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Sample records for epoxy painted carbon

  1. Comparison of Dust Release from Epoxy and Paint Nanocomposites and Conventional Products during Sanding and Sawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, V.; Levin, Marcus; Saber, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber...

  2. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  3. Comparison of dust release from epoxy and paint nanocomposites and conventional products during sanding and sawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Levin, Marcus; Saber, Anne T; Irusta, Silvia; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hanoi, Roberto; Santamaria, Jesus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Koponen, Ismo K

    2014-10-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber. The temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured simultaneously. The morphology of collected dust by scanning electron microscopy was different depending on the type of nanocomposites: particles from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites had protrusions on their surfaces and aggregates and agglomerates are attached to the paint matrix in particles emitted from alkyd paints. We observed no significant differences in the particle size distributions when comparing sanding dust from nanofiller containing products with dust from conventional products. Neither did we observe release of free nanomaterials. Instead, the nanomaterials were enclosed or partly enclosed in the matrix. A source strength term Si (cm(-3) s(-1)) that describes particle emission rates from continuous sources was introduced. Comparison between the Si parameters derived from sanding different materials allows identification of potential effects of addition of engineered nanoparticles to a composite. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Epoxy-paint stripping using TEA CO2 laser: Determination of threshold fluence and the process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhargava, P.; Biswas, A. K.; Sahu, Shasikiran; Mandloi, V.; Ittoop, M. O.; Khattak, B. Q.; Tiwari, M. K.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that the threshold fluence for laser paint stripping can be accurately estimated from the heat of gasification and the absorption coefficient of the epoxy-paint. The threshold fluence determined experimentally by stripping of the epoxy-paint on a substrate using a TEA CO2 laser matches closely with the calculated value. The calculated threshold fluence and the measured absorption coefficient of the paint allowed us to determine the epoxy paint thickness that would be removed per pulse at a given laser fluence even without experimental trials. This was used to predict the optimum scan speed required to strip the epoxy-paint of a given thickness using a high average power TEA CO2 laser. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) studies were also carried out on laser paint-stripped concrete substrate to show high efficacy of this modality.

  5. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation

  6. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30–300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  7. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30-300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  8. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  9. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxycarbon black and epoxycarbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; T. Vo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  10. Hansen solubility parameters for a carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, Helene; Hansen, Charles M.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the physical affinity between an epoxy matrix and oxidized, unsized carbon fibers has been evaluated using Hansen solubility (cohesion) parameters (HSP). A strong physical compatibility has been shown, since their respective HSP are close. The use of a glassy carbon substrate...... as a model for unsized carbon fiber has been demonstrated as appropriate for the study of interactions between the materials in composite carbon fiber-epoxy systems. The HSP of glassy carbon are similar to those of carbon fibers and epoxy matrix. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... and modifiers to create products with an almost unlimited range and variety of performance properties [The epoxy book, 2000]. Epoxy resins are widely used as high-grade synthetic resins, for example, in the electronics, aeronautics and astronautic industries...

  12. Analyzing FTIR spectra using high sensitivity compare function of FTIR software for 2-pack epoxy paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaid, Farish Irfal; Chan, Chin Han; Ong, Max Chong Hup; Winie, Tan; Harun, Mohamad Kamal

    2015-08-01

    The existing problem of oil and gas companies faced for on-site jobs of polymeric coatings on steel pipelines is that the quality of polymeric coatings varies from job to job for the same product brand from the same supplier or paint manufacturer. This can be due to the inherent problem of the reformulation of polymeric coatings or in other words adulterated polymeric coatings are supplied, where the quality of the coatings deviates from the submitted specifications for prequalification and tender purpose. Major oil and gas companies in Malaysia are calling for Coating Fingerprinting Certificate for the supply of polymeric coatings from local paint manufactures as quality assurance requirement of the coatings supplied. This will reduce the possibility of failures of the polymeric coatings, which lead to the corrosion of steel pipelines resulting in leakage of crude oil and gas to the environment. In this case, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) is a simple and reliable tool for coating fingerprinting. In this study, we conclude that, revelation of possible components of the 2-pack epoxy paints by carrying out extensive FTIR libraries search on FTIR spectra seems to be extremely challenging. Estimation of correlation of the sample spectrum to that of the reference spectrum using Compare function from one FTIR manufacturer, even the FTIR spectra are collected by different FTIR spectrometers from different FTIR manufacturers, can be made. The results of the correlation are reproducible.

  13. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... are electrical insulators, and the widespread use of the epoxy resins for many high-performance applications is constrained because of their inherent brittleness, delamination and fracture toughness limitations. There were quite a few approaches to enhance...

  14. Mechanical Reinforcement of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fibers and HDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Chang, Q.; Huang, X.; Li, J.

    2018-01-01

    Silanized carbon fibers (CFs) and a high-density polyethylene with amino terminal groups (HDPE) were introduced into epoxy resins to fabricate high-performance composites. A. mechanical characterization of the composites was performed to investigate the effect of CFs in cured epoxy/HDPE systems. The composites revealed a noticeable improvement in the tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength in comparison with those of neat epoxy and cured epoxy/HDPE systems. SEM micrographs showed that the toughening effect could be explained by yield deformations, phase separation, and microcracking.

  15. A FTIR/chemometrics approach to characterize the gamma radiation effects on iodine/epoxy-paint interactions in Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Juliette; Chauvet, Elodie; Amat, Sandrine; Dupuy, Nathalie; Gigmes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The effects of radiation on polymeric materials are a topic of concern in a wide range of industries including the sterilization, and the nuclear power industry. While much work has concentrated on systems like polyolefins that are radiation sterilized, some work has been done on epoxy systems. The epoxy system studied is an epoxy/amine paint which is representative of the paint that covers the inner surfaces of the French nuclear reactor containment buildings. In case of a severe accident on a Nuclear Power Plant, fission products can be released from the nuclear fuel to the reactor containment building. Among them, volatile iodine (I 2 ) can be produced and can interact with the epoxy-paint. This paint is also subjected to gamma radiation damages (due to the high dose in the containment coming from radionuclides released from the fuel). So the epoxy-paint studied was exposed to gamma radiation under air atmosphere after being loaded with I 2 or not. The aim of this study is to characterize by FTIR spectroscopy the iodine-paint interactions, then to identify the radiation damages on the epoxy-paint, and to check their effects on these iodine-paint interactions. This work shows the potential of multi-block analysis method (ANOVA-PCA and COMDIM = AComDim) for such a study as it allows to identify the nature of iodine/epoxy-paint interactions and to characterize the gamma radiation damages on the epoxy-paint. AComDim method conduces to the extraction of Common Components to different tables and highlights factors of influence and their interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A FTIR/chemometrics approach to characterize the gamma radiation effects on iodine/epoxy-paint interactions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombani, Juliette, E-mail: juliette.colombani@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, PSN-RES/SEREX/L2EC, CEN Cadarache BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Chauvet, Elodie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, PSN-RES/SEREX/L2EC, CEN Cadarache BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS ICR UMR 7273, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Amat, Sandrine; Dupuy, Nathalie [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, IMBE UMR 7263, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS ICR UMR 7273, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2017-04-01

    The effects of radiation on polymeric materials are a topic of concern in a wide range of industries including the sterilization, and the nuclear power industry. While much work has concentrated on systems like polyolefins that are radiation sterilized, some work has been done on epoxy systems. The epoxy system studied is an epoxy/amine paint which is representative of the paint that covers the inner surfaces of the French nuclear reactor containment buildings. In case of a severe accident on a Nuclear Power Plant, fission products can be released from the nuclear fuel to the reactor containment building. Among them, volatile iodine (I{sub 2}) can be produced and can interact with the epoxy-paint. This paint is also subjected to gamma radiation damages (due to the high dose in the containment coming from radionuclides released from the fuel). So the epoxy-paint studied was exposed to gamma radiation under air atmosphere after being loaded with I{sub 2} or not. The aim of this study is to characterize by FTIR spectroscopy the iodine-paint interactions, then to identify the radiation damages on the epoxy-paint, and to check their effects on these iodine-paint interactions. This work shows the potential of multi-block analysis method (ANOVA-PCA and COMDIM = AComDim) for such a study as it allows to identify the nature of iodine/epoxy-paint interactions and to characterize the gamma radiation damages on the epoxy-paint. AComDim method conduces to the extraction of Common Components to different tables and highlights factors of influence and their interactions.

  17. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, Subhra; Sarkar, Niladri; Rout, Dibyaranjan; Swain, Sarat K.

    2017-01-01

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  18. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantayat, Subhra [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Sarkar, Niladri [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); Rout, Dibyaranjan [School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India)

    2017-01-15

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  19. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxycarbon black and epoxycarbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Inam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by indentation. For comprehensive comparison, fracture toughness and percolation threshold were analysed as well. Because of the systematically induced indentation damage, a sharp decrease of 89% was observed in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CNT nanocomposite as compared to 25% in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CB nanocomposite. CNTs impart superior damage sensing capability in brittle nanocomposite structures, in comparison to CB, due to their high aspect ratio (fibrous nature and high electrical conductivity.

  20. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives in hardeners for epoxy paints and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suomela, Sari; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2016-12-01

    Amines in epoxy hardeners are significant causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis among workers who use epoxy resin systems. To describe a novel group of contact allergens: N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives of the reactive amine 1,3-benzenedimethanamine (1,3-BDMA). We describe the clinical examinations and exposure of 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. Of the 6 patients, 4 were spray painters who used epoxy paints, 1 was a floor layer who handled a variety of epoxy coatings, and 1 was a worker in epoxy hardener manufacture. We were able to confirm exposure to epoxy hardeners that contained derivatives of 1,3-BDMA in 5 of the 6 sensitized patients. Despite the close structural resemblance between derivatives of 1,3-BDMA and m-xylylenediamine (MXDA), only 3 patients reacted positively to MXDA. Concomitant contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin was seen in 2 of the 6 patients. Because of the lack of a commercially available patch test substance, the diagnosis of contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA requires patch testing with either the epoxy hardener product or a hardener ingredient that contains the derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Radiation processing of carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites, specifically carbon fiber reinforced epoxies, are being used for a variety of demanding structural applications, primarily because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance characteristics. For these composites the key advantages of using electron beam (EB), rather than thermal curing, are curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing times for individual components, improved resin stability, fewer volatiles, and better control of the profile of energy absorption. Epoxy compounds do, however, have to be modified to make them EB curable. The electron beam penetration limit, a function of beam energy, product density, and the thickness of any container required, must also be examined when considering EB processing. Research is being conducted to develop EB-curable carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites. The tensile properties of these laminates are comparable to those of thermally cured epoxy laminates. Research is continuing to develop suitable resin formulations and coupling agents to optimize the mechanical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber laminates. In this chapter the EB curing of epoxies, processing considerations, and typical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy laminates are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Epoxy Nanocomposites filled with Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallego, M; Yuste-Sanchez, V; Sanchez-Hidalgo, R; Verdejo, R; Lopez-Manchado, M A

    2018-01-10

    Over the past decades, the development of high performance lightweight polymer nanocomposites and, in particular, of epoxy nanocomposites has become one the greatest challenges in material science. The ultimate goal of epoxy nanocomposites is to extrapolate the exceptional intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles to the bulk matrix. However, in spite of the efforts, this objective is still to be attained at commercially attractive scales. Key aspects to achieve this are ultimately the full understanding of network structure, the dispersion degree of the nanoparticles, the interfacial adhesion at the phase boundaries and the control of the localization and orientation of the nanoparticles in the epoxy system. In this Personal Account, we critically discuss the state of the art and evaluate the strategies to overcome these barriers. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Impact Damage In Carbon/Epoxy And Carbon/PEEK Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes results of drop-weight impact testing of specimens of carbon-fiber/epoxy and carbon-fiber/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composite materials. Panels made of these materials assembled into lightweight, strong, stiff structures useful in automobiles, aircraft, sporting goods, and many other products. PEEK specimens showed less delamination than epoxy specimens at given impact energy.

  4. Interlaminar fracture in woven carbon/epoxy laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N.B. Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study developed to characterize the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy woven composites, using DCB and ENF tests, respectively. The laminates were manufactured using an epoxy resin and twelve woven balanced bi-directional layers of carbon fibres, all of them with the same orientation (0/90º. Significant instantaneous delaminations were observed particularly for the DCB specimen, which were responsible for an oscillatory behaviour of GI versus crack length. The maximum values obtained for GIC and GIIC were 281 and 1800 J/m2, respectively.

  5. Thermal conductive epoxy enhanced by nanodiamond-coated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Jiang, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles were coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical reactions. Reliable bonding was formed by the combination of acyl chloride on NDs and amine group on CNTs. ND coated CNTs (CNT-ND) were dispersed into epoxy to fabricate thermal conductive resins. The results show that the surface energy of CNTs is decreased by the coated NDs, which is contributed to the excellent dispersion of CNT-NDs in the epoxy matrix. The heat-transfer channels were built by the venous CNTs cooperating with the coated NDs, which not only plays an effective role of heat conduction for CNTs and NDs, but also avoids the electrical leakage by the protection of NDs surrounding outside of CNTs. Electrical and thermal conductance measurements demonstrate that the influence of the CNT-ND incorporation on the electrical conductance is minor, however, the thermal conductivity is improved significantly for the epoxy filled with CNT-ND.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of Kevlar/epoxy and carbon/epoxy filament-wound tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeneuve, C.; Joguet, P.; Maile, J. C.; Oytana, C.

    1992-11-01

    The axial, hoop and shear moduli and failure conditions of carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy filament-wound tubes have been determined through respective applications of internal pressure, tension and torsion. The introduction in the laminated plate theory of a gradual reduction in individual moduli makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the theory and enables accurate predictions to be made of the linear and non-linear stress/strain curves of 90 deg +/- 0/90 deg tubes. The existence of a dominant layer in the failure of the multilayered tubes has been shown experimentally. When associated with a failure criterion applied to the dominant layer, the new model permits the prediction of tube failure. Agreement between calculated and experimental data is better than 5 percent.

  7. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become...

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.

    Epoxy-composites are widely used in the aerospace industry. In order to improve upon stiffness and thermal conductivity; carbon nanotube additives to epoxies are being explored. This dissertation presents multiscale modeling techniques to study the engineering properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-epoxy nanocomposites, consisting of pristine and covalently functionalized systems. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD), thermomechanical properties were calculated for a representative polymer unit cell. Finite Element (FE) and orientation distribution function (ODF) based methods were used in a multiscale framework to obtain macroscale properties. An epoxy network was built using the dendrimer growth approach. The epoxy model was verified by matching the experimental glass transition temperature, density, and dilatation. MD, via the constant valence force field (CVFF), was used to explore the mechanical and dilatometric effects of adding pristine and functionalized SWNTs to epoxy. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors were obtained. The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for the various nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. To obtain continuum-scale elastic properties from the MD data, multiscale modeling was considered to give better control over the volume fraction of nanotubes, and investigate the effects of nanotube alignment. Two methods were considered; an FE based method, and an ODF based method. The FE method probabilistically assigned elastic properties of elements from the MD lattice results based on the desired volume fraction and alignment of the nanotubes. For the ODF method, a distribution function was generated based on the desired amount of nanotube alignment

  9. Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling of Carbon Nanofiber/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Hui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of systematic investigations on both mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber (CNF-reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites. In this paper, an in-depth study of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and electrical properties of CNF/epoxy nanocomposites with various contents of CNFs is provided. A modified Halpin-Tsai equation is used to evaluate the Young's modulus and storage modulus of the nanocomposites. The values of Young's modulus predicted using this method account for the effect of the CNF agglomeration and fit well with those obtained experimentally. The results show that the highest tensile strength is found in the epoxy nanocomposite with a 1.0 wt% CNFs. The alternate-current (AC electrical properties of the CNF/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit a typical insulator-conductor transition. The conductivity increases by four orders of magnitude with the addition of 0.1 wt% (0.058 vol% CNFs and by ten orders of magnitude for nanocomposites with CNF volume fractions higher than 1.0 wt% (0.578 vol%. The percolation threshold (i.e., the critical CNF volume fraction is found to be at 0.057 vol%.

  10. Thickness dependence of the poling and current-voltage characteristics of paint films made up of lead zirconate titanate ceramic powder and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1995-11-01

    A specially prepared paint made up of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder and epoxy resin was coated on an aluminum plate and was cured at room temperature, thus forming the paint film of 25-300 μm thickness with a PZT volume fraction of 53%. The paint film was then poled at room temperature, and the poling behavior was determined by measuring the piezoelectric activity as a function of poling field. The poling behavior shows that the piezoelectric activity obtained at a given poling field increases with an increase in the film thickness from 25 to 300 μm. The current-voltage characteristic of the paint film, on the other hand, shows that the increase in the film thickness leads not only to an increase in the magnitude of the current density at a given electric field but also to an increase in the critical electric field at which the transition from the ohmic to space-charge-limited conduction takes place. This fact indicates that the amount of the space charge of electrons injected into the paint film decreases as the film thickness increases. Furthermore, comparison of the current-voltage characteristic of the paint film with that of a pure epoxy film reveals that the space charge is accumulated largely at the interface between the PZT and epoxy phases in the paint film. On the basis of this finding, a model is developed for the poling behavior of the paint film by taking into account a possible effect of the space-charge accumulation and a broad distribution of the electric field in the PZT phase. This model is shown to give an excellent fit to the experimental data of the piezoelectric activity obtained here as a function of poling field and film thickness.

  11. Mechanical characterization of epoxy composite with multiscale reinforcements: Carbon nanotubes and short carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, S.; Suraya, A.R.; Shazed, M.A.; Zahari, R.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiscale composite was prepared by incorporation of carbon nanotubes and fibers. • Carbon nanotubes were also grown on short carbon fibers to enhance stress transfer. • Significant improvements were achieved in mechanical properties of composites. • Synergic effect of carbon nanotubes and fibers was demonstrated. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and short carbon fibers were incorporated into an epoxy matrix to fabricate a high performance multiscale composite. To improve the stress transfer between epoxy and carbon fibers, CNT were also grown on fibers through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to produce CNT grown short carbon fibers (CSCF). Mechanical characterization of composites was performed to investigate the synergy effects of CNT and CSCF in the epoxy matrix. The multiscale composites revealed significant improvement in elastic and storage modulus, strength as well as impact resistance in comparison to CNT–epoxy or CSCF–epoxy composites. An optimum content of CNT was found which provided the maximum stiffness and strength. The synergic reinforcing effects of combined fillers were analyzed on the fracture surface of composites through optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  12. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneous migration was assessed after the completion of salt spray testing, which can compromise the use of paints obtained as primers.

  13. Effect of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Nitai Chandra Adak; Suman Chhetri; Naresh Chandra Murmu; Pranab Samanta; Tapas Kuila

    2018-01-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) was incorporated as a reinforcing filler in the epoxy resin to investigate the effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy composites. At first, the epoxy matrix was modified by adding different wt % of TRGO from 0.05 to 0.4 wt % followed by the preparation of TRGO/CF/epoxy composites througha vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. The prepared TRGO was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman Spe...

  14. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  15. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  16. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...

  17. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  18. Carbon epoxy front hood for an electrical city vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bere Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP had a very impressive development. Due to its physical and mechanical properties, this material is used in many high-end domains such as: aerospace, aviation, automotive, medical, engineering or building constructions. In the last period FRP are being intensely used in the automotive industry especially for the chassis manufacturing and other vehicle structural components. In this paper, the authors present the model of a carbon epoxy front hood of a two-passenger electrical car which is specially designed in urban area and which makes use of advanced FRP manufacturing.

  19. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber to reinforce epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Feng; Lu, Chunxiang; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Lu, Huibin; He, Shuqing; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were uniformly grown onto the carbon fibers. → No obvious mechanical properties of carbon fiber were observed after CNT growth. → The IFSS of multiscale epoxy composite was measured by single fiber pull-out tests. → Observing fractography of composite, the fracture modes of CNTs were discussed. -- Abstract: The multiscale carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber was prepared by a newly developed aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were carried out to characterize this multiscale material. Compared with the original carbon fibers, the fabrication of this hybrid fiber resulted in an almost threefold increase of BET surface area to reach 2.22 m 2 /g. Meanwhile, there was a slight degradation of fiber tensile strength within 10%, while the fiber modulus was not significantly affected. The interfacial shearing strength of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite with carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix was determined from the single fiber pull-out tests of microdroplet composite. Due to an efficient increase of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interfaces, the interracial shear strength of composite reinforced by carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber is almost 94% higher than that of one reinforced by the original carbon fiber. Based on the fractured morphologies of the composites, the interfacial reinforcing mechanisms were discussed through proposing different types of carbon nanotube fracture modes along with fiber pulling out from epoxy composites.

  20. Influence of Impact Damage on Carbon-Epoxy Stiffener Crippling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression subjected to impact damage and loaded in fatigue and to failure. A comparison with analytical predictions for pristine and damaged specimens is included.

  1. Fabrication and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Tai, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have better physical and mechanical behavior than the traditional materials. In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were added to the epoxy resin as a reinforcement to fabricate MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites. The pressure and temperature were applied to cure the MWNTs/epoxy compound by hot press method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio were measured. The effect of weight percentages of the MWNTs was investigated. Morphologies of the fracture surface of MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were observed by scanning electron microscope

  2. Assessment of nanoparticles release into the environment during drilling of carbon nanotubes/epoxy and carbon nanofibres/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, Kristof; Frijns, Evelien; Van Laer, Jo; Faisal, Nadimul; Egizabal, Ainhoa; Elizextea, Cristina; Blazquez, Maria; Nelissen, Inge; Njuguna, James

    2017-10-15

    The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer. In comparison to the neat epoxy, the study results revealed that the nano-filled samples produced an increase of 102% and 227% for the EP/CNF and EP/CNT sample respectively in average particle number concentration emission. The particle mass concentration indicated that the EP/CNT and EP/CNF samples released demands a vital new perspective on CNTs and CNFs embedded within nanocomposite materials to be considered and evaluated for occupational exposure assessment. Importantly, the increased concentration observed at 10nm aerosol particle sizes measurements strongly suggest that there are independent CNTs being released at this range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy and Its Carbon Fiber Composites Modified by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive properties are commonly weak parts in structural application of fiber composites. Matrix modification may provide an effective way to improve compressive performance of the composites. In this work, the compressive property of epoxies (usually as matrices of fiber composites modified by different types of nanoparticles was firstly investigated for the following study on the compressive property of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Carbon fiber/epoxy composites were fabricated by vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM technique using stitched unidirectional carbon fabrics, with the matrices modified with nanosilica, halloysite, and liquid rubber. Testing results showed that the effect of different particle contents on the compressive property of fiber/epoxy composites was more obvious than that in epoxies. Both the compressive and flexural results showed that rigid nanoparticles (nanosilica and halloysite have evident strengthening effects on the compression and flexural responses of the carbon fiber composite laminates fabricated from fabrics.

  4. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on dynamic impact responses of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Halil B. Kaybal; Hasan Ulus; Okan Demir; Ömer S. Şahin; Ahmet Avcı

    2018-01-01

    The influence of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles addition upon low-velocity impact behaviors of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced laminated epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated. For this purpose, different amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 5 wt% were added to the epoxy resin in order to observe the effect of nanoparticle loadings. CF reinforced epoxy based laminated nanocomposites were produced using Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method (VARIM). The low velocity impact (LVI) t...

  5. Dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Long-Cheng; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Zhong

    2013-02-01

    Material with high dielectric properties possesses the effect of energy storage and electric field homogenization, which plays an important role in the electrical and electronics domain, especially in the capacitor, electrical machinery and cable realm. In this paper, epoxy-based nanocomposites with high dielectric constant were fabricated by adding pristine and ozone functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In the process-related aspect, the favorable technological parameter was obtained via reasonable arrangement and consideration of the dispersing methods including high-speed stirring and three-roller mill. As a result, a uniform dispersion status of MWCNTs in matrix has been guaranteed, which was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the influence of different MWCNTs contents and diverse frequencies on the dielectric properties was compared. It was found that the dielectric constant of nano-composites decreased gradually with the increasing of frequency (10(3)-10(6) Hz). Moreover, as the content of MWCNTs increasing, the dielectric constant reached to a maximum of about 1,328 at 10(3) Hz when the pristine MWCNTs content was 0.5 wt.%. Accordingly, the DC conductivity results could interpret the peak value phenomenon by percolation threshold of MWCNTs. In addition, at the fixed content, the dielectric constant of epoxy-based nano-composites with ozone functionalized MWCNTs was lower than that of pristine ones.

  6. Three-Phase Carbon Fiber Amine Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Epoxy Composite: Processing, Characterisation, and Multiscale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the key issues of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion and effect of functionalisation on the mechanical properties of multiscale carbon epoxy composites. In this study, CNTs were added in epoxy matrix and further reinforced with carbon fibres. Predetermined amounts of optimally amine functionalised CNTs were dispersed in epoxy matrix, and unidirectional carbon fiber laminates were produced. The effect of the presence of CNTs (1.0 wt% in the resin was reflected by pronounced increase in Young’s modulus, inter-laminar shear strength, and flexural modulus by 51.46%, 39.62%, and 38.04%, respectively. However, 1.5 wt% CNT loading in epoxy resin decreased the overall properties of the three-phase composites. A combination of Halpin-Tsai equations and micromechanics modeling approach was also used to evaluate the mechanical properties of multiscale composites and the differences between the predicted and experimental values are reported. These multiscale composites are likely to be used for potential missile and aerospace structural applications.

  7. The Influence of Hydroxylated Carbon Nanotubes on Epoxy Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs/epoxy resin nanocomposites were prepared with ultrasonic dispersion and casting molding. The effect of hydroxylated MWNTs content on reactive activity of composites is discussed. Then the flexural and electrical properties were studied. Transmission electron microscope was employed to characterize the microstructure of nanocomposites. As a result, the reactive activity of nanocomposites obtained increases with the increasing content of MWNTs. When MWNTs content of the composites is 1 wt%, as compared to neat resin, the flexural strength increases from 143 Mpa to 156 MPa, the modulus increases from 3563 Mpa to 3691 MPa, and the volume and surface resistance of nanocomposites decrease by two orders of magnitude, respectively.

  8. Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: Flexural and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Firoozian, P.; Bakare, I.O.; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Noor, Ahmad Md.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks (CB), derived from bamboo stem (BS-CB), coconut shells (CNS-CB) and oil palm empty fiber bunch (EFB-CB), were obtained by pyrolysis of fibers at 700 o C, characterized and used as filler in epoxy composites. The results obtained showed that the prepared carbon black possessed well-developed porosities and are predominantly made up of micropores. The BS-CB, CNS-CB and EFB-CB filled composites were prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The SEM showed that the fractured surface of the composite indicates its high resistance to fracture. The CBs-epoxy composites exhibited better flexural properties than the neat epoxy, which was attributed to better adhesion between the CBs and the epoxy resin. TGA showed that there was improvement in thermal stability of the carbon black filled composites compared to the neat epoxy resin.

  9. Thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Hiroaki; Rich, Michael J.; Drzal, Lawrence T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-physical properties of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by fluorinated single wall carbon nanotubes (FSWCNT) and vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were investigated. A sonication technique using a suspension of FSWCNT and VGCF in acetone was utilized to process nanocomposites in anhydride-cured epoxy. The viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposites were measured with dynamic mechanical analysis. The glass transition temperature decreased approximately 30 deg. C with an addition of 0.14 vol.% (0.2 wt.%) FSWCNT. The depression in T g is attributed to non-stoichiometric balance of the epoxy matrix caused by the fluorine on single wall carbon nanotubes. The correct amount of the anhydride curing agent needed to achieve stoichiometry was experimentally determined by DMA measurements. After adjusting the amount of the anhydride curing agent for stoichiometry, the storage modulus of the epoxy at room temperature increased 0.63 GPa with the addition of only 0.21 vol.% (0.30 wt.%) of FSWCNT, a 20% improvement compared with the anhydride-cured neat epoxy. For VGCF, the storage modulus at room temperature increased 0.48 GPa with the addition of only 0.94 vol.% (1.5 wt.%) and then reached a plateau for larger amounts of VGCF. To understand the influence of VGCF on thermo-physical properties, the microstructure of the nanocomposites was interrogated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This study discusses the chemical effects of fluorine on matrix properties and the effect of stoichiometric balance on the thermo-physical properties of nanocomposites

  10. Rapid microwave processing of epoxy nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Luhyna, Nataliia; Inam, Fawad; Winnington, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Microwave processing is one of the rapid processing techniques for manufacturing nanocomposites. There is very little work focussing on the addition of CNTs for shortening the curing time of epoxy nanocomposites. Using microwave energy, the effect of CNT addition on the curing of epoxy nanocomposites was researched in this work. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the degree of cure for epoxy and nanocomposite samples. CNT addition significantly reduced the duration ...

  11. High performance, rapid thermal/UV curing epoxy resin for additive manufacturing of short and continuous carbon fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James

    2018-04-17

    An additive manufacturing resin system including an additive manufacturing print head; a continuous carbon fiber or short carbon fibers operatively connected to the additive manufacturing print head; and a tailored resin operatively connected to the print head, wherein the tailored resin has a resin mass and wherein the tailored resin includes an epoxy component, a filler component, a catalyst component, and a chain extender component; wherein the epoxy component is 70-95% of the resin mass, wherein the filler component is 1-20% of the resin mass, wherein the catalyst component is 0.1-10% of the resin mass, and wherein the chain extender component is 0-50% of the resin mass.

  12. Evaluation of ionic liquid epoxy carbon fiber composites in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Christopher T.; Henry, Christopher R.; Kaukler, William F.; Grugel, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    A novel ionic liquid epoxy (ILE) was used to fabricate carbon fiber composite discs which were then subjected to biaxial strain testing in liquid nitrogen. The ILE composite showed a greater strain-to-failure at cryogenic temperatures when compared to a commercial epoxy. This result is likely an effect, as shown in micrographs, of the strong ILE bonding with the carbon fibers as well as it exhibiting plastic deformation at the fracture surface.

  13. Effect of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitai Chandra Adak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO was incorporated as a reinforcing filler in the epoxy resin to investigate the effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF/epoxy composites. At first, the epoxy matrix was modified by adding different wt % of TRGO from 0.05 to 0.4 wt % followed by the preparation of TRGO/CF/epoxy composites througha vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. The prepared TRGO was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM techniques. It was observed that the wrinkled structure of synthesized TRGO may be helpful to interlock with the epoxy resin and CF.The inter-laminar shear strength, in-plane fracture toughness and impact strength increased by ~67%, 62% and 93% at 0.2 wt % of TRGO loading in the CF/epoxy composites as compared to the CF reinforced epoxy. The mechanical properties of the hybrid composites decreased beyond the 0.2 wt % of TRGO incorporation in the epoxy resin. The fracture surfaces of the hybrid composites were studied by FE-SEM image analysis to investigate the synergistic effect of TRGO in the CF/epoxy composite. This study suggested that TRGO could be used asgood nanofiller to resist the matrix and fiber fracture.

  14. Improvement in electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy by filling carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs reinforced Epon 862 epoxy have been evaluated. Firstly, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% CNT were infused into epoxy through a high intensity ultrasonic liquid processor and then mixed with EpiCure curing agent W using a high speed mechanical agitator. Electric conductivity, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, three point bending tests and fracture tests were then performed on unfilled, CNT-filled epoxy to identify the loading effect on the properties of materials. Experimental results show significant improvement in electric conductivity. The resistivity of epoxy decreased from 1014 Ω•m of neat epoxy to 10 Ω•m with 0.4% CNT. The experimental results also indicate that the frequency dependent behavior of CNT/epoxy nanocomposite can be modeled by R-C circuit, permittivity of material increase with increasing of CNT content. DMA studies revealed that filling the carbon nanotube into epoxy can produce a 90% enhancement in storage modulus and a 17°C increase in Tg. Mechanical test results showed that modulus increased with higher CNT loading percentages, but the 0.3 wt% CNT-infusion system showed the maximum strength and fracture toughness enhancement. The decrease in strength and fracture toughness in 0.4% CNT/epoxy was attributed to poor dispersions of nanotubes in the composite.

  15. Modeling and mechanical performance of carbon nanotube/epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MWCNT fillers are uniformly dispersed in the epoxy resin, which improved the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. ► Modified Halpin–Tsai model is useful to calculate the Young’s modulus of MWCNT/epoxy resin composite. ► The experimental moduli are within the variation of 27% with the theoretical values. -- Abstract: The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) addition on mechanical properties of epoxy resin was investigated to obtain the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus from load versus displacement graphs. The result shows that the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus of epoxy resin were increased with the addition of MWCNT fillers. The significant improvements in tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus were obtained due to the excellent dispersion of MWCNT fillers in the epoxy resin. The dispersion of MWCNT fillers in epoxy resin was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Also, Halpin–Tsai model was modified by considering the average diameter of internal/external of multi-walled nanotube and orientation factor (α) to calculate the Young’s modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy resin composite. There was a good correlation between the experimentally obtained Young’s modulus and modified Halpin–Tsai model.

  16. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Laylor, H.M. (ODOT)

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  17. Damage detection and conductivity evolution in carbon nanofiber epoxy via electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, T N; Wang, K W; Gungor, S; Bakis, C E

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing electrically conductive nanocomposites for integrated self-sensing and health monitoring is a promising area of structural health monitoring (SHM) research wherein local changes in conductivity coincide with damage. In this research we conduct proof of concept investigations using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for damage detection by identifying conductivity changes and by imaging conductivity evolution in a carbon nanofiber (CNF) filled epoxy composite. CNF/epoxy is examined because fibrous composites can be manufactured with a CNF/epoxy matrix thereby enabling the entire matrix to become self-sensing. We also study the mechanisms of conductivity evolution in CNF/epoxy through electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) testing. The results of these tests indicate that thermal expansion is responsible for conductivity evolution in a CNF/epoxy composite. (paper)

  18. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Incorporated Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nitai Chandra; Chhetri, Suman; Kim, Nam Hoon; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Samanta, Pranab; Kuila, Tapas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the synergistic effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the woven carbon fiber (CF)-reinforced epoxy composites. The GO nanofiller was incorporated into the epoxy resin with variations in the content, and the CF/epoxy composites were manufactured using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process and then cured at 70 and 120 °C. An analysis of the mechanical properties of the GO (0.2 wt.%)/CF/epoxy composites showed an improvement in the tensile strength, Young's modulus, toughness, flexural strength and flexural modulus by 34, 20, 83, 55 and 31%, respectively, when compared to the CF/epoxy composite. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the composites exhibited an enhancement of 56, 114 and 22% in the storage modulus, loss modulus and damping capacity (tan δ), respectively, at its glass transition temperature. The fiber-matrix interaction was studied using a Cole-Cole plot analysis.

  19. A study of thermal diffusivity of carbon-epoxy and glass-epoxy composites using the modified pulse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terpiłowski Janusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient heat transfer is studied and compared in two planeparallel composite walls and one EPIDIAN 53 epoxy resin wall acting as a matrix for both composites. The first of the two walls is made of carbonepoxy composite; the other wall is made of glass-epoxy composite, both with comparable thickness of about 1 mm and the same number of carbon and glass fabric layers (four layers. The study was conducted for temperatures in the range of 20-120 °C. The results of the study of thermal diffusivity which characterizes the material as a heat conductor under transient conditions have a preliminary character. Three series of tests were conducted for each wall. Each series took about 24 h. The results from the three series were approximated using linear functions and were found between (0.7-1.35×10−7m2/s. In the whole range of temperature variation, the thermal diffusivity values for carbon-epoxy composite are from 1.2 to 1.5 times higher than those for the other two materials with nearly the same thermal diffusivity characteristics.

  20. Plasma Treated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nanocoating of allylamine were deposited on the surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs to provide desirable functionalities and thus to tailor the surface characteristics of MWCNTs for improved dispersion and interfacial adhesion in epoxy matrices. Plasma nanocoated MWCNTs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, surface contact angle, and pH change measurements. Mechanical testing results showed that epoxy reinforced with 1.0 wt % plasma coated MWCNTs increased the tensile strength by 54% as compared with the pure epoxy control, while epoxy reinforced with untreated MWCNTs have lower tensile strength than the pure epoxy control. Optical and electron microscopic images show enhanced dispersion of plasma coated MWCNTs in epoxy compared to untreated MWCNTs. Plasma nanocoatings from allylamine on MWCNTs could significantly enhance their dispersion and interfacial adhesion in epoxy matrices. Simulation results based on the shear-lag model derived from micromechanics also confirmed that plasma nanocoating on MWCNTs significantly improved the epoxy/fillers interface bonding and as a result the increased composite strength.

  1. Thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Fanlong; Ma Changjie; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were functionalized by acid and amine treatments. → Epoxy resin/CNT composites were prepared. → T g of the composites increased by about 10 deg. C compared to neat epoxy resins. → Toughness of the composites was significantly improved by the addition of functionalized CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated by a mixture of acid and functionalized subsequently by amine treatment to improve interfacial interactions and dispersion of CNTs in epoxy matrix. The thermal stabilities and mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy/CNT composites were investigated using several techniques. The dispersion state of CNTs in the epoxy matrix was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result, the glass transition temperature of epoxy/CNT composites increased by about 11 deg. C compared to neat epoxy resins. The mechanical interfacial property of the composites was significantly increased by the addition of amine treated CNTs. The SEM and TEM results showed that the separation and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the epoxy matrix.

  2. Fabrication of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite and characterization of its mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubin, Muhammad Shamsul Huda

    2007-02-15

    In this study, carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites have been fabricated incorporating single walled carbon nantubes (SWNTs) or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a thermosetting polymer matrix, epoxy resin. Nanoindentation measurements showed that elastic modulus of epoxy polymer matrix has changed from 3.5 GPa to 4.0 GPa (∼ 15 % increase) only for 0.005 wt% single walled carbon nanotubes loading. The hardness of the single walled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites remained nearly unchanged for 0.005 wt % nanotube loading. Multiwalled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed deterioration of both the hardness, from 0.2 GPa to 0.08 GPa (∼factor 2.5), and elastic modulus, from 3.5 GPa to 2.1 GPa (∼ factor 1.6), for 0.02 wt % nanotube loading. Homogeneity study using continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) mode of indentation techniques revealed the lack in homogeneity of the fabricated nancomposite may be responsible for deteriorating mechanical properties. High resolution scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images taken from cross section of carbon nanotubes incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed several poorly attached thin layers of nanocomposites staked on each other which may be another cause of property deterioration.

  3. Fabrication of carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite and characterization of its mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, Muhammad Shamsul Huda

    2007-02-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites have been fabricated incorporating single walled carbon nantubes (SWNTs) or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a thermosetting polymer matrix, epoxy resin. Nanoindentation measurements showed that elastic modulus of epoxy polymer matrix has changed from 3.5 GPa to 4.0 GPa (∼ 15 % increase) only for 0.005 wt% single walled carbon nanotubes loading. The hardness of the single walled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites remained nearly unchanged for 0.005 wt % nanotube loading. Multiwalled carbon nanotube incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed deterioration of both the hardness, from 0.2 GPa to 0.08 GPa (∼factor 2.5), and elastic modulus, from 3.5 GPa to 2.1 GPa (∼ factor 1.6), for 0.02 wt % nanotube loading. Homogeneity study using continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) mode of indentation techniques revealed the lack in homogeneity of the fabricated nancomposite may be responsible for deteriorating mechanical properties. High resolution scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) images taken from cross section of carbon nanotubes incorporated epoxy nanocomposites showed several poorly attached thin layers of nanocomposites staked on each other which may be another cause of property deterioration

  4. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  5. The thermal properties of a carbon nanotube-enriched epoxy: Thermal conductivity, curing, and degradation kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2013-05-31

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube-enriched epoxy polymers were prepared by solvent evaporation based on a commercially available epoxy system and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs). Three weight ratio configurations (0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 wt %) of COOH-MWCNTs were considered and compared with neat epoxy and ethanol-treated epoxy to investigate the effects of nano enrichment and processing. Here, the thermal properties of the epoxy polymers, including curing kinetics, thermal conductivity, and degradation kinetics were studied. Introducing the MWCNTs increased the curing activation energy as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry. The final thermal conductivity of the 0.5 and 1.0 wt % MWCNT-enriched epoxy samples measured by laser flash technique increased by up to 15% compared with the neat material. The activation energy of the degradation process, investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, was found to increase with increasing CNT content, suggesting that the addition of MWCNTs improved the thermal stability of the epoxy polymers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Epoxy resin/phosphonium ionic liquid/carbon nanofiller systems: Chemorheology and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy nanocomposites with commercial carbon nanotubes (CNT or graphene (GN have been prepared using phosphonium ionic liquid [trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinate, IL-f]. IL-f served simultaneously as nanofiller dispersing medium and epoxy resin catalytic curing agent. An influence of IL-f/epoxy weight ratio (3, 6 and 9/100, phr, carbon nanofiller type and content on viscosity of epoxy compositions during storage at ambient temperature was evaluated. Curing process was controlled for neat and CNT or GN modified epoxy compositions (0.25-1.0 wt.% load using differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry. Epoxy nanocomposites exhibited slightly increased glass transition temperature values (146 to 149°C whereas tan δ and storage modulus decreased (0.30 to 0.27 and 2087 to 1070 MPa, respectively as compared to reference material. Crosslink density regularly decreased for composites with increasing CNT content (11 094 to 7 020 mol/m3. Electrical volume resistivity of the nanocomposites was improved in case of CNT to 4•101 Ω•m and GN to 2•105 Ω•m (nanofiller content 1 wt.%. Flame retardancy was found for modified epoxy materials with as low GN and phosphorus content as 0.25 and 0.7 wt.%, respectively (increase of limiting oxygen index to 26.5%.

  7. Designing of epoxy composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes grown carbon fiber fabric for improved electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report preparation of strongly anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs carbon fiber (CF fabric preforms. These preforms were reinforced in epoxy resin to make multi scale composites for microwave absorption in the X-band (8.2-12.4GHz. The incorporation of MWCNTs on the carbon fabric produced a significant enhancement in the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE from −29.4 dB for CF/epoxy-composite to −51.1 dB for CF-MWCNT/epoxy multiscale composites of 2 mm thickness. In addition to enhanced EMI-SE, interlaminar shear strength improved from 23 MPa for CF/epoxy-composites to 50 MPa for multiscale composites indicating their usefulness for making structurally strong microwave shields.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on carbon fiber surface properties and fibers/epoxy interfacial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhishuang; Zhang Baoyan; Shi Fenghui; Li Min; Zhang Zuoguang; Gu Yizhuo

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber surface properties are likely to change during the molding process of carbon fiber reinforced matrix composite, and these changes could affect the infiltration and adhesion between carbon fiber and resin. T300B fiber was heat treated referring to the curing process of high-performance carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites. By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), activated carbon atoms can be detected, which are defined as the carbon atoms conjunction with oxygen and nitrogen. Surface chemistry analysis shows that the content of activated carbon atoms on treated carbon fiber surface, especially those connect with the hydroxyl decreases with the increasing heat treatment temperature. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) analysis reveals that the dispersive surface energy γ S d increases and the polar surface energy γ S sp decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases to 200. Contact angle between carbon fiber and epoxy E51 resin, which is studied by dynamic contact angle test (DCAT) increases with the increasing heat treatment temperature, indicating the worse wettability comparing with the untreated fiber. Moreover, micro-droplet test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the treated carbon fiber/epoxy is lower than that of the untreated T300B fiber which is attributed to the decrement of the content of reactive functional groups including hydrogen group and epoxy group.

  11. Effect of sizing on carbon fiber surface properties and fibers/epoxy interfacial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhishuang; Shi Fenghui; Zhang Baoyan; Li Min; Zhang Zuoguang

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study effect of sizing on surface properties of carbon fiber and the fiber/epoxy interfacial adhesion by comparing sized and desized T300B and T700SC carbon fibers. By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), activated carbon atoms can be detected, which are defined as the carbon atoms conjunction with oxygen and nitrogen. Surface chemistry analysis shows that the desized carbon fibers present less concentration of activated carbon, especially those connect with the hydroxyl and epoxy groups. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) analysis reveals that the desized carbon fibers have larger dispersive surface energy γ S D and smaller polar component γ S SP than the commercial sized ones. Moreover, micro-droplet test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the desized carbon fiber/epoxy is higher than those of the T300B and T700SC. Variations of the IFSS for both the sized and desized carbon fibers correspond to γ S D /γ S tendency of the fiber surface, however the work of adhesion does not reveal close correlation with IFSS trend for different fiber/epoxy systems.

  12. Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/epoxy polysulfide nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand Hadavand, Behzad; Mahdavi Javid, Kimya; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Preparation of epoxy polysulfide nanocomposite. ► Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been modified and dispersed in epoxy polysulfide matrix. ► Mechanical properties of MWNT/epoxy polysulfide have been studied. - Abstract: In this research, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by acid functionalization (H 2 SO 4 :HNO 3 = 1:3 by volume) and then mechanical properties of reinforced epoxy polysulfide resin by the both pure and treated MWNTs have been evaluated. For achieving this goal, different weight percentages of pure and treated MWCNT (0.1–0.3 wt%) were dispersed in the epoxy polysulfide resin separately and then mixed with curing agent. Experimental results have shown significant difference between acid treated and untreated MWCNTs in mechanical properties of epoxy polysulfide nanocomposites. In nanocomposite with 0.1–0.3% acid treated MWCNTs we observed increase of Young’s modulus from 458 to 723 MPa, tensile strength from 5.29 to 8.83 MPa and fracture strain from 0.16% to 0.25%. For understanding the structure and morphology of nanocomposite, the dispersion states were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed better dispersion of modified carbon nanotube than unmodified in polymeric matrix

  13. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation behavior of modified Carbon Black (CB) epoxy coating was studied under UV irradiation using based on EIS technique. • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed in an epoxy matrix. • ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the CB coatings were degraded less than epoxy coating. • EIS results showed the coating with 2.5 wt% CB nanoparticles had higher corrosion resistance than neat epoxy. - Abstract: Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  14. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad_usk@yahoo.com [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariatpanahi, Homeira, E-mail: shariatpanahih@ripi.ir [Coating Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, Jaber [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil [Coating Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation behavior of modified Carbon Black (CB) epoxy coating was studied under UV irradiation using based on EIS technique. • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed in an epoxy matrix. • ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the CB coatings were degraded less than epoxy coating. • EIS results showed the coating with 2.5 wt% CB nanoparticles had higher corrosion resistance than neat epoxy. - Abstract: Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  15. Effect of carbon nanotubes upon emissions from cutting and sanding carbon fiber-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitbrink, William A. [LMK OSH Consulting LLC (United States); Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being incorporated into structural composites to enhance material strength. During fabrication or repair activities, machining nanocomposites may release CNTs into the workplace air. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the emissions generated by cutting and sanding on three types of epoxy-composite panels: Panel A containing graphite fibers, Panel B containing graphite fibers and carbon-based mat, and Panel C containing graphite fibers, carbon-based mat, and multi-walled CNTs. Aerosol sampling was conducted with direct-reading instruments, and filter samples were collected for measuring elemental carbon (EC) and fiber concentrations. Our study results showed that cutting Panel C with a band saw did not generate detectable emissions of fibers inspected by transmission electron microscopy but did increase the particle mass, number, and EC emission concentrations by 20–80 % compared to Panels A and B. Sanding operation performed on two Panel C resulted in fiber emission rates of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} and 2.8 × 10{sup 6} fibers per second (f/s), while no free aerosol fibers were detected from sanding Panels A and B containing no CNTs. These free CNT fibers may be a health concern. However, the analysis of particle and EC concentrations from these same samples cannot clearly indicate the presence of CNTs, because extraneous aerosol generation from machining the composite epoxy material increased the mass concentrations of the EC.

  16. Effect of carbon nanotubes upon emissions from cutting and sanding carbon fiber-epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitbrink, William A.; Lo, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being incorporated into structural composites to enhance material strength. During fabrication or repair activities, machining nanocomposites may release CNTs into the workplace air. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the emissions generated by cutting and sanding on three types of epoxy-composite panels: Panel A containing graphite fibers, Panel B containing graphite fibers and carbon-based mat, and Panel C containing graphite fibers, carbon-based mat, and multi-walled CNTs. Aerosol sampling was conducted with direct-reading instruments, and filter samples were collected for measuring elemental carbon (EC) and fiber concentrations. Our study results showed that cutting Panel C with a band saw did not generate detectable emissions of fibers inspected by transmission electron microscopy but did increase the particle mass, number, and EC emission concentrations by 20–80 % compared to Panels A and B. Sanding operation performed on two Panel C resulted in fiber emission rates of 1.9 × 10 8 and 2.8 × 10 6 fibers per second (f/s), while no free aerosol fibers were detected from sanding Panels A and B containing no CNTs. These free CNT fibers may be a health concern. However, the analysis of particle and EC concentrations from these same samples cannot clearly indicate the presence of CNTs, because extraneous aerosol generation from machining the composite epoxy material increased the mass concentrations of the EC

  17. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura; Benzerga, Ratiba; Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu; Pouliguen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S 11 coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S 11 of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  18. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bo; Cai, Xun; Liu, Jianjun; Qiao, Kun; Yu, Junwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  19. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pouliguen, Philippe [Département Recherche et Innovation Scientifique de la Direction Générale de l’Armement, 7-9 rue des Mathurins, 92221 Bagneux (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S{sub 11} coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S{sub 11} of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  20. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaomin [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Bo, E-mail: zhubo@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cai, Xun, E-mail: caixunzh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250101 (China); Liu, Jianjun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qiao, Kun [Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yu, Junwei [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  1. Pressure and temperature induced electrical resistance change in nano-carbon/epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J. T.; Buschhorn, S. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Schulte, K.; Fiedler, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the changes of electrical resistance of the carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube (CNT) filled epoxy composites upon compression, swelling and temperature variation. For all samples we observe a decrease of electrical resistance under compression, while an increase of

  2. Cross-sectional examination of the damage zone in impacted specimens of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    Drop weight impact testing was utilized to inflict damage on eight-ply bidirectional and unidirectional samples of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) test specimens with impact energies ranging from 0.80 J to 1.76 J. The impacting tip was of a smaller diameter (4.2-mm) than those used in most previous studies, and the specimens were placed with a diamond wheel wafering saw through the impacted area perpendicular to the outer fibers. Photographs at 12 x magnification were taken of these cross-sections and examined. The results on the bidirectional samples show little damage until 1.13 J, at which point delaminations were seen in the epoxy specimens. The PEEK specimens showed less delamination than the epoxy specimens for a given impact energy level. The unidirectional specimens displayed more damage than the bidirectional samples for a given impact energy, with the PEEK specimens showing much less damage than the epoxy material.

  3. Chemical recycling of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites in oxygen in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yongping; Wang, Zhi; Feng, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    The carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites were recovered in oxygen in supercritical water at 30 ± 1 MPa and 440 ± 10 o C. The microstructure of the recovered carbon fibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that the clean carbon fibers were recovered and had higher tensile strength relative to the virgin carbon fibers when the decomposition rate was above 85 wt.%, although the recovered carbon fibers have clean surface, the epoxy resin on the surface of the recovered carbon fibers was readily observed. As the decomposition rate increased to above 96 wt.%, no epoxy resin was observed on the surface of the carbon fibers and the oxidation of the recovered carbon fibers was readily measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The carbon fibers were ideally recovered and have original strength when the decomposition rates were between 94 and 97 wt.%. This study clearly showed the oxygen in supercritical water is a promising way for recycling the carbon fibers in carbon fibers reinforced resin composites.

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolongo, S G; Gude, M R; Ureña, A

    2009-10-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated using two kinds of nanofiller, amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and non-treated long carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The non-cured mixtures were analysed through viscosity measurements. The effect of the nanoreinforcement on the curing process was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the characterisation of cured nanocomposites was carried out studying their thermo-mechanical and electrical behaviour. At room temperature, the addition of CNTs causes a viscosity increase of epoxy monomer much more marked than the introduction of CNFs due to their higher specific area. It was probed that in that case exists chemical reaction between amino-functionalized CNTs and the oxirane rings of epoxy monomer. The presence of nanoreinforcement induces a decrease of curing reaction rate and modifies the epoxy conversion reached. The glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites decreases with the contents of CNTs and CNFs added, which could be related to plasticization phenomena of the nanoreinforcements. The storage modulus of epoxy resin significantly increases with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. This augment is higher with amino-functionalized CNTs due, between other reasons, to the stronger interaction with the epoxy matrix. The electrical conductivity is greatly increased with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. In fact, the percolation threshold is lower than 0.25 wt% due to the high aspect ratio of the used nanoreinforcements.

  5. Effect of nitrogen-doped carbon dots on the anticorrosion properties of waterborne epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Siming; Cui, Mingjun; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) are prepared by solvothermal method and the effect of NCDs on the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy (EP) is investigated. Scanning probe microscopy results show that the size of the NCDs is about 4–6 nm. In addition, the anticorrosion property of NCD-incorporated waterborne epoxy coatings is investigated via electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the impedance modulus of 2.0% NCDs/EP is 364 times higher than that of blank EP after 800 h of immersion, indicating significant enhancement in the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy coating. The reason is that NCDs with lots of surface functional groups can connect with waterborne epoxy to suppress enlargement of the pores, and reduce the diffusion of oxygen in the coating, thus cutting off the connection between the substrate and oxygen, and delaying corrosion of the substrate.

  6. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  7. Effect of thermally reduced graphene oxide on dynamic mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nitai Chandra; Chhetri, Suman; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Samanta, Pranab; Kuila, Tapas

    2018-03-01

    The Carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy composites are being used in the automotive and aerospace industries owing to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio compared to the other conventional metal and alloys. However, the low interfacial adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix results the inter-laminar fracture of the composites. Effects of different carbonaceous nanomaterials i.e., carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene nanosheets (GNPs), graphene oxide (GO) etc. on the static mechanical properties of the composites were investigated in detail. Only a few works focused on the improvement of the dynamic mechanical of the CF/epoxy composites. Herein, the effect of thermally reduced grapheme oxide (TRGO) on the dynamic mechanical properties of the CF/epoxy composites was investigated. At first, GO was synthesized using modified Hummers method and then reduced the synthesized GO inside a vacuum oven at 800 °C for 5 min. The prepared TRGO was dispersed in the epoxy resin to modify the epoxy matrix. Then, a number of TRGO/CF/epoxy laminates were manufactured incorporating different wt% of TRGO by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) technique. The developed laminates were cured at room temperature for 24 h and then post cured at 120 °C for 2 h. The dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA 8000 Perkin Elmer) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of the TRGO/CF/epoxy composites according to ASTM D7028. The dimension of the specimen was 44×10×2.4 mm3 for the DMA test. This test was carried out under flexural loading mode (duel cantilever) at a frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of 50 μm. The temperature was ramped from 30 to 200 °C with a heating rate of 5 °C min-1. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the 0.2 wt% TRGO incorporated CF/epoxy composites showed ~ 96% enhancement in storage modulus and ~ 12 °C increments in glass transition temperature (Tg) compared to the base CF/epoxy composites. The fiber-matrix interaction was studied by Cole

  8. First accelerator carbon-14 date for pigment from a rock painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, N.J.; Sealy, J.; Yates, R.

    1987-01-01

    South Africa is particularly blessed with rock art: thousands of paintings and engravings provide a window on the cognitive systems of prehistoric populations. A major stumbling block in studying the art is the lack of a method for dating it. This article shows that some of the paintings can be directly dated by means of accelerator 14 C counting of carbon from black pigment. The advent of accelerator 14 C provides the capability of analysing very small samples and brings pigments from rock paintings into the realm of datable materials

  9. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  10. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  11. The Role of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes on Fracture Mechanism of Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hooshiar Sadegian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the role of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs on fracture mechanism of epoxy nanocomposites, a series of tensile standard specimens reinforced with different carbon nanotube contents (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1 wt% were produced. The fracture surfaces of the produced nanocomposites were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results show that the surface fracture of epoxy nanocomposites comprised of three regions, i.e. mirror, transition and final propagation zones. The extension of all zones depends strongly on curing agent as well asMWCNTs content. The mirror zone is disappeared as curing agent and MWCNTs content increases, while the transition zone depends on the nucleation rate of secondary microcrack. The pattern of final propagation zone becomes coarser as MWCNTs are added to epoxy system.

  12. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  13. Evaluation of mechanical properties of four different carbon/epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Four families of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC used in aeronautical industry were evaluated by flexural and interlaminar shear tests. It is also characterized three families of non-conditioned and conditioned CFRC by compression test. The composites were obtained by hand lay-up process in autoclave by using prepregs based on epoxy matrices (F155 and F584 and carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (PW-"Plain Weave" and 8HS-"Eight Harness Satin". The F155-epoxy matrix was cured at 121 °C and the F584-epoxy type at 177 °C. After molding, the laminates were cut in specimens attending the ASTM D790 for the flexural test, the ASTM D2344 for the interlaminar shear test (ILSS and the ASTM D3410 for the compressive test. The compressive tests were performed for testing the specimens before and after hygrothermal conditioning. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present higher mechanical properties when compared to the F155-epoxy ones. The shear-tested samples observed by scanning electron microscopy and that ones tested in flexural, analyzed by stereoscopy, revealed that the fractured surfaces present typical aspects. The compressive results show that the hygrothermal conditioning caused the decrease of the compressive strength in, approximately, 8-20% depending on the laminate type. The failure modes of the tested specimens were evaluated showing good agreement with the literature.

  14. Aspects of the Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Modified Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, Vahid

    Epoxy resins used in fibre reinforced composites exhibit a brittle fracture behaviour, because they show no sign of damage prior to a catastrophic failure. Rubbery materials and micro-particles have been added to epoxy resins to improve their fracture toughness, which reduces strength and elastic properties. In this research, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated as a potential toughening agent for epoxy resins and carbon fibre reinforced composites, which can also enhance strength and elastic properties. More specifically, the toughening mechanisms of CNTs are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effect of aligned and randomly oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the fracture toughness of polymers was modelled using Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics. Toughening from CNT pull-out and rupture were considered, depending on the CNTs critical length. The model was used to identify the effect of CNTs geometrical and mechanical properties on the fracture toughness of CNT-modified epoxies. The modelling results showed that a uniform dispersion and alignment of a high volume fraction of CNTs normal to the crack growth plane would lead to the maximum fracture toughness enhancement. To achieve a uniform dispersion, the effect of processing on the dispersion of single walled and multi walled CNTs in epoxy resins was investigated. An instrumented optical microscope with a hot stage was used to quantify the evolution of the CNT dispersion during cure. The results showed that the reduction of the resin viscosity at temperatures greater than 100 °C caused an irreversible re-agglomeration of the CNTs in the matrix. The dispersion quality was then directly correlated to the fracture toughness of the modified resin. It was shown that the fine tuning of the ratio of epoxy resin, curing agent and CNT content was paramount to the improvement of the base resin fracture toughness. For the epoxy resin (MY0510 from Hexcel), an improvement of 38% was achieved with 0.3 wt

  15. Reinforced carbon fiber laminates with oriented carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: Magnetic field assisted alignment and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Yang, Song; Liu, Hu; Shao, Qian; Chen, Qiuyu; Lu, Chang; Jiang, Yuanli; Liu, Chuntai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-05-01

    The epoxy nanocomposites with ordered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77 K, Oxidized MWCNTs functionalized with Fe 3 O 4 (Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs) with good magnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy (EP) for cryogenic applications. Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composites were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs were observed to have effectively improved the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77 K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs also obviously improved the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77 K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites was decreased 37.6%. Compared to CF/EP composites, the micro-cracks density of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites at 77 K was decreased 37.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of stitch density on fatigue characteristics and damage mechanisms of stitched carbon/epoxy composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Iwahori, Yutaka; Hoshi, Hikaru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of stitch density (SD) on fatigue life, stiffness degradation and fatigue damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy (T800SC/XNRH6813) stitched using Vectran thread is presented in this paper. Moderately stitched composite (SD = 0.028/mm2

  17. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites fabricated using ionic liquid based epoxies for cryogenic fluid applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Grugel

    Full Text Available Utilizing tanks fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric composites for storing cryogenic fluids such as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen is of great interest to NASA as considerable weight savings can be gained. Unfortunately such composites, especially at cryogenic temperatures, develop a mismatch that initiates detrimental delamination and crack growth, which promotes leaking. On-going work with ionic liquid-based epoxies appears promising in mitigating these detrimental effects. Some recent results are presented and discussed. Keywords: Ionic liquid, Carbon fiber, Epoxy, COPV, Cryogenic fluids

  18. Prediction of energy absorption characteristics of aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidt, D; Figiel, Ł; Buggy, M

    2012-01-01

    This research aims ultimately at improving the impact performance of laminates by applying a coating of epoxy containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here, 2D and 3D computational modelling was carried out to predict energy absorption characteristics of aligned CNT/epoxy nanocomposites subjected to macroscopic compression under different strain rates (quasi-static and impact rates). The influence of the rate-dependent matrix behaviour, CNT aspect ratio and CNT volume fraction on the energy absorption characteristics of the nanocomposites was evaluated. A strong correlation between those parameters was found, which provides an insight into a rate-dependent behaviour of the nanocomposites, and can help to tune their energy absorption characteristics.

  19. Conduction noise absorption by fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lim, Yun-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all electronic equipment is susceptible to malfunction as a result of electromagnetic interference. In this study, glass fiber, and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave. - Research Highlights: → In this study, glass fiber and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. → In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave.

  20. Carbon black reinforced C8 ether linked bismaleimide toughened electrically conducting epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandhakini, M.; Chandramohan, A.; Jayanthi, K.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • The toughness of the epoxy is improved with C8e-BMI. • Conduction through ohmic contact chain takes the leading mechanism for electrical conduction instead of tunneling with 5 wt% CB. • The phase segregation between epoxy/C8 e-BMI improves the toughness of the nanocomposite. • Both toughening and flexibilization effect is responsible for improvement in impact strength. • The largest challenge of appropriate balance between the electrical conductivity and mechanical behavior is attained in a cost effective manner. - Abstract: The present work deals with the toughening of brittle epoxy matrix with C8 ether linked bismaleimide (C8 e-BMI) and then study the reinforcing effect of carbon black (CB) in enhancing the conducting properties of insulating epoxy matrix. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis indicate the formation of strong covalent bonds between CB and C8 e-BMI/epoxy matrix. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis indicate the event of phase separation in 5 wt% CB loaded epoxy C8 e-BMI nanocomposites. The impact strength increased up to 5 wt% of CB loading with particle pull and crack deflection to be driving mechanism for enhancing the toughness of the nanocomposite and beyond 5 wt% the impact strength started to decrease due to aggregation of CB. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) also indicates the toughness of the nanocomposites was improved with 5 wt% of CB loading due to the phase segregation between epoxy and C8 e-BMI in the presence of CB. The electrical conductivity was also increased with 5 wt% of CB due to classical conduction by ohmic chain contact

  1. Thermomechanical response and toughening mechanisms of a carbon nano bead reinforced epoxy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyat, M.S., E-mail: goyatmanjeetsingh@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Suresh, Sumit; Bahl, Sumit [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Halder, Sudipta [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, 788010, Assam (India); Ghosh, P.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2015-09-15

    The current research on carbon nano beads (CNB) is focused on various applications such as high strength nanocomposites, electronic devices, lubricants, semiconductors, and high-performance batteries, etc. The commercial uses of CNB are yet juvenile for the market. Only limited results have been published so far on CNB reinforced polymers [1]. This study highlights the synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The synthesized CNB are introduced into epoxy matrix by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route to produce CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. The CNB are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the CNB/epoxy nanocomposites is characterized by FESEM, Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and tensile and bending tests respectively. A noticeable improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of CNB reinforced epoxy matrix with low nanofiller content is observed. Several toughening mechanisms such as particle pull out, crack deflection, particle bridging, crack pinning, shear yielding or plastic deformation, and microcracking are identified. But, only the crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding or plastic deformations are recognized as the leading toughening mechanisms for CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. These results can be considered as symptomatic of a potential CNB espousal in new composites. - Highlights: • Synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition method. • Fabrication of CNB/epoxy nanocomposites by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route. • Significant enhancement in thermomechanical properties of CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. • Main toughening mechanisms: Crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding.

  2. Thermomechanical response and toughening mechanisms of a carbon nano bead reinforced epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyat, M.S.; Suresh, Sumit; Bahl, Sumit; Halder, Sudipta; Ghosh, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The current research on carbon nano beads (CNB) is focused on various applications such as high strength nanocomposites, electronic devices, lubricants, semiconductors, and high-performance batteries, etc. The commercial uses of CNB are yet juvenile for the market. Only limited results have been published so far on CNB reinforced polymers [1]. This study highlights the synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The synthesized CNB are introduced into epoxy matrix by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route to produce CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. The CNB are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the CNB/epoxy nanocomposites is characterized by FESEM, Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and tensile and bending tests respectively. A noticeable improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of CNB reinforced epoxy matrix with low nanofiller content is observed. Several toughening mechanisms such as particle pull out, crack deflection, particle bridging, crack pinning, shear yielding or plastic deformation, and microcracking are identified. But, only the crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding or plastic deformations are recognized as the leading toughening mechanisms for CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. These results can be considered as symptomatic of a potential CNB espousal in new composites. - Highlights: • Synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition method. • Fabrication of CNB/epoxy nanocomposites by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route. • Significant enhancement in thermomechanical properties of CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. • Main toughening mechanisms: Crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding.

  3. Effective functionalization of carbon nanotubes for bisphenol F epoxy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A brand-new type of multifunctional nanocomposites with high DC conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength was fabricated. Ionic liquid functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs-IL were embedded into epoxy matrix with covalent bonding by the attached epoxy groups. The highest DC conductivity was 8.38 x 10-3 S.m-1 with 1.0 wt. (% loading of CNTs-IL and the tensile strength was increased by 36.4% only at a 0.5 wt. (% concentration. A mixing solvent was used to disperse CNTs-IL in the epoxy monomer. The dispersion and distribution of CNTs-IL in the polymer matrix were measured by utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.

  4. Studies on preparation and properties of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huayang; Cao Qi; Wang Xianyou; Chen Quanqi; Kuang Hao; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We use the modified MWNTs as fillers fabricated epoxy nanocomposites. → The mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of nanocomposites are measured. → The nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical and dielectric properties. - Abstract: The MWNTs were coated with polyaniline (PANI) by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the MWNTs were coated with PANI. The MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by using the solution blending method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, HP 4294A impedance analyzer and SEM were used to investigate the properties of the nanocomposites. The results showed that the modified carbon nanotubes were well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The nanocomposites have enhancements in mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties compare with the neat epoxy resin. The nanocomposites were proven to be a good polymer dielectric material.

  5. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-03-16

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube-alumina (CNT-Al₂O₃) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al₂O₃ particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al₂O₃ particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C , compared to neat epoxy.

  6. Controlled interface between carbon fiber and epoxy by molecular self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jinmei; Huang Yudong; Liu Li; Cao Hailin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new treatment method based on molecular self-assembly on carbon fiber surface was proposed for obtaining a controlled interface between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix in composite system. To form the controlled interfacial region, the surfaces of carbon fibers were first metallized by electroless Ag plating, then were reacted with a series of thiols (different chain lengths and terminally functional groups) to form self-assembly monolayers (SAMs), which further reacted with epoxy resin to generate a strong adhesion interface. The morphology, structure and composition of untreated and treated carbon fiber surface were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. SERS study showed that thiols chemisorbed on Ag/carbon fiber in the form of thiolate species via the strong S-Ag coordinative bond. XPS study further confirmed the chemisorption by an S 2p 3/2 component observed at 162.2 eV. The binding energy was characteristic of silver thiolate. The interfacial shear strength of the carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites was evaluated by the microbond technique. The results showed that there was a direct effect of the interfacial parameters changes such as chain lengths and surface functional groups on the fiber/matrix adhesion

  7. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  8. Ultralow-Carbon Nanotube-Toughened Epoxy: The Critical Role of a Double-Layer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Chen, Chao; Feng, Yuezhan; Liao, Yonggui; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2018-01-10

    Understanding the chemistry and structure of interfaces within epoxy resins is important for studying the mechanical properties of nanofiller-filled nanocomposites as well as for developing high-performance polymer nanocomposites. Despite the intensive efforts to construct nanofiller/matrix interfaces, few studies have demonstrated an enhanced stress-transferring efficiency while avoiding unfavorable deformation due to undesirable interface fractures. Here, we report an optimized method to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites whose interfaces are chemically modulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) (PGMA-b-PHMA)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (bc@fMWNTs) and also offer a fundamental explanation of crack growth behavior and the toughening mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites. The presence of block copolymers on the surface of the MWNT results in a promising double-layered interface, in which (1) the outer-layered PGMA segment provides good dispersion in and strong interface bonding with the epoxy matrix, which enhances load transfer efficiency and debonding stress, and (2) the interlayered rubbery PHMA segment around the MWNT provides the maximum removable space for nanotubes as well as triggering cavitation while promoting local plastic matrix deformation, for example, shear banding to dissipate fracture energy. An outstanding toughening effect is achieved with only a 0.05 wt % carbon nanotube loading with the bc@fMWNT, that is, needing only a 20-times lower loading to obtain improvements in fracture toughness comparable to epoxy-based nanocomposites. The enhancements of their corresponding ultimate mode-I fracture toughnesses and fracture energies are 4 times higher than those of pristine MWNT-filled epoxy. These results demonstrate that a MWNT/epoxy interface could be optimized by changing the component structure of grafted modifiers, thereby facilitating the transfer of both mechanical load and energy dissipation

  9. Self-Sensing of Single Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Composites Using Electro-Micromechanical Techniques and Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joung Man; Jang, Jung Hoon; Wang, Zuo Jia; Kwon, Dong Jun; Park, Jong Kyu; Lee, Woo Il

    2010-01-01

    Self-sensing on micro-failure, dispersion degree and relating properties, of carbon nanotube(CNT)/epoxy composites, were investigated using wettability, electro-micromechanical technique with acoustic emission(AE). Specimens were prepared from neat epoxy as well as composites with untreated and acid-treated CNT. Degree of dispersion was evaluated comparatively by measuring volumetric electrical resistivity and its standard deviation. Apparent modulus containing the stress transfer was higher for acid-treated CNT composite than for the untreated case. Applied cyclic loading responded well for a single carbon fiber/CNT-epoxy composite by the change in contact resistivity. The interfacial shear strength between a single carbon fiber and CNT-epoxy, determined in a fiber pullout test, was lower than that between a single carbon fiber and neat epoxy. Regarding on micro-damage sensing using electrical resistivity measurement with AE, the stepwise increment in electrical resistivity was observed for a single carbon fiber/CNT-epoxy composite. On the other hand, electrical resistivity increased infinitely right after the first carbon fiber breaks for a single carbon fiber/neat epoxy composite. The occurrence of AE events of added CNT composites was much higher than the neat epoxy case, due to microfailure at the interfaces by added CNTs

  10. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  11. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  12. Comparison of tensile strength of different carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fabric/epoxy composites are materials used in aeronautical industry to manufacture several components as flaps, aileron, landing-gear doors and others. To evaluate these materials become important to know their mechanical properties, for example, the tensile strength. Tensile tests are usually performed in aeronautical industry to determinate tensile property data for material specifications, quality assurance and structural analysis. For this work, it was manufactured four different laminate families (F155/PW, F155/HS, F584/PW and F584/HS using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs based on F155TM and F584TM epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fiber fabric styles Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. The matrix F155TM code is an epoxy resin type DGEBA (diglycidil ether of bisphenol A that contains a curing agent and the F584TM code is a modified epoxy resin type. The laminates were obtained by handing lay-up process following an appropriate curing cycle in autoclave. The samples were evaluated by tensile tests according to the ASTM D3039. The F584/PW laminates presented the highest values of tensile strength. However, the highest modulus results were determined for the 8HS composite laminates. The correlation of these results emphasizes the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the reinforcement arrangement in the structural composite manufacture. The microscopic analyses of the tested specimens show valid failure modes for composites used in aeronautical industry.

  13. Glycolysis of carbon fiber-epoxy unidirectional mat catalysed by sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, Mariana Binti Mohd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43 (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study was conducted to recycle carbon fibre-epoxy (CFRP) composite in woven sheet/ mat form. The CFRP was recycled through glycolysis with polyethlyene glycol (PEG 200) as the solvent. The CFRP was loaded into the solvent at a ratio of 4:1 (w/w). PEG200 was diluted with water to a ratio of 80:20 (v/v). This reaction was catalysed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution with varying concentrations at 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9% (w/v). The glycolysis was conducted at 180-190 °C. The recovered CF (rCF) was analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) while the degraded solution was analysed using FTIR and the epoxy content was determined. The FTIR spectrum of the rCF exhibited the disappearance of the COC peak belonged to epoxy and supported by the SEM micrographs that showed clear rCF. On the other hand, the analysed filtrate detected the disappearance of oxygen peak element in the EDX spectrum for all rCF samples. This gave an indication that the epoxy resin has been removed from the surface of the carbon fiber.

  14. Effect of filler geometry on coefficient of thermal expansion in carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Jang, J; Suhr, J

    2011-02-01

    This study involves the investigation of the geometry effect of nano-fillers on thermally induced dimensional stability of epoxy composites by experimentally evaluating the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were chosen as the filler in epoxy matrix to investigate the effect of an aspect ratio on the CTE of the nanocomposites at three different volume fractions of 0.5, 1, and 2% of the nano-filler. The composites were fabricated using a mechanical mixing method. The CTE values were evaluated by measuring thermal strains of the composites and also compared with a micromechanics model. It was observed that the composites with short CNF (average L/d = 10) show better thermal stability than one of the composites with long CNF (average L/d = 70), and the thermal stability of the composites was proportional to the volume fraction of the filler in each composite. In addition, the CTE of mutliwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) reinforced epoxy composites was evaluated and compared with the CTE of the CNF reinforced composites. Interestingly, the MWNT reinforced composites show the greatest thermal stability with an 11.5% reduction in the CTE over the pure epoxy. The experimental data was compared with micromechanics model.

  15. Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ply unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates [0]12 were fabricated from the prepreg tape of P3252-20 (TORAY). They were laid up by hand and cured in...Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature Takafumi Suzuki 1 and...Development of an engineering model for predicting the off-axis ratcheting behavior of a unidirectional CFRP laminate has been attempted. For this purpose

  16. Determination of kinetic parameters during the thermal decomposition of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study to determine the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters such as the activation energy E_a, the reaction order n, and the pre-exponential factor A of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material has been conducted. We employ not only the modified peak property method that is proposed here, but also the conventional method in analyzing the experimental data, and compare the results to show the performance of the proposed model. The pyrolysis tests for the epoxy/carbon fiber composite materials are conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser at various heating rates. As a result, the best prediction to the experimental data can be obtained by the modified peak property method. Besides, among the methods applied here, the modified peak property method provides most convenient way to recover the parameters: it does not require a curve fitting of the data nor a long iterative computation

  17. Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. All laminates were obtained by handing lay-up of prepregs plies (0º/90º and consolidation in an autoclave following an appropriate curing cycle with vacuum and pressure. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present better mechanical properties in the tensile and compressive tests than 8552 composites. It is also observed that PW laminates for both matrices show better flexural and interlaminar shear properties.

  18. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

  19. Determination of mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy plates by tensile stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Paul; Krolczyk, Jolanta B.

    2017-10-01

    The polymeric composite materials used in aerospace, military, medical or racing cars manufacturing end up being used in our daily life Whether we refer to the performing vehicles, subassemblies or parts for aircrafts, wind, telegraph poles, or medical prostheses they all are present in our lives and they are made of composite materials (CM). This paper presents research regarding three different composite materials, plates by carbon fiber, in epoxy matrix. Starting with materials presentation, manufacturing methodology and determination of mechanical properties at carbon fiber/epoxy were done. Vacuum bag technology to obtain the composite structure offer opportunity to get a very compact and homogeny composite structure. For the moment this technology are adequate for high performances pieces. The mechanical characteristics of plates made of composite materials reinforced presented indicates closed value like metal materials. Based on the results, a comparative study between the reinforced materials typically used to manufacture the plates of CM is carried out.

  20. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly

  1. Fracture toughness behaviour of carbon fibre epoxy composite with Kevlar reinforced interleave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.N.; Kumar, Vijai; Verma, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    This work was to evaluate as to how mode II fracture toughness G II is affected by interleave having Kevlar fibre reinforcement in the fracture plane. Thermoset interleave and chopped Kevlar fibres were applied between the carbon/epoxy composite layers. An artificial crack starter was implanted in the mid-plane to initiate the fracture process. The following five different types of carbon fibre/epoxy composites were prepared and tested. (a) Base laminate without interleave (b) unreinforced interleave and (c) 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/cm 2 chopped Kevlar fibre reinforced interleave. Results obtained show that fracture toughness G IIC enhanced up to about two times in all the laminates. However, enhancement in fracture toughness G IIC was more effective in interleaved laminate than Kevlar reinforced interleaved because of large energy absorbing capabilities of interleaf. Mechanism of fracture and toughening were examined by using scanning electron microscope

  2. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  3. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of adhesion at carbon fiber-fluorinated epoxy interface and effect of environmental degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suman

    2011-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers are excellent candidates for aerospace, automobile and other mobile applications due to their high specific strength and modulus. The most prominent aerospace application of carbon fiber composites in recent times is the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, which is the world's first major commercial airliner to extensively use composite materials. The critical issue, which needs to be addressed hereby, is long-term safety. Hence, long-term durability of composite materials in such applications becomes a point of concern. Conventional polymer matrices, such as thermosetting resins, which are used as matrix material in carbon fiber composites, are susceptible to degradation in the form of chemical corrosion, UV degradation and moisture, in severe environmental conditions. Fluorinated polymers offer a viable alternative as matrix material, due to their reduced susceptibility to environmental degradation. The epoxy system used in this study is fluorinated Tetra-glycidyl methylene di-aniline (6F-TGMDA), which was developed by polymer scientists at NASA Langley Research Center. The hydrophobic nature of this epoxy makes it a potential matrix material in aerospace applications. However, its compatibility in carbon fiber-reinforced composites remains to be investigated. This study aims to characterize the interfacial properties in carbon fiber reinforced fluorinated epoxy composites. Typical interfacial characterization parameters, like interfacial shear strength, estimated from the microbond test, proved to be inadequate in accurately estimating adhesion since it assumes a uniform distribution of stresses along the embedded fiber length. Also, it does not account for any residual stresses present at the interface, which might arise due to thermal expansion differences and Poisson's ratio differences of the fiber and matrix. Hence, an analytical approach, which calculates adhesion pressure at the interface, was adopted. This required determination of

  5. A competitive binding between O2 and epoxy with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jung Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation and observation reveal a competitive binding between O2 and epoxy with carbon nanotubes. Air absorption limits tube-polymer interacting coverage and weakens the van der Waals forces. As O2 is removed the tube-polymer strongly couples and coupling is conformed in a parallel fashion. Electron microscopy verifies tubes to be weakly bonded with polymer and band-shifts of raman arise from air pressure acting on C-C bonds.

  6. Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    R Varatharajoo; M Salit; G Hong

    2016-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is ...

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling of Carbon Nano fiber/Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.H.; Yang, Z.G.; Ounaies, Z.; Whalen, C.A.; Gao, X.L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of systematic investigations on both mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nano fiber (CNF)-reinforced epoxy matrix nano composites. In this paper, an in-depth study of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and electrical properties of CNF/epoxy nano composites with various contents of CNFs is provided. A modified Halpin-Tsai equation is used to evaluate the Young's modulus and storage modulus of the nano composites. The values of Young's modulus predicted using this method account for the effect of the CNF agglomeration and fit well with those obtained experimentally. The results show that the highest tensile strength is found in the epoxy nano composite with a 1.0 wt % CNFs. The alternate-current (AC) electrical properties of the CNF/epoxy nano composites exhibit a typical insulator-conductor transition. The conductivity increases by four orders of magnitude with the addition of 0.1 wt % (0.058 vol %) CNFs and by ten orders of magnitude for nano composites with CNF volume fractions higher than 1.0 wt % (0.578 vol %). The percolation threshold (i.e., the critical CNF volume fraction) is found to be at 0.057 vol %.

  8. Formation of interfacial network structure via photo-crosslinking in carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Deng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of diblock copolymers (poly(n-butylacrylate-co-poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate-b-poly(glycidyl methacrylate ((PnBA-co-PHEA-b-PGMA, containing a random copolymer block PnBA-co-PHEA, were successfully synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. After being chemically grafted onto carbon fibers, the photosensitive methacrylic groups were introduced into the random copolymer, giving a series of copolymers (poly(n-butylacrylate-co-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl acrylate-b-poly(glycidyl methacrylate((PnBA-co-PMEA-b-PGMA. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the random copolymer block after ultraviolet (UV irradiation was a lightly crosslinked polymer and acted as an elastomer, forming a photo-crosslinked network structure at the interface of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Microbond test showed that such an interfacial network structure greatly improved the cohesive strength and effectively controlled the deformation ability of the flexible interlayer. Furthermore, three kinds of interfacial network structures, i physical crosslinking by H-bonds, ii chemical crosslinking by photopolymerization, and iii interpenetrating crosslinked network by photopolymerization and epoxy curing reaction were received in carbon fiber/epoxy composite, depending on the various preparation processes.

  9. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Truc Trinh, Anh; To, Thi Xuan Hang; Duong Nguyen, Thuy; Trang Nguyen, Thu; Hoan Nguyen, Xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this study Fe3O4/CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe3O4/CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe3O4/CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe3O4/CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe3O4/CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix.

  10. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Trinh, Anh Truc; Hang To, Thi Xuan; Nguyen, Thuy Duong; Nguyen, Thu Trang; Nguyen, Xuan Hoan

    2014-01-01

    In this study Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix. (paper)

  11. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  12. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  13. The microwave absorbing properties of SmCo attached single wall carbon nanotube/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Bo; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The SmCo nanoparticles attached SWCNTs were prepared by dc arc discharge method. •The nano-composite prepared by a rare earth permanent magnet Sm 2 Co 17 as catalyst. •The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites have an excellent electromagnetic matching characteristics. •The reflection loss and bandwidth below −20 dB of the composite can reach −23.7 dB, 6.2 GHz, respectively. -- Abstract: The SmCo nanoparticles attached single wall carbon nanotubes (SmCo attached SWCNTs) were prepared by hydrogen dc arc discharge method using 2:17 type SmCo permanent powder as catalyst. The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites with different doping ratios were investigated in the frequency region of 2–18 GHz. The complex permittivity and permeability of the SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites were calculated. The reflection loss properties were simulated by transmission line theory and the microwave absorptive mechanisms were discussed. The results indicate that, due to the better interfacial polarization absorption mechanism of SmCo attached SWCNTs and the electromagnetic (EM) matching of magnetic loss and dielectric loss, the microwave absorption properties of SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy are evidently improved. When the SmCo attached SWCNTs is doped by 1 wt%, the composite display a larger and wider absorption peak, and the bandwidth of the reflection loss below −20 dB is larger than 6 GHz with the thickness of 3.3 mm. It is expected that the new SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites will be a good microwave absorbing material for the applications in X band, Ku band, or even K band

  14. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  15. The effect of carbon nanotube dimensions and dispersion on the fatigue behavior of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W; Picu, R C; Koratkar, N

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the primary reasons for failure in structural materials. It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can suppress fatigue in polymer composites via crack-bridging and a frictional pull-out mechanism. However, a detailed study of the effects of nanotube dimensions and dispersion on the fatigue behavior of nanocomposites has not been performed. In this work, we show the strong effect of carbon nanotube dimensions (i.e. length, diameter) and dispersion quality on fatigue crack growth suppression in epoxy nanocomposites. We observe that the fatigue crack growth rates can be significantly reduced by (1) reducing the nanotube diameter, (2) increasing the nanotube length and (3) improving the nanotube dispersion. We qualitatively explain these observations by using a fracture mechanics model based on crack-bridging and pull-out of the nanotubes. By optimizing the above parameters (tube length, diameter and dispersion) we demonstrate an over 20-fold reduction in the fatigue crack propagation rate for the nanocomposite epoxy compared to the baseline (unfilled) epoxy

  16. Nanocomposites with Liquid-Like Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersed in Epoxy Resin without Solvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-like multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared with as-received carboxylic MWNTs-COOH and poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(propylene oxide-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO through hydrogen bonding. The sample has liquid-like behavior above 58°C. The MWNTs content is 26.6 wt%. The liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids were incorporated into epoxy matrix with solvent-free process and dispersed well. When the liquid-like MWNTs nanofluids content is up to 1 wt%, the impact toughness of the nanocomposite is 153% higher than the pure epoxy matrix.

  17. Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: Effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Naveed A.; Li, Erin L.; Sham, Man-Lung; Tang, Ben Zhong; Gao, Shang Lin; Mäder, Edith; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A study has been made of a concept of 'healing' coatings applied onto the brittle fibre surface to reduce the stress concentrations and thus to improve the reinforcing efficiency in a composite. Coatings made from neat epoxy and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced epoxy nanocomposite were applied onto the individual glass fibres as well as rovings. It is shown that the 0.3 wt.% CNT–epoxy nanocomposite coating gave rise to a significant increase in tensile strength of the single fibre for all gau...

  18. Organocatalyzed Domino [3+2] Cycloaddition/Payne-Type Rearrangement using Carbon Dioxide and Epoxy Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleij, Arjan Willem; Sopeña, Sergio; Cozzolino, Mariachiara; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Martínez Belmonte, Marta; Maquilón, Cristina

    2018-05-09

    An unprecedented organocatalytic approach towards highly substituted cyclic carbonates from tri- and tetra-substituted oxiranes and carbon dioxide has been developed. The protocol involves the use of a simple and cheap superbase under mild, additive- and metal-free conditions towards the initial formation of a less substituted carbonate product that equilibrates to a tri- or even tetra-substituted cyclic carbonate under thermodynamic control. The latter are conveniently trapped in situ providing overall a new domino process for synthetically elusive heterocyclic scaffolds. Control experiments provide a rationale for the observed cascade reactions, which demonstrate high similarity with the well-known Payne rearrangement of epoxy alcohols. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of Kevlar and carbon fibres on tensile properties of oil palm/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, S. M. M.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Jawaid, M.; Cardona, F.; Ishak, M. R.; Yusof, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid composites with natural and synthetic fibers have captured the interests of many researchers. In this work, Kevlar/oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)/Kevlar and carbon/oil palm EFB hybrid/carbon composites were prepared using hand lay-up technique by keeping the oil palm EFB fiber as the core material. The tensile properties which include tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were investigated. It is observed that the tensile strength and modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites were much higher as compared with Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites. However, the elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites exhibited higher value as compared to carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites and oil palm EFB/epoxy composites. The tensile strength for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 93.6 MPa and the tensile modulus for carbon/oil palm EFB/carbon hybrid composites is 6.5 GPa. The elongation at break for Kevlar/oil palm EFB/Kevlar hybrid composites is 3.6%.

  20. The effects of carbon nanotubes on electroactive shape-memory behaviors of hydro-epoxy/carbon black composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Kun; Zhu, Guangming; Tang, Yusheng; Liu, Tingting; Li, Ximin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the thermomechanical, electrical and shape-memory properties of hydro-epoxy/carbon black (CB) composite. The shape-memory hydro-epoxy composite is fabricated by adding MWCNTs and CB into shape-memory hydro-epoxy resin. The total amount of the fillers fixed at 1.9 wt%, five different composites are produced by varying the amount of MWCNTs between 0 and 0.8 wt% and the amount of CB between 1.1 and 1.9 wt%. The thermomechanical properties and shape-memory performance of the composites are studied. These results indicate that the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the storage modulus of the composites increases at first and then decreases as MWCNTs content increases. The shape recovery time decreases at first and then increases slightly as MWCNTs content increases. The composite presents good shape-memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio is around 100%. Due to the synergic effect of CB and MWCNTs, the volume electrical resistivity of the composite could decrease by adding a small amount of MWCNTs. (paper)

  1. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovannelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young’s modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  2. Industrial-Graded Epoxy Nanocomposites with Mechanically Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Static and Damping Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Andrea; Di Maio, Dario; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2017-10-24

    The majority of currently published dispersion protocols of carbon nanotubes rely on techniques that are not scalable to an industrial level. This work shows how to obtain polymer nanocomposites with good mechanical characteristics using multi-walled carbon nanotubes epoxy resins obtained by mechanical mixing only. The mechanical dispersion method illustrated in this work is easily scalable to industrial level. The high shearing force due to the complex field of motion produces a good and reproducible carbon nanotube dispersion. We have tested an industrial epoxy matrix with good baseline mechanical characteristics at different carbon nanotube weight loads. ASTM-derived tensile and compressive tests show an increment in both Young's modulus and compressive strength compared with the pristine resin from a starting low wt %. Comparative vibration tests show improvement in the damping capacity. The new carbon nanotube enhanced epoxy resin has superior mechanical proprieties compared to the market average competitor, and is among the top products in the bi-components epoxy resins market. The new dispersion method shows significant potential for the industrial use of CNTs in epoxy matrices.

  3. Molecular Mechanics of the Moisture Effect on Epoxy/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lik-ho Tam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The strong structural integrity of polymer nanocomposite is influenced in the moist environment; but the fundamental mechanism is unclear, including the basis for the interactions between the absorbed water molecules and the structure, which prevents us from predicting the durability of its applications across multiple scales. In this research, a molecular dynamics model of the epoxy/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT nanocomposite is constructed to explore the mechanism of the moisture effect, and an analysis of the molecular interactions is provided by focusing on the hydrogen bond (H-bond network inside the nanocomposite structure. The simulations show that at low moisture concentration, the water molecules affect the molecular interactions by favorably forming the water-nanocomposite H-bonds and the small cluster, while at high concentration the water molecules predominantly form the water-water H-bonds and the large cluster. The water molecules in the epoxy matrix and the epoxy-SWCNT interface disrupt the molecular interactions and deteriorate the mechanical properties. Through identifying the link between the water molecules and the nanocomposite structure and properties, it is shown that the free volume in the nanocomposite is crucial for its structural integrity, which facilitates the moisture accumulation and the distinct material deteriorations. This study provides insights into the moisture-affected structure and properties of the nanocomposite from the nanoscale perspective, which contributes to the understanding of the nanocomposite long-term performance under the moisture effect.

  4. Effect of Saline Solution on the Electrical Response of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Younes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of saline solution on the electrical resistance of single wall carbon nanotubes-epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated experimentally. Ultrasonic assisted fabricated 1.0% and 0.5 W/W% SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites are integrated into a Kelvin structure by smear cast the nanocomposites on a glass wafer. Four metal pads are deposited on the nanocomposites using the beam evaporator and wires are tethered using soldering. The effect of saline solution on the electrical resistance of the nanocomposites is studied by adding drop of saline solution to the surface of the fabricated nanocomposites and measuring electrical resistance. Moreover, the nanocomposites are soaked completely into 3 wt.% saline solution and real-time measurement of the electrical resistance is conducted. It is found that a drop of saline solution on the surface of the nanocomposites film increases the resistance by 50%. Furthermore, the real-time measurement reveals a 40% increase in the resistance of the nanocomposites film. More importantly, the nanocomposites are successfully reset by soaking in DI water for four hours. This study may open the door for using SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites as scale sensors in oil and gas industry.

  5. Molecular Mechanics of the Moisture Effect on Epoxy/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lik-Ho; Wu, Chao

    2017-10-13

    The strong structural integrity of polymer nanocomposite is influenced in the moist environment; but the fundamental mechanism is unclear, including the basis for the interactions between the absorbed water molecules and the structure, which prevents us from predicting the durability of its applications across multiple scales. In this research, a molecular dynamics model of the epoxy/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nanocomposite is constructed to explore the mechanism of the moisture effect, and an analysis of the molecular interactions is provided by focusing on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) network inside the nanocomposite structure. The simulations show that at low moisture concentration, the water molecules affect the molecular interactions by favorably forming the water-nanocomposite H-bonds and the small cluster, while at high concentration the water molecules predominantly form the water-water H-bonds and the large cluster. The water molecules in the epoxy matrix and the epoxy-SWCNT interface disrupt the molecular interactions and deteriorate the mechanical properties. Through identifying the link between the water molecules and the nanocomposite structure and properties, it is shown that the free volume in the nanocomposite is crucial for its structural integrity, which facilitates the moisture accumulation and the distinct material deteriorations. This study provides insights into the moisture-affected structure and properties of the nanocomposite from the nanoscale perspective, which contributes to the understanding of the nanocomposite long-term performance under the moisture effect.

  6. High performance, freestanding and superthin carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinzhu; Gao, Yun; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Luqi; Zhang, Zhong; Niu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zeng, Qingshen; Dong, Haibo; Zhao, Duan; Cai, Le; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen

    2011-09-01

    We develop a facile, effective and filter free infiltration method to fabricate high performance, freestanding and superthin epoxy nanocomposite films with directly synthesized Sing-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) film as reinforcement skeleton. It is found that the thicknesses of the nanocomposite films can be easily controlled in the range of 0.5-3 μm by dripping target amount of acetone diluted epoxy through the skeleton film. The consequent measurements reveal that the mechanical and electrical properties of SWNTs/epoxy nanocomposite films could be tailored in a quite wide range. For examples, the Young's modulus of nanocomposite films can be tuned from 10 to 30 GPa, and the electrical conductivity can be ranged from 1000 S·cm(-1) to be insulated. Moreover, high load transfer efficiency in the nanocomposite films is demonstrated by the measured ultrahigh Raman bands shift rate (-30 ± 5 cm(-1)/% strain) under strain. The high effective modulus is derived as 774 ± 70 GPa for SWNTs inside this nanocomposite film.

  7. Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber/Toughened Epoxy Thick Composite Joints Subject to Drop-Weight and Ballistic Impacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liaw, Benjamin; Delale, Feridun

    2007-01-01

    ... No. DAAD19-02-R-0010 to conduct research on hybrid carbon-S2 glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick-section, hybrid interwoven composite joints subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts. Dr. Basavaraju B. Raju of U.S...

  8. Analysis and Tests of Reinforced Carbon-Epoxy/Foam-Core Sandwich Panels with Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.; Rogers, Charles

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study of a low-cost structurally efficient minimum-gage shear-panel design that can be used in light helicopters are presented. The shear-panel design is based on an integrally stiffened syntactic-foam stabilized-skin with an all-bias-ply tape construction for stabilized-skin concept with an all-bias-ply tape construction for the skins. This sandwich concept is an economical way to increase the panel bending stiffness weight penalty. The panels considered in the study were designed to be buckling resistant up to 100 lbs/in. of shear load and to have an ultimate strength of 300 lbs/in. The panel concept uses unidirectional carbon-epoxy tape on a syntactic adhesive as a stiffener that is co-cured with the skin and is an effective concept for improving panel buckling strength. The panel concept also uses pultruded carbon-epoxy rods embedded in a syntactic adhesive and over-wrapped with a bias-ply carbon-epoxy tape to form a reinforcing beam which is an effective method for redistributing load around rectangular cutout. The buckling strength of the reinforced panels is 83 to 90 percent of the predicted buckling strength based on a linear buckling analysis. The maximum experimental deflection exceeds the maximum deflection predicted by a nonlinear analysis by approximately one panel thickness. The failure strength of the reinforced panels was two and a half to seven times of the buckling strength. This efficient shear-panel design concept exceeds the required ultimate strength requirement of 300 lbs/in by more than 100 percent.

  9. Erosion protection of carbon-epoxy composites by plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, F.; Fagoaga, I.; Oregui, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the production of plasma-sprayed erosion-resistant coatings on carbon-fibre - epoxy composites, and the study of their erosion behaviour. The heat sensitivity of the composite substrate requires a specific spraying procedure in order to avoid its degradation. In addition, several bonding layers were studied to allow spraying of the protective coatings. Two different functional coatings were sprayed onto an aluminium-glass bonding layer, a WC-12Co cermet and an Al 2 O 3 ceramic oxide. The microstructure and properties of these coatings were studied and their erosion behaviour determined experimentally in an erosion-testing device. (orig.)

  10. The Effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes on Some Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadi, Tagreed M.; hammed Aleabi, Suad; Al-Obodi, Entisar E.; Abdul-Jabbar Abbas, Hadeel

    2018-05-01

    This research involves using epoxy resin as a matrix for making a composite material, while the multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNCTs) is used as a reinforcing material with different fractions (0.0,0.02, 0.04, 0.06) of the matrix weight. The mechanical ( hardness ), electrical ( dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, dielectric strength, electrical conductivity ), and thermal properties (thermal conductivity ) were studied. The results showed the increase of hardness, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and break down strength with the increase of MWCNT concentration, but the behavior of dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant is opposite that.

  11. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Varatharajoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is carried out to determine the rotor natural frequencies and mode shapes for a safe operational regime below 50, 000 rpm.

  13. Direction sensitive bending sensors based on multi-wall carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, Malte H G; Buschhorn, Samuel T; Boeger, Lars; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a direction sensitive bending strain sensor consisting of a single block of epoxy/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite was developed. Moreover, the manufacturing could be realized in a straightforward single-step processing route. The directional sensitivity to bending deformations is related to the change in electrical resistance, which becomes positive or negative, depending on the direction of bending deflection. This effect is achieved by generating a gradient in electrical conductivity throughout the material. The resistance versus strain behaviour of these devices is investigated in detail and related to the microstructure of the nanocomposites.

  14. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part I: quasi-static and impact bending properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part I of this study, quasi-static and impact bending properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy laminates have been determined and compared. Materials tested were unidirectional cross-ply (tape and bidirectional woven textile (fabric carbon fiber lay-up architectures, impregnated with standard and rubber-toughened resins, respectively, giving rise to 1.5 mm-thick laminates. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed in transversal mode loading were modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and tenacity at the maximum load, whereas the net absorbed energy was determined under translaminar impact conditions. Two-dimensional woven carbon fiber reinforcements embedded in a rubber-toughened matrix presented the best mechanical performance under static loading. Under dynamic loading conditions, woven fiber fabric pre-forms were favorably sensitive to increasing impact energies regardless the nature of the employed epoxy resin. However, it was concluded that great care should be taken with this material within the low energy impact regimen.

  15. Synthesis of Plate-Like Nanoalumina and Its Effect on Gas Permeability of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamali Karimi Khozani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable efforts have been made to develop gas impermeable polymer systems. Compared with metal system counterparts they have advantages such as low density and production costs. The most important challenge in development of impermeable polymer systems is to reduce their gas permeability by proper selection of system composition and process conditions. In this work, nanoparticles were initially synthesized using Al (NO33•9H2O and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a structure-directing agent via hydrothermal method and a plate-like structure was characterized by FESEM and EDAX analyses. In the second step, epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites and epoxy-carbon fiber composites containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% nanoalumina were prepared. The effect of nanoparticle loading level on permeability of nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide in epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the permeability of epoxy/plate-like nanoalumina nanocomposites toward nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gases reduced 83%, 74%, and 50%, respectively. It was deduced that the permeability reduction was clearly associated with the diameter of gas molecules. Generally speaking, the results showed that the incorporation of plate-like nanoalumina particles significantly reduced the gas permeability. Also, carbon dioxide gas permeability of carbon fiber epoxy composites containing plate-like nanoalumina was investigated to show the effect of ingredients on the gas permeability of the system. The results indicated that carbon dioxide gas permeability of epoxy carbon fiber composite containing 5 wt% of plate-like nanoalumina was totally reduced 84%.

  16. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AGARWAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

  17. Interlaminar improvement of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via depositing mixture of carbon nanotubes and sizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cuiqin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Julin, E-mail: julinwang@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Ancient Architecture, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • COOH-CNTs can react with sizing agent, and the optimum reaction ratio was 1:20. • Carbon fibers were dipped into the mixture bath of CNTs and sizing agent. • SEM results indicate that fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. • ILSS was increased by 67.01% for the composites after the mixture coating process. • Single fibers tensile strength was maintained after the deposited process. - Abstract: The effects of deposition to carbon fibers surfaces with mixture of functionalized multi-walled carbon fibers (MWCNTs) and sizing agent were investigated. Relationships between CNTs and sizing agent were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ubbelohde viscometer. The results revealed that CNTs could react with sizing agent at 120 °C, and optimal reaction occurs when mass ratio was about 1:20. Then, carbon fibers were immersed in mixed aqueous suspension of CNTs and sizing agent with the above ratio dispersed by ultrasonication. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. The static contact angle tests indicated wetting performance between fibers and epoxy resin were improved after deposited procedures. Interlaminar shear strength was increased by 67.01% for fibers/epoxy resin composites after mixture deposited process. Moreover, the tensile strength of single fibers after depositing showed a slightly increase compared with that of fibers without depositing layer.

  18. Tribo-performance of epoxy hybrid composites reinforced with carbon fibers and potassium titanate whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresha, B.; Harshavardhan, B.; Ravishankar, R.

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fabrication and characterization of epoxy reinforced with bidirectional carbon fiber mat (CF/Ep) and filled with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt% potassium titanate whiskers (PTw) composites. The effect of PTw loading on hardness, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behaviour of CF/Ep composite were carefully investigated in expectation of providing valuable information for the application of hybrid CF/Ep composites. Results indicated that the incorporation of PTw actually improved the hardness, tensile strength and tensile modulus of CF/Ep composites. Meanwhile, the specific wear rate of CF/Ep filled by 5 wt % PTw reached to 6.3× 10-14 m3/N-m, which is 41% lower than that of CF/Ep composite at the same dry sliding condition. It also seen that the fiber and filler worked synergistically to enhance the wear resistance. Further, for all composites the friction coefficient increases with increase in load and sliding velocity. However, PTw reinforced CF/Ep exhibited considerably higher coefficient of friction compared to unfilled ones, while PTw filler loading of 5 wt% was effective in reducing the specific wear rate of CF/Ep composite. The carbon fiber carried the applied load between the contact surfaces and protected the epoxy from severe abrasion of the counterface. At the same time, the exposed PTw out of the epoxy matrix around the fiber inhibited the direct scraping between the fiber and counterface so that the fibers could be less directly impacted during the subsequent wear process and they were protected from severe damage.

  19. Photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots luminescent thin films and the performance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhang

    Full Text Available High photostable epoxy polymerized carbon quantum dots (C-dots luminescent thin films were prepared and their performances were compared with the CdTe quantum dots (QDs. First, water soluble C-dots (λem = 543.60 nm were synthesized. Poly (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEG and diaminooctane were used as the polymer matrix to make the epoxy resin films. FT-IR spectra showed that there were vibration at 3448 cm−1 and 1644 cm−1 which contributed to -OH and -NH respectively. SEM observations showed that the polymerizations of the films were uniform and there were no structure defects. Mechanical tests showed the tensile modulus of C-dots composite films were 4.6, 4.9, 6.4 and 7.8 MPa respectively with corresponding 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% mass fraction of C-dots, while the tensile modulus of CdTe QDs films were 4.6 MPa under the same mass fraction of CdTe QDs. Compared with semiconductor QDs, the decay of quantum yield were 5% and 10% for the C-dots and CdTe QDs, respectively. The pictures in the continuous irradiation of 48 h showed that the C-dots film was more photostable. This study provides much helpful and profound towards the fluorescent enhancement films in the field of flexible displays. Keywords: Carbon-dots, Waterborne epoxy resin, Luminescent materials, Quantum dots displays

  20. Toughening of Epoxy Adhesives by Combined Interaction of Carbon Nanotubes and Silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Barra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of adhesives in many structural applications in the transport industry and particularly in the aeronautic field is due to numerous advantages of bonded joints. However, still many researchers are working to enhance the mechanical properties and rheological performance of adhesives by using nanoadditives. In this study the effect of the addition of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS compounds, either Glycidyl Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (GPOSS or DodecaPhenyl Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (DPHPOSS to Tetraglycidyl Methylene Dianiline (TGMDA epoxy formulation, was investigated. The formulations contain neither a tougher matrix such as elastomers nor other additives typically used to provide a closer match in the coefficient of thermal expansion in order to discriminate only the effect of the addition of the above-mentioned components. Bonded aluminium single lap joints were made using both untreated and Chromic Acid Anodisation (CAA-treated aluminium alloy T2024 adherends. The effects of the different chemical functionalities of POSS compounds, as well as the synergistic effect between the MWCNT and POSS combination on adhesion strength, were evaluated by viscosity measurement, tensile tests, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA, single lap joint shear strength tests, and morphological investigation. The best performance in the Lap Shear Strength (LSS of the manufactured joints has been found for treated adherends bonded with epoxy adhesive containing MWCNTs and GPOSS. Carbon nanotubes have been found to play a very effective bridging function across the fracture surface of the bonded joints.

  1. Solid Particle Erosion Behaviors of Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Composite and Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Gao, Feng; Pant, Shashank; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rotor blades of Bell CH-146 Griffon helicopter experience excessive solid particle erosion at low altitudes in desert environment. The rotor blade is made of an advanced light-weight composite which, however, has a low resistance to solid particle erosion. Coatings have been developed and applied to protect the composite blade. However, due to the influence of coating process on composite material, the compatibility between coating and composite base, and the challenges of repairing damaged coatings as well as the inconsistency between the old and new coatings, replaceable thin metal shielding is an alternative approach; and titanium, due to its high-specific strength and better formability, is an ideal candidate. This work investigates solid particle erosion behaviors of carbon-fiber epoxy composite and titanium in order to assess the feasibility of titanium as a viable candidate for erosion shielding. Experiment results showed that carbon-fiber epoxy composite showed a brittle erosion behavior, whereas titanium showed a ductile erosion mode. The erosion rate on composite was 1.5 times of that on titanium at impingement angle 15° and increased to 5 times at impact angle 90°.

  2. The interfacial strength of carbon nanofiber epoxy composite using single fiber pullout experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, M P; Sharma, A; Desai, A V; Haque, M A; Bakis, C E; Wang, K W

    2009-07-22

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are extensively researched as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites for their multifunctionality, light weight and high strength. However, it is the interface between the nanofiber and the matrix that dictates the overall properties of the nanocomposite. The current trend is to measure elastic properties of the bulk nanocomposite and then compare them with theoretical models to extract the information on the interfacial strength. The ideal experiment is single fiber pullout from the matrix because it directly measures the interfacial strength. However, the technique is difficult to apply to nanocomposites because of the small size of the fibers and the requirement for high resolution force and displacement sensing. We present an experimental technique for measuring the interfacial strength of nanofiber-reinforced composites using the single fiber pullout technique and demonstrate the technique for a carbon nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composite. The experiment is performed in situ in a scanning electron microscope and the interfacial strength for the epoxy composite was measured to be 170 MPa.

  3. Multidimensional Nanocomposites of Epoxy Reinforced with 1D and 2D Carbon Nanostructures for Improve Fracture Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juventino López-Barroso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanocomposites based on epoxy reinforced with a combination of 1D and 2D carbon nanomaterials for improving impact resistance are reported. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidized-multi-walled carbon nanotubes are used as 1D nanoreinforcements, and graphene derivative materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are utilized as 2D nanoreinforcements. In this research, the impact resistance of epoxy matrix reinforced with 1D or 2D and the mixture of both nanomaterials is studied. The research is focused on evaluation of the influence of adding different combinations of nanomaterials into epoxy resin and their Izod impact response. Moreover, fracture surface of nanocomposites is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Images show differences between the surfaces of brittle nature on thermoset epoxy polymer and tough nanocomposites. Synergy created with 1D and 2D nanomaterials produces stable dispersions in the processing, reflected in the interface. The interactions in nanocomposites are evidenced by infrared spectra, principally on the peaks related to oxygenated functional groups present in nanomaterials and absent in polymer matrix. Consequently, an increase of 138% in fracture strength of nanocomposites is exhibited, in comparison to the neat epoxy matrix. In addition, hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized in two different methods to evaluate the influence of manufacturing method on final properties of nanocomposites.

  4. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  5. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2018-06-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  6. Effect of carbon nanotube dispersion on glass transition in cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: role of interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ketan S; Khare, Rajesh

    2013-06-20

    We have used atomistic molecular simulations to study the effect of nanofiller dispersion on the glass transition behavior of cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites. Specific chemical interactions at the interface of CNTs and cross-linked epoxy create an interphase region, whose impact on the properties of their nanocomposites increases with an increasing extent of dispersion. To investigate this aspect, we have compared the volumetric, structural, and dynamical properties of three systems: neat cross-linked epoxy, cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs, and cross-linked epoxy nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. We find that the nanocomposite containing dispersed CNTs shows a depression in the glass transition temperature (Tg) by ~66 K as compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy, whereas such a large depression is absent in the nanocomposite containing aggregated CNTs. Our results suggest that the poor interfacial interactions between the CNTs and the cross-linked epoxy matrix lead to a more compressible interphase region between the CNTs and the bulk matrix. An analysis of the resulting dynamic heterogeneity shows that the probability of percolation of immobile domains becomes unity near the Tg calculated from volumetric properties. Our observations also lend support to the conceptual analogy between polymer nanocomposites and the nanoconfinement of polymer thin films.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal-electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.

  8. Stress wave propagation in thin long-fiber carbon/epoxy composite panel. Numerical and experimental solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš; Červ, Jan; Valeš, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 127-136 ISSN 1802-680X. [Computational Mechanics 2007. Hrad Nečtiny, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : FRP composite * carbon-epoxy * orthotropic material Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  9. "Unrolling" multi-walled carbon nanotubes with ionic liquids: application as fillers in epoxy-based nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinschmidt, A. C.; Donato, R. K.; Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Štengl, Václav; Amico, S. C.; Schrekker, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 82 (2014), s. 43436-43443 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * ionic liquids * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  10. Corrosion protection and delamination mechanism of epoxy/carbon black nanocomposite coating on AA2024-T3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyet, A.; Wu, T.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Ven, van der L.G.J.; With, de G.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The barrier property of a nanocomposite epoxy coating containing 1 or 1.25 vol% of carbon black (CB) applied on AA2024-T3 was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Micro-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and optical microscopy were also used to investigate the

  11. The effect of electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic forces on the chaining of carbon nanofibres in liquid epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A; Bakis, C E; Wang, K W

    2010-01-01

    The formation of chains of aligned carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in polymers is a subject of great interest in the field of multifunctional nanocomposites. The mechanism of CNF chain assembly and growth in a low viscosity epoxy is investigated by developing a finite element model of a chain attached to an electrode. The model examines the combined effects of electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic forces on chain morphology. The electrohydrodynamic forces are modelled using the theory of ac electro-osmosis. The predictions of the model are supported by experimental results. The experiments were conducted on a CNF/epoxy/amine mixture by applying an ac field at frequencies ranging from 100 to 100 000 Hz. The predictions of the model qualitatively capture the variations of chain morphology and growth rate as functions of ac frequency. Higher frequencies promote a more uniform and denser network of chains. The rate of growth of chains is highest at an intermediate frequency. A uniform network of chains was observed at frequencies of 1 kHz and greater in the experiments. The rate of growth of chains was maximized at a frequency of 1 kHz for a liquid viscosity of 0.03 Pa s.

  12. Carbon nanotube (CNT)–epoxy nanocomposites: a systematic investigation of CNT dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Amit K.; Plyhm, Tiia; Barbezat, Michel; Necola, Adly; Terrasi, Giovanni P.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 1–6 nm in diameter and a few microns in length, in a bisphenol F-based epoxy resin has been presented. Several dispersing techniques including high-speed dissolver, ultrasonic bath/horn, 3-roll mill, etc. have been employed. Optical microscopy has been extensively used to systematically characterise the state of CNT dispersion in the epoxy resin during the entire processing cycle from mixing CNT with resin to adding and curing with hardener. Complimentary viscosity measurements were also performed at various stages of nanocomposite processing. A method to produce a good CNT dispersion in resin was established, but the state of CNT dispersion was found to be extremely sensitive to its physical and chemical environments. The cured nanocomposites were further tested for their thermo-mechanical properties by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and for flexural and compressive mechanical properties. The measured properties of various nanocomposite plates were then discussed in view of the corresponding CNT dispersion.

  13. Evaluation of Carbon Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels Fabricated Using Ionic Liquid Epoxies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In terms of "Innovation" this is a unique epoxy with unique properties, and NASA co-holds the patent. This epoxy is being exclusively formulated for cryogenic use....

  14. Evaluation of Nanomaterial Approaches to Damping in Epoxy Resin and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.

  15. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  16. Investigation of non-isocyanate urethane functional latexes and carbon nanofiller/epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei

    This dissertation consists of two parts. In the first part, a new class of non-isocyanate urethane methacrylates was synthesized and the effect of the new monomers on the urethane functional latex was investigated. The second part focused on a comparison of carbon nanofillers in inorganic/organic epoxy coating system for anticorrosive applications. A new class of non-isocyanate urethane methacrylates (UMAs) monomers was synthesized through an environmentally friendly non-isocyanate pathway. The kinetics of seeded semibatch emulsion polymerization of UMAs with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) was monitored. The particle size and morphology were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), ultrasound acoustic attenuation spectroscopy (UAAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The minimum film formation temperature (MFFT), mechanical and viscoelastic properties were studied. It was found that the emulsion polymerization processes all proceeded via Smith-Ewart control, leading to the uniform morphology and particle size. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the mechanical properties of poly(MMA/BA/UMA) decreased with the increasing chain length of urethane methacrylate monomers due to the increasing flexibility of side chains. Without the effect of Tg, lower MFFT and improved mechanical properties were observed from urethane functional latexes. The improved mechanical properties were due to the increasing particle interaction by forming hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, the effect of urethane functionality in terms of the polymer composition, the location and the concentration was investigated by the batch, single-stage and two-stage semibatch polymerization of 2-[(butylcarbamoyl)oxy]ethyl methacrylate (BEM) with MMA and BA. The core-shell and homogeneous structures were evaluated by TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR). The compositional drift was observed from the batch

  17. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  18. Finite Element Modeling of Thermal Cycling Induced Microcracking in Carbon/Epoxy Triaxial Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Morscher, Gregory; Martin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The microcrack distribution and mass change in PR520/T700s and 3502/T700s carbon/epoxy braided composites exposed to thermal cycling was evaluated experimentally. Acoustic emission was utilized to record the crack initiation and propagation under cyclic thermal loading between -55 C and 120 C. Transverse microcrack morphology was investigated using X-ray Computed Tomography. Different performance of two kinds of composites was discovered and analyzed. Based on the observations of microcrack formation, a meso-mechanical finite element model was developed to obtain the resultant mechanical properties. The simulation results exhibited a decrease in strength and stiffness with increasing crack density. Strength and stiffness reduction versus crack densities in different orientations were compared. The changes of global mechanical behavior in both axial and transverse loading conditions were studied. Keywords: Thermal cycles; Microcrack; Finite Element Model; Braided Composite

  19. Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber, Graphite-Epoxy Panels for Submillimeter Telescope Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, H.; Helwig, G.; Parks, R. E.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-12-01

    An experimental carbon-fiber, graphite-epoxy, aluminum Flexcore sandwich panel roughly 1-m square was made by Dornier System, Friedrichshafen, West Germany. The panel was a pre-prototype of the panels to be used in the dish of the 10-m diameter Sub-Millimeter Telescope, a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institute fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, West Germany, and Steward Observatory, the University of Arizona in Tucson. This paper outlines the fabrication process for the panel and indicates the surface accuracy of the panel replication process. To predict the behavior of the panel under various environmental loads, the panel was modeled structurally using anisotropic elements for the core material. Results of this analysis along with experimental verification of these predictions are also given.

  20. Free vibration of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao

    2018-03-01

    This study provides the first-known vibration analysis of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composite (FFG-CNTRHC) laminates. CNTs are non-uniformly distributed to reinforce the graphite/epoxy laminates. Some CNT distribution functions in the plane and thickness directions are proposed to more efficiently increase the stiffening effect. The rule of mixtures is modified by considering the non-homogeneous material properties of FFG-CNTRHC laminates. The formulation of the location dependent stiffness matrix and mass matrix is derived. The effects of CNT volume fraction and distribution on the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminates are discussed. The results reveal that the FFG layout may significantly increase the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminate.

  1. Blast response of curved carbon/epoxy composite panels: Experimental study and finite-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadnis, V A; Roy, A; Silberschmidt, V V; Kumar, P; Shukla, A

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to understand the effect of plate curvature on blast response of carbon/epoxy composite panels. A shock-tube system was utilized to impart controlled shock loading to quasi-isotropic composite panels with differing range of radii of curvatures. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique coupled with high-speed photography was used to obtain out-of-plane deflection and velocity, as well as in-plane strain on the back face of the panels. Macroscopic post-mortem analysis was performed to compare yielding and deformation in these panels. A dynamic computational simulation that integrates fluid-structure interaction was conducted to evaluate the panel response in general purpose finite-element software ABAQUS/Explicit. The obtained numerical results were compared to the experimental data and showed a good correlation

  2. Electrical properties of thin epoxy-based polymer layers filled with n-carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta; Hauptman, Nina; Maček, Marijan

    2008-02-01

    The change of resistivity of the epoxy-based nanocomposite was studied in dependence on concentration of dispersed nanoparticles. The SU8 negative-tone photoresist was applied for the polymer matrix and the conductive carbon black powder for the fillings. The largest decrease of resistivity was obtained at 2-3 wt% of fillings whereas at loadings higher that 8 wt% it does not decreases further appreciably. The resistivity of the prepared nanocomposites becomes smaller after the UV-exposure. The applied nanofillings change the viscosity of the material but the spin-coating application still remains reliable and was approved to work well for concentrations of at least up to 3 wt%. The addition of nanofillings up to 2 wt% does not destroy the resolution of photolithography as seen on the standard test pattern with line widths from 2 to 10 μm.

  3. Quantifying voids effecting delamination in carbon/epoxy composites: static and fatigue fracture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, I.; May, D.; Abo Ras, M.; Meyendorf, N.; Donaldson, S.

    2016-04-01

    On the present work, samples of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with different void levels were fabricated using hand layup vacuum bagging process by varying the pressure. Thermal nondestructive methods: thermal conductivity measurement, pulse thermography, pulse phase thermography and lock-in-thermography, and mechanical testing: modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness were conducted. Comparing the parameters resulted from the thermal nondestructive testing revealed that voids lead to reductions in thermal properties in all directions of composites. The results of mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness showed that voids lead to reductions in interlaminar fracture toughness. The parameters resulted from thermal nondestructive testing were correlated to the results of mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and voids were quantified.

  4. Micro/Nanomechanical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Wang, Xinnan; Tangpong, X W

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were characterized using a self-designed micro/nano three point bending tester that was on an atomic force microscope (AFM) to in situ observe MWCNTs movement on the sample surface under loading. The migration of an individual MWCNT at the surface of the nanocomposite was tracked to address the nanomechanical reinforcing mechanism of the nanocomposites. Through morphology analysis of the nanocomposite via scanning electron microscopy, AFM, and digital image correlation technique, it was found that the MWCNTs agglomerate and the bundles were the main factors for limiting the bending strength of the composites. The agglomeration/bundle effect was included in the Halpin-Tsai model to account for the elastic modulus of the nanocomposites.

  5. Low velocity instrumented impact testing of four new damage tolerant carbon/epoxy composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Low velocity drop weight instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the damage resistance of four recently developed carbon fiber/epoxy resin systems. A fifth material, T300/934, for which a large data base exists, was also tested for comparison purposes. A 16-ply quasi-isotropic lay-up configuration was used for all the specimens. Force/absorbed energy-time plots were generated for each impact test. The specimens were cross-sectionally analyzed to record the damage corresponding to each impact energy level. Maximum force of impact versus impact energy plots were constructed to compare the various systems for impact damage resistance. Results show that the four new damage tolerant fiber/resin systems far outclassed the T300/934 material. The most damage tolerant material tested was the IM7/1962 fiber/resin system.

  6. Low Temperature Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Biss, Emily J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of cryogenic fuels (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) in current space transportation vehicles, in combination with the proposed use of composite materials in such applications, requires an understanding of how such materials behave at cryogenic temperatures. In this investigation, tensile intralaminar shear tests were performed at room, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen temperatures to evaluate the effect of temperature on the mechanical response of the IM7/8551-7 carbon-fiber/epoxy-resin system. Quasi-isotropic lay-ups were also tested to represent a more realistic lay-up. It was found that the matrix became both increasingly resistant to microcracking and stiffer with decreasing temperature. A marginal increase in matrix shear strength with decreasing temperature was also observed. Temperature did not appear to affect the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond.

  7. Carbon fiber epoxy composites for both strengthening and health monitoring of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Szojda, Leszek; Araújo, Pedro; Gorski, Marcin; Velez, Fernando José; Castro-Gomes, João; Krzywon, Rafal

    2015-05-06

    This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the "wet process", which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.

  8. Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composites for Both Strengthening and Health Monitoring of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salvado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the “wet process”, which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.

  9. Polyaniline electrosynthesis on composite surface carbon fiber-epoxy Aeronautic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Richelmy Magi; Batista, Aline Fontana; Gama, Adriana Medeiros; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This work aims to obtain polyaniline (PAni) by electro synthesis, as thin layers on carbon fiber/epoxy composite surface, to attenuate microwave amplitude and so decrease radar cross section (RCS) on drone surfaces. In order to it, two procedures were used to obtain polyaniline on surface from aniline 0,5 mol L -1 and H 2 SO 4 1,0 mol L -1 , using cyclic voltammetry, from -0,50 up to 1,05 V x Ag/AgCl, using auxiliary electrode of Pt, by potentiostat-galvanostat Autolab PGSTAT 302. The first used 26 cycles to a sample and 53 cycles to another sample, at 25mVs -1 . The second differs to the first in to use 3 beginning cycles at 5mVs -1 and remaining cycles at 100 mVs -1 , obtaining two samples, similar to first treatment, with 26 and 53 cycles, at end. Processes temperature was 0°C. These procedures resulted in two different materials of PAni, evaluated in function of scanning velocity and variation on cycle numbers used. Resulting new composites were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electromagnetic measures in waveguide of intrinsic properties, scattering parameters and reflectivity on frequency range from 8,0 up to 12,0 GHz To verify applicability on aeronautics electromagnetic shields, computing sources were used, through numeric simulations to determine RCS of objects, overlapping concepts of geometric interactions with material properties applied on their surfaces, added with interception of microwaves emitted by hypothetical radars. To this end, software Computer Simulation Technology-(CST) was used, through which efficacy of composite PAni@carbon fiber@epoxy was indicated to aeronautic application in Stealth technology. (author)

  10. Polyaniline electrosynthesis on composite surface carbon fiber-epoxy Aeronautic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Richelmy Magi; Batista, Aline Fontana; Gama, Adriana Medeiros; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: rms.aero94@gmail.com [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao Fisico-Quimica; Quirino, Sandro Fonseca; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This work aims to obtain polyaniline (PAni) by electro synthesis, as thin layers on carbon fiber/epoxy composite surface, to attenuate microwave amplitude and so decrease radar cross section (RCS) on drone surfaces. In order to it, two procedures were used to obtain polyaniline on surface from aniline 0,5 mol L{sup -1} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1,0 mol L{sup -1}, using cyclic voltammetry, from -0,50 up to 1,05 V x Ag/AgCl, using auxiliary electrode of Pt, by potentiostat-galvanostat Autolab PGSTAT 302. The first used 26 cycles to a sample and 53 cycles to another sample, at 25mVs{sup -1}. The second differs to the first in to use 3 beginning cycles at 5mVs{sup -1} and remaining cycles at 100 mVs{sup -1}, obtaining two samples, similar to first treatment, with 26 and 53 cycles, at end. Processes temperature was 0°C. These procedures resulted in two different materials of PAni, evaluated in function of scanning velocity and variation on cycle numbers used. Resulting new composites were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electromagnetic measures in waveguide of intrinsic properties, scattering parameters and reflectivity on frequency range from 8,0 up to 12,0 GHz To verify applicability on aeronautics electromagnetic shields, computing sources were used, through numeric simulations to determine RCS of objects, overlapping concepts of geometric interactions with material properties applied on their surfaces, added with interception of microwaves emitted by hypothetical radars. To this end, software Computer Simulation Technology-(CST) was used, through which efficacy of composite PAni@carbon fiber@epoxy was indicated to aeronautic application in Stealth technology. (author)

  11. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland); Nüesch, Frank [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: Jing.Wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  12. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected

  13. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  14. Effect of Graphene Oxide Mixed Epoxy on Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Ge, Heyi; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhifang; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jingyi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the watersoluble epoxy resin was prepared via the ring-opening reaction between diethanolamine and epoxy resin. The modified resin mixed with graphene oxide (GO) as a sizing agent was coated onto carbon fiber (CF) and then the GO-CF reinforced acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS) composites were prepared. The influences of the different contents of GO on CF and CF/ABS composite were explored. The combination among epoxy, GO sheets and maleic anhydride grafted ABS (ABSMA) showed a synergistic effect on improving the properties of GO-CF and GO-CF/ABS composite. The GO-CF had higher single tensile strength than the commercial CF. The maximum ILSS of GO-CF/ABS composite obtained 19.2% improvement as compared with that of the commercial CF/ABS composite. Such multiscale enhancement method and the synergistic reinforced GO-CF/ABS composite show good prospective applications in many industry areas.

  15. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, Arianna L; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2014-01-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10 −5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing. (paper)

  16. Ultralow percolation threshold of single walled carbon nanotube-epoxy composites synthesized via an ionic liquid dispersant/initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Arianna L.; Palmese, Giuseppe R.

    2014-09-01

    Uniform dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an epoxy was achieved by a streamlined mechano-chemical processing method. SWNT-epoxy composites were synthesized using a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) with an imidazolium cation and dicyanamide anion. The novel approach of using ionic liquid that behaves as a dispersant for SWNTs and initiator for epoxy polymerization greatly simplifies nanocomposite synthesis. The material was processed using simple and scalable three roll milling. The SWNT dispersion of the resultant composite was evaluated by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements in conjunction with percolation theory. Processing conditions were optimized to achieve the lowest possible percolation threshold, 4.29 × 10-5 volume fraction SWNTs. This percolation threshold is among the best reported in literature yet it was obtained using a streamlined method that greatly simplifies processing.

  17. Epoxy composite dusts with and without carbon nanotubes cause similar pulmonary responses, but differences in liver histology in mice following pulmonary deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Background: The toxicity of dusts from mechanical abrasion of multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) epoxy nanocomposites is unknown. We compared the toxic effects of dusts generated by sanding of epoxy composites with and without CNT. The used CNT type was included for comparison.Methods: Mice recei...

  18. Influence of filler alignment in the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felisberto, M. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Arias-Duran, A. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Ramos, J.A.; Mondragon, I. [Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente. Esc. Politecnica. UPV/EHU, Pza. Europa 1, Donostia-San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Candal, R. [INQUIMAE-CONICET-UBA, Pab II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia-UNSAM, San Martin, Prov. De Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Rubiolo, G.H., E-mail: rubiolo@cnea.gov.ar [LPyMC, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Pab I Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Dep. Materiales, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA-CAC), Avda Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites prepared with aligned and randomly oriented nanotubes as filler. The samples are disks of 30 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. To obtain the carbon nanotubes alignment, an external electric field (250 VAC; 50 Hz) was applied through the thickness of the sample during all the cure process. The AC electrical current was measured, during the cure, as a strategy to determine the optimum time in which the alignment reaches the maximum value. DC conductivity measured after the cure shows a percolation threshold in the filler content one order of magnitude smaller for composites with aligned nanotubes than for composites with randomly oriented filler (from 0.06 to 0.5 wt%). In the percolation threshold, the achieved conductivity was 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Sm{sup -1}. In both cases, aligned and randomly distributed carbon nanotube composites, the wear resistance increases with the addition of the filler while the Rockwell hardness decreases independently of the nanotubes alignment.

  19. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part II-Comparison with Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-04-28

    Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account the energy accumulation by the solid material, the anisotropic heat conduction, the thermal decomposition of the material, the gas mass flow into the composite, and the internal pressure. Thermophysical properties defined as temperature dependant properties were characterised using existing as well as innovative methodologies in order to use them as inputs into our physical model. The 3D thermochemical model accurately predicts the measured mass loss and observed decomposition front when the carbon fibre/epoxy composite is directly impacted by a propane flame. In short, the model shows its capability to predict the fire behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced composite for fire safety engineering.

  20. Hydrogen bonds, interfacial stiffness moduli, and the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cantrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes KN of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The KN calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67 ×1017 N m−3. The average ratio KN/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043 × 1010 m−1 for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of KN via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.

  1. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY COATING CONTAINING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLY ORTHO AMINOPHENOL NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bahrami Panah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy coatings containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/ poly ortho aminophenol nanocomposite were prepared and used as anticorrosive coatings. The nanocomposites with different contents of carbon nanotube were synthesized in a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonium peroxy disulfate as a surfactant and an oxidant, respectively. The morphology and structural properties were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The mean size of nanocomposite particles was 20-35 nm determined by scanning electron microscopy. The epoxy coatings containing the nanocomposites were applied over mild steel panels and their corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The results showed that epoxy coatings consisting of nanocomposite with 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotube exhibited higher anticorrosive properties than other prepared coatings of different carbon nanotube contents, which could be due to the strong interaction between the mild steel surface and the conjugated nanocomposite.

  2. Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hui; Huang, Yudong; Liu, Li; Shi, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

  3. A Study on Accelerated Thermal Aging of High Modulus Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been used increasingly for various space applications due to the favorable characteristic of high modulus to density ratio and potential for near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion. In composite system, depending on the orientation of fibers, strength and stiffness can be changed so that the optimum structure can be accomplished. This is because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of carbon fibers is negative. For spacecraft and orbiting space structure, which are thermally cycled by moving through the earth' shadow for at least 5 years, it is necessary to investigate the change of properties of the material over time. In this study, thermal aging of epoxy matrix/high modulus carbon fiber composite materials are accelerated to predict the long term creep property. Specimens are tested at various temperatures of 100~140°C with dynamic mechanical analysis to obtain creep compliances that are functions of time and temperature. Using Time Temperature Superposition method, creep compliance curves at each temperature are shifted to the reference temperature by shift factor and a master curve is generated at the reference temperature. This information is useful to predict the long term thermal aging of high modulus composite material for spacecraft application.

  4. Characterization of the matrix glass transition in carbon-epoxy laminates using the CSD test geometry. [centro-symmetric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.; Yang, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new test geometry, referred to as centro-symmetric deformation (CSD), is proposed for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of the matrix of carbon-epoxy laminates. The sample consists of a thin disk, typically 6-14 plies thick, having a nominal diameter of 30 mm. The disk is freely supported on a circular anvil; the load is applied to the center of the disk using an 8-mm-diameter ball bearing nosepiece. The CSD test geometry provides viscoelastic dispersion data which are independent of the angular orientation of the sample. The test geometry is sufficiently sensitive to matrix changes to allow its use for postcuring, humidity, crosslink density, and other matrix change studies. Test results are presented for a carbon-epoxy laminate.

  5. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I—Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Tranchard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA, Laser Flash analysis (LFA, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper. The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering.

  6. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I-Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-05-04

    Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D) model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper). The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering.

  7. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I—Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D) model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper). The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering. PMID:28772854

  8. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli; Veronica Perozzo Frizzo; Diego Piazza; Lisete Cristine Scienza; Ademir José Zattera

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneo...

  9. Evolution of carbon nanotube dispersion in preparation of epoxy-based composites: From a masterbatch to a nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Aravand, Mohammadali; Lomov, Stepan Vladimirovitch; Verpoest, Ignace; Gorbatikh, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    The state of carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion in epoxy is likely to change in the process of composite production. In the present work CNT dispersion is characterized at different stages of nanocomposite preparation: in the original masterbatch with high CNT concentration, after masterbatch dilution, in the process of curing and in the final nanocomposite. The evaluation techniques included dynamic rheological analysis of the liquid phases, optical, environmental and charge contrast scanning ...

  10. Carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: the effects of interfacial modifications on the dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Lebrón-Colón, Marisabel; Scheiman, Daniel; Meador, Michael A

    2014-10-08

    Surface functionalization of pretreated carbon nanotubes (CNT) using aromatic, aliphatic, and aliphatic ether diamines was performed. The pretreatment of the CNT consisted of either acid- or photo-oxidation. The acid treated CNT had a higher initial oxygen content compared to the photo-oxidized CNT and this resulted in a higher density of functionalization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to verify the presence of the oxygenated and amine moieties on the CNT surfaces. Epoxy/0.1 wt % CNT nanocomposites were prepared using the functionalized CNT and the bulk properties of the nanocomposites were examined. Macroscale correlations between the interfacial modification and bulk dynamic mechanical and thermal properties were observed. The amine modified epoxy/CNT nanocomposites exhibited up to a 1.9-fold improvement in storage modulus (G') below the glass transition (Tg) and up to an almost 4-fold increase above the Tg. They also exhibited a 3-10 °C increase in the glass transition temperature. The aromatic diamine surface modified epoxy/CNT nanocomposites resulted in the largest increase in shear moduli below and above the Tg and the largest increase in the Tg. Surface examination of the nanocomposites with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed indications of a greater adhesion of the epoxy resin matrix to the CNT, most likely due to the covalent bonding.

  11. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo

  12. How carbon nanotubes affect the cure kinetics and glass transition temperature of their epoxy composites? – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the widespread and contradictory results regarding the glass transition temperature of carbon nanotube (CNT/epoxy composites, we reviewed and analyzed the literature results dealing with the effect of unmodified multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT on the cure behaviour of an epoxy resin (as a possible source of this discrepancy. The aim of this work was to clarify the effective role of unmodified multiwall carbon nanotubes on the cure kinetics and glass transition temperature (Tg of their epoxy composites. It was found that various authors reported an acceleration effect of CNT. The cure reaction was promoted in its early stage which may be due to the catalyst particles present in the CNT raw material. While SWNT may lead to a decrease of Tg due to their bundling tendency, results reported for MWNT suggested an increased or unchanged Tg of the composites. The present status of the literature does not allow to isolate the effect of MWNT on the Tg due to the lack of a study providing essential information such as CNT purity, glass transition temperature along with the corresponding cure degree.

  13. Flame Retardancy Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Membranes on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxian Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube/graphene nanoplatelet (MWCNT/GNP hybrid membranes with lower liquid permeability and better barrier effect compared to MWCNT membranes were successfully synthesized by vacuum filtering. Their morphologies, water permeability, and pore structures were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, MWCNT/GNP membranes were used to improve the flame retardancy of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites, and the influence of weight percentage of GNPs on the permeability and flame retardancy of MWCNT/GNP membranes was systematically investigated. Results show that incorporation of MWCNT/GNP membranes on CFRP composite plates can remarkably improve the flame retardancy of CFRP composites. Specifically, the incorporation of hierarchical MWCNT/GNP membrane with 7.5 wt% of GNP displays a 35% reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR for a CFRP composite plate with the epoxy as matrix and a 11% reduction in PHRR compared with the incorporation of MWCNT membrane only. A synergistic flame retarding mechanism is suggested to be attributed to these results, which includes controlling the pore size and penetrative network structure.

  14. Annealing effects of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites irradiated by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Akira; Sasuga, Tuneo; Ito, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-01-01

    Carbon cloth-reinforced epoxy resin composites were irradiated with 2 MeV electrons at room temperature and then annealed in air for 2 h at temperatures up to 180 deg C. A considerable decrease in the three-point bending strength occurred when the irradiated composites were annealed in the temperature range of 115 - 135 deg C which is below the glass transition temperature T g of the matrix resin, while the bending strength remained unchanged up to 180 deg C for the unirradiated composites. In the dynamic viscoelastic spectra of the irradiated matrix, a new relaxation appeared at the temperature extending from 50 deg C to just below the matrix T g and disappeared on annealing for 2 h at 135 deg C. Annealing also decreased the concentration of free radicals existing stably in the irradiated matrix at room temperature. After annealing, a large amount of clacks and voids were observed in the fractography of the composites by scanning electron microscopy. These results indicate: (1) Annealing brings about rearrangement of the radiation-induced molecular chain scission in the matrix; (2) The bending strength of the irradiated composites decreased owing to the increased brittleness of the matrix by annealing. (author)

  15. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyue Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six times greater than the strength of its control counterpart, a pristine MWCNT thread (1192 MPa and 194 MPa, respectively. Additionally, electrical conductivity changes were observed, revealing 2123.40 S·cm−1 for cross-linked thread, and 3984.26 S·cm−1 for pristine CNT thread. Characterization suggests that the obtained high tensile strength is due to the cross-linking reaction of amine groups from ethylenediamine plasma-functionalized CNT with the epoxy groups of the cross-linking agent, 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline.

  16. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, J.F.; Tournerie, N.; Maillard, H.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m 2 to 70 mJ/m 2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic C-O and C=O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  17. Enhanced durability of carbon nanotube grafted hierarchical ceramic microfiber-reinforced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; Hunston, Donald L; Forster, Amanda L; Natarajan, Bharath; Liotta, Andrew H; Wicks, Sunny S; Stutzman, Paul E; Wardle, Brian L; Liddle, J Alexander; Forster, Aaron M

    2017-12-01

    As carbon nanotube (CNT) infused hybrid composites are increasingly identified as next-generation aerospace materials, it is vital to evaluate their long-term structural performance under aging environments. In this work, the durability of hierarchical, aligned CNT grafted aluminoborosilicate microfiber-epoxy composites (CNT composites) are compared against baseline aluminoborosilicate composites (baseline composites), before and after immersion in water at 25 °C (hydro) and 60 °C (hydrothermal), for extended durations (90 d and 180 d). The addition of CNTs is found to reduce water diffusivities by approximately 1.5 times. The mechanical properties (bending strength and modulus) and the damage sensing capabilities (DC conductivity) of CNT composites remain intact regardless of exposure conditions. The baseline composites show significant loss of strength (44 %) after only 15 d of hydrothermal aging. This loss of mechanical strength is attributed to fiber-polymer interfacial debonding caused by accumulation of water at high temperatures. In situ acoustic and DC electrical measurements of hydrothermally aged CNT composites identify extensive stress-relieving micro-cracking and crack deflections that are absent in the aged baseline composites. These observations are supported by SEM images of the failed composite cross-sections that highlight secondary matrix toughening mechanisms in the form of CNT pullouts and fractures which enhance the service life of composites and maintain their properties under accelerated aging environments.

  18. Viscoelastic characterization of carbon fiber-epoxy composites by creep and creep rupture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Luis Claudio

    2009-01-01

    One of the main requirements for the use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in structural applications is the evaluation of their behavior during service life. The warranties of the integrity of these structural components demand a study of the time dependent behavior of these materials due to viscoelastic response of the polymeric matrix and of the countless possibilities of design configurations. In the present study, creep and creep rupture test in stress were performed in specimens of unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with fibers orientations of 60 degree and 90 degree, at temperatures of 25 and 70 degree C. The aim is the viscoelastic characterization of the material through the creep curves to some levels of constant tension during periods of 1000 h, the attainment of the creep rupture envelope by the creep rupture curves and the determination of the transition of the linear for non-linear behavior through isochronous curves. In addition, comparisons of creep compliance curves with a viscoelastic behavior prediction model based on Schapery equation were also performed. For the test, a modification was verified in the behavior of the material, regarding the resistance, stiffness and deformation, demonstrating that these properties were affected for the time and tension level, especially in work temperature above the ambient. The prediction model was capable to represent the creep behavior, however the determination of the equations terms should be considered, besides the variation of these with the applied tension and the elapsed time of test. (author)

  19. Effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Gu Aijuan; Liang Guozheng; Yuan Li

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the surface roughness on interfacial properties of carbon fibers (CFs) reinforced epoxy (EP) resin composite is studied. Aqueous ammonia was applied to modify the surfaces of CFs. The morphologies and chemical compositions of original CFs and treated CFs (a-CFs) were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Compared with the smooth surface of original CF, the surface of a-CF has bigger roughness; moreover, the roughness increases with the increase of the treating time. On the other hand, no obvious change in chemical composition takes place, indicating that the treating mechanism of CFs by aqueous ammonia is to physically change the morphologies rather than chemical compositions. In order to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the interfacial properties of CF/EP composites, the wettability and Interfacial Shear Strength (IFSS) were measured. Results show that with the increase of the roughness, the wettabilities of CFs against both water and ethylene glycol improves; in addition, the IFSS value of composites also increases. These attractive phenomena prove that the surface roughness of CFs can effectively overcome the poor interfacial adhesions between CFs and organic matrix, and thus make it possible to fabricate advanced composites based on CFs.

  20. Effect of stitch density on fatigue characteristics and damage mechanisms of stitched carbon/epoxy composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2014-05-01

    The effect of stitch density (SD) on fatigue life, stiffness degradation and fatigue damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy (T800SC/XNRH6813) stitched using Vectran thread is presented in this paper. Moderately stitched composite (SD = 0.028/mm2; \\'stitched 6 × 6\\') and densely stitched composite (SD = 0.111/mm2; \\'stitched 3 × 3\\') are tested and compared with composite without stitch thread (SD = 0.0; \\'unstitched\\'). The experiments show that the fatigue life of stitched 3 × 3 is moderately better than that of unstitched and stitched 6 × 6. Stitched 3 × 3 pattern is also able to postpone the stiffness degradation onset. The improvement of fatigue properties and postponement of stiffness degradation onset in stitched 3 × 3 is primarily due to an effective impediment of edge-delamination. Quantification of damage at various cycles and stress levels shows that stitch density primarily affects the growth rate of delamination. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of interfacial effects in carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécastaings, G; Delhaès, P; Derré, A; Saadaoui, H; Carmona, F; Cui, S

    2004-09-01

    The interfacial effects are critical to understand the nanocomposite behavior based on polymer matrices. These effects are dependent upon the morphology of carbon nanotubes, the type of used polymer and the processing technique. Indeed, we show that the different parameters, as the eventual surfactant use, the ultrasonic treatment and shear mixing have to be carefully examined, in particular, for nanotube dispersion and their possible alignment. A series of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) have been mixed with a regular epoxy resin under a controlled way to prepare nanocomposites. The influence of nanotube content is examined through helium bulk density, glass transition temperature of the matrix and direct current electrical conductivity measurements. These results, including the value of the percolation threshold, are analyzed in relationship with the mesostructural organization of these nanotubes, which is observed by standard and conductive probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The wrapping effect of the organic matrix along the nanotubes is evidenced and analyzed to get a better understanding of the final composite characteristics, in particular, for eventually reinforcing the matrix without covalent bonding.

  2. Release of carbon nanotubes from an epoxy-based nanocomposite during an abrasion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Chu, Bryan T T; Buha, Jelena; Nüesch, Frank; Wang, Jing

    2012-07-03

    The abrasion behavior of an epoxy/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite was investigated. An experimental setup has been established to perform abrasion, particle measurement, and collection all in one. The abraded particles were characterized by particle size distribution and by electron microscopy. The abrasion process was carried out with a Taber Abraser, and the released particles were collected by a tube for further investigation. The particle size distributions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and revealed four size modes for all measured samples. The mode corresponding to the smallest particle sizes of 300-400 nm was measured with the SMPS and showed a trend of increasing size with increasing nanofiller content. The three measured modes with particle sizes from 0.6 to 2.5 μm, measured with the APS, were similar for all samples. The measured particle concentrations were between 8000 and 20,000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the SMPS and between 1000 and 3000 particles/cm(3) for measurements with the APS. Imaging by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that free-standing individual CNTs and agglomerates were emitted during abrasion.

  3. A Nanomechanical Approach on the Measurement of the Elastic Properties of Epoxy Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mansour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of nanocomposite materials with multiwallcarbon nanotube ( MWCNT reinforcements is investigated in the present paper. Epoxy nanocomposites with different weight percentages of carbon nanotubes have been characterized following tensile tests and nanoindentations. The objective of this work was to investigate the efficiency of the reinforcement provided by nanotubes and to examine the agreement between the mechanical properties of the epoxynanocomposites obtained via a macroscale and nanoscale experimentalmethods. Higher increase in modulus was accomplished at weight fraction of nanotube reinforcement of 1 %. The modulus as measured by the tensile tests differed an average of 18% with the results obtained from the nanoindentations, however by utilizing a proper calibration method the resulting data were corrected to only a 3% difference. The modulus results obtained from the experiments were compared with the Halpin - Tsai model and with the Thostenson - Chou model accounting for the outer layer interactions of the nanotube with the hosting matrix. A relatively good agreement was found between the models and the experiments.

  4. Effect of moisture absorption on damping and dynamic stiffness of carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zai, Behzad Ahmed; Park, M. K.; Mehboob, Hassan; Ali, Rashid [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. S. [Korean Air Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, the damping and dynamic stiffness of UHN125C carbon fiber/epoxy composite beam was experimentally measured. The effect of fiber orientation angle and stacking sequences on damping, resonance frequency, and dynamic stiffness was discussed with a focus on the effect of moisture absorption. Dried specimens were immersed in distilled water for a certain period to absorb water for 8, 16, and 24 d, respectively, and the moisture content absorbed in the specimen was measured. Furthermore, using the impact hammer technique, the measurements of dynamic responses were conducted on a cantilever beam specimen with one end clamped by bolts and metal plates. The damping properties in terms of loss factor were approximated by half-power bandwidth technique. The dynamic stiffness was evaluated using resonance frequency as a function of moisture content. The damping increased with the increase of moisture content: however, the dynamic stiffness reduced with the reduction of resonance frequency. The results of the dynamic stiffness were aided by measuring the dynamic strain using DBU-120A strain-indicating software. The increment in the dynamic strain strengthened the results obtained for dynamic stiffness

  5. Thermal characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-woo Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The material with irregular atomic structures such as polymer material exhibits low thermal conductivity because of the complex structural properties. Even materials with same atomic configurations, thermal conductivity may be different based on their structural properties. It is expected that nanoparticles with conductivity will change non-conductive polymer base materials to electrical conductors, and improve the thermal conductivity even with extremely small filling amount. Nano-composite materials contain nanoparticles with a higher surface ratio which makes the higher interface percentage to the total surface of nanoparticles. Therefore, thermal resistance of the interface becomes a dominating factor determines the effective thermal conductivity in nano-composite materials. Carbon fiber has characteristic of resistance or magnetic induction and Also, Carbon nanotube (CNT has electronic and thermal property. It can be applied for heating system. These characteristic are used as heating composite. In this research, the exothermic characteristics of Carbon fiber reinforced composite added CNT were evaluated depend on CNT length and particle size. It was found that the CNT dispersed in the resin reduces the resistance between the interfaces due to the decrease in the total resistance of the heating element due to the addition of CNTs. It is expected to improve the life and performance of the carbon fiber composite material as a result of the heating element resulting from this paper. Keywords: Carbon Nanotube (CNT, Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Plastic (CFRP, Heater, Exothermic characteristics

  6. The impact of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the X-band microwave absorption of their epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Bien Dong; Nguyen, Bao Quoc; Nguyen, Le-Thu T; Nguyen, Ha Tran; Nguyen, Viet Quoc; Van Le, Thang; Nguyen, Nieu Huu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) characteristics, besides the processing conditions, can change significantly the microwave absorption behavior of CNT/polymer composites. In this study, we investigated the influence of three commercial multi-walled CNT materials with various diameters and length-to-diameter aspect ratios on the X-band microwave absorption of epoxy nanocomposites with CNT contents from 0.125 to 2 wt%, prepared by two dispersion methods, i.e. in solution with surfactant-aiding and via ball-milling. The laser diffraction particle size and TEM analysis showed that both methods produced good dispersions at the microscopic level of CNTs. Both a high aspect ratio resulting in nanotube alignment trend and good infiltration of the matrix in the individual nanotubes, which was indicated by high Brookfield viscosities at low CNT contents of CNT/epoxy dispersions, are important factors to achieve composites with high microwave absorption characteristics. The multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with the largest aspect ratio resulted in composites with the best X-band microwave absorption performance, which is considerably better than that of reported pristine CNT/polymer composites with similar or lower thicknesses and CNT loadings below 4 wt%. A high aspect ratio of CNTs resulting in microscopic alignment trend of nanotubes as well as a good level of micro-scale CNT dispersion resulting from good CNT-matrix interactions are crucial to obtain effective microwave absorption performance. This study demonstrated that effective radar absorbing MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites having small matching thicknesses of 2-3 mm and very low filler contents of 0.25-0.5 wt%, with microwave energy absorption in the X-band region above 90% and maximum absorption peak values above 97%, could be obtained via simple processing methods, which is promising for mass production in industrial applications. Graphical AbstractComparison of the X-band microwave reflection loss of epoxy composites of

  7. Exposure Assessment of Particulate Matter from Abrasive Treatment of Carbon and Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy-Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Levin, Marcus; Koivisto, Antti J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composites is ever increasing due to their important structural and chemical features. The composite component production often involves high energy grinding and sanding processes to which emissions workers are potentially exposed. In this study we investigated the machining of carbon...... and glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composite materials at two facilities. We measured particle number concentrations and size distributions of the released material in near field and far field during sanding of glass-and carbon fibre-reinforced composites. We assessed the means of reducing exposure during...

  8. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  9. Evolution of carbon nanotube dispersion in preparation of epoxy-based composites: From a masterbatch to a nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aravand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The state of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion in epoxy is likely to change in the process of composite production. In the present work CNT dispersion is characterized at different stages of nanocomposite preparation: in the original masterbatch with high CNT concentration, after masterbatch dilution, in the process of curing and in the final nanocomposite. The evaluation techniques included dynamic rheological analysis of the liquid phases, optical, environmental and charge contrast scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The evolution of the CNT dispersion was assessed for two CNT/epoxy systems with distinctly different dispersion states induced by different storage time. Strong interactions between CNT clusters were revealed in the masterbatch with a longer storage time. Upon curing CNT clusters in this material formed a network-like structure. This network enhanced the elastic behaviour and specific conductivity of the resulting nanocomposite, leading to a partial electrical percolation after curing.

  10. 1D and 2D oxidized carbon nanomaterials on epoxy matrix: performance of composites over the same processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Galicia, Lourdes; Martinez-Hernandez, Ana Laura; Fuentes-Ramirez, Rosalba; Velasco-Santos, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide were evaluated as reinforcements of an epoxy resin. The composites were synthesized at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 wt% under the same processing conditions. Nanocomposites with graphene oxide at 0.5 wt% present the highest mechanical properties, reaching up to ~180%, and ~760% of improvement in tensile strength and tensile toughness with respect to neat epoxy. Nevertheless, composites with oxidized nanotubes exhibit a tendency to improve mechanical properties as load increases. Storage moduli diminish due to cross-linking density reduction in all nanocomposites. Difference in thermal degradation are not observed in composites in comparison with matrix. Dimension play an important role in mechanical properties, because each nanoreinforcement has different performance with the concentration.

  11. Thermal characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-woo; Park, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yun-hae; Riichi-Murakami

    2018-06-01

    The material with irregular atomic structures such as polymer material exhibits low thermal conductivity because of the complex structural properties. Even materials with same atomic configurations, thermal conductivity may be different based on their structural properties. It is expected that nanoparticles with conductivity will change non-conductive polymer base materials to electrical conductors, and improve the thermal conductivity even with extremely small filling amount. Nano-composite materials contain nanoparticles with a higher surface ratio which makes the higher interface percentage to the total surface of nanoparticles. Therefore, thermal resistance of the interface becomes a dominating factor determines the effective thermal conductivity in nano-composite materials. Carbon fiber has characteristic of resistance or magnetic induction and Also, Carbon nanotube (CNT) has electronic and thermal property. It can be applied for heating system. These characteristic are used as heating composite. In this research, the exothermic characteristics of Carbon fiber reinforced composite added CNT were evaluated depend on CNT length and particle size. It was found that the CNT dispersed in the resin reduces the resistance between the interfaces due to the decrease in the total resistance of the heating element due to the addition of CNTs. It is expected to improve the life and performance of the carbon fiber composite material as a result of the heating element resulting from this paper.

  12. Comparison of sizing effect of T700 grade carbon fiber on interfacial properties of fiber/BMI and fiber/epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lirui; Li Min; Wu Qing; Dai Zhishuang; Gu Yizhuo; Li Yanxia; Zhang Zuoguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon fiber sizings can react itself and with resin at high temperature. ► Sizings improve IFSS of carbon fiber/epoxy, but reduce that of BMI matrix. ► IFSS of carbon fiber/epoxy is larger than corresponding carbon fiber/BMI. ► Partially desized carbon fiber shows the effect of polymeric sizing component. ► The results are helpful for optimizing sizing agent of carbon fiber composites. - Abstract: This paper aims to study impact of sizing agents on interfacial properties of two T700 grade high strength carbon fibers with bismaleimide (BMI) and epoxy (EP) resin matrix. The fiber surface roughness and chemical properties are analyzed for sized, desized, and partially desized carbon fibers, using atom force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. FTIR analysis indicates that the sizing agents are chemically reactive, and they can react with BMI and EP at high temperatures. The micro-droplet tests exhibit that the desized carbon fibers have lower interfacial strengths with EP than the sized fibers, however, for BMI matrix, opposite trend is revealed. This is consistent with the chemical reactions of the sizing agents with the EP and BMI resins, in which sufficient reactions are observed for the sizing/EP mixture, while only partial reactions are probed for the sizing/BMI mixture. Interestingly, un-extracted epoxy type sizing particles are observed on partially desized carbon fiber surface, which significantly improves the interfacial adhesion with EP matrix.

  13. The thermal properties of a carbon nanotube-enriched epoxy: Thermal conductivity, curing, and degradation kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Rahaman, Ariful; Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    conductivity, and degradation kinetics were studied. Introducing the MWCNTs increased the curing activation energy as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry. The final thermal conductivity of the 0.5 and 1.0 wt % MWCNT-enriched epoxy samples measured

  14. Response behavior of an epoxy resin/amine curing agent/carbon black composite film to various solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yanling [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: luoyl0401@yahoo.com.cn; Li Zhanqing [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Lan Wenxiang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2007-04-25

    A novel polymer based sensitive film was prepared from thermosetting epoxy resins (EP) filled with carbon blacks. The curing reaction of amine curing agents with epoxy resins and the response of the curing resultants to solvent vapors were dealt with. The influence of the types and content of carbon blacks and curing agents, and curing temperatures and time on curing reactions and response selectivity of the conductive films were investigated. The structural characterization was conducted on a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results indicated that the conductive films showed high response selectivity to polar solvent vapors, especially to chloroform vapor, while no response was observed in non-polar solvent vapors. The responsivity of the film increased with the decreased carbon black contents. The film filled with acetylene carbon black gave an optimal response, with responsivity of about 700 times. The response performances were improved with the amount of curing agents increased, and an optimal response appeared at the amount of the curing agent of 8%. The film's responsivity was remarkably enhanced, the reversibility property, however, rapidly declined in the order of diethyleneltriamine < triethylenetetramine < ethylenediamine. The curing reaction tended to complete with the curing temperature elevated and the curing time prolonged. But the response performance dropped because of over cross-linking as the temperature was too high or the time was too long.

  15. Response behavior of an epoxy resin/amine curing agent/carbon black composite film to various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yanling; Li Zhanqing; Lan Wenxiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel polymer based sensitive film was prepared from thermosetting epoxy resins (EP) filled with carbon blacks. The curing reaction of amine curing agents with epoxy resins and the response of the curing resultants to solvent vapors were dealt with. The influence of the types and content of carbon blacks and curing agents, and curing temperatures and time on curing reactions and response selectivity of the conductive films were investigated. The structural characterization was conducted on a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results indicated that the conductive films showed high response selectivity to polar solvent vapors, especially to chloroform vapor, while no response was observed in non-polar solvent vapors. The responsivity of the film increased with the decreased carbon black contents. The film filled with acetylene carbon black gave an optimal response, with responsivity of about 700 times. The response performances were improved with the amount of curing agents increased, and an optimal response appeared at the amount of the curing agent of 8%. The film's responsivity was remarkably enhanced, the reversibility property, however, rapidly declined in the order of diethyleneltriamine < triethylenetetramine < ethylenediamine. The curing reaction tended to complete with the curing temperature elevated and the curing time prolonged. But the response performance dropped because of over cross-linking as the temperature was too high or the time was too long

  16. Influence of carbon nanotubes on the properties of epoxy based composites reinforced with a semicrystalline thermoplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, A.; Shuttleworth, P.; Gónzalez-Castillo, E.; Marco, C.; Gómez-Fatou, M.; Ellis, G.

    2014-08-01

    Novel ternary nanocomposites based on a thermoset (TS) system composed of triglycidyl p-aminophenol (TGAP) epoxy resin and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) curing agent incorporating 5 wt% of a semicrystalline thermoplastic (TP), an ethylene/1-octene copolymer, and 0.5 or 1.0 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been prepared via physical blending and curing. The influence of the TP and the MWCNTs on the curing process, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanocomposites has been analyzed. Different morphologies evolved depending on the CNT content: the material with 0.5 wt% MWCNTs showed a matrix-dispersed droplet-like morphology with well-dispersed nanofiller that selectively located at the TS/TP interphase, while that with 1.0 wt% MWCNTs exhibited coarse dendritic TP areas containing agglomerated MWCNTs. Although the cure reaction was accelerated in its early stage by the nanofillers, curing occurred at a lower rate since these obstructed chain crosslinking. The nanocomposite with lower nanotube content displayed two crystallization peaks at lower temperature than that of pure TP, while a single peak appearing at similar temperature to that of TP was observed for the blend with higher nanotube loading. The highest thermal stability was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (0.5 wt%), due to a synergistic barrier effect of both TP and the nanofiller. Moreover, this nanocomposite displayed the best mechanical properties, with an optimal combination of stiffness, strength and toughness. However, poorer performance was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (1.0 wt%) due to the less effective reinforcement of the agglomerated nanotubes and the coalescence of the TP particles into large areas. Therefore, finely tuned morphologies and properties can be obtained by adjusting the nanotube content in the TS/TP blends, leading to high-performance hybrid nanocomposites suitable for structural and high-temperature applications.

  17. Fracture toughness of epoxy/multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites under bending and shear loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayatollahi, M.R.; Shadlou, S.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mode I and mode II fracture tests were conducted on epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites. → Addition of MWCNT to epoxy increased both K Ic and K IIc of nano-composites. → The improvement in K IIc was more pronounced than in K Ic . → Mode I and mode II fracture surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT nano-composites were studied with emphasis on fracture toughness under bending and shear loading conditions. Several finite element (FE) analyses were performed to determine appropriate shear loading boundary conditions for a single-edge notch bend specimen (SENB) and an equation was derived for calculating the shear loading fracture toughness from the fracture load. It was seen that the increase in fracture toughness of nano-composite depends on the type of loading. That is to say, the presence of MWCNTs had a greater effect on fracture toughness of nano-composites under shear loading compared with normal loading. To study the fracture mechanisms, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures were taken from the fracture surfaces. A correlation was found between the characteristics of fracture surface and the mechanical behaviors observed in the fracture tests.

  18. Electrochemical and anticorrosion behaviors of hybrid functionalized graphite nano-platelets/tripolyphosphate in epoxy-coated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Taromi, Faramarz Afshar; Neshati, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • FGNP was combined with TPP to obtain a hybrid nano-particle. • TEM image showed uniform distribution of the hybrid nanoparticles in epoxy coating. • FGNP is a substrate for linking of TPP anions by hydrogen bonding. • FGNP as an accelerator, provides rapid iron phosphate passive film formation. • The hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection. - Abstract: Functionalized graphite nano-platelets (FGNP) were combined with tripolyphosphate (TPP) to gain a hybrid nano-particle (FGNP-TPP) with homogenous dispersion in epoxy, resulting in an excellent anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel substrate. Characterization analyses of the hybrid nano-particle were performed by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and TEM. TPP was linked to FGNP nano-particles by hydrogen bondings. Different epoxy coatings formulated with 1 wt.% of FGNP, FGNP-TPP and TPP were evaluated. Electrochemical investigations, salt spray and pull-off tests showed that the hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection compared to FGNP and TPP due to synergistic effect between FGNP as an accelerator and TPP as a corrosion inhibitor to produce a uniform and stable iron-phosphate passive film with high surface coverage.

  19. Electrochemical and anticorrosion behaviors of hybrid functionalized graphite nano-platelets/tripolyphosphate in epoxy-coated carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh, E-mail: somaye.mohammadi32@aut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariatpanahi, Homeira [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taromi, Faramarz Afshar [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, Jaber [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • FGNP was combined with TPP to obtain a hybrid nano-particle. • TEM image showed uniform distribution of the hybrid nanoparticles in epoxy coating. • FGNP is a substrate for linking of TPP anions by hydrogen bonding. • FGNP as an accelerator, provides rapid iron phosphate passive film formation. • The hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection. - Abstract: Functionalized graphite nano-platelets (FGNP) were combined with tripolyphosphate (TPP) to gain a hybrid nano-particle (FGNP-TPP) with homogenous dispersion in epoxy, resulting in an excellent anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel substrate. Characterization analyses of the hybrid nano-particle were performed by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and TEM. TPP was linked to FGNP nano-particles by hydrogen bondings. Different epoxy coatings formulated with 1 wt.% of FGNP, FGNP-TPP and TPP were evaluated. Electrochemical investigations, salt spray and pull-off tests showed that the hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection compared to FGNP and TPP due to synergistic effect between FGNP as an accelerator and TPP as a corrosion inhibitor to produce a uniform and stable iron-phosphate passive film with high surface coverage.

  20. Preparation and characterization of rubbery epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites using amino acid salt assisted dispersion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Jagtap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT composites were prepared using sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (SAHA modified MWCNT and its effect properties of related composites were investigated. The composite prepared using a polar solvent, tetrahydrofuran exhibits better mechanical properties compared to those prepared using less polar solvent and without using solvent. The tensile properties and dynamic storage modulus was found to be increased as a result of modification of MWCNT with SAHA. This improvement in the tensile properties and dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT composite is a combined effect of cation-π interaction and chemical bonding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to explain cation-π interaction between SAHA with MWCNT and chemical bonding of SAHA with epoxy resin. The effect of modification of MWCNT on morphology of a nanocomposite was confirmed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The present approach does not disturb the ! electron clouds of MWCNT as opposed to chemical functionalization strategy.

  1. The Effect of an Active Diluent on the Properties of Epoxy Resin and Unidirectional Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodilov, V. I.; Gorbatkina, Y. A.; Kuperman, A. M.

    2003-11-01

    The influence of an active diluent on the properties of an epoxy matrix and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) is investigated. The physicomechanical properties of an ED-20 epoxy resin modified with diglycidyl ether of diethylene glycol (DEG-1), the adhesion strength at the epoxy matrix-steel wire interface, and the mechanical properties of unidirectional CFRP are determined. The concentration of DEG-1 was varied from 0 to 50 wt.%. The properties of the matrix, the interface, and the composites are compared. It is stated that the matrix strength affects the strength of unidirectional CFRP in bending and not their strength in tension, compression, and shear. The latter fact seems somewhat unexpected. The interlaminar fracture toughness of the composites investigated correlates with the ultimate elongation of the binder. A comparison between the concentration dependences of adhesion strength and the strength of CFRP shows that the matrices utilized provide such a high interfacial strength that the strength of CFRP no longer depends on the adhesion of its constituents.

  2. Epoxy elastomers reinforced with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as stimuli-responsive shape memory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lama, G. C.; Nasti, G.; Cerruti, P.; Gentile, G.; Carfagna, C.; Ambrogi, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into epoxy-based elastomers was carried out in order to obtain nanocomposite systems with shape memory effect. For the preparation of elastomeric matrices, p-bis(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-α-methylstilbene (DOMS) was cured with sebacic acid. DOMS was synthesized in our laboratory and it is characterized by a rigid-rod, potentially liquid crystalline structure. A lightly cross-linked liquid crystalline elastomer was obtained. As for nanocomposites, variable amounts (0.75, 1.50, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 wt.%) of COOH-MWCNTs were employed. In order to improve the nanotubes dispersibility and the interfacial adhesion with the epoxy matrix, an optimized two-step procedure was developed, which consisted in grafting the epoxy monomer onto the nanotube surface and then curing it in presence of crosslinking agent. DOMS-functionalized MWCNT were characterized through solvent dispersion experiments, FTIR spectroscopy and TGA analysis, which demonstrated the occurred covalent functionalization of the nanotubes with the epoxy monomers. The morphological analysis through electron microscopy demonstrated that this was an efficient strategy to improve the dispersion of nanotubes within the matrix. The second part of the work was devoted to the structural, thermal, mechanical and electric characterization of elastomeric nanocomposites. The results indicated a general improvement of properties of nanocomposites. Also, independently of the nanotube content, a smectic phase formed. Shape memory features of LC systems were also evaluated. It was demonstrated the shape could be recovered through heating, solvent immersion, as well as upon the application of an electrical field

  3. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on the strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOMCILO STEVANOVIC; MILAN GORDIC; DANIELA SEKULIC; ISIDOR DJORDJEVIC

    2006-01-01

    The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry: cross-ply, quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates with additional 0º and 90º ply was studied. Coupons with two widths of laminates with an inverse stacking sequence were tested in static tensile tests. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength was studied, by comparing the values of the tensile strength of laminate coupons of the same width with an inverse stacking sequen...

  4. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  5. Assessment of cumulative damage by using ultrasonic C-scan on carbon fiber/epoxy composites under thermal cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yutaka Shiino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, structural composites manufactured by carbon fiber/epoxy laminates have been employed in large scale in aircraft industries. These structures require high strength under severe temperature changes of -56° until 80 °C. Regarding this scenario, the aim of this research was to reproduce thermal stress in the laminate plate developed by temperature changes and tracking possible cumulative damages on the laminate using ultrasonic C-scan inspection. The evaluation was based on attenuation signals and the C-scan map of the composite plate. The carbon fiber/epoxy plain weave laminate underwent temperatures of -60° to 80 °C, kept during 10 minutes and repeated for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 times. After 1000 cycles, the specimens were inspected by C-scanning. A few changes in the laminate were observed using the inspection methodology only in specimens cycled 3000 times, or so. According to the found results, the used temperature range did not present enough conditions to cumulative damage in this type of laminate, which is in agreement with the macro - and micromechanical theory.

  6. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of vapor grown carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites with different filler dispersion levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.; Silva, J.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Klosterman, D.; Hattum, F.W.J. van; Simoes, R.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the dispersion of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) on the electrical properties of VGCNF/epoxy composites has been studied. A homogeneous dispersion of the VGCNF does not imply better electrical properties. The presence of well distributed clusters appears to be a key factor for increasing composite conductivity. It is also shown that the main conduction mechanism has an ionic nature for concentrations below the percolation threshold, while above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. Finally, using the granular system theory it is possible to explain the origin of conduction at low temperatures. -- Highlights: ► The influence of dispersion of carbon nanofibers on epoxy is investigated. ► A homogeneous dispersion does not imply better electrical properties. ► The conduction mechanism has an ionic nature below the percolation threshold. ► Above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. ► The granular system theory allows explaining conduction at low temperatures.

  7. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of vapor grown carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites with different filler dispersion levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, P. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Silva, J. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Institute for Polymers and Composites IPC/I3N, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimares (Portugal); Agostinho Moreira, J. [IFIMUP and IN—Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Klosterman, D. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0246 (United States); Hattum, F.W.J. van [Institute for Polymers and Composites IPC/I3N, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimares (Portugal); Simoes, R. [Institute for Polymers and Composites IPC/I3N, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimares (Portugal); School of Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Campus do IPCA, 4750-810 Barcelos (Portugal); Lanceros-Mendez, S., E-mail: lanceros@fisica.uminho.pt [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); INL—International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2012-10-01

    The influence of the dispersion of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) on the electrical properties of VGCNF/epoxy composites has been studied. A homogeneous dispersion of the VGCNF does not imply better electrical properties. The presence of well distributed clusters appears to be a key factor for increasing composite conductivity. It is also shown that the main conduction mechanism has an ionic nature for concentrations below the percolation threshold, while above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. Finally, using the granular system theory it is possible to explain the origin of conduction at low temperatures. -- Highlights: ► The influence of dispersion of carbon nanofibers on epoxy is investigated. ► A homogeneous dispersion does not imply better electrical properties. ► The conduction mechanism has an ionic nature below the percolation threshold. ► Above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. ► The granular system theory allows explaining conduction at low temperatures.

  8. Improvement of toughness and electrical properties of epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes prepared by industrially relevant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollertz, R; Chatterjee, S; Geiger, T; Nueesch, F A; Chu, B T T; Gutmann, H

    2011-01-01

    The addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to polymeric matrices or master batches has the potential to provide composites with novel properties. However, composites with a uniform dispersion of CNTs have proved to be difficult to manufacture, especially at an industrial scale. This paper reports on processing methods that overcome problems related to the control and reproducibility of dispersions. By using a high pressure homogenizer and a three-roll calendaring mill in combination, CNT reinforced epoxies were fabricated by mould casting with a well dispersed nanofiller content from 0.1 to 2 wt%. The influence of the nano-carbon reinforcements on toughness and electrical properties of the CNT/epoxies was studied. A substantial increase of all mechanical properties already appeared at the lowest CNT content of 0.1 wt%, but further raising the nanofiller concentration only led to moderate further changes. The most significant enhancement was obtained for fracture toughness, reaching up to 82%. The low percolation thresholds were confirmed by electrical conductivity measurements on the same composites yielding a threshold value of only about 0.01 wt%. As corroborated by a thorough microscopic analysis of the composites, mechanical and electrical enhancement points to the formation of an interconnected network of agglomerated CNTs.

  9. Use of Modal Acoustic Emission to Monitor Damage Progression in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy and Implications for Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J. M.; Nichols, C. T.; Wentzel, D. J.; Saulsberry R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band modal acoustic emission (AE) data was used to characterize micromechanical damage progression in uniaxial IM7 and T1000 carbon fiber-epoxy tows and an IM7 composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) subjected to an intermittent load hold tensile stress profile known to activate the Felicity ratio (FR). Damage progression was followed by inspecting the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) associated with acoustic emission events. FFT analysis revealed the occurrence of cooperative micromechanical damage events in a frequency range between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. Evidence was found for the existence of a universal damage parameter, referred to here as the critical Felicity ratio, or Felicity ratio at rupture (FR*), which had a value close to 0.96 for the tows and the COPV tested. The implications of using FR* to predict failure in carbon/epoxy composite materials and related composite components such as COPVs are discussed. Trends in the FFT data are also discussed; namely, the difference between the low and high energy events, the difference between early and late-life events, comparison of IM7 and T1000 damage progression, and lastly, the similarity of events occurring at the onset of significant acoustic emission used to calculate the FR.

  10. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Drive Shaft for All Terrain Vehicle using Filament Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Nayak Suhas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Filament winding is a composite material fabrication technique that is used to manufacture concentric hollow components. In this study Carbon/Epoxy composite drive shafts were fabricated using filament winding process with a fiber orientation of [852/±452/252]s. Carbon in the form of multifilament fibers of Tairyfil TC-33 having 3000 filaments/strand was used as reinforcement with low viscosity epoxy resin as the matrix material. The driveshaft is designed to be used in SAE Baja All Terrain Vehicle (ATV that makes use of a fully floating axle in its rear wheel drive system. The torsional strength of the shaft was tested and compared to that of an OEM steel shaft that was previously used in the ATV. Results show that the composite shaft had 8.5% higher torsional strength in comparison to the OEM steel shaft and was also lighter by 60%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs were studied to investigate the probable failure mechanism. Delamination, matrix agglomeration, fiber pull-out and matrix cracking were the prominent failure mechanisms identified.

  11. Effect of carbon nanotube functionalization on mechanical and thermal properties of cross-linked epoxy-carbon nanotube nanocomposites: role of strengthening the interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ketan S; Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2014-05-14

    We have used amido-amine functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that form covalent bonds with cross-linked epoxy matrices to elucidate the role of the matrix-filler interphase in the enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties in these nanocomposites. For the base case of nanocomposites of cross-linked epoxy and pristine single-walled CNTs, our previous work (Khare, K. S.; Khare, R. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7444-7454) has shown that weak matrix-filler interactions cause the interphase region in the nanocomposite to be more compressible. Furthermore, because of the weak matrix-filler interactions, the nanocomposite containing dispersed pristine CNTs has a glass transition temperature (Tg) that is ∼66 K lower than the neat polymer. In this work, we demonstrate that in spite of the presence of stiff CNTs in the nanocomposite, the Young's modulus of the nanocomposite containing dispersed pristine CNTs is virtually unchanged compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy. This observation suggests that the compressibility of the matrix-filler interphase interferes with the ability of the CNTs to reinforce the matrix. Furthermore, when the compressibility of the interphase is reduced by the use of amido-amine functionalized CNTs, the mechanical reinforcement due to the filler is more effective, resulting in a ∼50% increase in the Young's modulus compared to the neat cross-linked epoxy. Correspondingly, the functionalization of the CNTs also led to a recovery in the Tg making it effectively the same as the neat polymer and also resulted in a ∼12% increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite containing functionalized CNTs compared to that containing pristine CNTs. These results demonstrate that the functionalization of the CNTs facilitates the transfer of both mechanical load and thermal energy across the matrix-filler interface.

  12. Immobilization and kinetics of catalase on calcium carbonate nanoparticles attached epoxy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preety; Hooda, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid epoxy/nano CaCO3 composite matrix for catalase immobilization was prepared by polymerizing epoxy resin in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles. The hybrid support was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Catalase was successfully immobilized onto epoxy/nano CaCO3 support with a conjugation yield of 0.67 ± 0.01 mg/cm(2) and 92.63 ± 0.80 % retention of activity. Optimum pH and optimum temperature of free and immobilized catalases were found to be 7.0 and 35 °C. The value of Km for H2O2 was higher for immobilized enzyme (31.42 mM) than native enzyme (27.73 mM). A decrease in Vmax value from 1,500 to 421.10 μmol (min mg protein)(-1) was observed after immobilization. Thermal and storage stabilities of catalase improved immensely after immobilization. Immobilized enzyme retained three times than the activity of free enzyme when kept at 75 °C for 1 h and the half-life of enzyme increased five times when stored in phosphate buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0) at 5 °C. The enzyme could be reused 30 times without any significant loss of its initial activity. Desorption of catalase from the hybrid support was minimum at pH 7.0.

  13. Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites: Correlation and Integration of Dynamic Impedance, Dielectric, and Mechanical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Moudam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of MWNT-epoxy composites for different MWNT concentrations of 0–7 wt% by correlating different dynamic analysis techniques, including DMA, impedance, and DEA. An optimum composition was established at 0.1 wt% MWNTs corresponding to the best MWNT dispersion which resulted in the formation of an optimum MWNT network. The addition of this low fraction of MWNTs in epoxy resulted in stiffening the molecular structure and suppressing certain molecular transitions, raising the dielectric constant especially in the low-to-medium frequency range, raising the electrical conductivity especially at the high frequencies, and increasing the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. The 0.1% MWNT-epoxy nanocomposite switched the electromagnetic shielding behaviour from being a very effective absorber at low frequencies to being an effective reflector at high frequencies. Finally, the Nyquist plot derived from the dynamic impedance spectroscopy proved most useful at providing evidence of multiple size distribution of MWNT agglomerates.

  14. Optimization of the rheological properties of epoxy resins for glass and carbon reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Malysheva, G.; Romanova, I.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) offers advantages such as simplicity, low cost of consumables, and the ability to carry out the impregnation process and curing without using expensive equipment and tooling. In the VARTM process, rheological properties of resin have a critical impact on the impregnation and curing process. In this article, the experimental results of viscosity are presented, including the glass transition temperature, and the tensile and bending strength of the epoxy binders with the amine hardener, which depend on the quantity of its active solvent composition. The active solvent used is diethylene glycol. It shows that for an increase in the content of the active solvent, a reduction in the viscosity and a reduction of the glass transition temperature and strength occurs. The optimum composition of the binder is selected by using the Pareto optimization criteria and the Cayley - Smorodinskaya method. By using the epoxy binder, the active solvent should not exceed 10-15% by weight. This approach helps to optimize the amount of active solvent added to the epoxy resins for the criterion of viscosity, strength, and heat resistance.

  15. A DFT study on the effect of supporting titania on silica graphene epoxy graphene and carbon nanotubes - Interfacial properties and optical response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kiarii, EM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A first principles study of the Titania is done as used in photo-catalysis to generate charge carries. Models of titania, silica, graphene, epoxy graphene monoxide, single wall Carbon nanotubes and their respective layer were studied in order...

  16. Failure phenomena in fibre-reinforced composites. Part 6: a finite element study of stress concentrations in unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, P.W.J.; Goutianos, S.; Young, R.J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) analysis of the stress situation around a fibre break in a unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite has been performed. Two cases were considered: (i) good fibre/matrix adhesion and (ii) fibre/matrix debonding. In the case of good adhesion,

  17. Morphological and mechanical analyses of laminates manufactured from randomly positioned carbon fibre/epoxy resin prepreg scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Christiane S. R.; Cândido, Geraldo M.; Alves, Wellington; Marlet, José Maria F.; Rezende, Mirabel C.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to contribute to sustainability by proposing the reuse of composite prepreg scrap as an added value from discards. The research evaluates the microstructure and mechanical properties of laminates processed by the reuse of uncured carbon fibre/F155-epoxy resin prepreg scraps, waste from the ply cutting area of an aeronautical industry. The composite scraps were used as collected and were randomly positioned to produce laminates to be cured at an autoclave. The mechanical characterization shows a decrease of 39% for the compression property due to the discontinuous fibres in the laminate and an increase of 34% for the interlaminar shear strength, when compared to continuous fibre laminates. This increase is attributed to the higher crosslink density of the epoxy resin, as a result of the cure temperature used in autoclave (60 °C higher than suggested by supplier) and also to the randomly positioned scraps. Microscopic analyses confirm the consolidation of laminates, although show resin rich areas with different sizes and shapes attributed to the overlapping of the scraps with different sizes and shapes. These resin rich areas may contribute to decrease the mechanical properties of laminates. The correlation between mechanical and morphological results shows potential to be used on non-critical structural application, as composite jigs, contributing to sustainability.

  18. Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding of epoxy nanocomposite foams containing functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhang, Hongming; Fan, Xun; Zhou, Lisheng; Shang, Zhengyang; Shi, Xuetao

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy/functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (EP/F-MWCNT) microcellular foams were fabricated through a supercritical CO2 (scCO2) foaming method. MWCNTs with carboxylation treatment were disentangled by using alpha-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) assisting dispersion method and functionalized with sulfanilamide. The F-MWCNTs were redispersed in acetone for mixing with epoxy resins to prepare nanocomposites. It was found that the dispersion of MWCNTs could be improved, thus heterogeneous nucleation effect of F-MWCNTs took place effectively during the foaming process, resulting in the formation of microcellular structure with larger cell density and smaller cell size. The volume conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding performance of foamed EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites were studied. When the F-MWCNT addition was 5 wt%, the conductivity of the foamed EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites was 3.02 × 10-4 S/cm and the EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) reached 20.5 dB, significantly higher than the corresponding results of nanocomposite counterparts, indicating that introducing microcellular structure in EP/F-MWCNT nanocomposites would beneficial to improve their electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding performance.

  19. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Y; Baz, A; Aldraihem, O

    2012-01-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  20. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Interfacial Shear Strength in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite under Thermal Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence mechanism of temperature on the interfacial shear strength (IFSS between carbon fiber (CF and epoxy resin (EP matrices under various thermal loads using experimental and numerical simulation methods. To evaluate the change in IFSS as a function of the increase in temperature, a microbond test was performed under controlled temperature environment from 23°C to 150°C. The experimental results showed that IFSS values of CF/EP reduce significantly when the temperature reaches near glass transition temperature. To interpret the effect of thermal loads on IFSS, a thermal-mechanical coupling finite element model was used to simulate the process of fiber pull-out from EP. The results revealed that temperature dependence of IFSS is linked to modulus of the matrix as well as to the coefficients of thermal expansion of the fiber and matrix.

  2. Nanocomposite of photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and carbon nanotubes: dynamic-mechanical, thermal and tribological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nunes dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal, dynamic-mechanical and tribological behavior of nanocomposites of a photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT are investigated. A route consisting of a combination of sonication, mechanical and magnetic stirring is used to disperse 0.25-0.75 wt. (% MWCNT into the resin. Two photocuring cycles using 12 hours and 24 hours of UV-A radiation are studied. The storage modulus, the loss modulus and the tan delta are obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis. Thermal stability is investigated by thermogravimetry, morphology by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and tribological performance using a pin-on-disk apparatus. The results indicate an increase in stiffness and higher ability to dissipate energy, as well as a shift in the glass transition temperature for the nanocomposites. The addition of nanofillers also decreased friction coefficient and wear rate of the nanocomposites but did not change the observed wear mechanisms.

  3. Nanocomposite of photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and carbon nanotubes: dynamic-mechanical, thermal and tribological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nunes dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal, dynamic-mechanical and tribological behavior of nanocomposites of a photocurable epoxy-acrylate resin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT are investigated. A route consisting of a combination of sonication, mechanical and magnetic stirring is used to disperse 0.25-0.75 wt. (% MWCNT into the resin. Two photocuring cycles using 12 hours and 24 hours of UV-A radiation are studied. The storage modulus, the loss modulus and the tan delta are obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis. Thermal stability is investigated by thermogravimetry, morphology by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and tribological performance using a pin-on-disk apparatus. The results indicate an increase in stiffness and higher ability to dissipate energy, as well as a shift in the glass transition temperature for the nanocomposites. The addition of nanofillers also decreased friction coefficient and wear rate of the nanocomposites but did not change the observed wear mechanisms.

  4. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  5. A damage tolerance comparison of IM7/8551 and IM8G/8553 carbon/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    A damage tolerance study of two new toughened carbon fiber/epoxy resin systems was undertaken as a continuation of ongoing work into screening new opposites for resistance to foreign object impact. This report is intended to be a supplement to NASA TP 3029 in which four new fiber/resin systems were tested for damage tolerance. Instrumented drop weight impact testing was used to inflict damage to 16-ply quasi-isotropic specimens. Instrumented output data and cross-sectional examinations of the damage zone were utilized to quantify the damage. It was found that the two fiber/resin systems tested in this study were much more impact resistant than an untoughened composite such as T300/934, but were not as impact resistant as other materials previously studied.

  6. Measurement of Mechanical Property and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Carbon-Nano tube-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Min Ye; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kang, Hee Yong; Lee, Gyo Woo

    2013-01-01

    By using shear mixing and ultrasonication, we fabricated specimens of well-dispersed multi-walled carbon nano tube composites. To confirm the proper dispersion of the filler, we used scanning electron microscopy images for quantitative evaluation and a tensile test for qualitative assessment. Furthermore, the coefficients of thermal expansion of several specimens having different filler contents were calculated from the measured thermal strains and temperatures of the specimens. Based on the microscopy images of the well-dispersed fillers and the small deviations in the measurements of the tensile strength and stiffness, we confirmed the proper dispersion of absentee in the epoxy. As the filler contents were increased, the values of tensile strength increased from 58.33 to 68.81 MPa, and those of stiffness increased from 2.93 to 3.27 GPa. At the same time, the coefficients of thermal expansion decreased. This implies better thermal stability of the specimen

  7. Tribological properties of three-dimensional braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y.Z.; Huang, Y.; He, F.; Li, Q.Y.; Lian, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tribological properties of three-dimensional (3-D) braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites. Their specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction were examined as a function of operating conditions (load and sliding distance) under dry and lubricated conditions. In addition, the 3-D braided hybrid composites with varying carbon to Kevlar fiber volume ratio were tested to assess hybrid effects. It was found that the friction and wear rate decreased with sliding distance and then leveled off under dry and lubricated conditions. Different changing patterns with normal load were observed under two different sliding conditions. Furthermore, it was noted that negative hybrid effects on the wear resistance and the friction coefficient were identified for the current 3-D braided hybrid system. The composite with a carbon to Kevlar ratio of 3:2 was found to have the least wear and friction among all 3-D braided hybrid composites studied. Worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and wear mechanisms were discussed in this study

  8. Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Y.; Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ► Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ► The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ► The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

  9. In-situ determination of amine/epoxy and carboxylic/epoxy exothermic heat of reaction on surface of modified carbon nanotubes and structural verification of covalent bond formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Juliana C.; de Castro, Vinícius G.; Assis, Ana L. S.; Veiga, Amanda G.; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Silva, Glaura G.

    2018-04-01

    An effective nanofiller-matrix interaction is considered crucial to produce enhanced nanocomposites. Nevertheless, there is lack of experiments focused in the direct measurement of possible filler-matrix covalent linkage, which was the main goal of this work for a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy system. CNT were functionalized with oxygenated (ox) functions and further with triethylenetetramine (TETA). An in-situ determination methodology of epoxy-CNTs heat of reaction was developed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Values of -(8.7 ± 0.4) and -(6.0 ± 0.6) J/g were observed for epoxy with CNT-ox and CNT-TETA, respectively. These results confirm the occurrence of covalent bonds for both functionalized CNTs, a very important information due to the literature generally disregard this possibility for oxygenated functions. The higher value obtained for CNT-ox can be attributed to a not complete amidation and to steric impediments in the CNT-TETA structure. The modified CNTs produced by DSC experiments were then characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetry, which confirmed the covalent linkage. This characterization methodology can be used to verify the occurrence of covalent bonds in various nanocomposites with a quantitative evaluation, providing data for better understanding of the role of CNT functional groups and for tailoring its interface with polymers.

  10. Thermo-mechanical characterization of epoxy nanocomposites with different carbon nanotube distributions obtained by solvent aided and direct mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarrelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different routes, namely solvent aided dispersion and direct mixing, were employed to disperse Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs into a mono-component epoxy system used as matrix for advanced composites. In the first route, MWCNTs were diluted in three different solvents (acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethanol and then mixed with the matrix by tip sonication. In the second case, carbonaceous nanoparticles were added directly into the hosting system and dispersion was carried out by using three different techniques (mechanical stirring, magnetic agitation and tip sonication. The effects of the solvents and agitation energy were investigated by optical microscopy at micron level, in order assess the more efficient dispersion procedure for the considered epoxy system. It was demonstrated that parameters associated with direct mixing rather than solvent solubility govern MWCNT dispersion. Optical analysis of the nanocomposite morphology evidenced a very low density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates in the case of direct mixed tip sonicated samples if compared to those obtained by solution aided dispersion. In addition, nanocomposites obtained by sonication showed the lowest density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates, also when compared with mechanically and magnetically stirred system. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA results confirm the final result that among the considered direct mixing techniques, the direct tip sonication represents the most efficient route for MWCNT dispersion. Moreover, the mixing temperature of the hosting matrix system represents a fundamental feature in enhancing the MWCNT de-bundling and dispersion. Small X-ray Scattering analysis revealed that a nanosized structure of nanotubes is formed in the case of the tip sonicated samples that is heuristically correlated with both the maximum enhancement of mechanical modulus and the maximum reduction of thermal expansion coefficients.

  11. Assessment of integrity of containment coating (Epoxy) using beta radiometry and NDT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujala, Usha; Sujatha, P.N.; Kumar, Amit; Menaka, M.; Subramanian, V.; Sriniyas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkataraman, B.; Preetha, R.; Kumar, J. Ashok

    2018-01-01

    The inner sides of walls of reactor containments and other fuel handling areas are coated with paint made of epoxy resins mainly for ease of decontamination and protecting rebar from corrosion environment. In addition, this gives the advantage in terms of ensuring additional leak tightness of reactor containment building (RCB) during the hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). During CDA, RCB will be bottled-up with sodium aerosols along with fuel and fission product aerosols. Sodium aerosols undergo chemical changes with progress of time to form hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate species upon reaction with atmospheric constituents. Of which, hydroxide aerosols are highly corrosive due to alkaline nature and it can cause damages to the epoxy coating. In this context, experiments have been conducted at ATF to assess the integrity of epoxy coating under the alkaline atmospheric conditions. Plywood, ordinary concrete and zinc plates are coated with epoxy paint and integrity of the coating is checked by exposing to sodium aerosols using beta radiometry technique (BRT), NDT techniques and gravimetric analysis. The results are presented in this paper

  12. Mechanical performance optimization of neutron shielding material based on short carbon fiber reinforced B4C/epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Feida; Chen Da

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy engineering requirements for mechanics performance of neutron shielding material, short carbon fiber was used to reinforce the traditional containing B 4 C neutron shielding material and effects of fiber content, length and surface treatment to mechanics performance of material was discussed. Based on Americium-Beryllium neutron source, material's neutron shielding performance was tested. The result of experiment prove that tensile strength of material which the quality ratio of resin and fiber is 5:1 is comparatively excellent for 10wt% B 4 C of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin. The tensile properties of material change little with the fiber length ranged from 3-10 mm The treatment of fiber surface with silane coupling agent KH-550 can increase the tensile properties of materials by 20% compared with the untreated of that. A result of shielding experiment that the novel neutron shielding material can satisfy the neutron shielding requirements can be obtained by comparing with B 4 C/polypropylene materials. The material has good mechanical properties and wide application prospect. (authors)

  13. The Effect of Small Additions of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Polymers under Static and Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, A. E.; Badamshina, E. R.; Anokhin, D. V.; Razorenov, S. V.; Vakorina, G. S.

    2018-01-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical characteristics of cured epoxy composites containing small and ultrasmall additions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the concentration range from 0 to 0.133 wt % under static and dynamic loads are presented. Static measurements of strength characteristics have been carried out under standard test conditions. Measurements of the Hugoniot elastic limit and spall strength were performed under a shock wave loading of the samples at a deformation rate of (0.8-1.5) ß 105 s-1 before the fracture using explosive devices by recording and subsequent analyzing the evolution of the full wave profiles. It has been shown that agglomerates of nanotubes present in the structure of the composites after curing cause a significant scatter of the measured strength parameters, both in the static and in the dynamic test modes. However, the effects of carbon nanotube additions in the studied concentration interval on the physical and mechanical characteristics of the parameters were not revealed for both types of loading.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Waterborne Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowty, Heather; Wang, Chyi-Shan

    2005-04-01

    The fabrication of water-borne polyurethane nanocomposites containing multi-wall nanotubes has presented a significant technological challenge to those in the polymer community. Such conductive polyurethanes are of great interest to the paint and coatings industry for use in electrical grounding and shielding. Currently, these materials are formed by strong acidic reflux of the nanotubes and subsequent dispersal in the polymer matrix. This treatment can result in significant shortening of the tubes and degradation of the resulting mechanical and electrical transport properties. Here we present an alternate technique in which various conductive and non-conductive water-soluble polymers are physi-adsorbed to the surface of the nanotube. These interactions with the nanotubes result in highly uniform suspensions of water-based urethane coatings and bulk materials. We will examine the polymer chemistry and morphologies of these nanostructured materials and the resulting thermal, electrical and mechanical properties.

  15. THE CARBON MONOXIDE ABUNDANCE IN COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 DURING THE EPOXI FLYBY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Dello Russo, N.; Feldman, P. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Stern, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of several emission bands in the CO Fourth Positive Group from comet 103P/Hartley 2 during ultraviolet spectroscopic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope on 2010 November 4 near the time of closest approach by NASA's EPOXI spacecraft. The derived CO/H 2 O ratio is 0.15%-0.45%, which places 103P/Hartley 2 among the most CO-depleted comets. Apparently this highly volatile species, whose abundance varies by a factor of ∼50 among the comets observed to date, does not play a major role in producing the strong and temporally variable activity in 103P/Hartley 2. The CO emissions varied by ∼30% between our two sets of observations, apparently in phase with the temporal variability measured for several gases and dust by other observers. The low absolute abundance of CO in 103P/Hartley 2 suggests several possibilities: the nucleus formed in a region of the solar nebula that was depleted in CO or too warm to retain much CO ice, repeated passages through the inner solar system have substantially depleted the comet's primordial CO reservoir, or any CO still in the nucleus is buried below the regions that contribute significantly to the coma.

  16. Effects of stacking sequence on fracture mechanisms in quasi-isotropic Carbon/epoxy laminates under tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessabi, Z. R.; Majidi, B.; Aghazadeh, J.

    2006-01-01

    The progress of damage in quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates under tensile loading has been Investigated microscopically. One significant mode of failure in laminated composites is delamination initiating at free edges. The interlaminar stress in the boundary ply along the free edges of a laminated composite is the main factor to cause delamination. The laminate stacking sequence affects the interlaminar stress distribution and consequently may change the mode of failure. It is of design importance to determine a suitable criterion based on stress analysis to obtain the best stacking sequence. In the present work, tensile properties of six samples with different stacking sequences have been examined. Results showed that stress analysis at distance very close to the free edges is a suitable criterion to predict the initiation of delamination and the stacking sequence of [90/45/0/-45] s , has the highest strength among the others. Furthermore finite element analysis showed that the adjacent ±45 plies cause premature delamination during tensile loading

  17. Stress wave propagation in thin long-fiber carbon/epoxy composite panel. Numerical and experimental solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experimental and numerical analysis of stress wave propagation in a thin long fiber carbon/epoxy composite material. Experiments were performed on in-plane loaded square composite panels with dimensions 501mm x 501mm x 2:2 mm. The panels have several fiber orientations (0°, 30°, 60° and 90° measured from the loaded edge. They were loaded by in-plane impact of steel sphere. The impact area was on the edge, exactly 150mm from top left corners corner of the panels. The loading force was approximated by atime dependent function. Its shape was obtained from three dimensional contact analysis, which was performed on smaller area of panel. The function was used in further plane stress analysis of the whole panels. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results was executed. An attempt at determination of velocity of propagation of Rayleigh waves on the loaded edge was performed and the results are discussed in the paper. Further directions of the research are proposed.

  18. Chemoselective alternating copolymerization of limonene dioxide and carbon dioxide : a new highly functional aliphatic epoxy polycarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    The alternating copolymerization of biorenewable limonene dioxide with carbon dioxide (CO2) catalyzed by a zinc β-diiminate complex is reported. The chemoselective reaction results in linear amorphous polycarbonates that carry pendent methyloxiranes and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg) up

  19. A comparative study on the tensile and impact properties of Kevlar, carbon, and S-glass/epoxy composites reinforced with SiC particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Alsaadi, Mohamad; Erkliğ, Ahmet

    2018-02-01

    Present study compares the tensile and impact characteristics of Kevlar, carbon and glass fiber reinforced composites with addition of microscale silicon carbide (SiC) within the common matrix of epoxy. The variation of tensile and impact strength values was explored for different content of SiC in the epoxy resin by weight (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%). Resulting failure characteristics were identified by assisting Charpy impact tests. The influence of interfacial adhesion between particle and fiber/matrix on failure and tensile properties was discussed from obtained results and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) figures. It is concluded from results that the content of SiC particles, and fiber types used as reinforcement are major parameters those effecting on tensile and impact resistance of composites as a result of different interface strength properties between particle-matrix and particle-fiber.

  20. Influence of the Hybrid Combination of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide on Interlaminar Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, J. A.; Rubio-González, C.; Jiménez-Mora, M.; Ramos-Galicia, L.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2017-10-01

    An effective strategy to improve the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness (G IC and G IIC ) of unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/E) laminates using a hybrid combination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) is reported. Double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) tests were conducted to evaluate the G IC and G IIC of the CF/E laminates fabricated with sprayed MWCNTs, GO and MWCNTs/GO hybrid. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the fracture surfaces of tested DCB and ENF specimens. Experimental results showed the positive effect on the G IC and G IIC by 17% and 14% improvements on CF/E laminates with 0.25 wt.% MWCNTs/GO hybrid content compared to the neat CF/E. Also, the interlaminar shear strength value was increased for MWCNTs/GO-CF/E laminates. A synergetic effect between MWCNTs and GO resulted in improved interlaminar mechanical properties of CF/E laminates made by prepregs.

  1. A contribution from dielectric analysis to the study of the formation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes percolated networks in epoxy resin under an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, Celso L.S.; Hattenhauer, Irineu; Ramos, Airton; Coelho, Luiz A.F.; Pezzin, Sérgio H.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of percolation networks in epoxy matrix nanocomposites reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) during the curing process, at different MWNT contents, was studied by using a parallel plate cell subjected to a 300 V/cm AC electric field at 1 kHz. The percolation was verified by the electrical current output measured during and after the resin curing. The behavior of electric dipoles was characterized by impedance spectroscopy and followed the Debye first order dispersion model, by which an average relaxation time of 6.0 × 10 −4 s and a cut-off frequency of 1.7 kHz were experimentally found. By applying the theory of percolation, a critical probability, p c , equal to 0.038 vol% and an exponent of conductivity of 2.0 were found. Both aligned and random samples showed dipole relaxation times typical of interfacial and/or charge-hopping polarization, while the permittivity exhibited an exponential decrease with frequency. This behavior can be related to the increased ability to trap electrical charges due to the formation of the carbon nanotubes network. Optical and electron microscopies confirm the theoretical prediction that the application of an electric field during cure helps the process of MWNT debundling in epoxy resin. - Highlights: • We report the formation of percolating networks of MWNTs under AC electric field. • MWNT/epoxy dielectric properties were measured by impedance spectroscopy. • Lower percolation thresholds were obtained for composites with aligned CNTs. • Application of AC electric field helps the debundling of CNTs. • CNT/Epoxy with percolated networks presents interfacial and hopping polarizations

  2. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  3. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  4. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  5. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.; Gopinathan, E.; Bhagwath, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  6. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar, V.V.; Srinivasan, R.; Natarajan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  7. Structural, mechanical and electrical characterization of epoxy-amine/carbon black nanonocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an insight into the effect of preparation procedure and the filler content on both electrical and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite system. For the preparation of the nanocomposites diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA was used with triethylenetetramine (TETA as a curing agent. As fillers carbon black (CB nanoparticles with size from 25 to 75 nm were used. The characterization was done using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA, Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD and electrical conductivity measurements. The dependence of the dynamic mechanical and dielectric parameters (E′, E″, tanδ, ε', ε″, σ and Tg is associated with the filler content and is controlled by the employed curing conditions. An increase in electrical conductivity, which is observed at about 1% w/w of carbon black, indicates the creation of conducting paths and is associated with the Maxwell Wagner Sillars (MWS relaxation, probably due to the formation of aggregated microstructures in the bulk composite..

  8. The Impact Response of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates (Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 94-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Low velocity dropweight impact tests were conducted on carbon/epoxy laminates under various boundary conditions. The composite plates were 8-ply (+45,0,-45,90)s laminates supported in a clamped-clamped/free-free configuration with varying amounts of in-plane load, N(sub x), applied. Specimens were impacted at energies of 3.4, 4.5, and 6 Joules (2.5, 3.3, and 4.4 ft-lb). The amount of damage induced into the specimen was evaluated using instrumented impact techniques, x-ray inspection, and cross-sectional photomicroscopy. Some static identation tests were performed to examine if the impact events utilized in this study were of a quasi-static nature and also to gain insight into the shape of the deflected surface at various impact load combinations. Load-displacement curves from these tests were compared to those of the impact tests, as was damage determined from x-ray inspection. The finite element technique was used to model the impact event and determine the stress field within the laminae. Results showed that for a given impact energy level, more damage was induced into the specimen as the external in-plane load, N(sub x), was increased. The majority of damage observed consisted of back face splitting of the matrix parallel to the fibers in that ply, associated with delaminations emanating from these splits. The analysis showed qualitatively the results of impact conditions on maximum load of impact, maximum transverse deflection, and first failure mode and location.

  9. Calcium carbonate crystallizations on hypogean mural paintings: a pilot study of monitoring and diagnostics in Roman catacombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Fratini, F.; Mazzei, B.; Camaiti, M.; Cantisani, E.; Riminesi, C.; Manganelli Del Fà, R.; Cuzman, O.; Tiano, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the deterioration processes affecting mural paintings and rock surfaces within manmade hypogea consists in the formation of calcium carbonate crystallizations, which can create thick coverage and incrustations, even in some cases speleothems. These chemical reactions necessarily require the availability of calcium sources, which can be also of anthropogenic origin (e.g., lime-based mortars). Microclimate parameters also represent environmental forcing factors, on which the morphology and the degree of crystallinity of the precipitated carbonates depend. Understanding past/recent dynamics of carbonate precipitation implies a deep knowledge of the relationships between the exposed surfaces and the microclimate conditions, the impacts of external factors (e.g., groundwater infiltration and percolation from the overlying soil) and how they change over time. This is particularly fundamental for the preservation of hypogean sites which have not comparison with other typologies of environment due to their uniqueness, such as the ancient catacombs carved underneath the suburbs of Rome (Italy), since the 2nd century AD. In this paper we present the multidisciplinary methodological approach designed for the instrumental monitoring of the microphysical environment of the Catacombs of Saints Mark, Marcellian and Damasus, in the framework of the co-operation between the Institute for the Conservation and Valorization of Cultural Heritage and Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, Vatican, on the project HYPOGEA. Temperature inside the catacomb and on the surfaces, air relative humidity and CO2 concentration are the main of the parameters continuously measured by means of data loggers installed within the cubicles. Contemporarily, standardized methods of photographic documentation and digital micro-photogrammetry are used for change detection analysis of the painted surfaces and ancient plasters, as well as of the test areas purposely realized by applying fresh

  10. Optimisation des proprietes physiques d'un composite carbone epoxy fabrique par le procede RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koanda, Mahamat Mamadou Lamine

    The RFI (Resin Film Infusion) process is a composite materials manufacturing process. Especially known for the small investment it requires, RFI processes are more and more widely used in the aeronautical industry. However a number of aspects of this process are still not well controlled. The quality of the final part depends on which process is used. In the case of RFI, controlling physical characteristics such as thickness, fiber volume fraction or void content remains a major challenge. This dissertation deals with the optimization of the physical properties of a carbon composite manufactured with RFI processes. The ASTMD3171 and ASTMD792 standards were used to measure the void content and fiber volume fraction. First, we introduced different layup sequences in the RFI process and evaluate their impact on the physical properties of the final product. The experiments show the primary mode A, with the resin film at the bottom, resulting in much better quality with controlled fiber volume fraction and void content. Mode B (film in the symmetrical plane) yields results identical to mode A except more irregular thicknesses. Mode C (symmetrical film in the laminate) produces locally unacceptable void contents. Mode D (resin film on the top of the laminate) yields much better results than mode A with the exception of the more irregular thicknesses. Making gaps and overlaps with the resin film has negative effects beyond 2.54cm (one inch) and should be avoided. Several C-scan observations of the manufactured samples showed a large accumulation of porosity in the resin rich areas, as well as surface defects. Ultimately we analyzed the cure cycle in light of the thermodynamic porosity models. It is evident that the diffusion phenomenon is essential in this process. Therefore a better conditioning of the resin film made by Cytec is required. An optimal design with a cycle stop and pressure lag yields the optimal cure cycle for the RFI process.

  11. Biocide immobilized OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybrid/hyperbranched epoxy nanocomposites: Mechanical, thermal, antimicrobial and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bibekananda; Gupta, Kuldeep; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

    2015-11-01

    The present work demonstrated a transparent thermosetting nanocomposite with antimicrobial and photoluminescence attributes. The nanocomposites are fabricated by incorporation of different wt.% (1, 2 and 3) of a biocide immobilized OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybrid (MITH-NH) in the hyperbranched epoxy matrix. MITH-NH is obtained by immobilization of 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one hydrochloride (MITH) at room temperature using sonication on OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybid. The nanohybrid is prepared by reduction of cupric acetate using carbon dot as the reducing agent in the presence of OMMT at 70°C. The significant improvements in tensile strength (~2 fold), elongation at break (3 fold), toughness (4 fold) and initial thermal degradation temperature (30°C) of the pristine hyperbranched epoxy system are achieved by incorporation of 3wt.% of MITH-NH in it. The nanocomposites exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and Candida albicans, a fungus. The nanocomposite also shows significant activity against biofilm formation compared to the pristine thermoset. Further, the nanocomposite films emit different colors on exposure of different wavelengths of UV light. The properties of these nanocomposites are also compared with the same nanohybrid without OMMT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K

    2018-01-03

    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  13. Carbon nanotube modification using gum arabic and its effect on the dispersion and tensile properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Tae; Park, Ho Seok; Hui, David; Rhee, Kyong Yop

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effects of a MWCNT treatment on the dispersion of MWCNTs in aqueous solution and the tensile properties of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. MWCNTs were treated using acid and gum arabic, and MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated with 0.3 wt.% unmodified, oxidized and gum-treated MWCNTs. The dispersion states of the unmodified, oxidized, and Gum-treated MWCNTs were characterized in distilled water. The tensile strengths and elastic modulus of the three nanocomposites were determined and compared. The results indicated that the gum treatment produced better dispersion of the MWCNTs in distilled water and that gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites had a better tensile strength and elastic modulus than did the unmodified and acid-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscope examination of the fracture surface showed that the improved tensile properties of the gum-treated MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites were attributed to the improved dispersion of MWCNTs in the epoxy and to interfacial bonding between nanotubes and the epoxy matrix.

  14. A Large-scale Finite Element Model on Micromechanical Damage and Failure of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Including Thermal Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.

  15. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  16. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  17. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  18. A built-in sensor with carbon nanotubes coated by Ag clusters for deformation monitoring of glass fibre/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, P.; Riha, P.; Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Lloret Pertegás, S.; Schledjewski, R.; Kovar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A multiwalled carbon nanotube network embedded in a polyurethane membrane was integrated into a glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite by means of vacuum infusion to become a part of the composite and has been serving for a strain self-sensing functionality. Besides the pristine nanotubes also nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles attached to their surfaces were used to increase strain sensing. Moreover, the design of the carbon nanotube/polyurethane sensor allowed formation of network micro-sized cracks which increased its reversible electrical resistance resulted in an enhancement of strain sensing. The resistance sensitivity, quantified by a gauge factor, increased more than hundredfold in case of a pre-strained sensor with Ag decorated nanotubes in comparison with the sensor with pristine nanotubes.

  19. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  20. The Influence of GI and GII on the Compression After Impact Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates and Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Scharber, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the compression after impact strength of IM7 carbon fiber laminates made from epoxy resins with various mode I and mode II toughness values to observe the effects of these toughness values on the resistance to damage formation and subsequent residual compression strength-carrying capabilities. Both monolithic laminates and sandwich structure were evaluated. A total of seven different epoxy resin systems were used ranging in approximate GI values of 245-665 J/sq m and approximate GII values of 840-2275 J/sq m. The results for resistance to impact damage formation showed that there was a direct correlation between GII and the planar size of damage, as measured by thermography. Subsequent residual compression strength testing suggested that GI had no influence on the measured values and most of the difference in compression strength was directly related to the size of damage. Thus, delamination growth assumed as an opening type of failure mechanism does not appear to be responsible for loss of compression strength in the specimens examined in this study.

  1. Preparation and property investigation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films as high-performance electric heating (resistive heating element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films with a thickness of ~700 µm is prepared by a sequential process of premixing, post dispersing, film casting, and thermal curing. The effects of the physical shear dispersion on the properties of conductive polymer composites as the electric heating element are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that highly efficient conductive networks form with shear dispersions of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The electrical resistivity decreases sharply from ~1015 Ω·cm for the neat epoxy resin to ~102 Ω·cm for the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs in accordance with the percolation behaviour, and a low percolation threshold of ~0.018 wt% is fitted. The electric heating behaviour of the composite film is observed at a low MWCNT content of 0.05 wt% due to the high electrical conductivity. For the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs, an equilibrium temperature of 115 °C is reached at an applied voltage of 40 V within 30 s. The excellent electric heating behaviour, including the rapid temperature response, electric heating efficiency, and operational stability, is primarily related to the conductive two-dimensional networks consisting of MWCNTs and the thermodynamically stable polymer matrix.

  2. A facile one-pot fabrication of polyphosphazene microsphere/carbon fiber hybrid reinforcement and its effect on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Ningbo Dahongying University, Ningbo 315175 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Haibing, E-mail: xuhaibing@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Liu, Dong; Yan, Chun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Yingdan, E-mail: y.zhu@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon fiber was successfully functionalized with a layer of coating and poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres (PZSMS) by in situ polymerization. The enhancement of surface roughness can improve obviously the interfacial properties through providing more contact points and increasing mechanical interlocking between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix. Moreover, the cyclomatrix-type polyphosphazene coating and PZSMS distributed on the fibers surface can heal the surface defects to some extent and assist in holding back or absorbing excessive stress, resulting in the improvement of tensile strength. - Highlights: • Polyphosphazene microspheres/CF hybrid reinforcements were prepared via a novel and facile one-pot in situ polymerization. • Plenty of poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres were introduced onto the CF surfaces. • The multi-scale hybrid CF reinforcement enhanced the interfacial adhesion of CF/epoxy composites obviously. • The tensile strength of multi-scale hybrid CF also showed an obvious increase. - Abstract: Introducing nanoscale reinforcements into the interface between carbon fiber (CF) and resin is an effective approach to improve the interfacial adhesion of CF composites. In this paper, a facile one-pot polymerization process provides a rapid and efficient method for preparing polyphosphazene microspheres/CF hybrid reinforcement using hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) as monomers. By the in situ polymerization modification, HCCP and BPS were successfully cross-linked and deposited on the CF surface. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy images show that poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres were introduced onto the CF surfaces and the surface roughness of fibers is enhanced obviously. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm that the

  3. A facile one-pot fabrication of polyphosphazene microsphere/carbon fiber hybrid reinforcement and its effect on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiang; Xu, Haibing; Liu, Dong; Yan, Chun; Zhu, Yingdan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon fiber was successfully functionalized with a layer of coating and poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres (PZSMS) by in situ polymerization. The enhancement of surface roughness can improve obviously the interfacial properties through providing more contact points and increasing mechanical interlocking between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix. Moreover, the cyclomatrix-type polyphosphazene coating and PZSMS distributed on the fibers surface can heal the surface defects to some extent and assist in holding back or absorbing excessive stress, resulting in the improvement of tensile strength. - Highlights: • Polyphosphazene microspheres/CF hybrid reinforcements were prepared via a novel and facile one-pot in situ polymerization. • Plenty of poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres were introduced onto the CF surfaces. • The multi-scale hybrid CF reinforcement enhanced the interfacial adhesion of CF/epoxy composites obviously. • The tensile strength of multi-scale hybrid CF also showed an obvious increase. - Abstract: Introducing nanoscale reinforcements into the interface between carbon fiber (CF) and resin is an effective approach to improve the interfacial adhesion of CF composites. In this paper, a facile one-pot polymerization process provides a rapid and efficient method for preparing polyphosphazene microspheres/CF hybrid reinforcement using hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) as monomers. By the in situ polymerization modification, HCCP and BPS were successfully cross-linked and deposited on the CF surface. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy images show that poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphonel) microspheres were introduced onto the CF surfaces and the surface roughness of fibers is enhanced obviously. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm that the

  4. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  5. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites characterization of the starting materials and evaluation of thermal and electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos da

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of I) composite materials fabricated with O, I, 0,5 and I wt% of concentric multi-wall carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin (MWNT) dispersed randomly in the resin; 2) MWNT buckypaper/resin composite materials; 3) and neat MWNT buckypaper. Initially, we use the techniques of thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy for a broadening characterization of the starting materials, to evaluate its morphology, purity, chemical composition and structure, in order to optimize the properties of crosslinked resin and, consequently, of the composite systems. Important parameters such as the average molecular mass and the equivalent weight of epoxy resin (DGEBA) were determined by 1 H-NMR analysis and, after that, resin/curing agent relations with Phr 10, 15, 20 and 53,2 were elaborated and investigated by thermogravimetry, the resin/curing agent relation with Phr 10 showed to be the most thermally stable. This stoichiometric relation was used to elaborate the composites. We have evaluated that the effect of adding 10 wt% of the solvent acetone to the epoxy resin preparation does not alter its properties so we have adopted two routes to fabricate the composites. In the first route we used 10 wt% of acetone and, in the second the MWNT were dispersed in the matrix without using the solvent. However, no significant difference was observed for the dispersion of the bundle tubes in both systems. The electrical conductivity of the composites and buckypapers was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and the thermal conductivity by the flash laser flash method. Only the buckypapers presented high values for electrical conductivity (10 3 S.m -1 ). The composite systems presented values of 10 -3 S.m -1 , only a bit different from the value of the crosslinked resin. For thermal conductivity, the values for the

  6. Comparison of interfacial properties of electrodeposited single carbon fiber/epoxy composites using tensile and compressive fragmentation tests and acoustic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2002-03-01

    Interfacial and microfailure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites were evaluated using both tensile fragmentation and compressive Broutman tests with an aid of acoustic emission (AE). A monomeric and two polymeric coupling agents were applied via the electrodeposition (ED) and the dipping applications. A monomeric and a polymeric coupling agent showed significant and comparable improvements in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) compared to the untreated case under both tensile and compressive tests. Typical microfailure modes including cone-shaped fiber break, matrix cracking, and partial interlayer failure were observed under tension, whereas the diagonal slipped failure at both ends of the fractured fiber exhibited under compression. Adsorption and shear displacement mechanisms at the interface were described in terms of electrical attraction and primary and secondary bonding forces. For both the untreated and the treated cases AE distributions were separated well in tension, whereas AE distributions were rather closely overlapped in compression. It might be because of the difference in molecular failure energies and failure mechanisms between tension and compression. The maximum AE voltage for the waveform of either carbon or large-diameter basalt fiber breakages in tension exhibited much larger than that in compression. AE could provide more likely the quantitative information on the interfacial adhesion and microfailure.

  7. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  8. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments.

  9. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates ... silicates; nanocomposites; rheological modifier; drug delivery; waste water. 1. ... enhance the rheological properties of the paint system. .... tems (thermoset and thermoplastic) including epoxy .... involves adding organoclay as a dry powder prior to, or.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  11. Comportamento de cilindros de carbono/epóxi submetidos a cargas compressivas axiais Mechanical behavior of carbon/epoxy cylinders under axial compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gonçalves

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estruturas utilizadas no setor aeroespacial, os requisitos de baixo peso, alta resistência e rigidez, além de estabilidade dimensional, têm propiciado o aumento da utilização de materiais compósitos nas suas manufaturas. Em particular, cascas cilíndricas ou estruturas construídas pela junção de cilindros de paredes finas, confeccionadas em fibra de carbono e resina epóxi, são amplamente utilizadas neste tipo de aplicação. Neste trabalho, um programa experimental foi desenvolvido para determinar as tensões de falha, os módulos de elasticidade e o modo de falha de 47 cilindros com diâmetro interno de 40 mm e espessura nominal de 0,6 mm (com exceção de 2 corpos de prova, fabricados em carbono/epóxi, quando submetidos a cargas compressivas uniaxiais. Os espécimes testados possuíam diferentes razões entre comprimento e diâmetro (variando de 2,50 a 11,25 e seqüências de laminação variadas (orientações de camadas. Os resultados dos ensaios foram comparados aos obtidos em análises realizadas com programas de elementos finitos e os fatores que influenciaram o comportamento mecânico destes cilindros foram analisados.The requirements of low weight and dimensional stability, combined with high strength and stiffness, for aerospace structures has prompted an increasing use of fiber reinforced materials in manufacturing such structures. In particular, carbon/epoxy cylinders have been widely used in aerospace applications. In this work, an experimental program was developed to determine failure loads, modulus of elasticity and failure modes of 47 carbon/epoxy cylinders shells under compressive loads. The specimens tested had several different length/diameter (from 2.50 to 11.25 ratios and laminate lay-up. These results were compared to the analytical results from finite element code and the most important factors influencing the mechanical behavior of this type of structure were analyzed.

  12. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  13. An experimental study on moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite with coatings exposed to different pH media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Londhe

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the moisture absorption and mechanical properties of jute-epoxy composites. Jute fibres are treated with NaOH before manufacturing of composite laminate in order to improve adhesion with epoxy material. Further jute-epoxy composite specimens were coated with epoxy resin and acrylic paint. Composite specimens with and without coatings are subjected to absorption in solutions of different pH media, for 28 days (666 h. The effect of coatings on reduction in moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite is presented in this current work.

  14. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  15. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  16. Functionalized Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes-Reinforced Viny lester/Epoxy Blend Based Nano composites: Enhanced Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praharaj, A. P.; Behera, D.; Bastia, T. K.; Rout, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical characterization of a new class of low cost multiphase nano composites consisting of Vinyl ester resin/epoxy (VER/EP) blend (40:60 w/w) reinforced with amine functionalized multi walled carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs). Five different sets of VER/EP nano composites are fabricated with addition of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs. A detailed investigation of mechanical properties like tensile strength, impact strength, Young’s modulus, and hardness, thermal properties like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity, electrical properties like dielectric strength, dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity, and corrosive and swelling properties of the nano composites has been carried out. Here, we report significant improvement in all the above properties of the fabricated nano composites with nano filler (f-MWCNTs) addition compared to the virgin blend (0 wt. nano filler loading). The properties are best observed in case of 5 wt.% nano filler loading with gradual deterioration thereafter which may be due to the nucleating tendency of the nano filler particles. Thus the above nano composites could be a preferable candidate for a wide range of structural, thermal, electrical, and solvent based applications.

  17. Use of Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Emission Data on Carbon-Epoxy COPV Materials-of-Construction for Enhanced Felicity Ratio Onset Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Arick Reed A.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Nichols, Charles T.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Waller, Jess M.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband modal acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during intermittent load hold tensile test profiles on Toray T1000G carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (C/Ep) single tow specimens. A novel trend seeking statistical method to determine the onset of significant AE was developed, resulting in more linear decreases in the Felicity ratio (FR) with load, potentially leading to more accurate failure prediction. The method developed uses an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart. Comparison of the EWMA with previously used FR onset methods, namely the discrete (n), mean (n (raised bar)), normalized (n%) and normalized mean (n(raised bar)%) methods, revealed the EWMA method yields more consistently linear FR versus load relationships between specimens. Other findings include a correlation between AE data richness and FR linearity based on the FR methods discussed in this paper, and evidence of premature failure at lower than expected loads. Application of the EWMA method should be extended to other composite materials and, eventually, composite components such as composite overwrapped pressure vessels. Furthermore, future experiments should attempt to uncover the factors responsible for infant mortality in C/Ep strands.

  18. In-Situ Observations of Longitudinal Compression Damage in Carbon-Epoxy Cross Ply Laminates Using Fast Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Garcea, Serafina C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of longitudinal compressive failure mechanisms in notched cross-ply laminates is studied experimentally with in-situ synchrotron radiation based computed tomography. Carbon/epoxy specimens loaded monotonically in uniaxial compression exhibited a quasi-stable failure process, which was captured with computed tomography scans recorded continuously with a temporal resolutions of 2.4 seconds and a spatial resolution of 1.1 microns per voxel. A detailed chronology of the initiation and propagation of longitudinal matrix splitting cracks, in-plane and out-of-plane kink bands, shear-driven fiber failure, delamination, and transverse matrix cracks is provided with a focus on kink bands as the dominant failure mechanism. An automatic segmentation procedure is developed to identify the boundary surfaces of a kink band. The segmentation procedure enables 3-dimensional visualization of the kink band and conveys the orientation, inclination, and spatial variation of the kink band. The kink band inclination and length are examined using the segmented data revealing tunneling and spatial variations not apparent from studying the 2-dimensional section data.

  19. Experimental investigation of the failure envelope of unidirectional carbon-epoxy composite under high strain rate transverse and off-axis tensile loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of the carbon-epoxy material system HexPly IM7-8552 was investigated under transverse tension and combined transverse tension / in-plane shear loading at quasi-static and dynamic strain rates. The dynamic tests of the transverse tension and off-axis tension specimens were carried out on a split-Hopkinson tension bar system, while the quasi-static reference tests were performed on a standard electro-mechanical testing machine. Digital image correlation was used for data reduction at both strain rate regimes. For the high rate tests, the strain rate in loading direction was adjusted to reach approximately the same strain rate value in the fracture plane for each specimen. The measured axial strengths were transformed from the global coordinate system into the combined transverse tension-shear stress space of the material coordinate system and compared with the Puck Mode A criterion for inter-fibre failure. A good correlation between the experimental data and the predicted failure envelopes was found for both investigated strain rate regimes.

  20. Hybrid carbon-glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick composites subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevkat, Ercan

    The goals of this study are to investigate the low velocity and ballistic impact response of thick-section hybrid fiber composites at room temperature. Plain-woven S2-Glass and IM7 Graphite fabrics are chosen as fiber materials reinforcing the SC-79 epoxy. Four different types of composites consisting of alternating layers of glass and graphite woven fabric sheets are considered. Tensile tests are conducted using 98 KN (22 kip) MTS testing machine equipped with environmental chamber. Low-velocity impact tests are conducted using an Instron-Dynatup 8250 impact test machine equipped with an environmental chamber. Ballistic impact tests are performed using helium pressured high-speed gas-gun. Tensile tests results were used to define the material behavior of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites in Finite Element modeling. The low velocity and ballistic impact tests showed that hybrid composites performance was somewhere between non-hybrid woven composites. Using woven glass fabrics as outer skin improved the impact performance of woven graphite composite. However hybrid composites are prone to delamination especially between dissimilar layers. The ballistic limit velocity V50 hybrid composites were higher that of woven graphite composite and lower than that of woven glass composite. Both destructive cross-sectional micrographs and nondestructive ultrasonic techniques are used to evaluate the damage created by impact. The Finite Element code LS-DYNA is chosen to perform numerical simulations of low velocity and ballistic impact on thick-section hybrid composites. The damage progression in these composites shows anisotropic nonlinearity. The material model to describe this behavior is not available in LS-DYNA material library. Initially, linear orthotropic material with damage (Chan-Chan Model) is employed to simulate some of the experimental results. Then, user-defined material subroutine is incorporated into LS-DYNA to simulate the nonlinear behavior. The

  1. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  2. Studies on Preparation and Characterization of Aluminum Nitride-Coated Carbon Fibers and Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Hye Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work; the effects of an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic coating on the thermal conductivity of carbon fiber-reinforced composites were studied. AlN were synthesized by a wet-thermal treatment (WTT method in the presence of copper catalysts. The WTT method was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace at above 1500 °C under an ammonia (NH3 gas atmosphere balanced by a nitrogen using aluminum chloride as a precursor. Copper catalysts pre-doped enhance the interfacial bonding of the AlN with the carbon fiber surfaces. They also help to introduce AlN bonds by interrupting aluminum oxide (Al2O3 formation in combination with oxygen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the carbon fiber surfaces and structures at each step (copper-coating step and AlN formation step. In conclusion; we have demonstrated a synthesis route for preparing an AlN coating on the carbon fiber surfaces in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  3. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-10-02

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE) signals.

  4. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. Post-impact fatigue loading caused delamination growth

  5. Identification of the chemical inventory of different paint types applied in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina Tietze; Foreman, M.R.St.J.; Ekberg, CH.H.; Chalmers University of Technology, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Goeteborg; Dongen van, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    The floors, concrete walls and many of the metal surfaces in nuclear power plant containments are coated with zinc primers or paint films to preserve the metal surfaces and simplify decontamination in the containment after the occurrence of a severe nuclear incident or accident. A chemical examination of paint films from different nuclear installations out of operation, as well as current operating ones, reveals that different types of paints are used whose composition can vary significantly. Results obtained for one type of paint at a certain nuclear site are in most cases unlikely to be comparable with sites painted with another type of paint. During normal operation and particularly during nuclear accidents, the paints will degrade under the high temperature, steam and irradiation influence. As paint and its degradation products can act as sources and depots for volatile iodine compounds, the type and aging conditions of the paint films will have a significant impact on the source term of the volatile fission product iodine. Thus, great care should be taken when extrapolating any results obtained for the interaction of radioactive iodine with one paint product to a different paint product. The main focus of the study is a comparison of the chemical profile of paint films applied in Swedish nuclear power plants. Teknopox Aqua V A, an epoxy paint recently used at Ringhals 2, and an emulsion paint used in the scrubber buildings of Ringhals 1-4 are compared with a paint film from Barsebaeck nuclear power plant unit 1 that had been aged under real reactor conditions for 20 years. In addition, two paint films, an emulsion and a gloss paint, used in an international nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, are compared with the paints from the Swedish nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Chemical changes and tensile and electrical properties of epoxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of epoxy rsesin can be improved by the use of nanofiller such as carbon black (CB), The nanocomposite was synthesized by dispersion via sonication and shear mixing. The morphology, surface chemistry and the structure of CB and the epoxy/CB nanocomposites were investigated using XPS, FTIR, FESEM, ...

  7. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. PMID:28348313

  8. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  9. Evaluation of contact resistance between carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate and printed silver electrode for damage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eun Beom; Kim, Hak Sung; Takahashi, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    An addressable conducting network (ACN) makes it possible to monitor the condition of a structure using the electrical resistance between electrodes on the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure. To improve the damage detection reliability of the ACN, the contact resistances between the electrodes and CFRP laminates needs to be minimized. In this study, silver nanoparticle electrodes were fabricated via printed electronics techniques on a CFRP composite. The contact resistance between the silver electrodes and CFRP were measured with respect to various fabrication conditions such as the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and the surface roughness of the CFRP laminates. The interfaces between the silver electrode and carbon fibers were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on this study, it was found that the lowest contact resistance of 0.3664Ω could be achieved when the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and surface roughness were 120 degree C and 0.230 a, respectively.

  10. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment.

  11. Investigation of a carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg curing behavior for thick composite materials production: An industrial case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Loris; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Minak, Giangiacomo; Dolcini, Enrico

    2012-07-01

    A case-study is presented, in cooperation with RI-BA Composites srl, where the industrial production of a thick part for primary structural application is analysed. The final product is a bulk carbon fiber reinforced object characterized by great dimensions, with thickness ranging between 10mm and 35mm and obtained by Hand-Lay-Up of prepregs. The study shows that prepregs age along the time required for the process work up. Moreover, the isothermal curing investigation of the prepreg used in the production gives some useful hint for the design of a new thermal curing cycle, in order to avoid exotherm problems along the thickness of the object. The effect of the applied curing cycle on thermal properties of the object are reported.

  12. Impact of Cutting Forces and Chip Microstructure in High Speed Machining of Carbon Fiber – Epoxy Composite Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Y. Allwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced polymeric (CFRP composite materials are widely used in aerospace, automobile and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and durability. High speed machining (HSM of CFRP material is needed to study the impact of cutting parameters on cutting forces and chip microstructure which offer vital inputs to the machinability and deformation characteristics of the material. In this work, the orthogonal machining of CFRP was conducted by varying the cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate at high cutting speed/feed rate ranges up to 346 m/min/ 0.446 mm/rev. The impact of the cutting parameters on cutting forces (principal cutting, feed and thrust forces and chip microstructure were analyzed. A significant impact on thrust forces and chip segmentation pattern was seen at higher feed rates and low cutting speeds.

  13. The effect of manufacturing conditions on discontinuity population and fatigue fracture behavior in carbon/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Issa; Laquai, Rene; Walter, David; Mueller, Bernd; Graja, Paul; Meyendorf, Norbert; Donaldson, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in aerospace, military, sports, automotive and other fields due to their excellent properties, including high specific strength, high specific modulus, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Interlaminar fracture is a serious failure mode leading to a loss in composite stiffness and strength. Discontinuities formed during manufacturing process degrade the fatigue life and interlaminar fracture resistance of the composite. In his study, three approaches were implemented and their results were correlated to quantify discontinuities effecting static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior of carbon fiber composites. Samples were fabricated by hand layup vacuum bagging manufacturing process under three different vacuum levels, indicated High (-686 mmHg), Moderate (-330 mmHg) and Poor (0 mmHg). Discontinuity content was quantified through-thickness by destructive and nondestructive techniques. Eight different NDE methods were conducted including imaging NDE methods: X-Ray laminography, ultrasonic, high frequency eddy current, pulse thermography, pulse phase thermography and lock-in-thermography, and averaging NDE techniques: X-Ray refraction and thermal conductivity measurements. Samples were subsequently destructively serial sectioned through-thickness into several layers. Both static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior under Mode I were conducted. The results of several imaging NDE methods revealed the trend in percentages of discontinuity. However, the results of averaging NDE methods showed a clear correlation since they gave specific values of discontinuity through-thickness. Serial sectioning exposed the composite's internal structure and provided a very clear idea about the type, shape, size, distribution and location of most discontinuities included. The results of mechanical testing showed that discontinuities lead to a decrease in Mode I static interlaminar

  14. Development of a new process for radioactive decontamination of painted carbon steel structures by molten salt stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto de O.

    2009-01-01

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities of the IPEN has been the large amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipment, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and average activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. On the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of stockpiling the radioactive wastes in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the dismantling operations of the units, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and the thorium-232. Some attempts were done to reduce the volume of those wastes. Nevertheless, the only decontamination available methods were chemical methods such as pickling/rinsing treatments employing acid solutions (with nitric or citric acids) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide). Different concentrations of such solutions were tested. The results obtained in the employed processes were not satisfactory. Ultrasonic equipment available was also employed in an attempt to increase the efficiency of decontamination. The choice of a coating removal process for radioactive material in the form of carbon steel pieces must have into account, among other factors, that it is not necessary a high quality of finishing, since the main objective is the release of the material as iron scrap. This paper describes the development of a new method for surface decontamination by immersion in molten salt baths. (author)

  15. Epoxy – the hub for the most versatile polymer with exceptional combination of superlative features

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy resins and epoxy based materials have experienced significant advancement since their beginning in 1936, when Dr. Castan of Switzerland and Dr. Greenlee of USA succeeded in synthesizing the very first bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins. Whether it is the new carbon fiber composite of Boeing’s Dreamliner or the thin set terrazzo flooring, epoxy has always been the ideal choice because of its superlative properties and unique chemical composition. Belonging to thermoset family, it is certainl...

  16. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  17. Recycling and characterization of carbon fibers from carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites by a novel super-heated-steam method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Woo; Lee, Hye-Min; An, Jeong-Hun; Chung, Dong-Chul; An, Kay-Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2017-12-01

    In order to manufacture high quality recycled carbon fibers (R-CFs), carbon fiber-reinforced composite wastes were pyrolysed with super-heated steam at 550 °C in a fixed bed reactor for varying reaction times. The mechanical and surface properties of the R-CFs were characterized with a single fiber tensile test, interface shear strength (IFSS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface analysis showed that there was no matrix char residue on the fiber surfaces. The tensile strength and IFSS values of the R-CFs were 90% and 115% compared to those of virgin carbon fibers (V-CFs), respectively. The recycling efficiency of the R-CFs from the composites were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature, reaction time, and super-heated steam feeding rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon; Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test

  19. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments. (paper)

  20. Lung function and airway inflammation in rats following exposure to combustion products of carbon-graphite/epoxy composite material: comparison to a rodent model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gregory S; Grasman, Keith A; Kimmel, Edgar C

    2003-02-01

    Pulmonary function and inflammation in the lungs of rodents exposed by inhalation to carbon/graphite/epoxy advanced composite material (ACM) combustion products were compared to that of a rodent model of acute lung injury (ALI) produced by pneumotoxic paraquat dichloride. This investigation was undertaken to determine if short-term exposure to ACM smoke induces ALI; and to determine if smoke-related responses were similar to the pathogenic mechanisms of a model of lung vascular injury. We examined the time-course for mechanical lung function, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, and the expression of three inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Male Fischer-344 rats were either exposed to 26.8-29.8 g/m(3) nominal concentrations of smoke or were given i.p. injections of paraquat dichloride. Measurements were determined at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days post exposure. In the smoke-challenged rats, there were no changes in lung function indicative of ALI throughout the 7-day observation period, despite the acute lethality of the smoke atmosphere. However, the animals showed signs of pulmonary inflammation. The expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in the lavage fluid 1 day following exposure, which preceded the maximum leukocyte infiltration. MIP-2 levels were significantly increased in lavage fluid at days 2, 3, and 7. This followed the leukocyte infiltration. IFN-gamma was significantly increased in the lung tissue at day 7, which occurred during the resolution of the inflammatory response. The paraquat, which was also lethal to a small percentage of the animals, caused several physiologic changes characteristic of ALI, including significant decreases in lung compliance, lung volumes/capacities, distribution of ventilation, and gas exchange capacity. The expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 increased significantly in the lung tissue as well as in the

  1. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  3. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  5. Atomistic Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-05-01

    The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for epoxy/single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) nanocomposites. An epoxy network of DGEBA-DDS was built using the `dendrimer' growth approach, and conductivity was computed by taking into account long-range Coulombic forces via a k-space approach. Thermal conductivity was calculated in the direction perpendicular to, and along the SWNT axis for functionalized and pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. The thermal conductivity of the long, pristine SWNT/epoxy system is equivalent to that of an isolated SWNT along its axis, but there was a 27% reduction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. The functionalized, long SWNT/epoxy system had a very large increase in thermal conductivity along the nanotube axis (~700%), as well as the directions perpendicular to the nanotube (64%). The discontinuous nanotubes displayed an increased thermal conductivity along the SWNT axis compared to neat epoxy (103-115% for the pristine SWNT/epoxy, and 91-103% for functionalized SWNT/epoxy system). The functionalized system also showed a 42% improvement perpendicular to the nanotube, while the pristine SWNT/epoxy system had no improvement over epoxy. The thermal conductivity tensor is averaged over all possible orientations to see the effects of randomly orientated nanotubes, and allow for experimental comparison. Excellent agreement is seen for the discontinuous, pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. These simulations demonstrate there exists a threshold of the SWNT length where the best improvement for a composite system with randomly oriented nanotubes would transition from pristine SWNTs to functionalized SWNTs.

  6. Etude comparative sur la propagation de l'endommagement apres impact des composites carbone/epoxy renforces par piquage au fil Kevlar et titane-nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Pierre-Luc

    Composite laminates have strong in-plane mechanical properties, but they are generally weaker through their thickness. This specificity makes the laminates prone to delamination, particularly under low-velocity impact loads. Consequently numerous research efforts have been dedicated to developing interlaminar reinforcing methods, such as transverse stitching. The present project proposes the use of the stitching technique combined with a special stitching thread made of superelastic TiNi alloy. This technology is intended to improve the delamination toughness in composite laminates loaded in bending. In the first part of this study a numerical model was developed for analyzing composite structures. The 3-D finite element model was built with the ANSYS commercial software using 20-node solid and 8-node shell elements. The progressive damage modeling technique was used, allowing the prediction of delamination propagation in a laminate submitted to various loading modes. The model was validated for a plate under quasi-static traction load, and it was then used to simulate three-point bending tests. Secondly, carbon/epoxy composite panels were fabricated, with each panel containing unstitched and stitched specimens. Two different materials were used for the stitching thread: superelastic TiNi wires and Kevlar threads as a reference. Some stitched specimens were cut in slices in order to make some observations of the internal stitch using an optical microscope. Standardized low-velocity impact tests and compression after impact tests were carried out on stitched and unstitched specimens (ASTM D7136 and D7137). The Kevlar reinforcements have shown great performance in reducing the delaminated zone after impact, as well as in improving the residual compression strength. The TiNi reinforcements provided encouraging results during the impact tests, though being less effective than the Kevlar threads. During the compression after impact tests, only a slight difference could

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  9. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  10. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of paints used for industry, the arts, and hobbies. Years ago, lead and mercury were used in ... high amounts of toluene – higher exposure than a hobby or professional painter would likely have. I work ...

  11. Thermal conductivity of pillared graphene-epoxy nanocomposites using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, A.; Srivastava, S.; Ramazani, A.; Sundararaghavan, V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal conductivity in a pillared graphene-epoxy nanocomposite (PGEN) is studied using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. PGEN is a proposed material for advanced thermal management applications because it combines high in-plane conductivity of graphene with high axial conductivity of a nanotube to significantly enhance the overall conductivity of the epoxy matrix material. Anisotropic conductivity of PGEN has been compared with that of pristine and functionalized carbon nanotube-epoxy nanocomposites, showcasing the advantages of the unique hierarchical structure of PGEN. Compared to pure carbon allotropes, embedding the epoxy matrix also promotes a weaker dependence of conductivity on thermal variations. These features make this an attractive material for thermal management applications.

  12. Photochemical studies on aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones: efficient synthesis of benzocyclobutanones and indanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yutian; Yang, Chao; Gui, Weijun; Liu, Yang; Xia, Wujiong

    2012-04-11

    Irradiation of terminal aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones with a 450 W UV lamp led to Norrish type II cyclization/semi-pinacol rearrangement cascade reaction which formed the benzocyclobutanones containing a full-carbon quaternary center, whereas irradiation of substituted aromatic γ,δ-epoxy ketones led to the indanones through a photochemical epoxy rearrangement and 1,5-biradicals cyclization tandem reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Preparation and Performance of Amphiphilic Random Copolymer Noncovalently Modified MWCNTs/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amphiphilic random copolymer of polyglycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinyl carbazole P(GMA-co-NVC was synthesized by free radical polymerization and was used to noncovalently modify multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The obtained P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs was mixed with epoxy resin and used to reinforce epoxy resin. Polymer modified carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites were prepared by a casting molding method. Tensile test, electrical resistivity test and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC analysis were used to study the effect of polymer modified carbon nanotubes on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy composite reinforced with P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs shows a remarkable enhancement in both tensile strength and elongation at break compared to either the pure epoxy or the pristine MWCNTs/epoxy composites. In addition, the electrical conductivity of epoxy is significantly improved and the volume resistivity decreases from 1014Ω·m to 106Ω·m with 0.25% mass fraction loading of P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs. Moreover, glass transition temperature of the epoxy composite also increases from 144℃ to 149℃.

  14. Piezoelectric paints as one approach to smart structural materials with health-monitoring capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shigenori; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1998-08-01

    Piezoelectric paints have a potential to change a conventional structural material into an intelligent material system with health-monitoring capabilities such as vibration sensing and damage detection. Such paints were prepared using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic powder as a pigment and epoxy resin as a binder. The obtained paints were coated on aluminum test specimens, and were cured at room temperature or at 150 0964-1726/7/4/002/img5, thus forming the paint films having different thicknesses of 25-300 0964-1726/7/4/002/img6. These films were then poled at room temperature, and were evaluated with regard to the sensitivities as vibration and acoustic emission sensors in the frequency ranges of 0-250 Hz and 0-1.0 MHz, respectively. This paper mainly describes the effects of the film thickness and the cure temperature on the poling behavior of the PZT/epoxy paint film. This paper describes also the application of the paint film as a vibration modal sensor integrated into a structural material.

  15. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  16. A review of strategies for improving the degradation properties of laminated continuous-fiber/epoxy composites with carbon-based nanoreinforcements

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    Continuous-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminated composites are a key structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications. Introducing nanoscale reinforcements to these materials is a possible way to achieve improved mechanical properties. To date, much work has been done on nano-reinforced polymers. However, few systematic studies concerning the effect of the nanoreinforcements on the mechanical properties on laminated composites were conducted. This paper presents a systematic review of the mechanisms of degradation in laminated structures and considers various nanoreinforcement strategies in the light of well-known mechanisms of degradation and phenomenologies in classical laminated composites. We also discuss various nanoreinforcement strategies in terms of their potential to reduce degradation on every scale. In addition, we review studies conducted on the role that nanoreinforcements play in mechanical properties involved in structural simulation and design. The degradation mechanisms are systematically considered to provide a full picture of each reinforcement strategy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the Influence Factors of the Luminous Intensity of the Long Afterglow Luminous Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the time afterglow luminous powder, enhancement the brightness of luminous paint, this study explore affect long afterglow energy storage luminous paints brightness of the main factors. Luminous paints were prepared with rare earth aluminate long afterglow luminescent powder, first is luminous powder surface modification, then investigate the influence of light emitting powder content, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, nano alumina and other fillers on the luminescent properties of the paints. It was concluded that the water resistance of the luminescent powder is better and the brightness can be improved after the modification of anhydrous alcohol. The addition of nano-alumina can improve the brightness of the system, and can effectively enhance the hardness of the paints. In the paints, the two kinds of components of carbonate and titanium dioxide have little effect on the luminescent brightness of the painting.

  18. Imagined memories of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maia Schmidt, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Pintura, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 A Tese é compsota por dois volumes, um em portugês, outro em inglês Visual imagery, narratives and locations have always been linked to the study of memory. Memory has always been linked to art history and historical shifts in the study of memory had a direct impact on the history of painting. Painting was based on stories and served to make those stories memorable. Since then there have been numerous inve...

  19. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available , and have doubts about it, you are wel- come to contact the NBRl for advice. It is always best when buying a paint system to select the products of a single manufacturer. the grain as it dries. Several coats can be used to give a high-gloss finish... rendering Those who have lived on a farm will probably remember how surplus fat used to be treated with an alkali to make soap. The same thing can happen at the point where some oil paints come in contact with the wall. The alkali, which is always...

  20. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  1. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  2. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, I K; Jensen, K A; Schneider, T

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  3. ELABORATION OF AN EPOXY COATING REINFORCED WITH ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE NANOSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia G. Díaz-Barriga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the preparation of a transparent epoxy coating reinforced with 200 PPM of zirconium carbide nanostructures. The nanostructures of ZrC were prepared by mechanosynthesis. The additive characteristics analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were presented. Epoxy coating adhesion on a steel plate was analyzed using MEB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to the reinforced paints between 20-700 °C. The reinforced enamel was compared with an enamel without nanostructures. There is not vaporization of reinforced enamel at a 95 y 100 °C with ZrC particles size of 10 µm y 120 nm respectively. The final enamel degradation is slower when there is a 14% by weight of the residue and 426 °C with 120nm diameter particles.

  4. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  5. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CIDEPINT (CONICET–CICPBA): Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Tecnología de Pinturas,. Calle 52e/121 y 122, .... plus SOFTCORR 352 software. 2.2 Experimental paints ..... tigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), CICPBA (Comisión de.

  6. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  7. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  8. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  9. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  10. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  11. Paint and binding material to be hardened by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binding material which can be hardened due to the effect of ionising radiation, consisting of a dispersion of a) an ethylene unsaturated material in b) at least one vinyl monomer. Component (a) is a reaction product of graded rubber particles (0.1 - 4 μm) and an ethylene unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy-, hydroxy- or carbonyl-group, which is connected to the rubber by ester or urethane links. The rubber particles have a core of cross linked elastomer acrylic polymers, an outer shell of reactive groups and an intermediate layer made from the core monomer and the shell. 157 examples explain the manufacturing process. The paint is suitable for covering articles which will later be subject to distortion. (UWI) [de

  12. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  13. The effect of cerium-based conversion treatment on the cathodic delamination and corrosion protection performance of carbon steel-fusion-bonded epoxy coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Steel surface was treated by Ce and acid phosphoric solutions. • Ce treatment considerably enhanced the surface energy and produce nanoscale roughness. • Ce treated samples showed enhanced adhesion to FBE coating. • Ce treatment of steel significantly reduced the FBE cathodic delamination rate. • Ce treated sample showed enhanced corrosion resistance. - Abstract: The effect of surface pre-treatment of pipe surface by green cerium compound and phosphoric acid solution on the fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coating performance was studied. The composition and surface morphology of the steel samples treated by acid and Ce solutions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Also, the surface free energy was evaluated on these samples through contact angle measurements. In addition, the effect of Ce and acid washing procedures on the adhesion properties and corrosion protection performance of the FBE was examined by pull-off, salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Results showed that compared to acid washing, the chemical treatment by Ce solution noticeably increased the surface free energy of steel, improved the adhesion properties of FBE, decreased the cathodic delamination rate of FBE, and enhanced the coating corrosion resistance compared to the acid washed samples.

  14. Design and Analysis of Drive Shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Gobinath, R.; Kumar, L. Ajith; Jenish, D. Xavier

    2017-05-01

    In automobile industry drive shaft is one of the most important components to transmit power form the engine to rear wheel through the differential gear. Generally steel drive shaft is used in automobile industry, nowadays they are more interested to replace steel drive shaft with that of composite drive shaft. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the composite drive shaft using to find out the best replacement for conventional steel drive shaft. The uses of advanced composite materials such as Kevlar, Graphite, Carbon and Glass with proper resins ware resulted in remarkable achievements in automobile industry because of its greater specific strength and specific modulus, improved fatigue and corrosion resistances and reduction in energy requirements due to reduction in weight as compared to steel shaft. This paper is to presents, the modeling and analysis of drive shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a composite material and to find best replacement for conventional steel drive shafts with an Kevlar/epoxy or Glass/Epoxy resin composite drive shaft. Modeling is done using CATIA software and Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS 10.0 software for easy understanding. The composite drive shaft reduces the weight by 81.67 % for Kevlar/Epoxy and 72.66% for Glass/Epoxy when compared with conventional steel drive shaft.

  15. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  16. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  17. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  18. Viscoelastic characterization of carbon fiber-epoxy composites by creep and creep rupture tests; Caracterizacao viscoelastica por meio de ensaios de fluencia e ruptura por fluencia de compositos polimericos de matriz de matriz de resina epoxidica e fibra de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Luis Claudio

    2009-07-01

    One of the main requirements for the use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in structural applications is the evaluation of their behavior during service life. The warranties of the integrity of these structural components demand a study of the time dependent behavior of these materials due to viscoelastic response of the polymeric matrix and of the countless possibilities of design configurations. In the present study, creep and creep rupture test in stress were performed in specimens of unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with fibers orientations of 60 degree and 90 degree, at temperatures of 25 and 70 degree C. The aim is the viscoelastic characterization of the material through the creep curves to some levels of constant tension during periods of 1000 h, the attainment of the creep rupture envelope by the creep rupture curves and the determination of the transition of the linear for non-linear behavior through isochronous curves. In addition, comparisons of creep compliance curves with a viscoelastic behavior prediction model based on Schapery equation were also performed. For the test, a modification was verified in the behavior of the material, regarding the resistance, stiffness and deformation, demonstrating that these properties were affected for the time and tension level, especially in work temperature above the ambient. The prediction model was capable to represent the creep behavior, however the determination of the equations terms should be considered, besides the variation of these with the applied tension and the elapsed time of test. (author)

  19. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  20. Atomic Oxygen Treatment Technique for Removal of Smoke Damage from Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. K.; Banks, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Soot deposits that can accumulate on surfaces of a painting during a fire can be difficult to clean from some types of paintings without damaging the underlying paint layers. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove the soot by allowing a gas containing atomic oxygen to flow over the surface and chemically react with the soot to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction is limited to the surface, so the underlying paint is not touched. The process can be controlled so that the cleaning can be stopped once the paint surface is reached. This paper describes the smoke exposure and cleaning of untreated canvas, acrylic gesso, and sections of an oil painting using this technique. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and reflectance spectroscopy.

  1. The study of epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins as corrosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion resistance of two commonly used protective coatings (epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been assessed. The coatings on low carbon steel were subjected to varying conditions of pH, temperature and exposure time and the corrosion rates calculated. At a pH of 2, 3, 4, ...

  2. A room temperature cured low dielectric hyperbranched epoxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon chain in its structure.2 In the present study, a .... The degree of branching, epoxy equivalent and hydroxyl value ... The physical properties and swelling value of the hardener were ... samples were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. (TGA) in ..... Nalwa H S 1999 Handbook of low and high dielectric constant ...

  3. Caracterização de um pré-impregnado aeronáutico por FT-IR e análise térmica Characterization of pre-impregnated of epoxy resin/carbon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. G. M. Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste na caracterização de um pré-impregnado ("prepreg" de resina epoxídica/fibra de carbono, usando-se espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, análise termogravimétrica (TG, calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA. A análise por FT-IR foi realizada nos modos de transmissão (pastilha de KBr, pirólise em bico de Bunsen e controlada e detecção fotoacústica (PAS. Os espectros de FT-IR de transmissão revelaram a presença de resina epoxídica, grupos ciano, amínicos e bisfenol A, que possibilitaram identificar o provável agente de cura:a cianoguanidina (ou dicianodiamida do sistema epoxídico. Os espectros de FT-IR/PAS permitiram acompanhar as alterações espectrométricas causadas pela cura. A análise térmica auxiliou na observação e compreensão dos eventos durante o processo de cura, etapas de gelificação e vitrificação, e da influência destas nas temperaturas de transição vítrea (Tg do material curado e na escolha do intervalo de temperatura de cura, que é um dos parâmetros mais importantes do processo produtivo.This work explores the characterization of pre-impregnated ("prepreg" materials made with an epoxy resin/carbon fiber, using FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the transmission mode (KBr pellets, pyrolysis without control and controlled pyrolysis and photoacoustic detection (FT-IR/PAS. The transmission FT-IR spectra revealed the presence of epoxy resin, cyano groups, amine and bisphenol A, which allowed us to identify the probable agent of cure: cyanoguanidine (or DCD. With FT-IR/PAS it was possible to monitor spectrometric changes caused by curing. The thermal analysis assisted in observing and understanding events during the curing process, including the gelation and vitrification steps. It

  4. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  5. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  6. A Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Glucose Sensor By Nickel-Epoxy Electrode With Non-Enzymatic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of new sensor for glucose was based on the fact that glucose can be determined by non-enzymatic glucose oxidase. The Ni metals (99.98% purity, 0.5 mm thick, Aldrich Chemical Company was used to prepare Ni-Epoxy electrode. The Ni-epoxy electrodes were prepared in square cut of 1 cm and 1 mm by length and wide respectively. The Ni metal electrodes were connected to silver wire with silver conducting paint prior covered with epoxy gum. The prepared of nickel-epoxy modified electrode showed outstanding electro catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution. The result from this research are correlation of determination using Nickel-Epoxyelectrode for electroanalysis of glucose in NaOH was R2 = 0.9984. LOQ, LOD and recovery of the Nickel-Epoxy electrode towards glucose were found to be 4.4 μM, 1.48 μM and 98.19%, respectively. The Nickel-Epoxy wire based electrochemical glucose sensor demonstrates good sensitivity, wide linear range, outstanding detection limit, attractive selectivity, good reproducibility, high stability as well as prominent feasibility use of non-enzymatic sensor for monitoring glucose in human urine owing to its advantages of low cost, simple preparation and excellent properties for glucose detection.

  7. Synthesis of cuprous oxide epoxy nanocomposite as an environmentally antimicrobial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M El Saeed, Ashraf; Abd El-Fattah, M; Azzam, Ahmed M; Dardir, M M; Bader, Magd M

    2016-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment; paint manufacturers begin to employ cuprous oxide as booster biocides in their formulations, to replace the banned organotins as the principal antifouling compounds. Epoxy coating was reinforced with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs). The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of Cu2O epoxy nanocomposite (Cu2O EN) coating films was investigated. Cu2O NPs were also experimented for antibiofilm and time-kill assay. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of Cu2O EN coating films were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity results showed slowdown, the growth of organisms on the Cu2O EN coating surface. TGA results showed that incorporating Cu2O NPs into epoxy coating considerably enhanced the thermal stability and increased the char residue. The addition of Cu2O NPs at lower concentration into epoxy coating also led to an improvement in the mechanical resistance such as scratch and abrasion. Cu2O NPs purity was confirmed by XRD. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the synthesized Cu2O NPs were of cubic shape and the average diameter of the crystals was around 25nm. The resulting perfect dispersion of Cu2O NPs in epoxy coating revealed by SEM ensured white particles embedded in the epoxy matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  9. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Navarro de Miranda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/epoxy composites were molded and electrical conductivity was measured. Also, the CF/CNF/epoxy composites were tested under flexure and interlaminar shear. The results showed an overall reduction in mechanical properties as a function of added nanofiber, although electrical conductivity increased up to 74% with the addition of nanofibers. Thus CF/CNF/epoxy composites can be used as electrical dissipation discharge materials.

  10. Seawater infiltration effect on thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Haziq Izzuddin bin; Hassan, Mohamad Zaki bin; Ibrahim, Ikhwan; Rashidi, Ahmad Hadi Mohamed; Nor, Siti Fadzilah M.; Daud, Mohd Yusof Md

    2018-05-01

    Seawater salinity has been associated with the reduction of polymer structure durability. The aim of this study is to investigate the change in thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composite due to the presence of seawater. Carbon fiber, carbon/kevlar, fiberglass, and jute that reinforced with epoxy resin was laminated through hand-layup technique. Initially, these specimen was sectioned to 5×5 mm dimension, then immersed in seawater and distilled water at room temperature until it has thoroughly saturated. Following, the thermal degradation analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the thermic changes due to seawater infiltration was defined. The finding shows that moisture absorption reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of fiber reinforced epoxy composite. However, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of seawater infiltrated laminate composite is compareable with distilled water infiltrated laminate composite. The carbon fiber reinfored epoxy has the highest glass transition temperature out of all specimen.

  11. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  12. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  13. Stronger Fire-Resistant Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, George M.; Parker, John A.; Kumar, Devendra

    1988-01-01

    New curing agent improves mechanical properties and works at lower temperature. Use of aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene curing agents yields stronger, more heat- and fire-resistant epoxy resins. Used with solvent if necessary for coating fabrics or casting films.

  14. Flame resistant hybrid epoxy composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Śliwa, R.; Oleksy, M.; Heneczkowski, M.; Oliwa, R.; Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Markowska, O.; Strachota, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2015), s. 667-670 ISSN 0032-2725 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy resin * quaternary phosphonium salts * modified bentonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  15. Mechanical properties of unidirectional laminates with carbon fiber and epoxy resin DA4518U USG0540; Propiedades mecanicas de los laminados unidireccionales de fibra de carbono con resina epoxica DA4518U Y USG0540

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Melo, Monica I.; Rubio Gonzalez, Carlos; Del Llano Vizcaya, Luis [CIDESI. Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: monica.sanchez.melo@gmail.com; crubio@cidesi.mx; lvizcaya@cidesi.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, a study of the mechanical properties of composite materials with carbon fiber and epoxy resin DA4518U USG0540 is described, due to no such properties have been published to date, this study is performed. This work is developed at the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development (CIDESI). As a part of this research, the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and shear modulus are obtained both analytical and experimentally. Tests are performed to high cycle fatigue in both materials, and then these specimens are examined by ultrasound with the immersion technique in order to detect variations in material delamination, changes in obtain the attenuation and wave propagation. Finally, the tensional test to the specimen fatigue is repeated for changes in their mechanical properties. Also, a comparison is made between the results to determine which of those materials is more reliable for future applications in the aerospace industry. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el estudio de las propiedades mecanicas de los materiales compuestos de fibra de carbono con resina epoxica DA4518U y USG0540, dicho estudio se lleva a cabo debido a que, a la fecha, no se han publicado tales propiedades, este trabajo se desarrollo en el Centro de Ingenieria y desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). Como parte de esta investigacion, se obtienen analitica y experimentalmente el modulo de elasticidad, modulo de Poisson y modulo de corte. Tambien se realizan pruebas de fatiga a altos ciclos en ambos materiales, posteriormente estos especimenes se examinan por ultrasonido con la tecnica de inmersion para detectar variaciones en el material como delaminaciones, cambios de atenuacion y en la velocidad de propagacion de onda. Por ultimo se repite la prueba de tension a la probeta fatiga para conocer los cambios en sus propiedades mecanicas. Asi mismo se hace una comparacion entre los resultados obtenidos, para determinar cual material es mas confiable para futuras aplicaciones en la

  16. Photocatalytic surface reactions on indoor wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T; Fuhrmann, F

    2007-09-15

    The reduction of indoor air pollutants by air cleaning systems has received considerable interest, and a number of techniques are now available. So far, the method of photocatalysis was mainly applied by use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in flow reactors under UV light of high intensity. Nowadays, indoor wall paints are equipped with modified TiO2 to work as a catalyst under indoor daylight or artificial light. In chamber experiments carried out under indoor related conditions itwas shown thatthe method works for nitrogen dioxide with air exchange and for formaldehyde without air exchange at high concentrations. In further experiments with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a small effect was found for terpenoids with high kOH rate constants. For other VOCs and carbon monoxide there was no degradation at all or the surface acted as a reversible sink. Secondary emissions from the reaction of paint constituents were observed on exposure to light. From the results it is concluded that recipes of photocatalytic wall paints need to be optimized for better efficiency under indoor conditions.

  17. A facile dip-coating process for preparing highly durable superhydrophobic surface with multi-scale structures on paint films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Yin, Long; Wang, Qingjun; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin

    2009-09-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with multi-scale nano/microstructures have been prepared on epoxy paint surfaces using a feasible dip-coating process. The microstructures with 5-10 microm protuberances were first prepared on epoxy paint surface by sandblast. Then the nanostructures were introduced on the microstructure surface by anchoring 50-100 nm SiO(2) particles (nano-SiO(2)) onto the sandblasted paint surface, which was completed by dip-coating with a nano-SiO(2)/epoxy adhesive solution (M1). At last the surface was further modified for enhancing hydrophobicity by another dip-coating with a solution of a low surface energy polymer, aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) modified epoxy adhesive (M2). The water contact angle of the as-prepared samples reached as high as 167.8 degrees and the sliding angle was 7 degrees. The prepared superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent durability to the high speed scouring test and high stability in neutral and basic aqueous solutions and some common organic solvents. In addition, this method can be adopted to fabricate large scale samples with a good homogeneity of the whole surface at very low cost.

  18. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  19. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  20. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  1. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  2. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  3. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  4. Extremely low temperature properties of epoxy GFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo; Nagai, Matao; Aki, Fumitake.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of fiber-reinforced plastics, that is, plastics such as epoxy, polyester and polyimide reinforced with high strength fibers such as glass, carbon, boron and steel, for extremely low temperature use began from the fuel tanks of rockets. Therafter, the trial manufacture of superconducting generators and extremely low temperature transformers and the manufacture of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion experimental setups became active, and high performance FRPs have been adopted, of which the extremely low temperature properties have been sufficiently grasped. Recently, the cryostats made of FRPs have been developed, fully utilizing such features of FRPs as high strength, high rigidity, non-magnetic material, insulation, low heat conductivity, light weight and the freedom of molding. In this paper, the mechanical properties at extremely low temperature of the plastic composite materials used as insulators and structural materials for extremely low temperature superconducting equipment is outlined, and in particular, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates are described somewhat in detail. The fracture strain of GFRP at extremely low temperature is about 1.3 times as large as that at room temperature, but at extremely low temperature, clear cracking occurred at 40% of the fracture strain. The linear thermal contraction of GFRP showed remarkable anisotropy. (Kako, I.)

  5. The abstract unconscious in painting

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Unconscious in Painting addresses painting as experiential process, critically examining the psychological factors involved in the formation of imagery as it emerges through imaginative responses to the process of mark making and the structuring of space and form. The paper sets this process in relation to theoretical material drawn from Jungian and Post Jungian Psychology ( Avens, 1980; Hillman, 1975) the arts ( Gombrich, 1960; Kuspit, 2000; McKeever, 2005; Worringer, 1908) and ...

  6. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  7. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  8. Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Gursharan Singh; Kalgutkar, D.B.; Patil, S.P.; Jayachandran, N.; Unni, V.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, β-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of β-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for β-radiations. The comparison of intensity of β-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

  9. Modificação de fibra de carbono com PBLH e sua utilização em compósitos com resina epoxídica Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-grafted carbon fiber in epoxy resin-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio L. Barcia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibras de carbono contendo 1,4 e 2,1mmol/g de grupos carboxila e hidroxila fenólica, respectivamente, foram modificadas através de reação com TDI, resultando em fibras contendo 3,1 mmol/g de grupos isocianato. A introdução de grupos isocianato na superfície da fibra tornou possível a sua modificação com polibutadieno líquido hidroxilado. Fibras de carbono modificadas e não modificadas foram empregadas na preparação de compósitos com resina epoxídica, sendo observado um aumento considerável de resistência ao impacto em compósitos constituídos de fibras de carbono enxertadas com PBLH, devido, provavelmente, à natureza elastomérica da interface e à melhor adesão interfacial.Carbon fibers containing 1,4 e 2,1 mmol/g of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups, respectively, were modified through the reaction with TDI. The presence of isocyanate groups at the fiber surface made possible the fiber modification with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB. These modified and unmodified carbon fibers were employed in the preparation of epoxy resin-based composites. A substantial improvement in the impact properties was observed in the composites with HTPB-grafted carbon fibers when compared to unmodified carbon fibers. These results may be attributed to a higher interfacial adhesion promoted by reactions between the functional groups present at the modified carbon fiber surface and the epoxy matrix.

  10. Quantitative Study of Interface/Interphase in Epoxy/Graphene-Based Nanocomposites by Combining STEM and EELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hamon, Ann-Lenaig; Haghi-Ashtiani, Paul; Reiss, Thomas; Fan, Benhui; He, Delong; Bai, Jinbo

    2016-12-14

    A quantitative study of the interphase and interface of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/epoxy and graphene oxide (GO)/epoxy was carried out by combining scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The interphase regions between GNPs and epoxy matrix were clearly identified by the discrepancy of the plasmon peak positions in the low energy-loss spectra due to different valence electron densities. The spectrum acquisitions were carried out along lines across the interface. An interphase thickness of 13 and 12.5 nm was measured for GNPs/epoxy and GO/epoxy, respectively. The density of the GNPs/epoxy interphase was 2.89% higher than that of the epoxy matrix. However, the density of the GO/epoxy interphase was 1.37% lower than that of the epoxy matrix. The interphase layer thickness measured in this work is in good agreement with the transition layer theory, which proposed an area with modulus linearly varying across a finite width. The results provide an insight into the interphase for carbon-based polymer composites that can help to design the functionalization of nanofillers to improve the composite properties.

  11. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g -1 and 110 mg g -1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu 2 O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

  12. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

  13. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  14. Tailored SWCNT functionalization optimized for compatibility with epoxy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Rubi, Y; Kingston, C T; Daroszewska, M; Barnes, M; Simard, B; Gonzalez-Dominguez, J M; Ansón-Casaos, A; Martinez, M T; Hubert, P; Cattin, C

    2012-01-01

    We have modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with well defined matrix-based architectures to improve interface interaction in SWCNT/epoxy composites. The hardener and two pre-synthesized oligomers containing epoxy and hardener moieties were covalently attached to the SWCNT walls by in situ diazonium or carboxylic coupling reactions. In this way, SWCNTs bearing amine or epoxide-terminated fragments of different molecular weights, which resemble the chemical structure of the cured resin, were synthesized. A combination of characterization techniques such as Raman and infrared absorption (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis and coupled thermogravimetry-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify both the functional groups and degree of functionalization of SWCNTs synthesized by the laser ablation and arc-discharge methods. Depending on the type of reaction employed for the chemical functionalization and the molecular weight of the attached fragment, it was possible to control the degree of functionalization and the electronic properties of the functionalized SWCNTs. Improved dispersion of SWCNTs in the epoxy matrix was achieved by direct integration without using solvents, as observed from optical microscopy and rheology measurements of the SWCNT/epoxy mixtures. Composite materials using these fillers are expected to exhibit improved properties while preserving the thermosetting architecture. (paper)

  15. Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines: Subcontract Report, July 1999--December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D. P., Jr.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Good, R. E.; Sernka, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the numbers of avian collisions with wind turbines, several measures have been employed with various levels of success. One hypothesis is that painting turbine blades to increase their visibility may reduce avian fatalities. This study examined the effects of painting wind turbine blades with UV-reflective paint on bird use and mortality at the Foote Creek Rim Wind Plant in Carbon County, Wyoming.

  16. Improvement of Mechanical and Dielectric Properties of Epoxy Resin Using CNTs/ZnO Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Pham Gia; Truc, Trinh Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Thuy; Tham, Do Quang; Trung, Tran Huu; Oanh, Vu Ke; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Olivier, Marjorie; Hoang, Thai

    2018-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/ZnO composites had been prepared using the sol-gel method and then incorporated into an epoxy resin for reinforcement of mechanical and electrical properties. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) analyses show that the ZnO nanoparticles deposited on CNTs were crystallized in a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Average particle size of ZnO deposited on the CNT was about 8 nm. The mechanical and dielectric properties of epoxy containing CNTs/ZnO were investigated in comparison to epoxy resin and epoxy resin containing only CNT or ZnO nanoparticles. The results indicated that tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposite were substantially improved with the presence of CNTs/ZnO at the equal volume. The DSC analysis associate with the dielectric results shows that the behavior of epoxy/CNTs/ZnO is identical to epoxy/ZnO composite, and the CNTs is essential to the distributed arrangement of ZnO in the epoxy resin.

  17. In-situ Elevated Temperature Mechanical Performance of MWCNT/epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Pratap Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been focused on the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT addition on the mechanical performance of epoxy under different in-service elevated temperature environments. Room temperature flexural test results revealed that addition of 0.1 wt. % MWCNT into epoxy resin resulted in modulus and strength enhancement of 21 % and 9 % respectively. With increase in service temperature, significant decrement in both modulus and strength was noticed for both materials (neat epoxy and MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite, but the rate of degradation was found to be quite drastic for the nanocomposite. At 90 °C temperature, the CNT/epoxy nanocomposite exhibited inferior modulus and strength, which are 41 % and 59 % lower than neat epoxy respectively. The variation trend in elastic modulus with temperature obtained from both flexural testing and DMA for both these materials was also analyzed. It was found that addition of 0.1 % CNT in the epoxy reduced the glass transition temperature by about 16°C.

  18. Influence of the reaction stoichiometry on the mechanical and thermal properties of SWCNT-modified epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Johnston, Andrew; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Kingston, Christopher T; Simard, Benoit; Khoun, Lolei; Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Hubert, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a considerable influence on the curing behavior and crosslink density of epoxy resins. This invariably has an important effect on different thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy network. This work focuses on the important role of the epoxy/hardener mixing ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of a high temperature aerospace-grade epoxy (MY0510 Araldite as an epoxy and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone as an aromatic hardener) modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The effects of three different stoichiometries (stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric) on various mechanical and thermal properties (fracture toughness, tensile properties, glass transition temperature) of the epoxy resin and its SWCNT-modified composites were obtained. The results were also supported by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the neat resin, it was found that an epoxy/hardener molar ratio of 1:0.8 provides the best overall properties. In contrast, the pattern in property changes with the reaction stoichiometry was considerably different for composites reinforced with unfunctionalized SWCNTs and reduced SWCNTs. A comparison among composites suggests that a 1:1 molar ratio considerably outperforms the other two ratios examined in this work (1:0.8 and 1:1.1). This composition at 0.2 wt% SWCNT loading provides the highest overall mechanical properties by improving fracture toughness, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate tensile strain of the epoxy resin by 40%, 34%, 54%, respectively. (paper)

  19. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraparprachoom, N.; Mishima, K.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  20. Application of Functionalized SWCNTs for Increase of Degradation Resistance of Acrylic Paint for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiel Lucas Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of automotive acrylic paint are improved by incorporation of three different types of carbon nanotubes: single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, OH-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (OH-SWCNTs, and aniline-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (aniline-SWCNTs. The formed composites are studied by electron miscroscopy methods and Raman spectrometry. It is found that the acrylic paints with addition of OH-SWCNTs and aniline-SWCNTs show better quality for their applications. In particular, the resistance against degradation by electron beam increased in ~500%.

  1. Steel Protective Coating Based on Plasticized Epoxy Acrylate Formulation Cured by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Mohamed, I.M.; Mohamed, H.A.; Kandile, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) was used to cure coatings based on epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) and different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil. The effect of irradiation doses (10, 25, 50 kGy) on the curing epoxy acrylate formulations containing plasticizers was studied. In the addition, the effect of the different plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coatings such as hardness, bending, adhesion, acid and alkali resistance tests were investigated. It was observed that the incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate, diluted by 1,6 hexandiol diacrylate monomer (HD) with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under the dose 10 kGy improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizers. On the other hand, sunflower free fatty acids were epoxidized in-situ under well established conditions and then was subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 degree C. The produced adduct was added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was observed that the formula containing 0.4 gm of aniline adduct / 100 gm epoxy acrylate resin gave the best corrosion protection for carbon steel

  2. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties of Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Atif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic epoxy, because of its brittleness, cannot prevent crack propagation and is vulnerable to fracture. However, it is well established that when reinforced—especially by nano-fillers, such as metallic oxides, clays, carbon nanotubes, and other carbonaceous materials—its ability to withstand crack propagation is propitiously improved. Among various nano-fillers, graphene has recently been employed as reinforcement in epoxy to enhance the fracture related properties of the produced epoxy–graphene nanocomposites. In this review, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of graphene reinforced epoxy nanocomposites will be correlated with the topographical features, morphology, weight fraction, dispersion state, and surface functionalization of graphene. The factors in which contrasting results were reported in the literature are highlighted, such as the influence of graphene on the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. Furthermore, the challenges to achieving the desired performance of polymer nanocomposites are also suggested throughout the article.

  3. Silane coupling agent for attaching fusion-bonded epoxy to steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine R; Belec, Lénaïk; Aragon, Emmanuel; Joliff, Yoann; Lanarde, Lise; Perrin, François-Xavier

    2013-07-24

    We describe the possibility of using γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) to increase the durability of epoxy powder coating/steel joints. The curing temperature of epoxy powder coatings is frequently above 200 °C, which is seen so far as a major limitation for the use of the heat-sensitive aminosilane coupling agent. Despite this limitation, we demonstrate that aminosilane is a competitive alternative to traditional chromate conversion to enhance the durability of epoxy powder coatings/steel joints. Fourier-transform reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to identify the silane deposition conditions that influence the adhesion of epoxy powder coatings on steel. We show that AFM analysis provides highly sensitive measurements of mechanical property development and, as such, the degree of condensation of the silane. The joint durability in water at 60 °C was lower when the pH of the γ-APS solution was controlled at 4.6 using formic acid, rather than that at natural pH (10.6). At the curing temperature of 220 °C, oxidation of the carbon adjacent to the amine headgroup of γ-APS gives amide species by a pseudofirst-order kinetics. However, a few amino functionalities remain to react with oxirane groups of epoxy resin and, thus, strengthen the epoxy/silane interphase. The formation of ammonium formate in the acidic silane inhibits the reaction between silane and epoxy, which consequently decreases the epoxy/silane interphase cohesion. We find that the nanoroughness of silane deposits increases with the cure temperature which is beneficial to the wet stability of the epoxy/steel joints, due to increased mechanical interlocking.

  4. Epoxy cracking in the epoxy-impregnated superconducting winding: nonuniform dissipation of stress energy in a wire-epoxy matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Iwasa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors present the epoxy-crack-induced temperature data of copper wires imbedded in wire-epoxy resin composite model at 4.2 K. The experimental results show that the epoxy-crackinduced temperature rise is higher in the copper wires than in the epoxy matrix, indicating that in stress-induced wire-epoxy failure, stress energy stored in the wire-epoxy matrix is preferrentially dissipated in the wire. A plausible mechanism of the nonuniform dissipation is presented

  5. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  6. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  7. Materials science challenges in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-01-23

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  8. Materials science challenges in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-02-01

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  9. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  10. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  11. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Krarup Andersen, Cecil; Baadsgaard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight painti...

  12. Gas pipeline internal painting: an economical advantage; Uso da pintura interna em gasodutos: uma vantagem economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Oliveira, Luiz C. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Focusing the fabulous financial losses due to the corrosion problems, it had been necessary increase the range of new technologies and developments regarding material protection. The application of internal painting systems have become the most employed protection technical, showing a lot of benefits: improved flow characteristics of gas, reduced energy consumption of pumping, reduced pressure drops, easily application, inspection and maintenance, faster commissioning, reduced deposition of condensate and microorganism, excellent preventing corrosion during storage and operation, and others. The present paper describe the advantages and the technical and financial benefits of liquid epoxy internal coating. (author)

  13. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  14. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  15. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.; Pastine, Stefan J.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Frechet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  19. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  20. Mechanical properties of functionalised CNT filled kenaf reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiai, Napisah; Jumahat, Aidah; Mahmud, Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to study the effect of functionalised carbon nanotubes (CNT) on mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polymer composites. The CNT was functionalised using acid mixtures of H2SO4:HNO3 and 3-Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane before it was incorporated into epoxy resin. Three different types of CNT were used, i.e. pristine (PCNT), acid-treated (ACNT) and acid-silane treated (SCNT), to fabricate kenaf composite. Three different filler contents were mixed in each composite system, i.e. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%. The functionalised CNT was characterized using x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Tensile, flexural and Izod impact tests were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of CNT contents and surface treatment of mechanical properties of kenaf composites. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 wt% acid-silane treated CNT improved the tensile, flexural and impact strengths of kenaf/epoxy composite by 43.30%, 21.10%, and 130%, respectively. Silane modification had been proven to be beneficial in enhancing the dispersibility and reducing agglomeration of CNT in the epoxy matrix.

  1. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  2. EPOXI at comet Hartley 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F; Belton, Michael J S; Delamere, W Alan; Feaga, Lori M; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P; McFadden, Lucy A; Meech, Karen J; Melosh, H Jay; Schultz, Peter H; Sunshine, Jessica M; Thomas, Peter C; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D; Yeomans, Donald K; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J; Carcich, Brian T; Collins, Steven M; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S; Kelley, Michael S; Li, Jian-Yang; Lindler, Don J; Lisse, Carey M; McLaughlin, Stephanie A; Merlin, Frédéric; Protopapa, Silvia; Richardson, James E; Williams, Jade L

    2011-06-17

    Understanding how comets work--what drives their activity--is crucial to the use of comets in studying the early solar system. EPOXI (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation) flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus, taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nucleus is outgassing primarily because of CO(2), which drags chunks of ice out of the nucleus. It also shows substantial differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  3. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  4. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  5. The influence of photocatalytic interior paints on indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Joonas; Wirtanen, Leif

    2008-06-01

    A clean indoor air is important for the well-being and health of people. Lately, new photocatalytic paints have been launched on the market, which are claimed to have air-purifying effects. Photocatalysis initiates radical reactions. Radicals are formed when a photocatalyst (e.g. TiO2) is subjected to radiation. Typical radicals are the hydroxyl radical (radOH) and the superoxide radical (radO2-). Radicals cause chain reactions, which degrade and decompose organic compounds. The end products of these chain reactions are water and carbon dioxide, if the reactions are fully completed (mineralization). If mineralization does not take place, then a great number of side products can be formed, whose properties are not well understood. The side products of photocatalytic reactions can be permanent and stabile. The decomposition of indoor air impurities on the surface of photocatalytic paints is not obvious. The ability of photocatalytic indoor paints to reduce chemical indoor air impurities is the key issue of this study. Six different paints with different binder systems, such as lime, polyorganic siloxane, silica sol-gel and organic binders, were examined. The experiments were divided into three topics: degradation of an organic binder, photocatalytic decomposition of formaldehyde, and a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of five different indoor air VOCs. All tests were carried out in an environmental test chamber under dynamic conditions. The test results indicate that many indoor pollutants are generated under normal- and UVA-light. Typical compounds formed include formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, etc. A clear decrease of formaldehyde or the VOC mixture concentration was not observed. All possibly generated compounds could not be collected or analyzed in this research project, but the measurements show that photocatalytic reactions do not generate only carbon dioxide and water. Photocatalytic decomposition of indoor air impurities can, however

  6. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  7. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  9. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  10. Exhalation velocity of radon-222 of Dutch building materials and the influence of paint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, W. van; Jong, P. de

    1989-02-01

    In order to achieve a better insight concerning the source terms of radon in the Dutch dwelling in the framework of the RENA-programme an investigation has been performed into the exhalation velocity of radon-222 from building materials. From this investigation it turned out that the ventilation factor does not have any influence upon the exhalation velocity, neither an influence of alteration of air pressure could be demonstrated. The influence of air humidity upon the exhalation velocity showed a twofold picture; for gypsum a linear increase of the exhalation velocity with vapour pressure was found, while for concrete a linear decrease with vapour pressure was observed. Further it has been investigated in how far paint systems diminish the exhalation velocity of the Rn-222 from gypsum and concrete. Acryl paints, mostly used in the Dutch dwelling, did not show a decrease of the exhalation velocity and structure paints did even cause an increase of the exhalation velocity. Other types of paint based on chlorous rubber, epoxy resins and poly-urethane, in contrast, showed a clear reduction. From these those based on poly-urethane showed the largest reduction (60-75%) at a double sided treatment of the wall. With the help of a mathematical modelling of the exhalation estimations have been made of the exhalation velocity of Rn-222 at single sided treatment of a wall and for the exhalation velocity of Rn-220. For the fore mentioned poly-urethane-paints this yelds, at an estimate, a reduction of respectively 90-95% and 100%. (author). 40 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  12. Epoxy Nanocomposites Containing Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Mullins, Michael; Hawkins, Spencer; Kotaki, Masaya; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2018-01-10

    Zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) is utilized as a functional filler and a curing agent in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites. The imidazole group on the surface of the ZIF-8 initiates epoxy curing, resulting in covalent bonding between the ZIF-8 crystals and epoxy matrix. A substantial reduction in dielectric constant and increase in tensile modulus were observed. The implication of the present study for utilization of metal-organic framework to improve physical and mechanical properties of polymeric matrixes is discussed.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Naum; Shepelev, Olga; Kenig, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called "stacked" graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior.

  14. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naum Naveh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called “stacked” graphene (SG. This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior.

  15. Characterization and origin of black and red Magdalenian pigments from Grottes de la Garenne (Vallée moyenne de la Creuse-France): a mineralogical and geochemical approach of the study of prehistorical paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Jezequel , Pierre; Wille , Guillaume; Bény , Claire; Delorme , Fabian; Jean-Prost , Véronique; Cottier , Roger; Breton , Jean; Duré , Frédéric; Despriée , Jackie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Pigments sampled from wall paintings and from crayons taken on the floor, at the Grottes de la Garenne (Saint-Marcel e Indre, France) have been analyzed and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, Raman micro-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ICP/MS and analytical TEM. The red pigment used for the wall paintings is mainly composed by hematite, clays, carbon matter and carbonates. Results on the red pigments show that the compositions of the paintings are similar to that...

  16. Fracture Analysis of MWCNT/Epoxy Nanocomposite Film Deposited on Aluminum Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Chien, Pao-Chu

    2017-04-13

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced epoxy films were deposited on an aluminum substrate by a hot-pressing process. Three-point bending tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus of MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite films. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 21% in the Young's modulus. Four-point-bending tests were conducted to investigate the fracture toughness of the MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite film deposited on an aluminum substrate with interfacial cracks. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the strain energy in a film/substrate composite beam is derived. The difference of strain energy before and after the propagation of the interfacial crack are calculated, leading to the determination of the strain energy release rate. Experimental test results show that the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite film deposited on the aluminum substrate increases with the increase in the MWCNT content.

  17. Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of MWCNTS/ Epoxy and SWCNTS/ Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khansaa D. Salman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The single – walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi – walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs embedded into resin matrix with different weight concentrations ranging about (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 wt. %, the nanocomposites are synthesized by casting method. The main applications of this nanocomposites are in the sensors, actuators, radar. Mechanical tests were done for this study such as: tensile test, bending test and hardness test. Also many examinations were utilized to define the microstructure like scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results of this work showed that obviously an improvement in mechanical properties of the processed nanocomposites such as young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, bending strength and Shore hardness. Also the micrographs of SEM demonstrated that SWCNTs and MWCNTs homogeneously dispersed into epoxy. On the other hand Raman spectra and XRD revealed that same results for SEM. Finally all the results for mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation show that SWCNTs give extremely higher values and properties than MWCNTs.

  18. Scheming of microwave shielding effectiveness for X band considering functionalized MWNTs/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, S.; Saha, S.

    2016-02-01

    Present typescript encompasses anextraordinary electrical and mechanical behaviors of carboxylic (-COOH) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs)/epoxy composites at low wt.% (0,5, 0,75, 1wt.%). Functionalization on the surface of the nanotube assists MWNTs in dispersing it into epoxy polymer in a respectable manner, Fabricated composites are exposed to different characterization techniques in order to examine the overall physical properties, Microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) for X band (8-12 GHz) and the flexural properties have been premeditated to predict the electrical and mechanical performances. It was found that the total SE of the nanocomposites was increased with the positive gradient of MWNT contents, The best result was recorded for 1 wt.% MWNT loading (SE of about 51,72 dB).In addition, incorporation of nanofillers enhanced the flexural modulus, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the resulting composites while comparing with neat epoxy, Nanocomposites with 0,75 wt,% MWNT loading demonstrated an incrementof 101% in modulus than that of neat epoxy, Theincrement in mechanical properties was due to achievement of good dispersion quality, effective bonding between MWNTs and epoxy polymer analyzed by micrographs of fracture surfaces

  19. Scheming of microwave shielding effectiveness for X band considering functionalized MWNTs/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, S; Saha, S

    2016-01-01

    Present typescript encompasses anextraordinary electrical and mechanical behaviors of carboxylic (-COOH) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs)/epoxy composites at low wt.% (0,5, 0,75, 1wt.%). Functionalization on the surface of the nanotube assists MWNTs in dispersing it into epoxy polymer in a respectable manner, Fabricated composites are exposed to different characterization techniques in order to examine the overall physical properties, Microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) for X band (8-12 GHz) and the flexural properties have been premeditated to predict the electrical and mechanical performances. It was found that the total SE of the nanocomposites was increased with the positive gradient of MWNT contents, The best result was recorded for 1 wt.% MWNT loading (SE of about 51,72 dB).In addition, incorporation of nanofillers enhanced the flexural modulus, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the resulting composites while comparing with neat epoxy, Nanocomposites with 0,75 wt,% MWNT loading demonstrated an incrementof 101% in modulus than that of neat epoxy, Theincrement in mechanical properties was due to achievement of good dispersion quality, effective bonding between MWNTs and epoxy polymer analyzed by micrographs of fracture surfaces (paper)

  20. A critical evaluation of the enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy modified using CNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsole, Robert W.; Park, Cheol; Bogert, Philip B.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely shown in the literature to improve mechanical properties of epoxy, such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, strain to failure, and fracture toughness. These improvements in nanocomposite properties have been attributed to the extraordinary properties of the nanotubes, as well as the quality of their dispersion within and adhesion to the epoxy matrix. However, many authors have also struggled to show significant mechanical improvements using similar methodologies and despite, in some cases, showing qualitative improvements in dispersion with optical microscopy. These authors have frequently resorted to other methods for improving the mechanical properties of CNT/epoxy, such as electrically aligning CNTs, using different types of CNTs, or modifying the stoichiometry. The current work examines many different dispersion techniques, types of CNTs, types of epoxies, curing cycles, and other variables in an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of neat epoxy with CNTs. Despite seeing significant changes in the microscopy, no significant improvements in tensile or fracture properties have been attributed to CNTs in this work.

  1. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domun, Nadiim; Paton, Keith R; Hadavinia, Homayoun; Sainsbury, Toby; Zhang, Tao; Mohamud, Hibaaq

    2017-10-19

    In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, G IC , by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly.

  2. Enhancement of Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Combining Nanotubes and Nanosheets as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiim Domun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been improved through the addition of low loading of single part and hybrid nanofiller materials. Functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs was used as single filler, increased the critical strain energy release rate, GIC, by 57% compared to the neat epoxy, at only 0.1 wt% filler content. Importantly, no degradation in the tensile or thermal properties of the nanocomposite was observed compared to the neat epoxy. When two-dimensional boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS were added along with the one-dimensional f-MWCNTs, the fracture toughness increased further to 71.6% higher than that of the neat epoxy. Interestingly, when functionalised graphene nanoplatelets (f-GNPs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs were used as hybrid filler, the fracture toughness of neat epoxy is improved by 91.9%. In neither of these hybrid filler systems the tensile properties were degraded, but the thermal properties of the nanocomposites containing boron nitride materials deteriorated slightly.

  3. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  4. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  5. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  6. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  7. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  8. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of

  9. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  10. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  11. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  12. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  13. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  14. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, F.; Motoc, S.; Pop, A.; Remes, A.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    density increased with the plasma treatments. Adhesion test of the treated glassy carbon covered with cured epoxy showed cohesive failure, indicating strong bonding after the treatments. This is in contrast to the adhesion tests of untreated samples where the epoxy readily peeled off the glassy carbon....

  16. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  17. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  18. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  19. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  20. 3D synchrotron x-ray microtomography of paint samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Boon, Jaap J.; van der Horst, Jerre; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Synchrotron based X-ray microtomography is a novel way to examine paint samples. The three dimensional distribution of pigment particles, binding media and their deterioration products as well as other features such as voids, are made visible in their original context through a computing environment without the need of physical sectioning. This avoids manipulation related artefacts. Experiments on paint chips (approximately 500 micron wide) were done on the TOMCAT beam line (TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs) at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, CH, using an x-ray energy of up to 40 keV. The x-ray absorption images are obtained at a resolution of 350 nm. The 3D dataset was analysed using the commercial 3D imaging software Avizo 5.1. Through this process, virtual sections of the paint sample can be obtained in any orientation. One of the topics currently under research are the ground layers of paintings by Cuno Amiet (1868- 1961), one of the most important Swiss painters of classical modernism, whose early work is currently the focus of research at the Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA). This technique gives access to information such as sample surface morphology, porosity, particle size distribution and even particle identification. In the case of calcium carbonate grounds for example, features like microfossils present in natural chalks, can be reconstructed and their species identified, thus potentially providing information towards the mineral origin. One further elegant feature of this technique is that a target section can be selected within the 3D data set, before exposing it to obtain chemical data. Virtual sections can then be compared with cross sections of the same samples made in the traditional way.

  1. Synthesis and electroconductivity of epoxy/aligned CNTs composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechenin, N.G.; Chernykh, P.N.; Vorobyeva, E.A.; Timofeev, O.S.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method is described of growing of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) densely packed on a large area with uniform height up to 1 mm. The method is based on injection of active solution of ferrocene in cyclohexane into reactor during the growth process. We also describe a method of ER/VANTs composite preparation based on infiltration of epoxy resin (ER) liquid monomer into arrays of the VANTs forest with polymerization followed. Further on we describe a press-and-draw method to reorient VANTs into horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes (HANTs) in the liquid composite precursor. The electrical conductivities up to 0.6 S/cm in ER/VANTs and up to 0.85 S/cm in ER/HANTs are obtained.

  2. Synthesis and electroconductivity of epoxy/aligned CNTs composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chechenin, N.G., E-mail: chechenin@sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1/2, 119234 (Russian Federation); Chernykh, P.N.; Vorobyeva, E.A.; Timofeev, O.S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1/2, 119234 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    An efficient method is described of growing of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) densely packed on a large area with uniform height up to 1 mm. The method is based on injection of active solution of ferrocene in cyclohexane into reactor during the growth process. We also describe a method of ER/VANTs composite preparation based on infiltration of epoxy resin (ER) liquid monomer into arrays of the VANTs forest with polymerization followed. Further on we describe a press-and-draw method to reorient VANTs into horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes (HANTs) in the liquid composite precursor. The electrical conductivities up to 0.6 S/cm in ER/VANTs and up to 0.85 S/cm in ER/HANTs are obtained.

  3. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  4. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  5. Investigations on d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced polysulphide modified epoxy gradient composites. Milled carbon fibre reinforced composites having 3 vol. % of milled carbon fibre and poly sulphide modified epoxy resin have been developed. D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted ...

  6. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  7. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  8. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1984-01-01

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of γ-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  9. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  10. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT–epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of −19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and −60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm −1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs–epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  11. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  12. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  13. Effect of Sonification Time on Synthesisi and Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Bahrami Panah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many research works have been carried out on anti-corrosive nanocomposites coatings containing mineral reinforcements. The most important criteria in these attempts are polymerization method and the type of matrix and reinforcement of nanocomposites. In this regard, the physical and mechanical properties of the polymers in which a small amount of filler is used can be improved. In this research, an epoxy-clay nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ polymerization method using a resin matrix based on bisphenol-A type epoxy and montmorillonite clay (Closite 15A. The treatment was used at different ultrasonic stirring times to disperse 1-4 weight percentages of clay particles into the matrix. The structure of synthesized epoxy-clay nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average size of clay particles was determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. Then, anti-corrosion properties of epoxy-clay coatings, prepared under different ultrasonic durations and applied on carbon steel panels, were investigated by Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. For this purpose, the carbon steel panels coated with these coatings were immersed in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and tested at different immersion times. The results indicated that a nanocomposite containing 1% clay, synthesized, stirred 60 min ultrasonically, produced smaller particle size, lower corrosion current density and higher coating corrosion resistance than the other composite formulations. This nanocomposite provided superior protection against corrosion in sodium chloride solution.

  14. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  15. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  16. Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Jungewelter, Soile; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. We reviewed the 1994-2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA.

  17. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  18. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  19. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  20. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...