adhesives may be more prone to moisture-induced delamination. Lastly, although surface structure can give some insight into adhesion, buried interfacial structures more directly correspond to adhesion properties of polymers. SFG was used to study buried interfaces between deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and the epoxies before and after moisture exposure. It was shown that moisture exposure acted to disorder the buried interfaces, most likely due to swelling. These results correlated with lap shear adhesion testing showing a decrease in adhesion strength after moisture exposure. The presented work showed that surface and interfacial structures can be correlated to adhesive strength and may be helpful in understanding and designing optimized epoxy underfill adhesives.

  20. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  1. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Composites Filled with Combustion Synthesized h-BN Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyan-Lung Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent for low filler loadings or a solvent method (using acetone as solvent for higher filler loadings. It was found that surface treatment of the h-BN particles using the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS increases the thermal conductivity of the resultant composites in a lesser amount compared to the values reported by other studies. This was explained by the fact that the combustion synthesized h-BN particles contain less –OH or active sites on the surface, thus adsorbing less amounts of GPTMS. However, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with the combustion synthesized h-BN was found to be comparable to that with commercially available h-BN reported in other studies. The thermal conductivity of the composites was found to be higher when larger h-BN particles were used. The thermal conductivity was also found to increase with increasing filler content to a maximum and then begin to decrease with further increases in this content. In addition to the effect of higher porosity at higher filler contents, more horizontally oriented h-BN particles formed at higher filler loadings (perhaps due to pressing during formation of the composites were suggested to be a factor causing this decrease of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermal conductivities were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Nielsen and Lewis theory. The theoretical predictions were found to be lower than the experimental values at low filler contents (< 60 vol % and became increasing higher than the experimental values at high filler contents (> 60 vol %.

  3. Characteristics of novel root-end filling material using epoxy resin and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eun-Joo; Jeon, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties and cytotoxicity of a novel root-end filling material (EPC) which is made from epoxy resin and Portland cement as a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) substitute. EPC, developed as a root-end filling material, was compared with MTA and a mixture of AH Plus sealer and MTA (AMTA) with regard to the setting time, radio-opacity, and microleakage. Setting times were evaluated using Vicat apparatus. Digital radiographs were taken to evaluate the aluminium equivalent radio-opacity using an aluminium step wedge. Extracted single-rooted teeth were used for leakage test using methylene blue dye. After canal shaping and obturation, the apical 3-mm root was resected, and a root-end cavity with a depth of 3 mm was prepared. The root-end cavities were filled with MTA, AMTA, and EPC for 15 specimens in each of three groups. After setting in humid conditions for 24 h, the specimens were tested for apical leakage. For evaluation of the biocompatibility of EPC, cell (human gingival fibroblast) viability was compared for MTA and Portland cement by MTT assay, and cell morphological changes were compared for MTA and AH Plus by fluorescence microscopy using DAPI and F-actin staining. The setting time, radio-opacity, and microleakage were compared using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc comparison, and the cytotoxicity was compared using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Statistical significance was set at 95%. EPC had a shorter setting time and less microleakage compared with MTA (p Portland cement, was found to be a useful material for root-end filling, with favourable radio-opacity, short setting time, low microleakage, and clinically acceptable low cytotoxicity. The novel root-end filling material would be a potentially useful material for a surgical endodontic procedure with favourable properties.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin Composites Filled with Combustion Synthesized h-BN Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shyan-Lung; Lin, Jeng-Shung

    2016-05-20

    The thermal conductivity of epoxy resin composites filled with combustion-synthesized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) particles was investigated. The mixing of the composite constituents was carried out by either a dry method (involving no use of solvent) for low filler loadings or a solvent method (using acetone as solvent) for higher filler loadings. It was found that surface treatment of the h-BN particles using the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) increases the thermal conductivity of the resultant composites in a lesser amount compared to the values reported by other studies. This was explained by the fact that the combustion synthesized h-BN particles contain less -OH or active sites on the surface, thus adsorbing less amounts of GPTMS. However, the thermal conductivity of the composites filled with the combustion synthesized h-BN was found to be comparable to that with commercially available h-BN reported in other studies. The thermal conductivity of the composites was found to be higher when larger h-BN particles were used. The thermal conductivity was also found to increase with increasing filler content to a maximum and then begin to decrease with further increases in this content. In addition to the effect of higher porosity at higher filler contents, more horizontally oriented h-BN particles formed at higher filler loadings (perhaps due to pressing during formation of the composites) were suggested to be a factor causing this decrease of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermal conductivities were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Nielsen and Lewis theory. The theoretical predictions were found to be lower than the experimental values at low filler contents ( 60 vol %).

  5. Mechanical and thermal properties of biocomposites from nonwoven industrial Fique fiber mats with Epoxy Resin and Linear Low Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hidalgo-Salazar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work Linear Low Density Polyethylene-nonwoven industrial Fique fiber mat (LLDPE-Fique and Epoxy Resin-nonwoven industrial Fique fiber mat (EP-Fique biocomposites were prepared using thermocompression and resin film infusion processes. Neat polymeric matrices and its biocomposites were tested following ASTM standards in order to evaluate tensile and flexural mechanical properties. Also, thermal behavior of these materials has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Tensile and flexural test revealed that nonwoven Fique reinforced composites exhibited higher modulus and strength but lower deformation capability as compared with LLDPE and EP neat matrices. TG thermograms showed that nonwoven Fique fibers incorporation has an effect on the thermal stability of the composites. On the other hand, Fique fibers did not change the crystallization and melting processes of the LLDPE matrix but restricts the motion of EP macromolecules chains thus increases the Tg of the EP-Fique composite. Finally, this work opens the possibility of considering non-woven Fique fibers as a reinforcement material with a high potential for the manufacture of biocomposites for automotive applications. In addition to the processing test specimens, it was also possible to manufacture a part of LLDPE-Fique, and one part of EP-Fique. Keywords: Biocomposites, Natural materials, Nonwoven Fique fiber mat, LLDPE, Epoxy Resin

  6. Study of the reaction between polyethylene glycol and epoxy resins using N,N-dimethylbenzylamine as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharuk, Mario; Coelho, Luiz A.F.; Pezzin, Sergio H.; Becker, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    In this work the use of N,N-dimethylbenzylamine as a catalyst of the reaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and epoxy resin (DGEBA) was studied. The reaction products were evaluated by infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and viscosity measurements. Samples cured with a polyamine-based hardener were also submitted to tensile tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results of the viscosity analyses, FTIR and RMN ( 1 H) had confirmed the occurrence of the reaction between DGEBA epoxy groups and PEG hydroxyl groups in the presence of N, N-dimethylbenzylamine as catalyst, at 100 deg C. DSC analyses and tensile tests of cured systems showed that the reaction of DGEBA with PEG leads to a reduction of the Tg, generating a more flexible material. (author)

  7. Experimental study and model development for 'uranium dioxide-epoxy resin' heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairat, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize nuclear fuels, samples are currently embedded in an epoxy polymer resin. In storage conditions, the presence of organic products in contact with highly radioactive material generates gas due to a radiolysis phenomenon. Samples management imposes the definition of a fuel and resin separation process. This work aims at developing a tool for the optimal design and control of a suitable heat treatment process. This development is based on experiments and on the modeling of the resin pyrolysis reactions coupled to mass, heat and momentum transfers. One of the difficulties of the study lies to the needed process control on various scales: i) on a global scale to represent the treatment conditions and ii) on a local scale to represent the conditions close to fuel material. This study uses a combined modeling - simulation approach with experiments carried out with the help of a thermo-balance for kinetic data acquisition, on the one hand and in an experimental oven, on the other hand. The process will be performed in two stages, resin pyrolysis and residue (Char) oxidation. Nuclear fuel can be oxidized during both stages. Indeed, the pyrolysis degrades the resin and generated pyrolysis gases, which produce an oxidizing atmosphere. Oxidation of pyrolysis residue can modify the structure of spent fuel and liberate fission gases. The resin pyrolysis produced non-condensable gases, steam, tar and char. The final hydrogen content in the char has to be as low as possible and close to zero to be sure that the radiolysis phenomenon will never occur during of nuclear fuel storage. The process development has been carried out in stages. The first step is to investigate the overall kinetics of epoxy degradation and the determination of the generated gas kinetics. The influence of the presence of nuclear fuel is investigated with epoxy-UO 2 mixture. The results showed no significant effect of the nuclear fuel presence. The second part is the coupling of

  8. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H 2 SO 4 solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H 2 SO 4 solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates

  9. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong.2006@yahoo.com.cn

    2014-04-15

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates.

  10. Highly Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals and Formation of Epoxy-CNC Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eldho; Kam, Doron; Nevo, Yuval; Slattegard, Rikard; Rivkin, Amit; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-10-05

    This work presents an environmentally friendly, iodine-catalysed chemical modification method to generate highly hydrophobic, optically active cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The high degree of ester substitution (DS=2.18), hydrophobicity, crystalline behaviour and optical activity of the generated acetylated CNC (Ac-CNC) were quantified by TEM, FTIR, solid 13C NMR, contact angle, XRD and POM analyses. Ac-CNC possessing substantial enhancement in thermal stability (16.8%) and forms thin films with interlayer distance of 50-150 nm, presenting cavities suitable for entrapping nano and micro particles. Generated Ac-CNC proved as an effective reinforcing agent in hydrophobic polymer matrices for fabricating high performance nanocomposites. When integrated at a very low weight percentage (0.5%) in an epoxy matrix, Ac-CNC provided for a 73% increase in tensile strength and a 98% increase in modulus, demonstrating its remarkable reinforcing potential and effective stress transfer behaviour. The method of modification and the unique properties of the modified CNC (hydrophobicity, crystallinity, reinforcing ability and optical activity) render them a novel bionanomaterial for a range of multipurpose applications.

  11. Hyperbranched epoxy/MWCNT-CuO-nystatin nanocomposite as a high performance, biocompatible, antimicrobial material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaswat; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Phukan, Mayur M.; Konwar, Bolin K.; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-12-01

    Hyperbranched epoxy MWCNT-CuO-nystatin nanocomposite has been presented here as an advanced antimicrobial high performance material. The material showed significant improvement of mechanical properties (tensile strength from 38 to 63 MPa) over the pristine matrix without effecting elongation. MWCNT was modified by a non-ionic surfactant, triton X-100, wherein copper oxide nanoparticles were anchored in situ by a ‘green’ method. Further, sonochemical immobilization of nystatin enhanced the stability of the system. The immobilized nanohybrid system was incorporated into the hyperbranched matrix in 1, 2 and 3 wt%. The resultant system proved its ability to prevent bacterial, fungal and microalgal fouling against the tested strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Chlorella sp. Additionally, this system is quite compatible with rat heart cells. Furthermore, in vivo assessment showed that this could be utilized as an implantable antimicrobial biomaterial. Thus, the overall study pointed out that the prepared material may have immense utility in marine industry as well as in biomedical domain to address microbial fouling, without inducing any toxicity to higher organisms.

  12. Hyperbranched epoxy/MWCNT-CuO-nystatin nanocomposite as a high performance, biocompatible, antimicrobial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, Shaswat; Karak, Niranjan; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Phukan, Mayur M; Konwar, Bolin K

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbranched epoxy MWCNT-CuO-nystatin nanocomposite has been presented here as an advanced antimicrobial high performance material. The material showed significant improvement of mechanical properties (tensile strength from 38 to 63 MPa) over the pristine matrix without effecting elongation. MWCNT was modified by a non-ionic surfactant, triton X-100, wherein copper oxide nanoparticles were anchored in situ by a ‘green’ method. Further, sonochemical immobilization of nystatin enhanced the stability of the system. The immobilized nanohybrid system was incorporated into the hyperbranched matrix in 1, 2 and 3 wt%. The resultant system proved its ability to prevent bacterial, fungal and microalgal fouling against the tested strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Chlorella sp. Additionally, this system is quite compatible with rat heart cells. Furthermore, in vivo assessment showed that this could be utilized as an implantable antimicrobial biomaterial. Thus, the overall study pointed out that the prepared material may have immense utility in marine industry as well as in biomedical domain to address microbial fouling, without inducing any toxicity to higher organisms. (paper)

  13. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  14. Effect of Mixing Condition on Rheological Behavior of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Sodeifian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing on rheological behavior of 6% wt epoxy-clay nanocomposites was studied. The mixing processes were carried out by low shear mixer, homogenizer and ultrasonic and combination of different mixing techniques at medium and maximum power. All these methods led to intercalated structure. The XRD results showed that the ultrasonic has the best effect on dispersion while a low shear mixer has the least positive effect. Opposite to an ultrasonic mixing method, the homogenization process through maximum power does not change the dispersion state significantly. The best condition would be to use an ultrasonic mixer after a homogenizer, otherwise the reverse process may result in lower dispersion. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements were carried out on linear regime over 0.1-100 Hz. According to the fact that rheological responses are very sensitive to polymerparticle interactions and accessible surface area, the slope of storage modulus and shear thinning exponent of viscosity are proportional to the level of dispersion. This implies that more increases in intergallary height may lead to less terminal slope. The continuous relaxation profile and zero shear viscosity were generated by experimental data via computer software based on neural network approach. To check the validity of software, the experimental data were recovered with very low deviation using relaxation spectrum. The experimental observations showed that a solid-like behavior, as a result of better dispersion, can prevent the profile from falling especially at longertimes.

  15. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus and internal friction of G-10CR and G-11CR epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Maerz, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Young's moduli of the epoxy-resin matrix material used in NEMA-designation G-10CR and G-11CR fiberglass-cloth-reinforced composites were measured dynamically and semicontinuously between ambient and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Both materials exhibit regular temperature behavior, showing large Young's-modulus changes, about 125 and 50%, respectively. Internal friction decreased about 80% during cooling to liquid-nitrogen temperature (76 0 K). The different thermoelastic coefficients of the two materials indicate a different internal structure

  16. Influence of aromatic amine hardeners in the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Leali Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite structures for aerospace applications are mainly made by the well-known prepreg technology. In order to achieve adequate prepreg processing schedules, and consequently maximum fiber strength utilization, one has to know in deep the cure kinetics of matrix, which held the fibers together. This work describes a procedure to study the cure kinetic and has as example how aromatic amine hardeners influence the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites. The investigation was carried out by using the DSC technique and it was found that depending on the system used the cure kinetics of the formulation obeys order n or autocatalytic order.

  17. Preparation of nanocomposites resin from seed Pterodon emarginatus doped maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, L B; Martins, Q S; Maia, J C; Santos, J G

    2012-06-01

    Electrical characterization and magnetic nanocomposite resin seeds Pterodon emarginatus (PE) doped with nanoparticles of maghemite and treated by different chemical processes is reported in this paper. The pure PE resin showed semiconducting characteristics probably the presence of natural iron oxide in its molecular structure. The analysis of Mössbauer spectra pure resin showed two magnetic sites presented on measurements made at temperature of 300 K. Six "LEDs" to have been doped maghemite nanoparticles forming concentrations of 2.6 x 10(15) to 1.56 x 10(16) particles/cm2 forming the LED-PEMN. In the presence of the applied current versus voltage (0 to 0.9 V) LED-PEMN shown semiconducting properties. In the presence of frequency versus voltage sample of pure resin and LED features small decrease. While samples of LED-PEMN suffers loss frequency linearly with concentration and voltage. The pure PE resin shows high resistance to the applied voltage while the LED-PEMN is observed linear increase with the strength and concentration of nanoparticles of maghemite.

  18. Influence of MWCNTs addition on mechanical and thermal behaviour of epoxy/kenaf multi-scale nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, N. A. M.; Razak, J. A.; Ismail, S.; Mohamad, N.; Yaakob, M. Y.; Theng, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted to develop kenaf reinforced epoxy/MWCNTs multi-scale composite using kenaf fibre and MWCNTs as the reinforcement in epoxy as the hosted matrix. The composites were produced by using a combination of hand lay-up and vacuum bagging process. The selection of optimum composition of epoxy-MWCNTs is based on the MWCNTs loading and the resulted mixture viscosity. Lower resin viscosity is required to allow good wetting and interaction between matrix and filler, which will yielded superior final performance of the fabricated composites. Therefore, different loading of MWCNTs (0.0 wt. %, 0.5 wt. %, 1.0 wt. %, 3.0 wt. %, 5.0 wt. %, 7.0 wt. %) were used to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. As a result, the epoxy/kenaf/MWCNTs multi-scale composite at 1.0 wt. % of MWCNTs addition had yielded substantial improvement by 15.54 % in tensile strength and 90.54 % in fracture toughness. Besides, the fracture surface morphology of the selected samples were analysed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation to further support the reinforcement characteristic of epoxy/kenaf/MWCNTs multi-scale composite.

  19. Enhanced lifetime characteristics in flexible polymer light-emitting devices by encapsulation of epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Pin-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Jung; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Meen, Teen-Hang; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a new multilayer encapsulation for the lifetime of flexible PLEDs on plastic substrate. The multilayer encapsulation consisted of a novel epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR) as the pre-encapsulation layer and a SiO 2 layer as the encapsulation cap. The ESGR was prepared by mixing UV-curable epoxy resin and powders of silica-coated gold nanoparticles. The silica-coated gold nanoparticles is a necessity because the epoxy resin is not a good moisture barrier. The flexible PLEDs with multilayer encapsulation exhibited no dark spots after being stored for over 300 h at 25 deg. C and 60% relative humidity. Also, the operational half-luminance decay time of device was 1360 h, seven times longer than that of a device without encapsulation. These results confirmed that the multilayer encapsulation, which restricted the moisture that penetrated into the devices, could be applied to the encapsulation of flexible PLEDs.

  20. Evaluation of Nanomaterial Approaches to Damping in Epoxy Resin and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.

  1. Testing temperature on interfacial shear strength measurements of epoxy resins at different mixing ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Thomason, James L.; Minty, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial properties as Interfacial Shear Stress (IFSS) in fibre reinforced polymers are essential for further understanding of the mechanical properties of the composite. In this work a single fibre testing method is used in combination with an epoxy matrix made from Araldite 506 epoxy res...

  2. Effects of benzoxazine resin on property enhancement of shape memory epoxy: A dual function of benzoxazine resin as a curing agent and a stable network segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanpitaksit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An ability of bisphenol-A/aniline based benzoxazine resin (BA-a to simultaneously acts as a curing agent and a stable or rigid network segment for shape memory epoxy, i.e. a two component system, is demonstrated. This significantly simplifies a formulation of present shape memory epoxy systems, i.e. a three or four component system. A suitable content of BA-a in the aliphatic epoxy (NGDE/polybenzoxazine (PBA-a samples for good shape memory performance is in a range of 30 to 50 mol%. The storage modulus of the obtained NGDE/PBA-a shape memory polymers (SMPs was increased from 3.57 GPa for 30 mol% BA-a content to 4.50 GPa for 50 mol% BA-a content. Glass transition temperature of the sample was also substantially increased with increasing BA-a fraction, i.e. from 51°C to 140°C. Flexural modulus and strength at room temperature of the samples at 50 mol% BA-a were found to be as high as 3.97 GPa and 132 MPa compared to the maximum values of 2.54 GPa and 100 MPa of SMP based on cyanate ester-epoxy. All samples exhibited a high value of shape fixity close to 100%. A presence of the BA-a in the samples also imparted a greater recovery stress ranging from 0.25 to 1.59 MPa. Consequently, the obtained NGDE/PBA-a copolymers are highly attractive for shape memory materials to be used in a broader range of applications particularly at elevated temperature and a higher recovery stress value.

  3. Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lv

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated using GOTMS as coupling agents and E-SBA-15/PF (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites extracted using ethanol as solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results demonstrated that the GOTMS were successfully grafted onto the surface of SBA-15, and chemical bonds between PF and SBA-15-GOTMS were formed after in situ polymerization. In addition, it is found that the in situ polymerization method has great effects on the textural parameters of SBA-15. The results also showed that the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the PF nanocomposites were obviously enhanced as compared with the pure PF at silica contents between 1–3 wt%, due to the uniform dispersion of the modified SBA-15 in the matrix.

  4. Influence of structure of a crosslinked epoxy resin on its properties studied by positron annihilation and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debowska, M.; Baranowski, A.; Jerie, K.; Rudzinska-Girulska, J.; Kurzeja, L.; Hennek, K.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation has been applied to study samples of two crosslinked epoxy resins: diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (Epikote 828) and polyglycidyl-ether of phenol-formaldehyde novolac (Epikote 155) cured with 4,4'-diamino-diphenylo-methane (MDA), phenol-formaldehyde novolac resin (Novolac Z) and bisphenol A (formaldehyde resin). Results of measurements of positron lifetime spectra were compared with the ones coming from DMTA, flexural strength testing and density measurements. The most important features of samples (glass transition temperature, storage modulus, flexural strength, crosslinking density and tan δ) proved to be correlated with the product Ι 3 x v-bar, proportional to the fractional free volume in samples. Values of v-bar have been estimated from the values of τ 3 , the longest lifetime in positron lifetime spectra. Ι 3 corresponds to the intensity of the longest-lived component in them. Distributions of free volume radii reconstructed in the basis of PAL measurements are given for all samples. The influences of structure of both cured resin and the curing agent on the properties of the crosslinked products is clearly seen from the presented results. (author)

  5. Modification of epoxy resin, silicon and glass surfaces with alkyl- or fluoroalkylsilanes for hydrophobic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, Jacek; Kargol, Marta; Psarski, Maciej; Celichowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chemical structure of alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes can affect the hydrophobic and surface performance of the modified samples. • Wet chemical hydrophobization is relatively simple and inexpensive method to obtain hydrophobic/superhydrophobic coatings. • The samples degradation is not observed and hydrophobic coatings seem to be stable in UV light. - Abstract: Preparation of superhydrophobic materials inspired by nature has attracted a great scientific interest in recent decades. Some of these materials have hierarchical lotus-like structures, i.e. micro- and nano-objects coated by hydrophobic compounds. A major challenge of applying the superhydrophobic surfaces for the self-cleaning coatings preparation is their improved efficiency in varying atmospheric conditions, e.g. UV light. The objective of this research work was to investigate the effect of the different chemical structure and the surface free energy on the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes deposited on silicon wafers, glass slides and epoxy resin. Tribological and hydrophobic properties of the modified surfaces were correlated with their chemical structures. Chemical structures of the deposited materials were examined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and hydrophobic properties were investigated by water contact angle (WCA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. The modified surfaces exhibited water contact angles of above 100° for the selected modifiers. It was noticed that the replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms in alkyl chain caused an increase in the water contact angle values and a decrease in friction coefficients. The obtained results showed that the carbon chain length of a modifier and its chemical structure can strongly affect the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces. The highest values of WCA, lowest values of SFE and coefficient

  6. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Elisandro de; Machado, Rogerio; Macedo, Marcelo Andrade; Cunha, Frederico Guilherme Carvalho [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (MedRadiUS), Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis at Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured at 150 deg C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111]. (author)

  7. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Elisandro de; Machado, Rogerio; Macedo, Marcelo Andrade [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Fisica; Cunha, Frederico Guilherme Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111]. (author)

  8. Response behavior of an epoxy resin/amine curing agent/carbon black composite film to various solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yanling [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: luoyl0401@yahoo.com.cn; Li Zhanqing [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Lan Wenxiang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2007-04-25

    A novel polymer based sensitive film was prepared from thermosetting epoxy resins (EP) filled with carbon blacks. The curing reaction of amine curing agents with epoxy resins and the response of the curing resultants to solvent vapors were dealt with. The influence of the types and content of carbon blacks and curing agents, and curing temperatures and time on curing reactions and response selectivity of the conductive films were investigated. The structural characterization was conducted on a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results indicated that the conductive films showed high response selectivity to polar solvent vapors, especially to chloroform vapor, while no response was observed in non-polar solvent vapors. The responsivity of the film increased with the decreased carbon black contents. The film filled with acetylene carbon black gave an optimal response, with responsivity of about 700 times. The response performances were improved with the amount of curing agents increased, and an optimal response appeared at the amount of the curing agent of 8%. The film's responsivity was remarkably enhanced, the reversibility property, however, rapidly declined in the order of diethyleneltriamine < triethylenetetramine < ethylenediamine. The curing reaction tended to complete with the curing temperature elevated and the curing time prolonged. But the response performance dropped because of over cross-linking as the temperature was too high or the time was too long.

  9. Response behavior of an epoxy resin/amine curing agent/carbon black composite film to various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yanling; Li Zhanqing; Lan Wenxiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel polymer based sensitive film was prepared from thermosetting epoxy resins (EP) filled with carbon blacks. The curing reaction of amine curing agents with epoxy resins and the response of the curing resultants to solvent vapors were dealt with. The influence of the types and content of carbon blacks and curing agents, and curing temperatures and time on curing reactions and response selectivity of the conductive films were investigated. The structural characterization was conducted on a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results indicated that the conductive films showed high response selectivity to polar solvent vapors, especially to chloroform vapor, while no response was observed in non-polar solvent vapors. The responsivity of the film increased with the decreased carbon black contents. The film filled with acetylene carbon black gave an optimal response, with responsivity of about 700 times. The response performances were improved with the amount of curing agents increased, and an optimal response appeared at the amount of the curing agent of 8%. The film's responsivity was remarkably enhanced, the reversibility property, however, rapidly declined in the order of diethyleneltriamine < triethylenetetramine < ethylenediamine. The curing reaction tended to complete with the curing temperature elevated and the curing time prolonged. But the response performance dropped because of over cross-linking as the temperature was too high or the time was too long

  10. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elisandro de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy resin cured at 150 °C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111].

  11. Clay/Polyaniline Hybrid through Diazonium Chemistry: Conductive Nanofiller with Unusual Effects on Interfacial Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlassi, Khouloud; Chandran, Sarath; Poothanari, Mohammed A; Benna-Zayani, Mémia; Thomas, Sabu; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2016-04-12

    The concept of conductive network structure in thermoset matrix without sacrificing the inherent mechanical properties of thermoset polymer (e.g., epoxy) is investigated here using "hairy" bentonite fillers. The latter were prepared through the in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of 4-diphenylamine diazonium (DPA)-modified bentonite (B-DPA) resulting in a highly exfoliated bentonite-DPA/polyaniline (B-DPA/PANI). The nanocomposite filler was mixed with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and the curing agent (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) (DDS) at high temperature in order to obtain