WorldWideScience

Sample records for epoxy composite laminates

  1. Thermoviscoelastic characterization and prediction of Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material were studied. The four orthotropic material properties, S sub 11, S sub 12, S sub 22, and S sub 66, were characterized by 20 minute static creep tests on unidirectional (0) sub 8, (10) sub 8, and (90) sub 16 lamina specimens. The Time-Temperature Superposition-Principle (TTSP) was used successfully to accelerate the characterization process. A nonlinear constitutive model was developed to describe the stress dependent viscoelastic response for each of the material properties. A numerical procedure to predict long term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM PC type computers. The program was designed for ease of use. The final phase involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperatures and load level for 4 to 5 weeks. These results were compared with the VCAP program predictions to verify the testing procedure and to check the numerical procedure used in the program. The actual tests and predictions agreed for all test cases which included 1, 2, 3, and 4 fiber direction laminates.

  2. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  3. Mechanical behavior of glass/epoxy composite laminate with varying amount of MWCNTs under different loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Rawat, Prashant

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical response of three phased (glass/MWCNTs/epoxy) composite laminate under three different loadings. Flexural strength, short beam strength and low-velocity impact (LVI) testing are performed to find an optimum doping percentage value for maximum enhancement in mechanical properties. In this work, MWCNTs were used as secondary reinforcement for three-phased composite plate. MWCNT doping was done in a range of 0–4 wt% of the thermosetting matrix system. Symmetrical design eight layered glass/epoxy laminate with zero bending extension coupling laminate was fabricated using a hybrid method i.e. hand lay-up technique followed by vacuum bagging method. Ranging analysis of MWCNT mixing highlighted the enhancement in flexural, short beam strength and improvement in damage tolerance under LVI loading. While at higher doping wt%, agglomeration of MWCNTs are observed. Results of mechanical testing proposed an optimized doping value for maximum strength and damage resistance of the laminate.

  4. Seawater Durability of Nano-Montmorillonite Modified Single-Lap Joining Epoxy Composite Laminates

    OpenAIRE

    ULUS, Hasan; KAYBAL, Halil Burak; DEMİR, Okan; TATAR, Ahmet Caner; SENYURT, Muhammed Ali; AVCI, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate of nano-montmorillonite modified epoxy composite single-lap bonded joints, after being exposed to seawater immersion in order to understand the effect of seawater environment on their performance. To prepare the nano adhesives, nano montmorillonite (2 wt %) was incorporated into epoxy resin. Composite bonded specimens which manufactured with VARIM (Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method) were prepared accordance with ASTM D5868-01 and immersed in ...

  5. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  6. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konka, Hari P; Wahab, M A; Lian, K

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension–tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT

  7. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konka, Hari P.; Wahab, M. A.; Lian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension-tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT sensors

  8. A review of strategies for improving the degradation properties of laminated continuous-fiber/epoxy composites with carbon-based nanoreinforcements

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    Continuous-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminated composites are a key structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications. Introducing nanoscale reinforcements to these materials is a possible way to achieve improved mechanical properties. To date, much work has been done on nano-reinforced polymers. However, few systematic studies concerning the effect of the nanoreinforcements on the mechanical properties on laminated composites were conducted. This paper presents a systematic review of the mechanisms of degradation in laminated structures and considers various nanoreinforcement strategies in the light of well-known mechanisms of degradation and phenomenologies in classical laminated composites. We also discuss various nanoreinforcement strategies in terms of their potential to reduce degradation on every scale. In addition, we review studies conducted on the role that nanoreinforcements play in mechanical properties involved in structural simulation and design. The degradation mechanisms are systematically considered to provide a full picture of each reinforcement strategy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatigue damage mechanics of notched graphite-epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Mark; Beaumont, Peter W. R.; Ashby, Michael F.

    A modeling approach is presented that recognizes that the residual properties of composite laminates after any form of loading depend on the damage state. Therefore, in the case of cyclic loading, it is necessary to first derive a damage growth law and then relate the residual properties to the accumulated damage. The propagation of fatigue damage in notched laminates is investigated. A power law relationship between damage growth and the strain energy release rate is developed. The material constants used in the model have been determined in independent experiments and are invariant for all the layups investigated. The strain energy release rates are calculated using a simple finite element representation of the damaged specimen. The model is used to predict the effect of tension-tension cyclic loading on laminates of the T300/914C carbon-fiber epoxy system. The extent of damage propagation is successfully predicted in a number of cross-ply laminates.

  10. A Mixed-Mode (I-II) Fracture Criterion for AS4/8552 Carbon/Epoxy Composite Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnati, Sidharth Reddy

    A majority of aerospace structures are subjected to bending and stretching loads that introduce peel and shear stresses between the plies of a composite laminate. These two stress components cause a combination of mode I and II fracture modes in the matrix layer of the composite laminate. The most common failure mode in laminated composites is delamination that affects the structural integrity of composite structures. Damage tolerant designs of structures require two types of materials data: mixed-mode (I-II) delamination fracture toughness that predicts failure and delamination growth rate that predicts the life of the structural component. This research focuses determining mixed-mode (I-II) fracture toughness under a combination of mode I and mode II stress states and then a fracture criterion for AS4/8552 composite laminate, which is widely used in general aviation. The AS4/8552 prepreg was supplied by Hexcel Corporation and autoclave fabricated into a 20-ply unidirectional laminate with an artificial delamination by a Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) film at the mid-plane. Standard split beam specimens were prepared and tested in double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure modes to determine mode I (GIC) and II (GIIC) fracture toughnesses, respectively. The DCB specimens were also tested in a modified mixed-mode bending apparatus at GIIm /GT ratios of 0.18, 0.37, 0.57 and 0.78, where GT is total and GIIm is the mode II component of energy release rates. The measured fracture toughness, GC, was found to follow the locus a power law equation. The equation was validated for the present and literature experimental data.

  11. Interlaminar fracture in woven carbon/epoxy laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N.B. Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study developed to characterize the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy woven composites, using DCB and ENF tests, respectively. The laminates were manufactured using an epoxy resin and twelve woven balanced bi-directional layers of carbon fibres, all of them with the same orientation (0/90º. Significant instantaneous delaminations were observed particularly for the DCB specimen, which were responsible for an oscillatory behaviour of GI versus crack length. The maximum values obtained for GIC and GIIC were 281 and 1800 J/m2, respectively.

  12. Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.

  13. Composite lamination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process was developed for preparing relatively thick composite laminate structure wherein thin layers of prepreg tapes are assembled, these thin layers are cut into strips that are partially cured, and stacked into the desired thickness with uncured prepreg disposed between each layer of strips. The formed laminate is finally cured and thereafter machined to the desired final dimensions.

  14. Evaluation of contact resistance between carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate and printed silver electrode for damage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eun Beom; Kim, Hak Sung; Takahashi, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    An addressable conducting network (ACN) makes it possible to monitor the condition of a structure using the electrical resistance between electrodes on the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) structure. To improve the damage detection reliability of the ACN, the contact resistances between the electrodes and CFRP laminates needs to be minimized. In this study, silver nanoparticle electrodes were fabricated via printed electronics techniques on a CFRP composite. The contact resistance between the silver electrodes and CFRP were measured with respect to various fabrication conditions such as the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and the surface roughness of the CFRP laminates. The interfaces between the silver electrode and carbon fibers were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on this study, it was found that the lowest contact resistance of 0.3664Ω could be achieved when the sintering temperature of the silver nano-ink and surface roughness were 120 degree C and 0.230 a, respectively.

  15. Hygrothermal influence on delamination behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A.; Ishai, O.

    1985-01-01

    The hygrothermal effect on the fracture behavior of graphite-epoxy laminates was investigated to develop a methodology for damage tolerance predictions in advanced composite materials. Several T300/934 laminates were tested using a number of specimen configurations to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity on delamination fracture toughness under mode 1 and mode 2 loading. It is indicated that moisture has a slightly beneficial influence on fracture toughness or critical strain energy release rate during mode 1 delamination, but has a slightly deleterious effect on mode 2 delamination, and mode 1 transverse cracking. The failed specimens are examined by SEM and topographical differences due to fracture modes are identified. It is concluded that the effect of moisture on fracture topography can not be distinguished.

  16. The effects of stacking sequence and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of laminate composites of aluminium-epoxy/basalt-glass fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Azghan, Mehdi; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the effects of different stacking sequences and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of fibre metal laminates (FMLs). FMLs were composed of two aluminium alloy 2024-T3 sheets and epoxy polymer-matrix composites that have four layers of basalt and/or glass fibres with five different stacking sequences. For FML samples the thermal cycle time was about 6 min for temperature cycles from 25 °C to 115 °C. Flexural properties of samples evaluated after 55 thermal cycles and compared to non-exposed samples. Surface modification of aluminium performed by electrochemical treatment (anodizing) method and aluminium surfaces have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, the flexural failure mechanisms investigated by the optical microscope study of fractured surfaces. SEM images indicated that the porosity of the aluminium surface increased after anodizing process. The findings of the present study showed that flexural modulus were maximum for basalt fibres based FML, minimum for glass fibres based FML while basalt/glass fibres based FML lies between them. Due to change in the failure mechanism of basalt/glass fibres based FMLs that have glass fibres at outer layer of the polymer composite, the flexural strength of this FML is lower than glass and basalt fibres based FML. After thermal cycling, due to the good thermal properties of basalt fibres, flexural properties of basalt fibres based FML structures decreased less than other composites.

  17. A review of strategies for improving the degradation properties of laminated continuous-fiber/epoxy composites with carbon-based nanoreinforcements

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Rahaman, Ariful

    2012-01-01

    . To date, much work has been done on nano-reinforced polymers. However, few systematic studies concerning the effect of the nanoreinforcements on the mechanical properties on laminated composites were conducted. This paper presents a systematic review

  18. Comparison of Open-Hole Compression Strength and Compression After Impact Strength on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates for the Ares I Composite Interstage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.

  19. Hygrothermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of graphite fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates beyond initial failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, O.; Garg, A.; Nelson, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The critical load levels and associated cracking beyond which a multidirectional laminate can be considered as structurally failed has been determined by loading graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates to different strain levels up to ultimate failure. Transverse matrix cracking was monitored by acoustic and optical methods. The residual stiffness and strength parallel and perpendicular to the cracks were determined and related to the environmental/loading history. Within the range of experimental conditions studied, it is concluded that the transverse cracking process does not have a crucial effect on the structural performance of multidirectional composite laminates.

  20. Free vibration of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao

    2018-03-01

    This study provides the first-known vibration analysis of fully functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composite (FFG-CNTRHC) laminates. CNTs are non-uniformly distributed to reinforce the graphite/epoxy laminates. Some CNT distribution functions in the plane and thickness directions are proposed to more efficiently increase the stiffening effect. The rule of mixtures is modified by considering the non-homogeneous material properties of FFG-CNTRHC laminates. The formulation of the location dependent stiffness matrix and mass matrix is derived. The effects of CNT volume fraction and distribution on the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminates are discussed. The results reveal that the FFG layout may significantly increase the natural frequencies of FFG-CNTRHC laminate.

  1. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M N M; Mezeix, L; Aminanda, Y; Seman, M A; Rivai, A; Ali, K M

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested. (paper)

  2. Spring-back simulation of unidirectional carbon/epoxy L- shaped laminate composites manufactured through autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Seman, M. A.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an original method in predicting the spring-back for composite aircraft structures using non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and is an extension of the previous accompanying study on flat geometry samples. Firstly, unidirectional prepreg lay-up samples are fabricated on moulds with different corner angles (30°, 45° and 90°) and the effect on spring-back deformation are observed. Then, the FEA model that was developed in the previous study on flat samples is utilized. The model maintains the physical mechanisms of spring-back such as ply stretching and tool-part interface properties with the additional mechanism in the corner effect and geometrical changes in the tool, part and the tool-part interface components. The comparative study between the experimental data and FEA results show that the FEA model predicts adequately the spring-back deformation within the range of corner angle tested.

  3. Thermally induced self-healing epoxy/glass laminates with porous layers containing crystallized healing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szmechtyk

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Porous glass fiber and paper layers were tested for application in thermally induced self healing epoxy laminates as healing porous layers. Both types of layers were impregnated using high purity bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE epoxy with ability to crystallize during storage under 25 °C. Absorption capacity of porous layers was evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate BADGE healing agent recrystallization process. Healing porous glass layers (HPGL were selected for further tests. Liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FT IR spectroscopy provided information about average molecular mass of embedded healing agent and functional groups in HPGL layers. Self-healing efficiency of three different laminates with HPGL layers was calculated based on the results of three-point bending test and Charpy impact test. Also, flexural properties and impact strength of laminates were evaluated. The obtained results confirm competitive self healing ability of composites with HPGL.

  4. Radiation processing of carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites, specifically carbon fiber reinforced epoxies, are being used for a variety of demanding structural applications, primarily because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance characteristics. For these composites the key advantages of using electron beam (EB), rather than thermal curing, are curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing times for individual components, improved resin stability, fewer volatiles, and better control of the profile of energy absorption. Epoxy compounds do, however, have to be modified to make them EB curable. The electron beam penetration limit, a function of beam energy, product density, and the thickness of any container required, must also be examined when considering EB processing. Research is being conducted to develop EB-curable carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites. The tensile properties of these laminates are comparable to those of thermally cured epoxy laminates. Research is continuing to develop suitable resin formulations and coupling agents to optimize the mechanical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber laminates. In this chapter the EB curing of epoxies, processing considerations, and typical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy laminates are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Experimental Studies on Strength Behaviour of Notched Glass/Epoxy Laminated Composites under Uni-axial and Bi-axial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptha, V. L. Jagannatha; Sharma, Ramesh S.

    2017-11-01

    The use of FRP composite materials in aerospace, aviation, marine, automotive and civil engineering industry has increased rapidly in recent years due to their high specific strength and stiffness properties. The structural members contrived from such composite materials are generally subjected to complex loading conditions and leads to multi-axial stress conditions at critical surface localities. Presence of notches, much required for joining process of composites, makes it further significant. The current practice of using uni-axial test data alone to validate proposed material models is inadequate leading to evaluation and consideration of bi-axial test data. In order to correlate the bi-axial strengths with the uni-axial strengths of GFRP composite laminates in the presence of a circular notch, bi-axial tests using four servo-hydraulic actuators with four load cells were carried out. To determine the in-plane strength parameters, bi-axial cruciform test specimen model was considered. Three different fibre orientations, namely, 0°, 45°, and 90° are considered with a central circular notch of 10 mm diameter in the present investigation. From the results obtained, it is observed that there is a reduction in strength of 5.36, 2.41 and 13.92% in 0°, 45°, and 90° fibre orientation, respectively, under bi-axial loading condition as compared to that of uni-axial loading in laminated composite.

  6. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  7. Mechanical performance of laminated composites incorporated with nanofibrous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Huang, Z.-M.; He, C.L.; Han, X.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of non-woven nanofibrous membranes as interlaminar interfaces on the mechanical performance of laminated composites was investigated experimentally. The nanofibrous membranes are porous, thin and lightweight, and exhibit toughness and strength to some extent. They give little increase in weight and thickness when incorporated into a laminate. More important, they can be used as a functional agent carrier for the laminate. The nanofiber membranes used in this paper were prepared by electrospinning of Nylon-6 (PA6), Epoxy 609 (EPO 1691-410) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), with a thickness ranging from 20 to 150 μm. The non-woven fabrics were attached to one side of a glass/epoxy fabric lamina prior to lamination and each fabric was arranged in between two adjacent plies of the laminate. The nanofibrous membranes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, whereas the mechanical properties of the laminate were understood in terms of three-point bending and short-beam shear tests. Results have shown that the nanofibrous membranes in the ply interfaces with a proper thickness did not affect the mechanical performance of the composite laminates significantly

  8. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  9. Morphological and mechanical analyses of laminates manufactured from randomly positioned carbon fibre/epoxy resin prepreg scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Christiane S. R.; Cândido, Geraldo M.; Alves, Wellington; Marlet, José Maria F.; Rezende, Mirabel C.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to contribute to sustainability by proposing the reuse of composite prepreg scrap as an added value from discards. The research evaluates the microstructure and mechanical properties of laminates processed by the reuse of uncured carbon fibre/F155-epoxy resin prepreg scraps, waste from the ply cutting area of an aeronautical industry. The composite scraps were used as collected and were randomly positioned to produce laminates to be cured at an autoclave. The mechanical characterization shows a decrease of 39% for the compression property due to the discontinuous fibres in the laminate and an increase of 34% for the interlaminar shear strength, when compared to continuous fibre laminates. This increase is attributed to the higher crosslink density of the epoxy resin, as a result of the cure temperature used in autoclave (60 °C higher than suggested by supplier) and also to the randomly positioned scraps. Microscopic analyses confirm the consolidation of laminates, although show resin rich areas with different sizes and shapes attributed to the overlapping of the scraps with different sizes and shapes. These resin rich areas may contribute to decrease the mechanical properties of laminates. The correlation between mechanical and morphological results shows potential to be used on non-critical structural application, as composite jigs, contributing to sustainability.

  10. Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup

    of the contributions of the PhD project are included in the second part of the thesis. Paper A presents a framework for free material optimization where commercially available finite element analysis software is used as analysis tool. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures by including...... allows for a higher degree of tailoring of the resulting material. To enable better utilization of the composite materials, optimum design procedures can be used to assist the engineer. This PhD thesis is focused on developing numerical methods for optimization of laminated composite structures...... nonlinear analysis of structures, buckling and post-buckling analysis of structures, and formulations for optimization of structures considering stiffness, buckling, and post-buckling criteria. Lastly, descriptions, main findings, and conclusions of the papers are presented. The papers forming the basis...

  11. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  12. Modal analysis of pre and post impacted nano composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velmurugan

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is carried out on pre and post impacted nano composite laminates. The laminates are prepared using 3, 5 and 8 layers of 610gsm glass woven roving mats(WRM with epoxy resin and montmorillonite(MMT clay content is varied from 1% to 5%. Impulse hammer technique is used to find natural frequency and damping factor of laminates. Medium velocity impact tests are conducted by using a gas gun. The vibration responses of natural frequency and damping factor are obtained and are studied for laminates with all edges clamped boundary conditions. Results show considerable improvement in natural frequency and damping factor due to nano clay addition. It is also seen that the nano clay controls the delamination due to impact loading.

  13. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  14. The fatigue behavior of composite laminates under various mean stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, A.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the S-N curve of a composite laminate which is subjected to an arbitrary stress ratio, R (minimum stress/maximum stress). The method is based on the measuring of the S-N behavior of two distinct cases, tension-tension and compression-compression fatigue loadings. Using these parameters, expressions are formulated that estimate the fatigue behavior under any stress ratio loading. Experimental results from the testing of graphite/epoxy laminates, with various structures, are compared with the predictions and show good agreement.

  15. Criterion of damage beginning: experimental identification for laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Lebras, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a criterion of damage beginning for laminate composite. The materials is a glass-epoxy laminate [+55 deg.,-55 deg.[ n performed by winding filament process. First of all a description of the damage is performed and allows to define a damage variable. Thanks to the potential of free energy, an associated variable is defined. The damage criterion is written by using this last one. The parameter of the criterion is identified using mechanical and acoustical methods. The result is compared and exhibit a good agreement. (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs

  16. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... and modifiers to create products with an almost unlimited range and variety of performance properties [The epoxy book, 2000]. Epoxy resins are widely used as high-grade synthetic resins, for example, in the electronics, aeronautics and astronautic industries...

  17. Seawater infiltration effect on thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Haziq Izzuddin bin; Hassan, Mohamad Zaki bin; Ibrahim, Ikhwan; Rashidi, Ahmad Hadi Mohamed; Nor, Siti Fadzilah M.; Daud, Mohd Yusof Md

    2018-05-01

    Seawater salinity has been associated with the reduction of polymer structure durability. The aim of this study is to investigate the change in thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composite due to the presence of seawater. Carbon fiber, carbon/kevlar, fiberglass, and jute that reinforced with epoxy resin was laminated through hand-layup technique. Initially, these specimen was sectioned to 5×5 mm dimension, then immersed in seawater and distilled water at room temperature until it has thoroughly saturated. Following, the thermal degradation analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the thermic changes due to seawater infiltration was defined. The finding shows that moisture absorption reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of fiber reinforced epoxy composite. However, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of seawater infiltrated laminate composite is compareable with distilled water infiltrated laminate composite. The carbon fiber reinfored epoxy has the highest glass transition temperature out of all specimen.

  18. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  19. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Keon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  20. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Keon; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  1. In situ measurement using FBGs of process-induced strains during curing of thick glass/epoxy laminate plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    For large composite structures, such as wind turbine blades, thick laminates are required to withstand large in-service loads. During the manufacture of thick laminates, one of the challenges met is avoiding process-induced shape distortions and residual stresses. In this paper, embedded fibre...... Bragg grating sensors are used to monitor process-induced strains during vacuum infusion of a thick glass/epoxy laminate. The measured strains are compared with predictions from a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) thermomechanical numerical model where different mechanical boundary...... conditions are employed. The accuracy of the CHILE model in predicting process-induced internal strains, in what is essentially a viscoelastic boundary value problem, is investigated. A parametric study is furthermore performed to reveal the effect of increasing the laminate thickness. The numerical model...

  2. Degradation Behavior of Epoxy Resins in Fibre Metal Laminates Under Thermal Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    GLARE (glass fibre/epoxy reinforced aluminum laminate) is a member of the fiber metal laminate (FML) family, and is built up of alternating metal and fiber layers. About 500m2 GLARE is employed in each Airbus A380 because of the superior mechanical properties over the monolithic aluminum alloys,

  3. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically

  4. An experimental study on moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite with coatings exposed to different pH media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Londhe

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the moisture absorption and mechanical properties of jute-epoxy composites. Jute fibres are treated with NaOH before manufacturing of composite laminate in order to improve adhesion with epoxy material. Further jute-epoxy composite specimens were coated with epoxy resin and acrylic paint. Composite specimens with and without coatings are subjected to absorption in solutions of different pH media, for 28 days (666 h. The effect of coatings on reduction in moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite is presented in this current work.

  5. The effect of bulk-resin CNT-enrichment on damage and plasticity in shear-loaded laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    One way to improve multi functionality of epoxy-based laminated composites is to dope the resin with carbon nanotubes. Many investigators have focused on the elastic and fracture behavior of such nano-modified polymers under tensile loading. Yet

  6. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... are electrical insulators, and the widespread use of the epoxy resins for many high-performance applications is constrained because of their inherent brittleness, delamination and fracture toughness limitations. There were quite a few approaches to enhance...

  7. Reinforced carbon fiber laminates with oriented carbon nanotube epoxy nanocomposites: Magnetic field assisted alignment and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Yang, Song; Liu, Hu; Shao, Qian; Chen, Qiuyu; Lu, Chang; Jiang, Yuanli; Liu, Chuntai; Guo, Zhanhu

    2018-05-01

    The epoxy nanocomposites with ordered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to influence the micro-cracks resistance of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminate at 77 K, Oxidized MWCNTs functionalized with Fe 3 O 4 (Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs) with good magnetic properties were prepared by co-precipitation method and used to modify epoxy (EP) for cryogenic applications. Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs reinforced carbon fiber epoxy composites were also prepared through vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs were observed to have effectively improved the mechanical properties of epoxy (EP) matrix at 77 K and reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of EP matrix. The ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs also obviously improved the micro-cracks resistance of CF/EP composites at 77 K. Compared to neat EP, the CTE of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites was decreased 37.6%. Compared to CF/EP composites, the micro-cracks density of ordered Fe 3 O 4 /O-MWCNTs modified CF/EP composites at 77 K was decreased 37.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreculj Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.

  9. Mechanical properties and environmental effects of epoxy resins in the neat state and in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of graphite fiber reinforced, epoxy matrix composite laminates subjected to loading perpendicular to the plane of lamination and of neat epoxy resin are reported. The centrosymmetric deformation (CSD) test geometry provides an accurate and convenient test mode for the study of the viscoelastic behavior of very stiff graphite-epoxy laminates. It is found that the in-phase and out-of-phase stiffness superpose to form master curves covering a frequency range of 12 decades. By a suitable scaling procedure of the master curves, it is found that the in-phase stiffness has the same shape and the out-of-phase has the same dispersion for all laminates irrespective of the stacking sequence. The dispersion characteristics of in-situ and neat resin epoxy were nearly identical, but with the neat resin having a lower glass-transition temperature. The graphite/epoxy composites and neat resin epoxy have been shown to be sensitive to hygrothermal environment. For postcured specimens the plasticization and inhomogeneous swelling effects due to the moisture absorbed are found to be reversible, in the sense that the initially dry properties of the laminate are recovered after redrying the wet specimen. On the other hand, for as cured specimens, the plasticization and inhomogeneous swelling effects are found to be irreversible under the same hygrothermal environment

  10. Meshfree modeling in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Simkins, Daniel Craig; Collier, Nathan; Alford, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    A problem of increasing importance in the aerospace industry is in detailed modeling of explicit fracture in laminated composite materials. For design applications, the simulation must be capable of initiation and propagation of changes in the problem domain. Further, these changes must be able to be incorporated within a design-scale simulation. The use of a visibility condition, coupled with the local and dynamic nature of meshfree shape function construction allows one to initiate and explicitly open and propagate holes inside a previously continuous problem domain. The method to be presented naturally couples to a hierarchical multi-scale material model incorporating external knowldege bases to achieve the goal of a practical explicit fracture modeling capability for full-scale problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Meshfree modeling in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Simkins, Daniel Craig

    2012-09-27

    A problem of increasing importance in the aerospace industry is in detailed modeling of explicit fracture in laminated composite materials. For design applications, the simulation must be capable of initiation and propagation of changes in the problem domain. Further, these changes must be able to be incorporated within a design-scale simulation. The use of a visibility condition, coupled with the local and dynamic nature of meshfree shape function construction allows one to initiate and explicitly open and propagate holes inside a previously continuous problem domain. The method to be presented naturally couples to a hierarchical multi-scale material model incorporating external knowldege bases to achieve the goal of a practical explicit fracture modeling capability for full-scale problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy and Its Carbon Fiber Composites Modified by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive properties are commonly weak parts in structural application of fiber composites. Matrix modification may provide an effective way to improve compressive performance of the composites. In this work, the compressive property of epoxies (usually as matrices of fiber composites modified by different types of nanoparticles was firstly investigated for the following study on the compressive property of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Carbon fiber/epoxy composites were fabricated by vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM technique using stitched unidirectional carbon fabrics, with the matrices modified with nanosilica, halloysite, and liquid rubber. Testing results showed that the effect of different particle contents on the compressive property of fiber/epoxy composites was more obvious than that in epoxies. Both the compressive and flexural results showed that rigid nanoparticles (nanosilica and halloysite have evident strengthening effects on the compression and flexural responses of the carbon fiber composite laminates fabricated from fabrics.

  13. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  14. Fatigue of graphite/epoxy /0/90/45/-45/s laminates under dual stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. N.; Jones, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A model for the prediction of loading sequence effects on the statistical distribution of fatigue life and residual strength in composite materials is generalized and applied to (0/90/45/-45)s graphite/epoxy laminates. Load sequence effects are found to be caused by both the difference in residual strength when failure occurs (boundary effect) and the effect of previously applied loads (memory effect). The model allows the isolation of these two effects, and the estimation of memory effect magnitudes under dual fatigue loading levels. It is shown that the material memory effect is insignificant, and that correlations between predictions of the number of early failures agree with the verification tests, as do predictions of fatigue life and residual strength degradation under dual stress levels.

  15. Process-induced viscoelastic stress in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stango, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has developed in evaluating the stress response of composite laminates which is associated with cooling the material system from the cure temperature to room temperature. This research examines the fundamental nature of time-dependent residual-thermal stresses in composite laminates which are caused by the extreme temperature reduction encountered during the fabrication process. Viscoelastic stress in finite-width, symmetric composite laminates is examined on the basis of a formulation that employs an incremental hereditary integral approach in conjunction with a quasi-three dimensional finite element analysis. A consistent methodology is developed and employed for the characterization of lamina material properties. Special attention is given to the time-dependent stress response at ply-interface locations near the free-edge. In addition, the influence of cooling path on stress history is examined. Recently published material property data for graphite-epoxy lamina is employed in the analysis. Results of the investigation generally indicate that nominal differences between the thermoelastic and viscoelastic solutions are obtained. Slight changes of the final stress state are observed to result when different cooling paths are selected for the temperature history. The methodology employed is demonstrated to result in an accurate, efficient, and consistent approach for the viscoelastic analysis of advanced composite laminates

  16. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  17. Boron nitride nanoparticle enhanced prepregs: A novel route for manufacturing aerospace structural composite laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, Ajit D., E-mail: kelkar@ncat.edu [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States); Tian, Qiong [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States); School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Yu, Demei [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Zhang, Lifeng, E-mail: lzhang@ncat.edu [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) were surface functionalized and subsequently applied to surface of fiberglass prepregs to fabricate hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. A systematic and comparative study on BNNPs functionalization routes and their effects on morphology, mechanical property and thermal conductivity of final BNNPs enhanced composite laminates was performed. The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite laminates with surface functionalized BNNPs demonstrated improvement in tensile and flexural strength and modulus as well as in thermal conductivity compared to the composite laminate with pristine BNNPs while physically functionalized BNNPs outperformed chemically functionalized BNNPs in all cases. SEM images indicated better compatibility and dispersion of BNNPs in epoxy matrix following either of functionalization route. BNNPs bear great radiation-shielding capability. This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials. - Highlights: • BNNPs were surface functionalized and applied onto fiberglass prepreg. • The BNNPs enhanced prepreg was employed to make hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. • The hybrid laminate presented significant improvement in mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. • This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials.

  18. Boron nitride nanoparticle enhanced prepregs: A novel route for manufacturing aerospace structural composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Ajit D.; Tian, Qiong; Yu, Demei; Zhang, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) were surface functionalized and subsequently applied to surface of fiberglass prepregs to fabricate hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. A systematic and comparative study on BNNPs functionalization routes and their effects on morphology, mechanical property and thermal conductivity of final BNNPs enhanced composite laminates was performed. The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite laminates with surface functionalized BNNPs demonstrated improvement in tensile and flexural strength and modulus as well as in thermal conductivity compared to the composite laminate with pristine BNNPs while physically functionalized BNNPs outperformed chemically functionalized BNNPs in all cases. SEM images indicated better compatibility and dispersion of BNNPs in epoxy matrix following either of functionalization route. BNNPs bear great radiation-shielding capability. This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials. - Highlights: • BNNPs were surface functionalized and applied onto fiberglass prepreg. • The BNNPs enhanced prepreg was employed to make hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. • The hybrid laminate presented significant improvement in mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. • This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials.

  19. Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ply unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates [0]12 were fabricated from the prepreg tape of P3252-20 (TORAY). They were laid up by hand and cured in...Off-Axis Ratcheting Behavior of Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate under Asymmetric Cyclic Loading at High Temperature Takafumi Suzuki 1 and...Development of an engineering model for predicting the off-axis ratcheting behavior of a unidirectional CFRP laminate has been attempted. For this purpose

  20. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Production Technology, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044, India. MS received ... In this work, eco-friendly natural fabric sandwich laminate (NFSL) composites are formulated using ... and eco-friendly quality [22].

  1. Mechanical and morphological characterizations of carbon fiber fabric reinforced epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC have been used in aeronautical industry in the manufacture of different aircraft components that must attend tight mechanical requirements. This paper shows a study involving mechanical (flexural, shear, tensile and compressive tests and morphological characterizations of four different laminates based on 2 epoxy resin systems (8552TM and F584TM and 2 carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. All laminates were obtained by handing lay-up of prepregs plies (0º/90º and consolidation in an autoclave following an appropriate curing cycle with vacuum and pressure. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present better mechanical properties in the tensile and compressive tests than 8552 composites. It is also observed that PW laminates for both matrices show better flexural and interlaminar shear properties.

  2. Effects of stacking sequence on fracture mechanisms in quasi-isotropic Carbon/epoxy laminates under tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessabi, Z. R.; Majidi, B.; Aghazadeh, J.

    2006-01-01

    The progress of damage in quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates under tensile loading has been Investigated microscopically. One significant mode of failure in laminated composites is delamination initiating at free edges. The interlaminar stress in the boundary ply along the free edges of a laminated composite is the main factor to cause delamination. The laminate stacking sequence affects the interlaminar stress distribution and consequently may change the mode of failure. It is of design importance to determine a suitable criterion based on stress analysis to obtain the best stacking sequence. In the present work, tensile properties of six samples with different stacking sequences have been examined. Results showed that stress analysis at distance very close to the free edges is a suitable criterion to predict the initiation of delamination and the stacking sequence of [90/45/0/-45] s , has the highest strength among the others. Furthermore finite element analysis showed that the adjacent ±45 plies cause premature delamination during tensile loading

  3. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  4. Comparison of tensile strength of different carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fabric/epoxy composites are materials used in aeronautical industry to manufacture several components as flaps, aileron, landing-gear doors and others. To evaluate these materials become important to know their mechanical properties, for example, the tensile strength. Tensile tests are usually performed in aeronautical industry to determinate tensile property data for material specifications, quality assurance and structural analysis. For this work, it was manufactured four different laminate families (F155/PW, F155/HS, F584/PW and F584/HS using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs based on F155TM and F584TM epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fiber fabric styles Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. The matrix F155TM code is an epoxy resin type DGEBA (diglycidil ether of bisphenol A that contains a curing agent and the F584TM code is a modified epoxy resin type. The laminates were obtained by handing lay-up process following an appropriate curing cycle in autoclave. The samples were evaluated by tensile tests according to the ASTM D3039. The F584/PW laminates presented the highest values of tensile strength. However, the highest modulus results were determined for the 8HS composite laminates. The correlation of these results emphasizes the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the reinforcement arrangement in the structural composite manufacture. The microscopic analyses of the tested specimens show valid failure modes for composites used in aeronautical industry.

  5. Residual stresses in non-symmetrical carbon-epoxy laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Akkerman, Remko; Lamers, E.A.D.; Martin, M.J.; Hahn, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    The curvature of unsymmetrical [0/90] laminates moulded from AS4/8552 uni-directional tape has been measured. A linear thermoelastic approach has been applied to predict the related residual stress state before demoulding, giving an estimate of the stress induced by polymerisation strain. The

  6. Flame resistant hybrid epoxy composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Śliwa, R.; Oleksy, M.; Heneczkowski, M.; Oliwa, R.; Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Markowska, O.; Strachota, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2015), s. 667-670 ISSN 0032-2725 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy resin * quaternary phosphonium salts * modified bentonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  7. Optimal Design of Laminated Composite Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral

    model for the analysis of laminated composite beams is proposed. The structural analysis is performed in a beam finite element context. The development of a finite element based tool for the analysis of the cross section stiffness properties is described. The resulting beam finite element formulation...... is able to account for the effects of material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the global response of the beam. Beam finite element models allow for a significant reduction in problem size and are therefore an efficient alternative in computationally intensive applications like optimization frameworks...... design of laminated composite beams. The devised framework is applied in the optimal design of laminated composite beams with different cross section geometries and subjected to different load cases. Design criteria such as beam stiffness, weight, magnitude of the natural frequencies of vibration...

  8. Curing of Thick Thermoset Composite Laminates: Multiphysics Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.

  9. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

  10. Fracture toughness behaviour of carbon fibre epoxy composite with Kevlar reinforced interleave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.N.; Kumar, Vijai; Verma, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    This work was to evaluate as to how mode II fracture toughness G II is affected by interleave having Kevlar fibre reinforcement in the fracture plane. Thermoset interleave and chopped Kevlar fibres were applied between the carbon/epoxy composite layers. An artificial crack starter was implanted in the mid-plane to initiate the fracture process. The following five different types of carbon fibre/epoxy composites were prepared and tested. (a) Base laminate without interleave (b) unreinforced interleave and (c) 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/cm 2 chopped Kevlar fibre reinforced interleave. Results obtained show that fracture toughness G IIC enhanced up to about two times in all the laminates. However, enhancement in fracture toughness G IIC was more effective in interleaved laminate than Kevlar reinforced interleaved because of large energy absorbing capabilities of interleaf. Mechanism of fracture and toughening were examined by using scanning electron microscope

  11. Hygrothermal effects on the tensile strength of carbon/epoxy laminates with molded edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Geraldo Maurício

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar stresses are confined to a region near the free edge. Therefore, the laminate stacking sequence and the free edge finishing are some of the factors that affect the strength of the laminate and limit its life. The use of molded edges eliminates the need for trimming and machining the laminates edges thus improving productivity. However, this fabrication technique may have a detrimental effect on the laminate strength for certain stacking sequences. This effect in the presence of moisture has not been characterized. This work presents the results of a comparative study of the resistance to delamination of laminates with machined edges and molded edges. Additionally, two environmental conditions were considered: dry laminates and laminates saturated with moisture. The tensile strength of the laminates were measured and micrographs were used to analyze the microstructure of the laminates near the free edges. It is concluded that the mechanical properties of advanced composites depend on the environmental conditions and the fabrication techniques used to produce the laminates. Therefore, it is necessary to account for these factors when experimentally determining the design allowables.

  12. Debonding of epoxy from glass in irradiated laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabunde, C.E.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Glass-fabric-filled epoxies irradiated at 4.7 K and examined at room temperature by 20x stereomicroscopy showed an internal flaw structure which increasingly filled the sample as the γ-dose was increased. These flaws were determined to be areas where the plastic had debonded from the glass fibers. The extent of this process correlated well with the dose-dependent loss of mechanical strength. Evidence is reported for a similar mechanism in polyimides although visible flaws have not yet been produced. Possible mechanisms for debonding are suggested. New experiments are also suggested to clarify further the failure mechanism

  13. Assessment and propagation of mechanical property uncertainties in fatigue life prediction of composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Oscar; Branner, Kim; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2018-01-01

    amplitude loading cycles. Fatigue life predictions of unidirectional and multi-directional glass/epoxy laminates are carried out to validate the proposed model against experimental data. The probabilistic fatigue behavior of laminates is analyzed under constant amplitude loading conditions as well as under......A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite materials considering the uncertainty in their mechanical properties is developed. The uncertainty in the material properties is determined from fatigue coupon tests. Based on this uncertainty, probabilistic constant life...... diagrams are developed which can efficiently estimate probabilistic É›-N curves at any load level and stress ratio. The probabilistic É›-N curve information is used in a reliability analysis for fatigue limit state proposed for estimating the probability of failure of composite laminates under variable...

  14. Evaluation of mechanical properties of four different carbon/epoxy composites used in aeronautical field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Four families of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC used in aeronautical industry were evaluated by flexural and interlaminar shear tests. It is also characterized three families of non-conditioned and conditioned CFRC by compression test. The composites were obtained by hand lay-up process in autoclave by using prepregs based on epoxy matrices (F155 and F584 and carbon fiber fabric reinforcements (PW-"Plain Weave" and 8HS-"Eight Harness Satin". The F155-epoxy matrix was cured at 121 °C and the F584-epoxy type at 177 °C. After molding, the laminates were cut in specimens attending the ASTM D790 for the flexural test, the ASTM D2344 for the interlaminar shear test (ILSS and the ASTM D3410 for the compressive test. The compressive tests were performed for testing the specimens before and after hygrothermal conditioning. The results show that the F584-epoxy matrix laminates present higher mechanical properties when compared to the F155-epoxy ones. The shear-tested samples observed by scanning electron microscopy and that ones tested in flexural, analyzed by stereoscopy, revealed that the fractured surfaces present typical aspects. The compressive results show that the hygrothermal conditioning caused the decrease of the compressive strength in, approximately, 8-20% depending on the laminate type. The failure modes of the tested specimens were evaluated showing good agreement with the literature.

  15. Development of design data for graphite reinforced epoxy and polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques and design data were characterized for a graphite/epoxy composite system that is useful from 75 K to 450 K, and a graphite/polyimide composite system that is useful from 75 K to 589 K. The Monsanto 710 polyimide resin was selected as the resin to be characterized and used with the graphite fiber reinforcement. Material was purchased using the prepreg specification for the design data generation for both the HT-S/710 and HM-S/710 graphite/polyimide composite system. Lamina and laminate properties were determined at 75 K, 297 K, and 589 K. The test results obtained on the skin-stringer components proved that graphite/polyimide composites can be reliably designed and analyzed much like graphite/epoxy composites. The design data generated in the program includes the standard static mechanical properties, biaxial strain data, creep, fatigue, aging, and thick laminate data.

  16. Modeling Bistable Composite Laminates for Piezoelectric Morphing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl V. Murray; Oliver J. Myers

    2013-01-01

    A sequential modeling effort for bistable composite laminates for piezoelectric morphing structures is presented. Thin unsymmetric carbon fiber composite laminates are examined for use of morphing structures using piezoelectric actuation. When cooling from the elevated cure temperature to room temperature, these unsymmetric composite laminates will deform. These postcure room temperature deformation shapes can be used as morphing structures. Applying a force to these deformed laminates will c...

  17. Study of flax hybrid preforms reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, B. A

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of flax preform hybrid composites. • The thermal stability of the matrix decrease with increasing volume fraction of flax preforms. • The effect of number of preform layers and the lay-up architecture were studied.. • Morphological study on the fractured surface of the composite laminate is carried out. - Abstracts: This study investigates the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of flax hybrid preform reinforced epoxy composites. Flax plain weave fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were together used as reinforcements and the composites were produced using hand lay-up technique. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax hybrid preform. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a shift in the T g with the addition of flax hybrid preforms. Mechanical data obtained showed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. Additionally, investigation show that laminate with knitted preform as skin layer exhibits superior mechanical properties. However, improved tensile properties at lower fibre volume fraction, reinforces the opinion that hybrid preform composites can offer significant benefits in terms of performance, weight and overall cost. The failure mechanism was analysed, by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  18. Tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica de laminados compósitos de fibras de carbono e resina epóxi de grau aeronáutico Translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of aeronautic grade composite laminates made with carbon fiber-epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Tarpani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A tenacidade à fratura translaminar dinâmica de quatro laminados compósitos de fibras de carbono e resina epóxi foi determinada nas velocidades de impacto de 2,25 e 5,52 m/s, sob as temperaturas de -70, +25 e +100 °C. Concluiu-se que a tenacidade à iniciação da fratura dos laminados confeccionados com fibras na forma de fita unidirecional é, em qualquer condição de ensaio, muito superior à dos laminados manufaturados com fibras dispostas na forma de tecido bi-direcional. Quanto à tenacidade à propagação de danos, constatou-se que o laminado fita processado a 180 °C é o mais indicado para operar sob impacto em temperaturas intermediárias, enquanto que o manufaturado a 120 °C é a melhor opção para trabalhar sob ambos os extremos do intervalo de temperatura avaliado.The translaminar dynamic fracture toughness of four carbon fiber - epoxy resin composite laminates was compared at the impact velocities of 2.25 and 5.52 m/s, under the temperatures of -70, +25 and +100 °C. It has been concluded that the initiation fracture toughness of unidirectional tape laminates is quite higher than bidirectional woven fabric composites, despite the testing conditions. In regard to the damage propagation toughness, it has been shown that the tape laminate processed at 180 °C is the best option at intermediate temperatures, whereas the tape composite manufactured at 120 °C is the most suitable to operate under impact at both the extremes of the temperature range evaluated.

  19. Effects of stitching on fracture toughness of uniweave textile graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Sharma, Suresh

    1995-01-01

    The effects of through-the-thickness stitching on impact damage resistance, impact damage tolerance, and Mode 1 and Mode 2 fracture toughness of textile graphite/epoxy laminates were studied experimentally. Graphite/epoxy laminates were fabricated from AS4 graphite uniweave textiles and 3501-6 epoxy using Resin Transfer Molding. The cloths were stitched with Kevlar(tm) and glass yarns before resin infusion. Delamination was implanted during processing to simulate impact damage. Sublaminate buckling tests were performed in a novel fixture to measure Compression After Impact (CAI) strength of stitched laminates. The results show that CAI strength can be improved up to 400% by through-the-thickness stitching. Double Cantilever Beam tests were performed to study the effect of stitching on Mode 1 fracture toughness G(sub 1c). It was found that G(sub 1c) increased 30 times for a low stitching density of 16 stitches/sq in. Mode 2 fracture toughness was measured by testing the stitched beams in End Notch Flexure tests. Unlike in the unstitiched beams, crack propagation in the stitched beams was steady. The current formulas for ENF tests were not found suitable for determining G(sub 2C) for stitched beams. Hence two new methods were developed - one based on crack area measured from ultrasonic C-scanning and the other based on equivalent crack area measured from the residual stiffness of the specimen. The G(sub 2c) was found to be at least 5-15 times higher for the stitched laminates. The mechanisms by which stitching increases the CAI strength and fracture toughness are discussed.

  20. The role of shape memory alloy on impact response of glass/epoxy laminates under low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. W.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the impact response of glass/epoxy laminates with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to low velocity impact at various temperatures. For the goal, the impact tests were performed by using an instrumented impact-testing machine at three temperatures: 293K, 263K and 233K for the baseline (laminates without SMA wires) and SMA laminates (laminates with embedded SMA wires). And the resultant damages were inspected through the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). Also, based on the impact force history and the damage configuration, the impact resistance parameters were employed to evaluate damage resistance of laminates with embedded SMA wires. As a result, it was observed that the damage resistance of glass/epoxy laminates is influenced by embedded SMA wires and embedding SMA wires into laminates does not compromise the structure any differently to laminates without wires. In fact, it has been shown that under lower temperature, the SMA laminates have a little superior damage resistance compared with the baseline laminates

  1. Wear Behavior of Woven Roving Aramid / Epoxy Composite under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad A. Khalid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wear behavior studies of aramid woven roving /epoxy composite has been conducted. Sliding the material against smooth steel counter face under dry and  lubricated with oil conditions has been investigated. Powder of Silicon carbide has been mixed with the epoxy resin and tested also. The powder was mixed in a volumetric fraction of 10% with the epoxy resin. Four Laminates of six layers were fabricated by hand lay up  method. A pin on disc apparatus has been fabricated to conduct the sliding wear tests on specimens of (4 mm   4 mm   12 mm in size have been cut from the four laminates. The effect of sliding condition including dry, lubricated, dry with additives and lubricated with additives have been studied. Wear rate tests have been conducted at different sliding speeds and loads. Results show that the wear characteristics are influenced by the operating conditions and the construction of the composite material used. It was also found that the wear of aramid /epoxy composite onto the steel counter face were significantly reduced by using lubricant and additives but still took place.Keywords: Wear, Composite materials, Woven roving aramid, Epoxy, Additives, Lubricant.

  2. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  3. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on the strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOMCILO STEVANOVIC; MILAN GORDIC; DANIELA SEKULIC; ISIDOR DJORDJEVIC

    2006-01-01

    The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry: cross-ply, quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates with additional 0º and 90º ply was studied. Coupons with two widths of laminates with an inverse stacking sequence were tested in static tensile tests. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength was studied, by comparing the values of the tensile strength of laminate coupons of the same width with an inverse stacking sequen...

  4. Effect of thermally reduced graphene oxide on dynamic mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nitai Chandra; Chhetri, Suman; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Samanta, Pranab; Kuila, Tapas

    2018-03-01

    The Carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy composites are being used in the automotive and aerospace industries owing to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio compared to the other conventional metal and alloys. However, the low interfacial adhesion between fiber and polymer matrix results the inter-laminar fracture of the composites. Effects of different carbonaceous nanomaterials i.e., carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene nanosheets (GNPs), graphene oxide (GO) etc. on the static mechanical properties of the composites were investigated in detail. Only a few works focused on the improvement of the dynamic mechanical of the CF/epoxy composites. Herein, the effect of thermally reduced grapheme oxide (TRGO) on the dynamic mechanical properties of the CF/epoxy composites was investigated. At first, GO was synthesized using modified Hummers method and then reduced the synthesized GO inside a vacuum oven at 800 °C for 5 min. The prepared TRGO was dispersed in the epoxy resin to modify the epoxy matrix. Then, a number of TRGO/CF/epoxy laminates were manufactured incorporating different wt% of TRGO by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) technique. The developed laminates were cured at room temperature for 24 h and then post cured at 120 °C for 2 h. The dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA 8000 Perkin Elmer) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of the TRGO/CF/epoxy composites according to ASTM D7028. The dimension of the specimen was 44×10×2.4 mm3 for the DMA test. This test was carried out under flexural loading mode (duel cantilever) at a frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of 50 μm. The temperature was ramped from 30 to 200 °C with a heating rate of 5 °C min-1. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the 0.2 wt% TRGO incorporated CF/epoxy composites showed ~ 96% enhancement in storage modulus and ~ 12 °C increments in glass transition temperature (Tg) compared to the base CF/epoxy composites. The fiber-matrix interaction was studied by Cole

  5. Low Cost, Lightweight Gravity Coring and Improved Epoxy Impregnation Applied to Laminated Maar Sediment in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Schimmelmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for lightweight and affordable sediment coring and high-resolution structural documentation of unconsolidated sediment, we developed economical and fast methods for (i recovering short sediment cores with undisturbed topmost sediment, without the need for a firmly anchored coring platform, and (ii rapid epoxy-impregnation of crayon-shaped subcores in preparation for thin-sectioning, with minimal use of solvents and epoxy resin. The ‘Autonomous Gravity Corer’ (AGC can be carried to remote locations and deployed from an inflatable or makeshift raft. Its utility was tested on modern unconsolidated lacustrine sediment from a ~21 m deep maar lake in Vietnam’s Central Highlands near Pleiku. The sedimentary fabric fidelity of the epoxy-impregnation method was demonstrated for finely laminated artificial flume sediment. Our affordable AGC is attractive not only for work in developing countries, but lends itself broadly for coring in remote regions where challenging logistics prevent the use of heavy coring equipment. The improved epoxy-impregnation technique saves effort and costly chemical reagents, while at the same time preserving the texture of the sediment.

  6. Development of Compressive Failure Strength for Composite Laminate Using Regression Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Keon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper provides the compressive failure strength value of composite laminate developed by using regression analysis method. Composite material in this document is a Carbon/Epoxy unidirection(UD) tape prepreg(Cycom G40-800/5276-1) cured at 350°F(177°C). The operating temperature is –60°F~+200°F(-55°C - +95°C). A total of 56 compression tests were conducted on specimens from eight (8) distinct laminates that were laid up by standard angle layers (0°, +45°, –45° and 90°). The ASTM-D-6484 standard was used for test method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate ultimate fracture strength and the regressor variables being two ply orientations (0° and ±45°)

  7. Development of Compressive Failure Strength for Composite Laminate Using Regression Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Keon; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the compressive failure strength value of composite laminate developed by using regression analysis method. Composite material in this document is a Carbon/Epoxy unidirection(UD) tape prepreg(Cycom G40-800/5276-1) cured at 350°F(177°C). The operating temperature is –60°F~+200°F(-55°C - +95°C). A total of 56 compression tests were conducted on specimens from eight (8) distinct laminates that were laid up by standard angle layers (0°, +45°, –45° and 90°). The ASTM-D-6484 standard was used for test method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate ultimate fracture strength and the regressor variables being two ply orientations (0° and ±45°)

  8. Effects of through-the-thickness stitching on impact and interlaminar fracture properties of textile graphite/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh K.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of through-the-thickness stitching on impact damage resistance, impact damage tolerance, and mode I and mode II fracture toughness of textile graphite/epoxy laminates. Uniweave resin-transfer-molded 48 ply graphite/epoxy (AS4/3501-6) laminates were stitched with Kevlar and glass yarns of different linear densities and stitch spacings. Delaminations were implanted during processing to simulate impact damage. Sublaminate buckling tests were performed to determine the effects of stitching on the compressive strength. The results showed outstanding improvements of up to 400 percent in the compression strength over the unstitched laminates. In impact and static indentation tests the onset of damage occurred at the same level, but the extent of damage was less in stitched laminates. Mode I fracture toughness of 24 ply Uniweave unidirectional (AS4/3501-6) stitched laminates was measured by conducting double-cantilever-beam tests. The critical strain energy release rate (G(sub Ic)) was found to be up to 30 times higher than the unstitched laminates. Mode II fracture toughness of the Uniweave laminates was measured by performing end-notched-flexure tests. Two new methods to compute the apparent G(sub IIc) are presented. The apparent G(sub IIc) was found to be at least 5-15 times higher for the stitched laminates.

  9. Assessment of various failure theories for weight and cost optimized laminated composites using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, T. [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, UP (India); Gupta, R. [Infotech Enterprises Ltd., Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, minimum weight-cost design for laminated composites is presented. A genetic algorithm has been developed for the optimization process. Maximum-Stress, Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure criteria have been used along with buckling analysis parameter for the margin of safety calculations. The design variables include three materials; namely Carbon-Epoxy, Glass-Epoxy, Kevlar-Epoxy; number of plies; ply orientation angles, varying from -75 deg. to 90 deg. in the intervals of 15 deg. and ply thicknesses which depend on the material in use. The total cost is a sum of material cost and layup cost. Layup cost is a function of the ply angle. Validation studies for solution convergence and weight-cost inverse proportionality are carried out. One set of results for shear loading are also validated from literature for a particular case. A Pareto-Optimal solution set is demonstrated for biaxial loading conditions. It is then extended to applied moments. It is found that global optimum for a given loading condition is a function of the failure criteria for shear loading, with Maximum Stress criteria giving the lightest-cheapest and Tsai-Wu criteria giving the heaviest-costliest optimized laminates. Optimized weight results are plotted from the three criteria to do a comparative study. This work gives a global optimized laminated composite and also a set of other local optimum laminates for a given set of loading conditions. The current algorithm also provides with adequate data to supplement the use of different failure criteria for varying loadings. This work can find use in the industry and/or academia considering the increased use of laminated composites in modern wind blades. (Author)

  10. Effects of Weave Styles and Crimp Gradients on Damage Tolerance and Energy-Absorption Capacities of Woven Kevlar/Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Capacities of Woven Kevlar /Epoxy Composites Paul V. Cavallaro Ranges, Engineering, and Analysis Department NEWPORT Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division...the Kevlar woven fabrics and technical data and to Core Composites Inc. for fabricating the composite laminates. Reviewed and Approved: 1...Effects of Weave Styles and Crimp Gradients on Damage Tolerance and Energy-Absorption Capacities of Woven Kevlar /Epoxy Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  11. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  12. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part I: quasi-static and impact bending properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part I of this study, quasi-static and impact bending properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy laminates have been determined and compared. Materials tested were unidirectional cross-ply (tape and bidirectional woven textile (fabric carbon fiber lay-up architectures, impregnated with standard and rubber-toughened resins, respectively, giving rise to 1.5 mm-thick laminates. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed in transversal mode loading were modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and tenacity at the maximum load, whereas the net absorbed energy was determined under translaminar impact conditions. Two-dimensional woven carbon fiber reinforcements embedded in a rubber-toughened matrix presented the best mechanical performance under static loading. Under dynamic loading conditions, woven fiber fabric pre-forms were favorably sensitive to increasing impact energies regardless the nature of the employed epoxy resin. However, it was concluded that great care should be taken with this material within the low energy impact regimen.

  13. Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.

  14. Simulation of delamination crack growth in composite laminates: application of local and non-local interface damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Impact Strength of Epoxy Based Hybrid Composites Reinforced with E-Glass/Kevlar 49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBHAN ALIJOGI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In hybridization different fibers are stacked layer by layer to produce laminates have specific strength and stiffness and employed in light weight high strength applications. Physically mean fabricated hybrid composites used in aerospace, under water, body armors and armed forces establishment. In present work drop-weight impact response of hybrid composites were investigated by making laminates of hybrid composites. In Hybridization layers of E-glass (roving and Kevlar 49 fabrics stacked with epoxy resin. The layers formulation was set up by hand layup method. Impregnationsof epoxy resin of commercial grade (601A in fabrics were accomplished by VRTM (Vacuum Bagging Resin Transfer Molding technique. Layup placementof Glass fibers/ Kevlar at 0°/90°, 45°/45° and 30°/60° were set for this work. Mechanical properties such as impact strength, bear resistance and break resistance were analyzed by usingASTM D-256 and D-3763 standard.Experimental investigation was conducted using instrumented Dart impact and Izod Impact test. E-glass/Kevlar 49 at layup 0°/90°and 30°/60°exhibited improvedimpact strength than 45°/45°. The surface morphology and fractography were also investigated by capturing different images of Specimens by using the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The fiberreinforcement and matrix fracture were also observed by using SEM.The SEM images suggest that epoxy resin tightly bonded with Kevlar fibers whereas Glass fibers were pulled out from laminations.

  16. Evaluation of impact strength of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with e-glass/kevlar 49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogi, S.A.; Memon, I.A.; Baloch, M.; Chandio, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In hybridization different fibers are stacked layer by layer to produce laminates have specific strength and stiffness and employed in light weight high strength applications. Physically mean fabricated hybrid composites used in aerospace, under water, body armors and armed forces establishment. In present work drop-weight impact response of hybrid composites were investigated by making laminates of hybrid composites. In Hybridization layers of E-glass (roving) and Kevlar 49 fabrics stacked with epoxy resin. The layers formulation was set up by hand layup method. Impregnations of epoxy resin of commercial grade (601A) in fabrics were accomplished by VRTM (Vacuum Bagging Resin Transfer Molding) technique. Layup placementof Glass fibers/ Kevlar at 0 degree/90 degree, 45 degree/45 degree and 30 degree/60 degree were set for this work. Mechanical properties such as impact strength, bear resistance and break resistance were analyzed by using ASTM D-256 and D-3763 standard. Experimental investigation was conducted using instrumented Dart impact and Izod Impact test. E-glass/Kevlar 49 at layup 0 degree/90 degree and 30 degree/60 degree exhibited improvedimpact strength than 45 degree/45 degree. The surface morphology and fractography were also investigated by capturing different images of Specimens by using the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The fiberreinforcement and matrix fracture were also observed by using SEM.The SEM images suggest that epoxy resin tightly bonded with Kevlar fibers whereas Glass fibers were pulled out from laminations. (author)

  17. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  18. Computational Homogenization of Mechanical Properties for Laminate Composites Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Lafdi, K.

    2018-06-01

    Elastic properties of laminate composites based Carbone Nanotubes (CNTs), used in military applications, were estimated using homogenization techniques and compared to the experimental data. The composite consists of three phases: T300 6k carbon fibers fabric with 5HS (satin) weave, baseline pure Epoxy matrix and CNTs added with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%. Two step homogenization methods based RVE model were employed. The objective of this paper is to determine the elastic properties of structure starting from the knowledge of those of constituents (CNTs, Epoxy and carbon fibers fabric). It is assumed that the composites have a geometric periodicity and the homogenization model can be represented by a representative volume element (RVE). For multi-scale analysis, finite element modeling of unit cell based two step homogenization method is used. The first step gives the properties of thin film made of epoxy and CNTs and the second is used for homogenization of laminate composite. The fabric unit cell is chosen using a set of microscopic observation and then identified by its ability to enclose the characteristic periodic repeat in the fabric weave. The unit cell model of 5-Harness satin weave fabric textile composite is identified for numerical approach and their dimensions are chosen based on some microstructural measurements. Finally, a good comparison was obtained between the predicted elastic properties using numerical homogenization approach and the obtained experimental data with experimental tests.

  19. Evaluation of Force-Time Changes During Impact of Hybrid Laminates Made of Titanium and Fibrous Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubczak P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre metal laminates (FML are the modern hybrid materials with potential wide range of applications in aerospace technology due to their excellent mechanical properties (particularly fatigue strength, resistance to impacts and also excellent corrosion resistance. The study describes the resistance to low velocity impacts in Ti/CFRP laminates. Tested laminates were produced in autoclave process. The laminates were characterized in terms of their response to impacts in specified energy range (5J, 10J, 20J. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM D7137 standard. The laminates were subjected to impacts by means of hemispherical impactor with diameter of 12,7 mm. The following values have been determined: impact force vs. time, maximum force and the force at which the material destruction process commences (Pi. It has been found that fibre titanium laminates are characterized by high resistance to impacts. This feature is associated with elasto-plastic properties of metal and high rigidity of epoxy - fibre composite. It has been observed that Ti/CFRP laminates are characterized by more instable force during impact in stage of stabilization of impactor-laminate system and stage of force growth that glass fibre laminates. It has been observed more stable force decrease in stage of stress relaxation and withdrawal of the impactor. In energy range under test, the laminates based on titanium with glass and carbon fibres reinforcement demonstrate similar and high resistance to low-velocity impact, measured by means of failure initiation force and impact maximum force.

  20. Characterization of damaged composite laminates by an optical measurement of the displacement field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukil, M S; Ayadi, Z; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of the elastic properties of composite laminates with intralaminar cracks is caused by reduced stress in the damaged layer which is mainly due to two parameters: the crack opening displacement (COD) and the crack sliding displacement (CSD). In this paper these parameters are measured experimentally providing laminate stiffness reduction models with valuable information for validation of used assumptions and for defining limits of their application. In particular, the displacement field on the edges of a [0/ +70 4 / −70 4 ] s glass fiber/epoxy laminate specimens with multiple intralaminar cracks is studied and the COD and CSD dependence on the applied mechanical load is measured. The specimen full-field displacement measurement is carried out using ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry). By studying the displacement discontinuities, the crack face displacements were measured. A comparison between the COD and the CSD (for the same crack) is performed.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal-electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.

  2. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  3. The influences of contamination during lamination on the properties of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall Beng, G.M. (Univ. of Portsmouth, School of Systems Engineering, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)); Mason, S.E. (Univ. of Portsmouth, School of Systems Engineering, Portsmouth (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    The quality of a fibrous composite laminate can be largely attributed to the laminating process. It is therefore important to control parameters which will ultimately affect the desired quality of the laminate. Although several composite manufacturing organisations have installed clean room facilities with the hope of controlling potential contaminants, which may be detrimental to the process, the unavoidable reductions in productivity, coupled with the initial capital and maintenance costs make it an expensive solution to an unquantified problem. This study investigates the influences of contamination on structural fibre reinforced composites. Initial testing has involved contaminating Carbon/Epoxy (Fiberite 7714B) prepregs on a gross level. Contaminants have been selected on a tactile level in order to be as closely representative of situations likely to be encountered in the laminating process. The research has concentrated on airborne particulates, including fibres, condensation and humidity. Modes of contamination have been proposed for each, and suitable test methods selected to verify the modes. Test methods include the sort beam shear test (interlaminar shear strength), double cantilever beam test (interlaminar fracture data) and tensile tests. Such high levels of contamination enables the identification of those contaminants that are most detrimental to final laminate quality. Strategic reduction in the contamination levels of those identified will enable the clean room operating level to be sought. (orig.).

  4. The influences of contamination during lamination on the properties of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall Beng, G.M.; Mason, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of a fibrous composite laminate can be largely attributed to the laminating process. It is therefore important to control parameters which will ultimately affect the desired quality of the laminate. Although several composite manufacturing organisations have installed clean room facilities with the hope of controlling potential contaminants, which may be detrimental to the process, the unavoidable reductions in productivity, coupled with the initial capital and maintenance costs make it an expensive solution to an unquantified problem. This study investigates the influences of contamination on structural fibre reinforced composites. Initial testing has involved contaminating Carbon/Epoxy (Fiberite 7714B) prepregs on a gross level. Contaminants have been selected on a tactile level in order to be as closely representative of situations likely to be encountered in the laminating process. The research has concentrated on airborne particulates, including fibres, condensation and humidity. Modes of contamination have been proposed for each, and suitable test methods selected to verify the modes. Test methods include the sort beam shear test (interlaminar shear strength), double cantilever beam test (interlaminar fracture data) and tensile tests. Such high levels of contamination enables the identification of those contaminants that are most detrimental to final laminate quality. Strategic reduction in the contamination levels of those identified will enable the clean room operating level to be sought. (orig.)

  5. Tensile testing and damage analysis of woven glass-cloth/epoxy laminates at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, S.; Shindo, Y.; Horiguchi, K.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate the tensile properties of SL-ES30 glass-cloth/epoxy laminates for superconducting magnets in fusion energy systems, tensile tests were examined both experimentally and analytically. The tensile tests were conducted in accordance with JIS K 7054 at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The general specimen geometry was a rectangular dog-bone shape with constant gage length, but with each specimen size having a different specimen width. The experimental finding provides the data for analytical modeling. The model utilizes two damage variables which are determined from experimental data. A finite element method coupled with damage was adopted for the extensional analysis. The effects of temperature, specimen geometry and gripping method on the tensile properties are examined

  6. Effect of laminate edge conditions on the formation of microvoids in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Altan, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    Manufacturing defects such as microvoids are common in thermoset composite components and are known to negatively affect their strength. The resin pressure developed in and the resin flow out from the laminates during cure have been reported to be the primary factors influencing the final void content of a composite component. In this work, the effect of laminate edge conditions during the cure process on the formation of microvoids was experimentally investigated. This was achieved by fabricating eight-ply laminates from TenCate® BT250/7781 prepreg in a hot-press at a constant cure pressure of 170 kPa while limiting the laminate perimeter available for resin flow by 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The individual plies of these five laminates were conditioned at 99% relative humidity before curing to maximize the moisture present in the lay-up before fabrication. The presence of moisture in the lay-ups was expected to promote void formation and allow the effect of restricting flow at the edges of a laminate to be better identified. The restriction of resin outflow was found to cause the average characteristic void diameter to decrease by 17% and void content to rise by 33%. This phenomenon was identified to be a result of the outflow restriction increasing the number of voids trapped within the laminate and indicates that for laminates cured at low pressures resin outflow is the dominant mechanism for void reduction.

  7. Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS, was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted.

  8. Incorporation of plasma-functionalized carbon nanostructures in composite laminates for interlaminar reinforcement and delamination crack monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O. G.; Pedrazzoli, D.; Kovtun, D.; Qian, X.; Manas-Zloczower, I.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach employing carbon nanostructure (CNS) buckypapers (BP) was used to prepare glass fiber/epoxy composite materials with enhanced resistance to delamination along with damage monitoring capability. The CNS-BP was subjected to plasma treatment to improve its wettability by epoxy and to promote stronger interfacial bonding. An increase up to 20% in interlaminar fracture toughness in mode I and mode II was observed in composite laminates incorporating CNS BP. Morphological analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that failure in the conductive CNS layer provided a more effective energy dissipation mechanism, resulting in interlaminar fracture toughness increase. Moreover, fracture of the conductive CNS layer enabled damage monitoring of the composite by electrical resistance measurements upon delamination. The proposed approach provides multifunctional ply interphases, allowing to couple damage monitoring with interlaminar reinforcement of composite laminates.

  9. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  10. Mechanical Reinforcement of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fibers and HDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Chang, Q.; Huang, X.; Li, J.

    2018-01-01

    Silanized carbon fibers (CFs) and a high-density polyethylene with amino terminal groups (HDPE) were introduced into epoxy resins to fabricate high-performance composites. A. mechanical characterization of the composites was performed to investigate the effect of CFs in cured epoxy/HDPE systems. The composites revealed a noticeable improvement in the tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength in comparison with those of neat epoxy and cured epoxy/HDPE systems. SEM micrographs showed that the toughening effect could be explained by yield deformations, phase separation, and microcracking.

  11. Aspects of the Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Modified Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, Vahid

    .% of Single Walled CNT (SWNT). Finally, the CNT-modified epoxy resin was used to manufacture carbon fibre laminates by resin film infusion and prepreg technologies. The Mode I and Mode II delamination properties of the CNT-modified composite increased by 140% and 127%, respectively. In contrast, this improvement was not observed for the base CNT-modified polymers, used to manufacture the composite laminates. A qualitative analysis of the fractured surface using a Scanning Electron Microscope revealed a good dispersion in the composites samples, confirming the importance of processing to harness the full potential of carbon nanotubes for toughening polymer composites.

  12. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Scafè, M.; Raiteri, G.; Brentari, A.; Dlacic, R.; Troiani, E.; Falaschetti, M. P.; Besseghini, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compr...

  13. Mechanical properties of graphene oxide (GO/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivan Ismael Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of graphene oxide (GO on composites based on epoxy resin were analyzed. Different contents of GO (1.5–6 vol.% were added to epoxy resin. The GO/epoxy composite was prepared using the casting method and was prepared under room temperature. Mechanical tests’ results such as tensile test, impact test and hardness test show enhancements of the mechanical properties of the GO/epoxy composite. The experimental results clearly show an improvement in the Young’s modulus, tensile strength and hardness. The impact strength was seen to decrease, pointing to brittleness increase of the GO/epoxy composite. A microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis was also performed, which showed how GO impeded the propagation of cracks in the composite. From the SEM images we observed the interface between the GO and the epoxy composite. As can be seen from this research, the GO/epoxy composites can be used for a large number of applications. The results of this research are a strong evidence for GO/epoxy composites being a potential candidate for use in a variety of industrial applications, especially for automobile parts, aircraft components, and electronic parts such as supercapacitors, transistors, etc.

  14. Bayesian inference model for fatigue life of laminated composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configurations. Model parameters are estimated by Bayesian inference. The ...

  15. Optimum design of laminated composite under axial compressive load

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study optimal design of composite laminates, with and without rectangular cut-out, is carried out for maximizing the buckling load. Optimization study is carried out for obtaining the maximum buckling load with design variables as ply thickness, cut-out size and orientation of cut-out with respect to laminate.

  16. Standard test method for translaminar fracture toughness of laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of translaminar fracture toughness, KTL, for laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials of various ply orientations using test results from monotonically loaded notched specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to room temperature laboratory air environments. 1.3 Composite materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by type of polymer matrix or fiber, provided that the specimen sizes and the test results meet the requirements of this test method. This test method was developed primarily from test results of various carbon fiber – epoxy matrix laminates and from additional results of glass fiber – epoxy matrix, glass fiber-polyester matrix pultrusions and carbon fiber – bismaleimide matrix laminates (1-4, 6, 7). 1.4 A range of eccentrically loaded, single-edge-notch tension, ESE(T), specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but planar size may be variable and adjusted, with asso...

  17. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT–epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of −19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and −60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm −1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs–epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  18. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  19. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  20. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  1. Assessment of cumulative damage by using ultrasonic C-scan on carbon fiber/epoxy composites under thermal cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yutaka Shiino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, structural composites manufactured by carbon fiber/epoxy laminates have been employed in large scale in aircraft industries. These structures require high strength under severe temperature changes of -56° until 80 °C. Regarding this scenario, the aim of this research was to reproduce thermal stress in the laminate plate developed by temperature changes and tracking possible cumulative damages on the laminate using ultrasonic C-scan inspection. The evaluation was based on attenuation signals and the C-scan map of the composite plate. The carbon fiber/epoxy plain weave laminate underwent temperatures of -60° to 80 °C, kept during 10 minutes and repeated for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 times. After 1000 cycles, the specimens were inspected by C-scanning. A few changes in the laminate were observed using the inspection methodology only in specimens cycled 3000 times, or so. According to the found results, the used temperature range did not present enough conditions to cumulative damage in this type of laminate, which is in agreement with the macro - and micromechanical theory.

  2. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  3. Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiotti, m.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    of the buckling strength of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled......The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.......e., delaminations, which may affect the stiffness and stability of structural components. Especially deep delaminations in the mid surface of laminates are expected to reduce the effective flexural stiffness and lead to collapse, often due to buckling behaviour. This paper deals with the numerical modelling...

  4. Toughening Effect of Microscale Particles on the Tensile and Vibration Properties of S-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkliğ, A.; Bulut, M.; Fayzulla, B.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of borax, sewage sludge ash, silicon carbide, and perlite microparticles on the tensile, damping, and vibration characteristics of S-glass/epoxy composite laminates was examined Their damping and vibration properties were evaluated experimentally by using the dynamic modal analysis, identifying the response of the fundamental natural frequency to the type and weight content of the particulates. The results obtained showed that the introduction of specific amounts of such particulates into the matrix of S-glass/epoxy composite noticeably improved its mechanical properties.

  5. The Impact Response of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates (Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 94-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Low velocity dropweight impact tests were conducted on carbon/epoxy laminates under various boundary conditions. The composite plates were 8-ply (+45,0,-45,90)s laminates supported in a clamped-clamped/free-free configuration with varying amounts of in-plane load, N(sub x), applied. Specimens were impacted at energies of 3.4, 4.5, and 6 Joules (2.5, 3.3, and 4.4 ft-lb). The amount of damage induced into the specimen was evaluated using instrumented impact techniques, x-ray inspection, and cross-sectional photomicroscopy. Some static identation tests were performed to examine if the impact events utilized in this study were of a quasi-static nature and also to gain insight into the shape of the deflected surface at various impact load combinations. Load-displacement curves from these tests were compared to those of the impact tests, as was damage determined from x-ray inspection. The finite element technique was used to model the impact event and determine the stress field within the laminae. Results showed that for a given impact energy level, more damage was induced into the specimen as the external in-plane load, N(sub x), was increased. The majority of damage observed consisted of back face splitting of the matrix parallel to the fibers in that ply, associated with delaminations emanating from these splits. The analysis showed qualitatively the results of impact conditions on maximum load of impact, maximum transverse deflection, and first failure mode and location.

  6. Three-Phase Carbon Fiber Amine Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Epoxy Composite: Processing, Characterisation, and Multiscale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the key issues of carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion and effect of functionalisation on the mechanical properties of multiscale carbon epoxy composites. In this study, CNTs were added in epoxy matrix and further reinforced with carbon fibres. Predetermined amounts of optimally amine functionalised CNTs were dispersed in epoxy matrix, and unidirectional carbon fiber laminates were produced. The effect of the presence of CNTs (1.0 wt% in the resin was reflected by pronounced increase in Young’s modulus, inter-laminar shear strength, and flexural modulus by 51.46%, 39.62%, and 38.04%, respectively. However, 1.5 wt% CNT loading in epoxy resin decreased the overall properties of the three-phase composites. A combination of Halpin-Tsai equations and micromechanics modeling approach was also used to evaluate the mechanical properties of multiscale composites and the differences between the predicted and experimental values are reported. These multiscale composites are likely to be used for potential missile and aerospace structural applications.

  7. On the Behavior of Fiberglass Epoxy Composites under Low Velocity Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam S. Chandekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of fiberglass epoxy composite laminates under low velocity impact loading is investigated using LS-DYNA®, and the results are compared with experimental analysis performed using an instrumented impact test setup (Instron dynatup 8250. The composite laminates are manufactured using H-VARTM© process with basket weave E-Glass fabrics. Epon 862 is used as a resin system and Epicure-W as a hardening agent. Composite laminates, with 10 layers of fiberglass fabrics, are modeled using 3D solid elements in a mosaic fashion to represent basket weave pattern. Mechanical properties are calculated by using classical micromechanical theory and assigned to the elements using ORTHOTROPIC ELASTIC material model. The damage occurred since increasing impact energy is incorporated using ADVANCED COMPOSITE DAMAGE material model in LS-DYNA®. Good agreements are obtained with the failure damage results in LS-DYNA® and experimental results. Main considerations for comparison are given to the impact load carrying capacity and the amount of impact energy absorbed by the laminates.

  8. Pitch catch ultrasonic study on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using rayleigh wave transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Je Woong; Yang, In Young; Im, Kwang Hee; Hsu, David K.; Jung, Jong An

    2012-01-01

    The importance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized, and CFRP composite laminates have become widely used. Thus, a nondestructive technique would be very useful for evaluating CF/epoxy composite laminates. A pitch catch UT signal is more sensitive than is a normal incidence backwall echo of a longitudinal wave in composites. The depth of the sampling volume where the pitch catch UT signal came from is relatively shallow, but the depth can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Moreover, a method is utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay up by processing micrograph images of the laminate. The porosity content of a composite structure is critical to the overall strength and performance of the structure. The image processing method developed utilizes software to process micrograph images of the test sample. The results from the image processing method are compared with existing data. Beam profile is characterized in unidirectional CFRP using pitch catch Rayleigh probes. The one sided and two sided pitch catch techniques are utilized to produce C scan images with the aid of an automatic scanner. The pitch catch ultrasonic signal corresponds with the simulated results of unidirectional CFRP composites

  9. Characterization of the matrix glass transition in carbon-epoxy laminates using the CSD test geometry. [centro-symmetric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.; Yang, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new test geometry, referred to as centro-symmetric deformation (CSD), is proposed for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of the matrix of carbon-epoxy laminates. The sample consists of a thin disk, typically 6-14 plies thick, having a nominal diameter of 30 mm. The disk is freely supported on a circular anvil; the load is applied to the center of the disk using an 8-mm-diameter ball bearing nosepiece. The CSD test geometry provides viscoelastic dispersion data which are independent of the angular orientation of the sample. The test geometry is sufficiently sensitive to matrix changes to allow its use for postcuring, humidity, crosslink density, and other matrix change studies. Test results are presented for a carbon-epoxy laminate.

  10. Laminated Ti-Al composites: Processing, structure and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Yu, Tianbo

    2016-01-01

    Laminated Ti-Al composite sheets with different layer thickness ratios have been fabricated through hot pressing followed by multi-pass hot rolling at 500 °C.The laminated sheets show strong bonding with intermetallic interface layers of nanoscale thickness between the layers of Ti and Al....... The mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of Al from 10% to 67% show a good combination of strength and ductility. A constraint strain in the hot-rolled laminated structure between the hard and soft phases introduces an elastic-plastic deformation stage, which becomes more...

  11. The effect of bulk-resin CNT-enrichment on damage and plasticity in shear-loaded laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2013-07-01

    One way to improve multi functionality of epoxy-based laminated composites is to dope the resin with carbon nanotubes. Many investigators have focused on the elastic and fracture behavior of such nano-modified polymers under tensile loading. Yet, in real structural applications, laminated composites can exhibit plasticity and progressive damage initiated mainly by shear loading. We investigated the damage and plasticity induced by the addition of carbon nanotubes to the matrix of a glass fiber/epoxy composite system. We characterized both the modified epoxy resin and the associated modified laminates using classical mesoscale analysis. We used dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and classical mechanical testing to characterize samples with different concentrations of nanofillers. Since the samples were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique, we also studied the influence of this process. We found that in addition to the global increase in elastic regime properties, the addition of carbon nanotubes also accelerates the damage process in both the bulk resin and its associated glass-fiber composite. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

  13. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly

  14. Effect of Electrospun Nanofibers on the Short Beam Strength of Laminated Fiberglass Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Dattaji K.

    High specific modulus and strength are the most desirable properties for the material used in structural applications. Composite materials exhibit these properties and over the last decade, their usage has increased significantly, particularly in automotive, defense, and aerospace applications. The major cause of failures in composite laminates is due to delaminations. Delamination in composite laminates can occur due to fatigue, low velocity impact and other loadings modes. Conventional methods like "through-the-thickness stitching" or "Z-Pinning" have limitations for improving flexural and interlaminar properties in woven composites due to the fact that while improving interlaminar properties, the presence of stitches or Z pins affects in-plane properties. This study investigates the flexural behavior of fiberglass composites interleaved with non-woven Tetra Ethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS) electrsopsun nanofibers (ENFs). TEOS ENFs were manufactured using an electrospinning technique and then sintered. Nanoengineered beams were fabricated by interleaving TEOS ENFs between the laminated fiberglass composites to improve the flexural properties. TEOS ENFs, resin film, and failed fiberglass laminated composites with and without nanofibers were characterized using SEM Imaging and ASTM standard testing methods. A hybrid composite was made by interleaving a non-woven sheet of TEOS ENFs between the fiberglass laminates with additional epoxy resin film and fabricated using the out of autoclave vacuum bagging method. Four commonly used stacking sequences of fiberglass laminates with and without nanofibers were used to study the progressive failure and deformation mechanics under flexural loadings. The experimental study has shown significant improvements in short beam strength and strain energy absorption in the nanoengineered laminated fiberglass composites before complete failure. The modes were investigated by performing detailed fractographic examination of failed specimens

  15. Minimum weight design of composite laminates for multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikanov, A.A.; Soni, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    A new design method of constructing optimum weight composite laminates for multiple loads is proposed in this paper. A netting analysis approach is used to develop an optimization procedure. Three ply orientations permit development of optimum laminate design without using stress-strain relations. It is proved that stresses in minimum weight laminate reach allowable values in each ply with given load. The optimum ply thickness is defined at maximum value among tensile and compressive loads. Two examples are given to obtain optimum ply orientations, thicknesses and materials. For comparison purposes, calculations of stresses are done in orthotropic material using classical lamination theory. Based upon these calculations, matrix degrades at 30 to 50% of ultimate load. There is no fiber failure and therefore laminates withstand all applied loads in both examples

  16. Fatigue Performance of Composite Laminates After Low-velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Xiao-lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression-compression fatigue tests were carried out on T300/5405 composite laminates after low-velocity impact, compression performance of the laminates with different impact damages was studied together with its fatigue life and damage propagation under different stress levels, then the effects of impact energy, stress level and damage propagation on fatigue life of laminates were discussed. The results indicate that impact damage can greatly reduce the residual strength of laminates; under low fatigue load levels, the higher impact energy is, the shorter the fatigue life of laminates with impact damage will be; damage propagation undergoes two stages during the fatigue test, namely the steady propagation and the rapid propagation, accounting for 80% and 20% of the overall fatigue life, respectively; damage propagation rate decreases with the reduction of stress level.

  17. Measurements of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Jeunnette, Timothy T.; Anzic, Judith M.

    1989-01-01

    High-reflectance accurate-contour mirrors are needed for solar dynamic space power systems. Graphite fiber epoxy composites are attractive candidates for such applications owing to their high modulus, near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, and low mass. However, mirrors prepared from graphite fiber epoxy composite substrates often exhibit print-through, a distortion of the surface, which causes a loss in solar specular reflectance. Efforts to develop mirror substrates without print-through distortion require a means of quantifying print-through. Methods have been developed to quantify the degree of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens using surface profilometry.

  18. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  19. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  20. The failure mode of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshkour, R A; Ariffin, A K; Zulkifli, R; Sulong, A B; Azhari, C H

    2012-01-01

    In this study the quasi static compression test over natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been carried out, the natural silk epoxy composite tubes consist of 24 layer of woven natural silk as reinforcement and thermoset epoxy resin as matrix which both of them i e natural silk and epoxy have excellent mechanical properties More over the natural silk have better moisture resistance in comparison with other natural reinforcements, the length of tubes are 50, 80 and 120 mm The natural silk epoxy composite tubes are associated with an external trigger which includes 4 steel pieces welded on downside flat plate fixture The hand lay up fabrication method has been used to make the natural silk epoxy composite tubes Instron universal testing machine with 250 KN load capacity has been employed to accomplish this investigation The failure modes of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been investigated by representative photographs which has been taken by a high resolution camera(12 2 Mp) during the quasi static compression test, from the photographs is observed the failure modes is progressive local buckling

  1. Graphite epoxy composite degradation by space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, M.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Bennion, J.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation environment in space is a critical consideration for successful operation in space. All manned space missions with a duration of more than a few days are subjected to elevated ionizing radiation exposures, which are a threat to both personnel and structures in space. The increasing demands for high-performance materials as structural components in the aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries have led to the development of materials such as graphite fiber-reinforced, epoxy resin matrix composites (Gr/Ep). These materials provide important advantages over conventional structural materials, such as ultrahigh specific strength, enhanced specific moduli, and better fatigue resistance. The fact that most advanced composite materials under cyclic fatigue loading evidence little or no observable crack growth prior to rapid fracture suggests that for fail-safe considerations of parts subject to catastrophic failure, a detailed evaluation of radiation damage from very energetic particle is crucial. The Gr/Ep components are believed to suffer severe degradation in space due to highly penetrating secondary radiation, mainly from neutrons and protons. Investigation into the performance and stability of Gr/Ep materials are planned

  2. Combined tension and bending testing of tapered composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Murri, Gretchen B.; Hagemeier, Rick; Rogers, Charles

    1994-11-01

    A simple beam element used at Bell Helicopter was incorporated in the Computational Mechanics Testbed (COMET) finite element code at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to analyze the responce of tappered laminates typical of flexbeams in composite rotor hubs. This beam element incorporated the influence of membrane loads on the flexural response of the tapered laminate configurations modeled and tested in a combined axial tension and bending (ATB) hydraulic load frame designed and built at LaRC. The moments generated from the finite element model were used in a tapered laminated plate theory analysis to estimate axial stresses on the surface of the tapered laminates due to combined bending and tension loads. Surfaces strains were calculated and compared to surface strains measured using strain gages mounted along the laminate length. The strain distributions correlated reasonably well with the analysis. The analysis was then used to examine the surface strain distribution in a non-linear tapered laminate where a similarly good correlation was obtained. Results indicate that simple finite element beam models may be used to identify tapered laminate configurations best suited for simulating the response of a composite flexbeam in a full scale rotor hub.

  3. Engineering properties of a filament-wound Kevlar 49/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.T.; Chin, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a flywheel service environment on transverse tension and compression, and longitudinal compression and shear properties of a filament-wound Kevlar/epoxy composite are evaluated. Shear strength and modulus were reduced by moisture desorption during preconditioning in a vacuum at 75 C, although room temperature strength and modulus increased for longitudinal compression. The desorption induced cracking of the laminate plies through increased residual stresses, which at 25 C were 15 MPa, higher than the transverse strength. The 75 C temperature caused lower strength and moduli except for longitudinal tension, and the complete test results are listed

  4. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  6. Mechanical characterisation of hybrid composite laminates based on basalt fibres in combination with flax, hemp and glass fibres manufactured by vacuum infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrucci, R.; Santulli, C.; Puglia, D.; Sarasini, F.; Torre, L.; Kenny, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time, hybrid laminates with three different fibres were produced. ► Concerns are confirmed on the brittleness of hybrid laminates with basalt fibre core. ► An optimal configuration (FHB) for flexural properties was singled out. ► Differences between tensile and flexural properties of hybrids were identified. ► In general, the specific mechanical properties of the hybrids are quite high. - Abstract: This work concerns the production by vacuum infusion and the comparison of the properties of different hybrid composite laminates, based on basalt fibre composites as the inner core, and using also glass, flax and hemp fibre laminates to produce symmetrical configurations, all of them with a 21–23% fibre volume, in an epoxy resin. The laminates have been subjected to tensile, three-point flexural and interlaminar shear strength tests and their fracture surfaces have been characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical performance of all the hybrid laminates appears superior to pure hemp and flax fibre reinforced laminates and inferior to basalt fibre laminates. Among the hybrids, the best properties are offered by those obtained by adding glass and flax to basalt fibre reinforced laminates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of hybrid laminates showed the diffuse presence of fibre pull-out in hemp and flax fibre reinforced layers and a general trend of brittle failure

  7. Atomistic Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-05-01

    The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for epoxy/single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) nanocomposites. An epoxy network of DGEBA-DDS was built using the `dendrimer' growth approach, and conductivity was computed by taking into account long-range Coulombic forces via a k-space approach. Thermal conductivity was calculated in the direction perpendicular to, and along the SWNT axis for functionalized and pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. The thermal conductivity of the long, pristine SWNT/epoxy system is equivalent to that of an isolated SWNT along its axis, but there was a 27% reduction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. The functionalized, long SWNT/epoxy system had a very large increase in thermal conductivity along the nanotube axis (~700%), as well as the directions perpendicular to the nanotube (64%). The discontinuous nanotubes displayed an increased thermal conductivity along the SWNT axis compared to neat epoxy (103-115% for the pristine SWNT/epoxy, and 91-103% for functionalized SWNT/epoxy system). The functionalized system also showed a 42% improvement perpendicular to the nanotube, while the pristine SWNT/epoxy system had no improvement over epoxy. The thermal conductivity tensor is averaged over all possible orientations to see the effects of randomly orientated nanotubes, and allow for experimental comparison. Excellent agreement is seen for the discontinuous, pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. These simulations demonstrate there exists a threshold of the SWNT length where the best improvement for a composite system with randomly oriented nanotubes would transition from pristine SWNTs to functionalized SWNTs.

  8. Properties of composite laminates based on basalt fibers with epoxidized vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, M.D.; Petrucci, R.; Sanchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.; Kenny, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New environmentally friendly composites from biobased epoxies and basalt fibers. • Improved performance with conventional silane treatment on basalt fabrics. • Composites with excellent appearance due to basalt shiny brown color. • Potential applications as substitute of glass fiber reinforced composites in engineering design. • Processing with conventional resin transfer molding (RTM) techniques. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of polymeric materials derived from epoxidized vegetable oils which have been used in the manufacture of laminated composite materials with basalt fabrics. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) were used as biobased matrices. The basalt fabrics were modified with amino-silane and glycidyl-silane to increase fiber–matrix interactions. The curing behavior of both resins was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheometry (OR). The evaluation of mechanical properties was made by tensile, flexural and Charpy tests. The extent of the fiber–matrix interactions among interface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results revealed that surface modification of basalt fibers with glycidyl-silane clearly improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The use of the ELO resin as matrix for composite laminates improved substantially the mechanical performance compared to composites made with ESBO

  9. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with "6"0Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0–1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite. - Highlights: • The properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite under "6"0Co γ irradiation up to 2.0 MGy were studied. • Basalt fiber can weaken the aging effects of γ irradiation on the resin matrix. • Tensile property of basalt fiber composite remains stable and flexural property has a low degree of attenuation. • Basalt fiber composite is an ideal candidate of structural material for nuclear industry.

  10. Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, B.F.; Shalwan, A.; Chin, C.W.; Ming, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Untreated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Treated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Highlights: ► Treatment of kenaf fibres with 6% NaOH has improved the flexural properties of epoxy composites. ► Interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres is controlled by the microstructure of the fibres. ► Kenaf fibres have a potential to replace glass fibres for flexural applications. -- Abstract: In the current work, flexural properties of unidirectional long kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are studied. The kenaf fibres were prepared into two types as untreated and treated (with 6% NaOH). The failure mechanism and damage features of the materials were categorized with the surface observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that reinforcement of epoxy with treated kenaf fibres increased the flexural strength of the composite by about 36%, while, untreated fibres introduced 20% improvement. This was mainly due to the high improvement of the chemical treatment (NaOH) on the interfacial adhesion of the fibres and the porosity of the composites which prevented the debonding, detachments or pull out of fibres. For untreated KFRE, the fracture mechanisms were debonding, tearing, detachments and pull out of fibres. The developed composite exhibited superior properties compared to the previous composites based on natural and synthetic fibres.

  11. Damage and Failure of Non-Conventional Composite Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, the application of composite materials was restricted to military aircraft and secondary structures of commercial aircraft. Furthermore, the design possibilities offered by composite laminates were narrowed to quasi-isotropic configurations due to their closer behaviour with

  12. On the plastic behaviour of multi directional epoxy-bolted CFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aage; Poulsen, Ervin

    2004-01-01

    The second generation of CFRP laminate has recently been developed. It is a multi directional CFRP laminate, i.e. a laminate with carbon fibres having several directions other than the first generation. The paper describes the laboratory tests carried out in order to develop anchorage devices for...

  13. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Ende, D.A. van den; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  14. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT–epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; Van den Ende, D.; Lafont, U.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)–epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  15. Hansen solubility parameters for a carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, Helene; Hansen, Charles M.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the physical affinity between an epoxy matrix and oxidized, unsized carbon fibers has been evaluated using Hansen solubility (cohesion) parameters (HSP). A strong physical compatibility has been shown, since their respective HSP are close. The use of a glassy carbon substrate...... as a model for unsized carbon fiber has been demonstrated as appropriate for the study of interactions between the materials in composite carbon fiber-epoxy systems. The HSP of glassy carbon are similar to those of carbon fibers and epoxy matrix. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Effect of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Firdaus, A. Z. Ahmad; Azduwin, K.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of elevated temperature on the tensile strength of Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites and its morphology of fractured surfaces are discussed. Napier/glass-epoxy hybrid reinforced composites were fabricated by using vacuum infusion method by arranging Napier fibres in between sheets of woven glass fibres. Napier and glass fibres were laminated with estimated volume ratios were 24 and 6 vol. %, respectively. The epoxy resin was used as matrix estimated to 70 vol. %. Specimens were tested to failure under tension at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (Instron) with a load cell 100 kN at four different temperatures of RT, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The morphology of fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows reduction in tensile strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in the temperature activates the process of diffusion, and generates critical stresses which cause the damage at first-ply or at the centre of the hybrid plate, as a result lower the tensile strength. The observation of FESEM images indicates that the fracture mode is of evolution of localized damage, from fibre/matrix debonding, matric cracking, delamination and fibre breakage.

  17. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number...... of plies in a laminated composite structure. The conceptual combinatorial design problem is relaxed to a continuous problem such that well-established gradient based optimization techniques can be applied, and the optimization problem is solved on basis of interpolation schemes with penalization...

  18. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part II-Comparison with Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-04-28

    Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account the energy accumulation by the solid material, the anisotropic heat conduction, the thermal decomposition of the material, the gas mass flow into the composite, and the internal pressure. Thermophysical properties defined as temperature dependant properties were characterised using existing as well as innovative methodologies in order to use them as inputs into our physical model. The 3D thermochemical model accurately predicts the measured mass loss and observed decomposition front when the carbon fibre/epoxy composite is directly impacted by a propane flame. In short, the model shows its capability to predict the fire behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced composite for fire safety engineering.

  19. Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepedat, Karin; Wagner, Robert; Lang, Jürgen

    The use of phenolic resin for the impregnation of a carrier material such as paper or fabric based on either organic or inorganic fibers was and still is one of the most important application areas for liquid phenolic resins. Substrates like paper, cotton, or glass fabric impregnated with phenolic resins are used as core layers for decorative and technical laminates and for many other different industrial applications. Nowadays, phenolic resins for decorative laminates used for furniture, flooring, or in the construction and transportation industry have gained significant market share. The Laminates chapter mainly describes the manufacture of decorative laminates especially the impregnation and pressing process with special emphasis to new technological developments and recent trends. Moreover, the different types of laminates are introduced, combined with some brief comments as they relate to the market for decorative surfaces.

  20. Hybrid welding of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy based composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lionetto, Francesca; De Nicolas Morillas, M.; Pappadà, Silvio; Buccoliero, Giuseppe; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    The approach for joining thermosetting matrix composites (TSCs) proposed in this study is based on the use of a low melting co-cured thermoplastic film, added as a last ply in the stacking sequence of the composite laminate. During curing, the thermoplastic film partially penetrates in the first

  1. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I—Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Tranchard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA, Laser Flash analysis (LFA, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper. The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering.

  2. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I-Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-05-04

    Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D) model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper). The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering.

  3. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I—Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D) model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper). The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering. PMID:28772854

  4. Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    theory to analyze the laminated composite plates. They concluded that ...... Aeronautics and Astronautics”, Inc.1801, Chapter 8, pp. 240. Baltacıoğlu A.K .... He is working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical. Engineering in ...

  5. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  6. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafè

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC Test Method, described in ASTM D 6641 / D 6641M-09. This method presents many advantages, especially: the load application on the specimen (end load combined with shear load, the reproducibility of measurements and the experimental equipment quite simplified. Six different laminates were tested in compressive tests. They were realized by the same unidirectional prepreg, but with different stacking sequences: two cross-ply [0/90]ns, two angle-ply [0/90/±45]ns and two unidirectional laminates [0]ns and [90]ns. The estimate of the compressive strength of the unidirectional laminates at 0°, was done by an indirect analytical method, developed from the classical lamination theory, and which uses a multiplicative parameter known as Back-out Factor (BF. The BF is determined by using the experimental values obtained from compression tests.

  7. Delamination R-curve as a material property of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokrieh, M.M.; Heidari-Rarani, M.; Ayatollahi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The R-curve behavior of a unidirectional laminate as a material property is investigated. → Effect of initial crack length and thickness on R-curve is experimentally shown. → A mathematical relation is proposed to model the R-curve behavior of any unidirectional laminated composite. -- Abstract: It is still questionable to think of delamination resistance of a double cantilever beam (DCB) as a material property independent of the specimen size and geometry. In this research, the effects of initial crack length and DCB specimen thickness on the mode I delamination resistance curve (R-curve) behavior of different unidirectional glass/epoxy DCB specimens are experimentally investigated. It is observed that the magnitudes of initiation and propagation delamination toughness (G Ic-init and G Ic-prop ) as well as the fiber bridging length are constant in a specific range of the initial crack length to the DCB specimen thickness ratios of 8.5 0 /h < 19. Finally, a mathematical relationship is proposed for prediction of mode I delamination behavior (from the initiation to propagation) of E-glass/epoxy DCB specimens.

  8. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-01-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites

  9. Impact behaviour of auxetic Kevlar®/ epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chalivendra, V. B.; Kim, Y. K.

    2017-10-01

    Experimental study was performed to investigate fracture and impact properties of novel Auxetic Kevlar® laminated composites. For comparison, standard Kevlar® woven composites with and without polyurethane surface treatment were also considered in this study. For these three composites, short nylon fibers of two different fiber lengths and three different fiber densities were flocked between laminates. Vacuum infusion process along with optimized compaction was employed to fabricate composites. The double cantilever beam configuration was used to investigate the fracture properties. The Auxetic Kevlar® composites showed a significant improvement of 225% in fracture toughness compared to regular woven Kevlar® composites. Furthermore, the initiation toughness was increased by 577% with the application of flocking in Auxetic Kevlar®. During impact testing, the Auxetic Kevlar® reinforced composites showed a significant reduction in damaged area compared to woven counterpart. On the other hand, the reduction in damaged area influenced the reduction in impact energy absorption.

  10. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Flax-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminates for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pitarresi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the experimental mechanical characterisation of a natural flax fibre reinforced epoxy polymer composite. A commercial plain woven quasi-unidirectional flax fabric with spun-twisted yarns is employed in particular, as well as unidirectional composite panels manufactured with three techniques: hand-lay-up, vacuum bagging and resin infusion. The stiffness and strength behaviours are investigated under both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue loadings. The analysed material has, in particular, shown a typical bilinear behaviour under pure traction, with a knee yield point occurring at a rather low stress value, after which the material tensile stiffness is significantly reduced. In the present work, such a mechanism is investigated by a phenomenological approach, performing periodical loading/unloading cycles, and repeating tensile tests on previously “yielded” samples to assess the evolution of stiffness behaviour. Infrared thermography is also employed to measure the temperature of specimens during monotonic and cyclic loading. In the first case, the thermal signal is monitored to correlate departures from the thermoelastic behaviour with the onset of energy loss mechanisms. In the case of cyclic loading, the thermoelastic signal and the second harmonic component are both determined in order to investigate the extent of elastic behaviour of the material.

  11. LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel producers afford to present their products either in sized semi-finished form or as covered in general by the in additional investments realized. The fact that the laminated material has a certain market share as well as the increase in demand for furniture types finished in various profiles have put the laminated sheets which provide very comprehensive design facilities at the top place and caused such boards to spread over the market rather more quickly. In line with this development, great developments have also been recorded during recent years in laminate utilization in furniture factoring sector and fast steps taken towards a more rational working environment. In this study, laminates types and manufacturing technologies were investigated.

  12. Producing ceramic laminate composites by EPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.S.; Sarkar, P.; Datta, S.

    1996-01-01

    The search for tough structural ceramics to operate at high temperatures in hostile environments has led to the development of ceramic composites. This class of material includes laminar ceramic-ceramic composites, continuous-fiber-reinforced ceramic composites and functionally graded materials. The present authors developed electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to synthesize lamellar, fiber-reinforced and functionally graded composites. This paper briefly describes the synthesis and characterization of these EPD composites and introduces a novel class of lamellar composites with nonplanar layers. The synthesis of the latter demonstrates the facility of the EPD process for the synthesis of ceramic composites. The process is totally controllable via suspension concentration, deposition current, voltage and time

  13. Thermal contraction effects in epoxy resin composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Morgan, J.T.

    1979-10-01

    Because of their electrical and thermal insulation characteristics, high strength fibreglass/epoxy composites are widely used in the construction of bubble chamber and other cryogenic equipment. Thermal contraction effects on cooling to operating temperature present problems which need to be taken into account at the design stage. This paper gives results of thermal contraction tests carried out on fibreglass/epoxy composites including the somewhat anomalous results obtained with rings and tubes. Also considered are some of the problems associated with the use of these materials at temperatures in the region of 20K. (author)

  14. High-performance fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T. T.; Hamstad, M. A.; Jessop, E. S.; Toland, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Activities described include: (1) determining the applicability of an ultrahigh-strength graphite fiber to composite pressure vessels; (2) defining the fatigue performance of thin-titanium-lined, high-strength graphite/epoxy pressure vessel; (3) selecting epoxy resin systems suitable for filament winding; (4) studying the fatigue life potential of Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels; and (5) developing polymer liners for composite pressure vessels. Kevlar 49/epoxy and graphite fiber/epoxy pressure vessels, 10.2 cm in diameter, some with aluminum liners and some with alternation layers of rubber and polymer were fabricated. To determine liner performance, vessels were subjected to gas permeation tests, fatigue cycling, and burst tests, measuring composite performance, fatigue life, and leak rates. Both the metal and the rubber/polymer liner performed well. Proportionately larger pressure vessels (20.3 and 38 cm in diameter) were made and subjected to the same tests. In these larger vessels, line leakage problems with both liners developed the causes of the leaks were identified and some solutions to such liner problems are recommended.

  15. Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Nasrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1–20% of PLA reinforced PLA films (CTP were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2 and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa. After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP yielded 0.265–1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical

  16. Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Romana; Biswas, Shanta; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Afrin, Sanjida; Jahan, Rumana Akhter; Haque, Papia; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur

    2017-12-01

    The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA) laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1-20% of PLA) reinforced PLA films (CTP) were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP) were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method) with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2) and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa) and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa). After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP) yielded 0.265-1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical sector.

  17. Experimental Determination of Ballistic Performance of Composite Material Kevlar 29 and Alumina Powder/ Epoxy by Spherical Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Hashem Abbud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a response of hybrid composite laminate woven fiber Kevlar29 – Al2O3 Powder/ Epoxy subjected to high velocity impact loading is presented. The energy absorbed due to impact of small rigid projectile on composite materials targets is determined experimentally. The energy absorbed due to impact of hemispherical projectiles on the developed composite laminates is investigated. The results revealed the maximum ballistic limit at impact velocity is found to be 390.87 ± 6 m/s for an the 18 mm target thickness. The ballistic limit velocity predictions are based on the theoretical method presented from another article. The initial velocity and residual velocity results showed good is agreement compared with the predicted results of Ipson and Recht equations. With 5.4 % of accuracy based on the experimental value for the theoretical model for ballistic limit velocity.

  18. Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.

  19. Thermal conductivity of microPCMs-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Su, J.F.; Wang, X.Y; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.H.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The thermal conductivity of these microPCMs/matrix composites is an important property need to be considered. In this study, a series of microPCMs have been fabricated using the in situ polymerization with various core/shell ratio and average diameter; the thermal conductivity of microPCMs/epoxy composites were investigated in detai...

  20. Experimental and analytical study of high velocity impact on Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Rahul S.; Velmurugan, Raman; Madhu, Velmuri

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, impact behavior of Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates has been carried out experimentally by considering different thicknesses and lay-up sequences and compared with analytical results. The effect of thickness, lay-up sequence on energy absorbing capacity has been studied for high velocity impact. Four lay-up sequences and four thickness values have been considered. Initial velocities and residual velocities are measured experimentally to calculate the energy absorbing capacity of laminates. Residual velocity of projectile and energy absorbed by laminates are calculated analytically. The results obtained from analytical study are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. It is observed from the study that 0/90 lay-up sequence is most effective for impact resistance. Delamination area is maximum on the back side of the plate for all thickness values and lay-up sequences. The delamination area on the back is maximum for 0/90/45/-45 laminates compared to other lay-up sequences.

  1. Fatigue behaviour study on repaired aramid fiber/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Cocchieri Botelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aramid fiber reinforced polymer composites have been used in a wide variety of applications, such as aerospace, marine, sporting equipment and in the defense sector, due to their outstanding properties at low density. The most widely adopted procedure to investigate the repair of composites has been by repairing damages simulated in composite specimens. This work presents the structural repair influence on tensile and fatigue properties of a typical aramid fiber/epoxy composite used in the aerospace industry. According to this work, the aramid/epoxy composites with and without repair present tensile strength values of 618 and 680MPa, respectively, and tensile modulus of 26.5 and 30.1 GPa, respectively. Therefore, the fatigue results show that in loads higher than 170 MPa, both composites present a low life cycle (lower than 200,000 cycles and the repaired aramid/epoxy composite presented low fatigue resistance in low and high cycle when compared with non-repaired composite. With these results, it is possible to observe a decrease of the measured mechanical properties of the repaired composites.

  2. Residual strength of repaired graphite/epoxy laminates after 5 years of outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has sponsored research to develop generic repair techniques and processes for advanced graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites applicable to secondary structures for commercial transport aircraft. The long-term durability of such repairs is being addressed in a 10-year outdoor exposure program at the Langley Research Center. Details of the program and results of residual strength tests after 5 years of outdoor exposure are presented. Four repair methods are being evaluated. These include: (1) externally bolted aluminum-plus adhesive; (2) precured, bonded external Gr/Ep; (3) cure-in-place external Gr/Ep; and (4) cure-in-place flush Gr/Ep. Repaired specimens as well as undamaged and damaged unrepaired controls are being exposed outdoors for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. The residual tensile strength of stressed, unstressed, and fatigue specimens from each group is reported and compared with the tensile strength of baseline specimens which received no outdoor exposure. Identification of the commercial products and companies is used to describe adequately the test materials. The identification of these commercial products does not constitute endorsement, expressed or implied, of such products by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Low temperature measurement of thermal and mechanical properties of phenolic laminate, the pultruded polyester fiberglass and A and B epoxy putty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, N.S.; Cheng, R.S.; Hoffman, J.; Gonczy, J.

    1979-01-01

    Low temperature measurements were made and are reported of thermal and mechanical properties of phenolic laminate, pultruded polyester fiberglass, and A and B epoxy putty. To determine the modulus, compressive and tensile stress and strain, an Instron machine, a Tinus-Olsen testing machine, a Wheatstone bridge and strain gages were used

  4. Electrical behavior of laminated composites with intralaminar degradation: A comprehensive micro-meso homogenization procedure

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is a promising health monitoring technique to assess damage in laminated composites. Yet, the missing link between the various complex degradation mechanisms within the laminate and its global change

  5. Characteristics of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Reza; Yatim, Jamaludin Mohamad; Mohd Sam, Abdul Rahman; Raftari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To show the potential of continuous kenaf fiber to use in bio-composite. • To introduce new method of hand lay-up for fabricating bio-fiber composite. • To characterize the properties of kenaf fiber epoxy composite. • Morphology of the fracture area by using of SEM. • To use analytical method to predict the bio-composite properties. - Abstract: Kenaf fibers generally has some advantages such as eco-friendly, biodegradability, renewable nature and lighter than synthetic fibers. The aims of the study are to characterize and evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composites with various fiber volume fractions. The composites materials and sampling were prepared in the laboratory by using the hand lay-up method with a proper fabricating procedure and quality control. Samples were prepared based on ASTM: D3039-08 for tensile test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructure analysis to observe the failure mechanisms in the fracture planes. A total of 40 samples were tested for the study. Results from the study showed that the rule of mixture (ROM) analytical model has a close agreement to predict the physical and tensile properties of unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites. It was also observed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, ultimate strain and Poisson’s ratio of 40% fiber volume content of unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composite were 164 MPa, 18150 MPa, 0.9% and 0.32, respectively. Due to the test results, increasing the fiber volume fraction in the composite caused the increment in the tensile modulus and reduction in the ultimate tensile strain of composite

  6. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu; Moussawi, Ali; Lubineau, Gilles; Durand, Samuel; Falandry, Didier; Olivier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed

  7. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  8. A low frequency vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Suna; Chae, Song Hee; Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Seungjun; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite and a springless spherical permanent magnet as a proof mass. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet to transform external vibration into a time varying magnetic field applied to the magnetoelectric transducer. The laminate composite consists of a Ni–Mn–Ga-based MSMA (magnetic shape memory alloy) element and a PZT (lead zirconate titanate) plate. A proof-of-concept harvester has been fabricated and characterized at various input accelerations and frequencies. A maximum open circuit voltage of 1.18 V has been obtained in response to a 3g vibration at 17 Hz with the fabricated device. Moreover, a maximum output voltage of 10.24 V and output power of 4.1 μW have been achieved on a 950 Ω load, when the fabricated energy harvester was mounted on a smartphone and shaken by hand. (paper)

  9. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James

    Nanoscale fillers can significantly enhance the performance of composites by increasing the extent of filler-to-matrix interaction. Thus far, the embedding of nanomaterials into composites has been achieved, but the directional arrangement has proved to be a challenging task. Even with advances in in-situ and shear stress induced orientation, these methods are both difficult to control and unreliable. Therefore, the fabrication of nanomaterials with an ability to orient along a magnetic field is a promising pathway to create highly controllable composite systems with precisely designed characteristics. To this end, the goal of this dissertation is to develop magnetically active nanoscale whiskers and study the effect of the whiskers orientation in a polymer matrix on the nanocomposite's behavior. Namely, we report the surface modification of silicon carbide whiskers (SiCWs) with magnetic nanoparticles and fabrication of SiC/epoxy composite materials. The magnetic nanoparticles attachment to the SiCWs was accomplished using polyelectrolyte polymer-to-polymer complexation. The "grafting to" and adsorption techniques were used to attach the polyelectrolytes to the surface of the SiCWs and magnetic nanoparticles. The anchored polyelectrolytes were polyacrylic acid (PAA) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). Next, the SiC/epoxy composites incorporating randomly oriented and magnetically oriented whiskers were fabricated. The formation of the composite was studied to determine the influence of the whiskers' surface composition on the epoxy curing reaction. After curing, the composites' thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. These properties were related to the dispersion and orientation of the fillers in the composite samples. The obtained results indicated that the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties could be improved by orienting magnetically-active SiCWs inside the matrix. Silanization, "grafting to", adsorption, and complexation were used to modify

  11. Structural and functional characterization of barium zirconium titanate / epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric behavior of composite materials (barium zirconium titanate / epoxy system was analyzed as a function of ceramic concentration. Structure and morphologic behavior of the composites was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. Composites were prepared by mixing the components and pouring them into suitable moulds. It was demonstrated that the amount of inorganic phase affects the morphology of the presented composites. XRD revealed the presence of a single phase while Raman scattering confirmed structural transitions as a function of ceramic concentration. Changes in the ceramic concentration affected Raman modes and the distribution of particles along into in epoxy matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses were influenced by filler concentration.

  12. Fracto-emission from graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Fracto-emission (FE) is the emission of particles and photons during and following crack propagation. Electrons (EE), positive ions (PIE), and excited and ground state neutrals (NE) were observed. Results of a number of experiments involving principally graphite/epoxy composites and Kevlar single fibers are presented. The physical processes responsible for EE and PIE are discussed as well as FE from fiber- and particulate-reinforced composites.

  13. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  14. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  15. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, R.A., E-mail: roney.braga@fiat.com.br [FIAT Automóveis S.A., Teardown, CEP 32530-000 Betim, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, P.A.A., E-mail: pamerico@pucminas.br [PUC—MINAS, Instituto Politécnico, CEP 30535-610 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • The work is the study of the mechanical of raw jute and glass fiber with epoxy resin. • The mechanical properties increased with more proportions of glass fibers. • The density of E69-J31-V0 was the lower. • The flexural strength did not have a significant increase. • The water absorption of E69-J31-V0 was the best.

  16. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L.M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Byun, T.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410–780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02–9.0 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039–1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile. - Highlights: • Fusion reactors need a tough, ductile tungsten plasma-facing material. • The unirradiated tungsten-copper laminate is more ductile than tungsten alone. • After neutron irradiation, the composite has significantly less ductility. • The tungsten behavior appears to dominate the overall composite behavior.

  17. Energy absorption and failure response of silk/epoxy composite square tubes: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Taher, Siavash Talebi; A. Eshkoor, Rahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epoxy...

  18. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodies commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 9 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The fairings have accumulated a total of 70,000 hours, with one ship set having over 24,000 hours service. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  19. Impact behavior of basalt/epoxy composite: Comparison between flat and twill fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, I.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Antonucci, V.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.

    2018-05-01

    Two types of basalt fibre reinforced epoxy laminates were realized by overlapping flat and twill woven basalt fabrics by resin infusion. Rectangular specimens, cut from the panels were impacted at penetration and at increasing energy values, to investigate the damage onset and propagation. A non-destructive technique, Ultrasound testing (UT), was adopted to investigate the internal damage. Despite the difficulties to obtain information by UT method due to the high amount of signal absorbed, the technique, properly calibrated, proved to be very useful in providing information about the presence, the shape and the extent of the delaminations. The results were compared at the aim to investigate the effect of the fiber architecture (textile). The experimental results indicate a similar impact behavior between basalt flat and twill composites but in the case of the twill a minor delaminated area was detected, even if a higher absorbed energy was recorded

  20. Assessment of damage in composite laminates through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propst, A; Peters, K; Zikry, M A; Schultz, S; Kunzler, W; Zhu, Z; Wirthlin, M; Selfridge, R

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the full-spectral interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor at 535 Hz. The sensor is embedded in a woven, graphite fiber–epoxy composite laminate subjected to multiple low-velocity impacts. The measurement of unique, time dependent spectral features from the FBG sensor permits classification of the laminate lifetime into five regimes. These damage regimes compare well with previous analysis of the same material system using combined global and local FBG sensor information. Observed transient spectral features include peak splitting, wide spectral broadening and a strong single peak at the end of the impact event. Such features could not be measured through peak wavelength interrogation of the FBG sensor. Cross-correlation of the measured spectra with the original embedded FBG spectrum permitted rapid visualization of average strains and the presence of transverse compressive strain on the optical fiber, but smeared out the details of the spectral profile

  1. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  2. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  3. Master plot analysis of microcracking in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, John A.; Hu, Shoufeng; Bark, Jong Song

    1993-01-01

    We used a variational stress analysis and an energy release rate failure criterion to construct a master plot analysis of matrix microcracking. In the master plot, the results for all laminates of a single material are predicted to fall on a single line whose slope gives the microcracking toughness of the material. Experimental results from 18 different layups of AS4/3501-6 laminates show that the master plot analysis can explain all observations. In particular, it can explain the differences between microcracking of central 90 deg plies and of free-surface 90 deg plies. Experimental results from two different AS4/PEEK laminates tested at different temperatures can be explained by a modified master plot that accounts for changes in the residual thermal stresses. Finally, we constructed similar master plot analyses for previous literature microcracking models. All microcracking theories that ignore the thickness dependence of the stresses gave poor results.

  4. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  5. Mechanical properties of functionalised CNT filled kenaf reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiai, Napisah; Jumahat, Aidah; Mahmud, Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to study the effect of functionalised carbon nanotubes (CNT) on mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polymer composites. The CNT was functionalised using acid mixtures of H2SO4:HNO3 and 3-Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane before it was incorporated into epoxy resin. Three different types of CNT were used, i.e. pristine (PCNT), acid-treated (ACNT) and acid-silane treated (SCNT), to fabricate kenaf composite. Three different filler contents were mixed in each composite system, i.e. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%. The functionalised CNT was characterized using x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Tensile, flexural and Izod impact tests were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of CNT contents and surface treatment of mechanical properties of kenaf composites. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 wt% acid-silane treated CNT improved the tensile, flexural and impact strengths of kenaf/epoxy composite by 43.30%, 21.10%, and 130%, respectively. Silane modification had been proven to be beneficial in enhancing the dispersibility and reducing agglomeration of CNT in the epoxy matrix.

  6. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...

  7. Effect of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Nitai Chandra Adak; Suman Chhetri; Naresh Chandra Murmu; Pranab Samanta; Tapas Kuila

    2018-01-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) was incorporated as a reinforcing filler in the epoxy resin to investigate the effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy composites. At first, the epoxy matrix was modified by adding different wt % of TRGO from 0.05 to 0.4 wt % followed by the preparation of TRGO/CF/epoxy composites througha vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. The prepared TRGO was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman Spe...

  8. Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120 0 C (70 to 250 0 F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (α) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200 0 C

  9. Elastic representation surfaces of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriz, R.D.; Ledbetter, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites exhibit high elastic anisotropy and unusual geometrical features in their elastic-property polar diagrams. From the five-component transverse-isotropic elastic-stiffness tensor we compute and display representation surfaces for Young's modulus, torsional modulus, linear compressibility, and Poisson's ratios. Based on Christoffel-equation solutions, we describe some unusual elastic-wave-surface topological features. Musgrave considered in detail the differences between phase-velocity and group-velocity surfaces arising from high elastic anisotropy. For these composites, we find effects similar to, but more dramatic than, Musgrave's. Some new, unexpected results for graphite/epoxy include: a shear-wave velocity that exceeds a longitudinal velocity in the plane transverse to the fiber; a wave that changes polarization character from longitudinal to transverse as the propagation direction sweeps from the fiber axis to the perpendicular axis

  10. Smart damping of laminated fuzzy fiber reinforced composite shells using 1–3 piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundalwal, S I; Suresh Kumar, R; Ray, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs. (paper)

  11. Design and Analysis of Drive Shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Gobinath, R.; Kumar, L. Ajith; Jenish, D. Xavier

    2017-05-01

    In automobile industry drive shaft is one of the most important components to transmit power form the engine to rear wheel through the differential gear. Generally steel drive shaft is used in automobile industry, nowadays they are more interested to replace steel drive shaft with that of composite drive shaft. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the composite drive shaft using to find out the best replacement for conventional steel drive shaft. The uses of advanced composite materials such as Kevlar, Graphite, Carbon and Glass with proper resins ware resulted in remarkable achievements in automobile industry because of its greater specific strength and specific modulus, improved fatigue and corrosion resistances and reduction in energy requirements due to reduction in weight as compared to steel shaft. This paper is to presents, the modeling and analysis of drive shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a composite material and to find best replacement for conventional steel drive shafts with an Kevlar/epoxy or Glass/Epoxy resin composite drive shaft. Modeling is done using CATIA software and Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS 10.0 software for easy understanding. The composite drive shaft reduces the weight by 81.67 % for Kevlar/Epoxy and 72.66% for Glass/Epoxy when compared with conventional steel drive shaft.

  12. On Poisson's ratio for metal matrix composite laminates. [aluminum boron composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Shuart, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of Poisson's ratio for nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composite laminates is discussed and experimental results for tensile and compressive loading of five different boron-aluminum laminates are presented. It is shown that there may be considerable difference in the value of Poisson's ratio as defined by a total strain or an incremental strain definition. It is argued that the incremental definition is more appropriate for nonlinear material behavior. Results from a (0) laminate indicate that the incremental definition provides a precursor to failure which is not evident if the total strain definition is used.

  13. Multifunctionality in epoxy/glass fibers composites with graphene interphase

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Haroon

    2017-01-01

    In this project, the synergetic effect of a graphene interphase in epoxy/glass fibers composites was investigated by coating glass fibers (GF) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. Graphite oxide was prepared using modified Hummers method in which raw graphite powder was oxidized using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic solution. Using ultrasonic technique, the graphite oxide was dispersed homogenously in w...

  14. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by mixing thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy grafted graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO sheets were chemically grafted with thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy (TLCP. Then we fabricated composites using TLCP-g-GO as reinforcing filler. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of composites were systematically investigated. It is found that the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites are enhanced effectively by the addition of fillers. For instance, the composites containing 1.0 wt% of TLCP-g-GO present impact strength of 51.43 kJ/m2, the tensile strength of composites increase from 55.43 to 80.85 MPa, the flexural modulus of the composites increase by more than 48%. Furthermore, the incorporation of fillers is effective to improve the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Therefore, the presence of the TLCP-g-GO in the epoxy matrix could make epoxy not only stronger but also tougher.

  15. Effect of γ irradiation on the properties of basalt fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Gu, Yizhuo; Yang, Zhongjia; Li, Min; Wang, Shaokai; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray (γ-ray) irradiation is a crucial reason for the aging in materials used for nuclear industry. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, light weight and good corrosion resistance, fiber reinforced composites are regarded as an alternative of traditional materials used on nuclear facilities. In this study, basalt fiber (BF)/AG80 epoxy composite laminates were fabricated by autoclave process and treated with 60Co gamma irradiation dose up to 2.0 MGy. Irradiation induced polymer chain scission and oxidation of AG80 resin were detected from physical and chemical analysis. The experimental results show that the tensile and flexural performances of irradiated BF/AG80 composite maintain stable and have a low amplitude attenuation respectively, and the interlaminar shear strength has increased from irradiation dose of 0-1.5 MGy. Furthermore, the comparison between the studied BF composite and reported polymer and composite materials was done for evaluating the γ resistance property of BF composite.

  16. Estimation of physical properties of laminated composites via the method of inverse vibration problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Murat [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, Bayburt (Turkmenistan); Gundogdu, Omer [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, estimation of some physical properties of a laminated composite plate was conducted via the inverse vibration problem. Laminated composite plate was modelled and simulated to obtain vibration responses for different length-to-thickness ratio in ANSYS. Furthermore, a numerical finite element model was developed for the laminated composite utilizing the Kirchhoff plate theory and programmed in MATLAB for simulations. Optimizing the difference between these two vibration responses, inverse vibration problem was solved to obtain some of the physical properties of the laminated composite using genetic algorithms. The estimated parameters are compared with the theoretical results, and a very good correspondence was observed.

  17. Estimation of physical properties of laminated composites via the method of inverse vibration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Murat; Gundogdu, Omer

    2017-01-01

    In this study, estimation of some physical properties of a laminated composite plate was conducted via the inverse vibration problem. Laminated composite plate was modelled and simulated to obtain vibration responses for different length-to-thickness ratio in ANSYS. Furthermore, a numerical finite element model was developed for the laminated composite utilizing the Kirchhoff plate theory and programmed in MATLAB for simulations. Optimizing the difference between these two vibration responses, inverse vibration problem was solved to obtain some of the physical properties of the laminated composite using genetic algorithms. The estimated parameters are compared with the theoretical results, and a very good correspondence was observed

  18. Eddy-current effect on resonant magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxi; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-07-01

    An analytical model of resonant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in magnetostrictive (MS)-piezoelectric (PE) laminated composites in consideration of eddy-current effect in MS layer using equivalent circuit method is presented. Numerical calculations show that: (1) the eddy-current has a strong effect on ME coupling in MS-PE laminated composites at resonant frequency; and (2) the resonant ME coupling is then significantly dependent on the sizes of ME laminated composites, which were neglected in most previous theoretical analyses. The achieved results provide a theoretical guidance for the practice engineering design, manufacture, and application of ME laminated composites and devices.

  19. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  20. Enhanced laminated composite phase change material for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, J.; Zhou, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies (CSET), The University of Nottingham Ningbo, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper summarises studies undertaken towards the development of a laminated composite aluminium/hexadecane phase change material (PCM) drywall based on previous analytical work. The study also covered the selection and testing of various types of adhesive materials and identified Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) material as a suitable bonding material. For the purpose of comparison pure hexadecane and composite aluminium/hexadecane samples were developed and tested. The test results revealed faster thermal response by the aluminium/hexadecane sample regarding the rate of heat flux and also achieved about 10% and 15% heat transfer enhancements during the charging and discharging periods respectively. Its measured effective thermal conductivity also increased remarkably to 1.25 W/mK as compared with 0.15 W/mK for pure hexadecane. However there was about 5% less total cumulative thermal energy discharged at the end of the test which indicates that its effective thermal capacity was reduced by the presence of the aluminium particles. The study has shown that some of the scientific and technical barriers associated with the development of laminated composite PCM drywall systems can be overcome but further investigations of effects of adhesive materials are needed. (author)

  1. Bearingless helicopter main rotor development. Volume 2: Combined load fatigue evaluation of weathered graphite/epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackiewicz, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Small scale combined load fatigue tests were conducted on six artificially and six naturally weathered test specimens. The test specimen material was unidirectionally oriented A-S graphite - woven glass scrim epoxy resin laminate.

  2. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  3. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  4. Insulation Characteristics of Sisal Fibre/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using natural fibres in civil engineering is the aim of many industrial and academics sectors to overcome the impact of synthetic fibres on environments. One of the potential applications of natural fibres composites is to be implemented in insulation components. Thermal behaviour of polymer composites based on natural fibres is recent ongoing research. In this article, thermal characteristics of sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites are evaluated for treated and untreated fibres considering different volume fractions of 0–30%. The results revealed that the increase in the fibre volume fraction increased the insulation performance of the composites for both treated and untreated fibres. More than 200% insulation rate was achieved at the volume fraction of 20% of treated sisal fibres. Untreated fibres showed about 400% insulation rate; however, it is not recommended to use untreated fibres from mechanical point of view. The results indicated that there is potential of using the developed composites for insulation purposes.

  5. Mechanical behavior of nanocellulose coated jute/green epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A.; Militký, J.; Ali, A.; Usman Javed, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of nanocellulose coating on the mechanical behavior of jute/green epoxy composites. Cellulose was purified from waste jute fibers, converted to nanocellulose by acid hydrolysis and subsequently 3, 5 and 10 wt % of nanocellulose suspensions were coated over woven jute reinforcement. The composites were prepared by hand layup and compression molding technique. The surface topologies of treated jute fibers, jute cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), nanocellulose coated jute fabrics and fractured surfaces of composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composites were evaluated for tensile, flexural, fatigue and fracture toughness properties. The results revealed the improvement in tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fatigue life and fracture toughness of composites with the increase in concentration of nanocellulose coating over jute reinforcement except the decrease in tensile strength.

  6. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elena Arce; Miguel Angel Alvarez Feijoo; Andres Suarez Garcia; Claudia C. Luhrs

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the sa...

  7. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jute Mat Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Sadaf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose jute fibre offers a number of benefits as reinforcement for synthetic polymers since it has a high specific strength and stiffness, low hardness, relatively low density and biodegradability. To reduce moisture uptake and hence to improve the mechanical properties of the composites, bleached jute mats were incorporated as reinforcing elements in the epoxy matrix. Composites at varying volume fractions and different orientations of jute mat were fabricated by hot compression machine under specific pressures and temperatures. Tensile, flexure, impact and water absorption tests of composites were conducted. Jute mat oriented at (0 ± 45–90° composites showed reduced strength compared to (0–90° fibre mat composites. Impact strength and water uptake of high volume fraction jute mat reinforced composites was higher compared to that of lower volume fraction composites. Fracture surfaces of jute mat composites were analyzed under SEM. Fracture surface of (0–90° jute mat oriented composites showed twisted fibres, while (0 ± 45–90° jute mat oriented composites had fibre pull-out without any twisting. Overall, composites containing 52% jute mat at orientations of (0–90° showed better properties compared to other fabricated composites.

  8. Epoxy Pipelining Composition and Method of Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-14

    obtained from a variety of vegetable sources such as tung, tall, soya , or 8 safflower oil are dimerized and the resultant dimer acids are reduced with...having a 70 (Cu)/30 (Ni) or 90(Cu)/10 (Ni) composition.) 11 The reduced dimer acid, reduced fatty acid, or blend of acids (e.g. compound ( la ), 12...1,2,3or4 R-C- OH + N’ ( la ) R I nH (3a) HI R 2 H- N A N NH H n=0,1,2,3or4 0=c lt. n (4) + 0 H R-C- N NH H N" R H n (4a) n=0,1,2,3or4 2 R R R2 R R NNN IJ H

  9. A study of graphite-epoxy laminate failures due to high transverse shear strains using the multi-span-beam shear test procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1989-01-01

    The multi-span-beam shear test procedure is used to study failure mechanisms in graphite-epoxy laminates due to high transverse shear strains induced by severe local bending deformations in test specimens. Results of a series of tests on specimens with a variety of stacking sequences, including some with adhesive interleaving, are presented. These results indicate that laminates with stacking sequences with several + or - 45 and 90 deg plies next to each other are more susceptible to failures due to high transverse shear strains than laminates with + or - 45 and 0 deg plies next to each other or with + or - 45 deg plies next to layers of adhesive interleaving. Results of these tests are compared with analytical results based on finite elements.

  10. A study of an influence of a fiber arrangement of a laminate ply on the distribution and values of stresses in the multi-layered composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbuś Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work are presented studies related with the influence of a fiber arrangement of a laminate ply on the distribution and values of stresses in the multi-layered composite material. For this purpose, the characteristics of the three-point bending test, according to the standard PN-EN ISO 7438, of specimens made from the composite material, where a single ply is a composition of epoxy resin and glass fibres, was mapped. The modelling process of the multi-layered composite material and its strength verification was performed in the PLM Siemens NX system. Based on the results of performed numerical studies, the relation between the value of the main angle of an arrangement of fibers in each plies of the laminate, and the distribution and values of stresses, occurring in the examined specimens has been determined.

  11. Optimization of sensor introduction into laminated composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2008-03-01

    This work seeks to extend the functionality of the composite material beyond that of simply load-bearing and to enable in situ sensing, without compromising the structural integrity of the host composite material. Essential to the application of smart composites is the issue of the mechanical coupling of the sensor to the host material. Here we present various methods of embedding sensors within the host composite material. In this study, quasi-static three-point bending (short beam) and fatigue three-point bending (short beam) tests are conducted in order to characterize the effects of introducing the sensors into the host composite material. The sensors that are examined include three types of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin film sensors: silver ink with a protective coating of urethane, silver ink without a protective coating, and nickel-copper alloy without a protective coating. The methods of sensor integration include placement at the midplane between the layers of prepreg material as well as a sandwich configuration in which a PVDF thin film sensor is placed between the first and second and nineteenth and twentieth layers of prepreg. Each PVDF sensor is continuous and occupies the entire layer, lying in the plane normal to the thickness direction in laminated composites. The work described here is part of an ongoing effort to understand the structural effects of integrating microsensor networks into a host composite material.

  12. Development of AlN/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yang, Chi; Li, Jun; Mao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Song; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-12-18

    AlN/epoxy composites with high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by infiltrating epoxy into AlN porous ceramics which were fabricated by gelcasting of foaming method. The microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the resulting composites were investigated. The compressive strengths of the AlN/epoxy composites were enhanced compared with the pure epoxy. The AlN/epoxy composites demonstrate much higher thermal conductivity, up to 19.0 W/(m·K), compared with those by the traditional particles filling method, because of continuous thermal channels formed by the walls and struts of AlN porous ceramics. This study demonstrates a potential route to manufacture epoxy-based composites with extremely high thermal conductivity.

  13. Development of AlN/Epoxy Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yang, Chi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Song; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    AlN/epoxy composites with high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by infiltrating epoxy into AlN porous ceramics which were fabricated by gelcasting of foaming method. The microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the resulting composites were investigated. The compressive strengths of the AlN/epoxy composites were enhanced compared with the pure epoxy. The AlN/epoxy composites demonstrate much higher thermal conductivity, up to 19.0 W/(m·K), compared with those by the traditional particles filling method, because of continuous thermal channels formed by the walls and struts of AlN porous ceramics. This study demonstrates a potential route to manufacture epoxy-based composites with extremely high thermal conductivity. PMID:29258277

  14. Latent Hardeners for the Assembly of Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Mercado, Zoar; Galloway, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale composite structures are commonly joined by secondary bonding of molded-and-cured thermoset components. This approach may result in unpredictable joint strengths. In contrast, assemblies made by co-curing, although limited in size by the mold, result in stable structures, and are certifiable for commercial aviation because of structural continuity through the joints. Multifunctional epoxy resins were prepared that should produce fully-cured subcomponents with uncured joining surfaces, enabling them to be assembled by co-curing in a subsequent out-of-autoclave process. Aromatic diamines were protected by condensation with a ketone or aldehyde to form imines. Properties of the amine-cured epoxy were compared with those of commercially available thermosetting epoxy resins and rheology and thermal analysis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of imine protection. Optimum conditions to reverse the protecting chemistry in the solid state using moisture and acid catalysis were determined. Alternative chemistries were also investigated. For example, chain reaction depolymerization and photoinitiated catalysts would be expected to minimize liberation of volatile organic content upon deprotection and avoid residual reactive species that could damage the resin. Results from the analysis of protected and deprotected resins will be presented.

  15. Modeling two-phase ferroelectric composites by sequential laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiart, Martín I

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical estimates are given for the overall dissipative response of two-phase ferroelectric composites with complex particulate microstructures under arbitrary loading histories. The ferroelectric behavior of the constituent phases is described via a stored energy density and a dissipation potential in accordance with the theory of generalized standard materials. An implicit time-discretization scheme is used to generate a variational representation of the overall response in terms of a single incremental potential. Estimates are then generated by constructing sequentially laminated microgeometries of particulate type whose overall incremental potential can be computed exactly. Because they are realizable, by construction, these estimates are guaranteed to conform with any material constraints, to satisfy all pertinent bounds and to exhibit the required convexity properties with no duality gap. Predictions for representative composite and porous systems are reported and discussed in the light of existing experimental data. (paper)

  16. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30–300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  17. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30-300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  18. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  19. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Laminated Metal Composites During High Temperature Deformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grishber, R

    1997-01-01

    A constitutive model for deformation of a novel laminated metal composite (LMC) which is comprised of 21 alternating layers of Al 5182 alloy and Al 6090/SiC/25p metal matrix composite (MMC) has been proposed...

  20. Influence of the Hybrid Combination of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide on Interlaminar Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, J. A.; Rubio-González, C.; Jiménez-Mora, M.; Ramos-Galicia, L.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2017-10-01

    An effective strategy to improve the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness (G IC and G IIC ) of unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/E) laminates using a hybrid combination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) is reported. Double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) tests were conducted to evaluate the G IC and G IIC of the CF/E laminates fabricated with sprayed MWCNTs, GO and MWCNTs/GO hybrid. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the fracture surfaces of tested DCB and ENF specimens. Experimental results showed the positive effect on the G IC and G IIC by 17% and 14% improvements on CF/E laminates with 0.25 wt.% MWCNTs/GO hybrid content compared to the neat CF/E. Also, the interlaminar shear strength value was increased for MWCNTs/GO-CF/E laminates. A synergetic effect between MWCNTs and GO resulted in improved interlaminar mechanical properties of CF/E laminates made by prepregs.

  1. Experimental investigation of defect criticality in FRP laminate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter James

    1999-11-01

    This work examines the defect criticality of fiber reinforced polymer Composites. The objective is to determine the sensitivity of the finished composite to various process-induced defects. This work focuses on two different classes of process-induced defects; (1) fiber waviness in high performance carbon-fiber reinforced unidirectional composites and (2) void volume in low cost glass-fabric reinforced composites. The role of fiber waviness in the compressive response of unidirectional composites has been studied by a number of other investigators. Because of difficulties associated with producing real composites with varying levels of fiber waviness, most experimental studies of fiber waviness have evaluated composites with artificially induced fiber waviness. Furthermore, most experimental studies have been concentrated on the effects of out-of-plane fiber waviness. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of in-plane fiber waviness naturally occurring in autoclave consolidated thermoplastic laminates. The first phase of this project involved the development of a simple technique for measuring the resulting fiber waviness levels. An experimental investigation of the compression strength reduction in composites with in-plane fiber waviness followed. The experimental program included carbon-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites manufactured from prepreg tape by hand layup, and carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composites manufactured from an experimental powder towpreg by filament winding and autoclave consolidation. The compression specimens exhibited kink band failure in the prepreg composite and varying amounts of longitudinal splitting and kink banding in the towpreg composites. The compression test results demonstrated the same trend as predicted by microbudding theory but the overall quantitative correlation was poor. The second thrust of this research evaluated void effects in resin transfer molded composites. Much of the existing

  2. Effect of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitai Chandra Adak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO was incorporated as a reinforcing filler in the epoxy resin to investigate the effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF/epoxy composites. At first, the epoxy matrix was modified by adding different wt % of TRGO from 0.05 to 0.4 wt % followed by the preparation of TRGO/CF/epoxy composites througha vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. The prepared TRGO was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM techniques. It was observed that the wrinkled structure of synthesized TRGO may be helpful to interlock with the epoxy resin and CF.The inter-laminar shear strength, in-plane fracture toughness and impact strength increased by ~67%, 62% and 93% at 0.2 wt % of TRGO loading in the CF/epoxy composites as compared to the CF reinforced epoxy. The mechanical properties of the hybrid composites decreased beyond the 0.2 wt % of TRGO incorporation in the epoxy resin. The fracture surfaces of the hybrid composites were studied by FE-SEM image analysis to investigate the synergistic effect of TRGO in the CF/epoxy composite. This study suggested that TRGO could be used asgood nanofiller to resist the matrix and fiber fracture.

  3. Environmental Effects on Flutter Characteristics of Laminated Composite Rectangular and Skew Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.R. Chowdary

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method is presented for predicting the flutter response of laminated composite panels subjected to moisture concentration and temperature. The analysis accounts for material properties at elevated temperature and moisture concentration. The analysis is based on the first-order approximation to the linear piston theory and laminated plate theory that includes shear deformation. Both rectangular and skew panels are considered. Stability boundaries at moisture concentrations and temperatures for various lamination schemes and boundary conditions are discussed.

  4. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  5. Compression of laminated composite beams with initial damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Nicole L.; Gurdal, Zafer; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of isolated damage modes on the compressive strength and failure characteristics of laminated composite test specimens were evaluated experimentally and numerically. In addition to specimens without initial damage, specimens with three types of initial damage were considered: (1) specimens with short delaminations distributed evenly through the specimen thickness, (2) specimens with few long delaminations, and (3) specimens with local fiber damage in the surface plies under the three-point bend contact point. It was found that specimens with short multiple delamination experienced the greatest reduction in compression strength compared to the undamaged specimens. Single delaminations far from the specimen surface had little effect on the final compression strength, and moderate strength reduction was observed for specimens with localized surface ply damage.

  6. Vibration suppression of composite laminated beams using distributed piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, M A; Almajed, A A; ElMadany, M M

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop an analytical and straightforward approach to suppress the steady state transverse vibration of a symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beam that is excited by an external harmonic force. This is achieved by bonding patches of piezoelectric material at selected locations along the beam. The governing equations for the system are formulated and the dynamic Green's functions are used to obtain an exact solution for the problem. A scheme is proposed for determining the values of the driving voltages, the dimensions of the PZT patches and their locations along the beam, in order to confine the vibration in a certain chosen region where the vibration is not harmful and leave the other chosen region stationary or vibrating with very small amplitudes. Beams with different boundary conditions are considered. Numerical case studies are presented to verify the utility of the proposed scheme

  7. Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga, Salma M.; Kenawy, Sayed H.; Awaad, Mohamed; Abd El-Wahab, Hamada S.; Greil, Peter; Abadir, Magdi F.

    2012-01-01

    Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results. PMID:25685404

  8. Processing and impact properties of steel based laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Pozuelo, M.; Chao, J.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    A seven layers steel based laminated composite (four ultra-high carbon steel, UHCS, layers and three mild steel, MS layers) has been processed by rolling bonding and its microstructure and impact properties have been studied. Suitable parameters of temperature and thickness reduction were selected to obtain a finer microstructure relative to the original materials components. This finer microstructure induces improved mechanical properties. Charpy impact tests values in both crack arrester and crack divider orientations improve the values of the UHCS constituent materials. Furthermore, the crack arrester orientation value exceed that of the MS material. The delamination, which is controlled by interface bonding, plays a key role defecting the crack, absorbing energy and imposing the nucleation of new cracks in the next materials layers. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Naga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results.

  10. Epoxy Resin Based Composites, Mechanical and Tribological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Bello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles built from legacy alloys has been a great challenge to global design and material engineers. This has called for researches into material development for the production of lighter materials of the same or even superior mechanical properties to the existing materials in this area of applications. This forms a part of efforts to achieve the global vision 2025 i.e to reduce the fuel consumption by automobile and aerospace vehicles by at least 75 %. Many researchers have identified advanced composites as suitable materials in this regard. Among the common matrices used for the development of advanced composites, epoxy resin has attained a dominance among its counterparts because of its excellent properties including chemical, thermal and electrical resistance properties, mechanical properties and dimensional stability. This review is a reflection of the extensive study on the currently ongoing research aimed at development of epoxy resin hybrid nanocomposites for engineering applications. In this paper, brief explanation has been given to different terms related to the research work and also, some previous works (in accordance with materials within authors’ reach in the area of the ongoing research have been reported.

  11. Dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Long-Cheng; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Zhong

    2013-02-01

    Material with high dielectric properties possesses the effect of energy storage and electric field homogenization, which plays an important role in the electrical and electronics domain, especially in the capacitor, electrical machinery and cable realm. In this paper, epoxy-based nanocomposites with high dielectric constant were fabricated by adding pristine and ozone functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In the process-related aspect, the favorable technological parameter was obtained via reasonable arrangement and consideration of the dispersing methods including high-speed stirring and three-roller mill. As a result, a uniform dispersion status of MWCNTs in matrix has been guaranteed, which was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the influence of different MWCNTs contents and diverse frequencies on the dielectric properties was compared. It was found that the dielectric constant of nano-composites decreased gradually with the increasing of frequency (10(3)-10(6) Hz). Moreover, as the content of MWCNTs increasing, the dielectric constant reached to a maximum of about 1,328 at 10(3) Hz when the pristine MWCNTs content was 0.5 wt.%. Accordingly, the DC conductivity results could interpret the peak value phenomenon by percolation threshold of MWCNTs. In addition, at the fixed content, the dielectric constant of epoxy-based nano-composites with ozone functionalized MWCNTs was lower than that of pristine ones.

  12. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-04-22

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) may be used to monitor strain over the surface of a structure as an alternative technology to conventional strain gauges. However, FBG bonding techniques have still not been established to yield satisfactory surface measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed together with digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. The influence of the bonding layer on the measured strain and on the integrity of the sensor was investigated by considering different regions of interest. Next, an instrumented structural sandwich beam was tested under four-point bending. FBG rosettes were compared to conventional strain gauge rosettes. The high viscosity adhesive demonstrated behaviors that affected FBG accuracy. Brittleness of the bonding layer and poor interface adhesion were observed using DIC and X-ray tomography. By contrast, the low viscosity adhesive demonstrated satisfactory results. The FBG strain measurements appeared to be consistent with those of DIC. The accuracy is also adequate as the FBGs and the conventional strain gauges had similar results in three directions, under tension and under compression.

  13. A review on the development and properties of continuous fiber/epoxy/aluminum hybrid composites for aircraft structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Cocchieri Botelho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight reduction and improved damage tolerance characteristics were the prime drivers to develop new family of materials for the aerospace/aeronautical industry. Aiming this objective, a new lightweight Fiber/Metal Laminate (FML has been developed. The combination of metal and polymer composite laminates can create a synergistic effect on many properties. The mechanical properties of FML shows improvements over the properties of both aluminum alloys and composite materials individually. Due to their excellent properties, FML are being used as fuselage skin structures of the next generation commercial aircrafts. One of the advantages of FML when compared with conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites is the low moisture absorption. The moisture absorption in FML composites is slower when compared with polymer composites, even under the relatively harsh conditions, due to the barrier of the aluminum outer layers. Due to this favorable atmosphere, recently big companies such as EMBRAER, Aerospatiale, Boing, Airbus, and so one, starting to work with this kind of materials as an alternative to save money and to guarantee the security of their aircrafts.

  14. Synthesis and electroconductivity of epoxy/aligned CNTs composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechenin, N.G.; Chernykh, P.N.; Vorobyeva, E.A.; Timofeev, O.S.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method is described of growing of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) densely packed on a large area with uniform height up to 1 mm. The method is based on injection of active solution of ferrocene in cyclohexane into reactor during the growth process. We also describe a method of ER/VANTs composite preparation based on infiltration of epoxy resin (ER) liquid monomer into arrays of the VANTs forest with polymerization followed. Further on we describe a press-and-draw method to reorient VANTs into horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes (HANTs) in the liquid composite precursor. The electrical conductivities up to 0.6 S/cm in ER/VANTs and up to 0.85 S/cm in ER/HANTs are obtained.

  15. Synthesis and electroconductivity of epoxy/aligned CNTs composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chechenin, N.G., E-mail: chechenin@sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1/2, 119234 (Russian Federation); Chernykh, P.N.; Vorobyeva, E.A.; Timofeev, O.S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Leninskie Gory 1/2, 119234 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    An efficient method is described of growing of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs) densely packed on a large area with uniform height up to 1 mm. The method is based on injection of active solution of ferrocene in cyclohexane into reactor during the growth process. We also describe a method of ER/VANTs composite preparation based on infiltration of epoxy resin (ER) liquid monomer into arrays of the VANTs forest with polymerization followed. Further on we describe a press-and-draw method to reorient VANTs into horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes (HANTs) in the liquid composite precursor. The electrical conductivities up to 0.6 S/cm in ER/VANTs and up to 0.85 S/cm in ER/HANTs are obtained.

  16. The Influence of Hydroxylated Carbon Nanotubes on Epoxy Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs/epoxy resin nanocomposites were prepared with ultrasonic dispersion and casting molding. The effect of hydroxylated MWNTs content on reactive activity of composites is discussed. Then the flexural and electrical properties were studied. Transmission electron microscope was employed to characterize the microstructure of nanocomposites. As a result, the reactive activity of nanocomposites obtained increases with the increasing content of MWNTs. When MWNTs content of the composites is 1 wt%, as compared to neat resin, the flexural strength increases from 143 Mpa to 156 MPa, the modulus increases from 3563 Mpa to 3691 MPa, and the volume and surface resistance of nanocomposites decrease by two orders of magnitude, respectively.

  17. Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: Flexural and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Firoozian, P.; Bakare, I.O.; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Noor, Ahmad Md.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks (CB), derived from bamboo stem (BS-CB), coconut shells (CNS-CB) and oil palm empty fiber bunch (EFB-CB), were obtained by pyrolysis of fibers at 700 o C, characterized and used as filler in epoxy composites. The results obtained showed that the prepared carbon black possessed well-developed porosities and are predominantly made up of micropores. The BS-CB, CNS-CB and EFB-CB filled composites were prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The SEM showed that the fractured surface of the composite indicates its high resistance to fracture. The CBs-epoxy composites exhibited better flexural properties than the neat epoxy, which was attributed to better adhesion between the CBs and the epoxy resin. TGA showed that there was improvement in thermal stability of the carbon black filled composites compared to the neat epoxy resin.

  18. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Incorporated Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nitai Chandra; Chhetri, Suman; Kim, Nam Hoon; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Samanta, Pranab; Kuila, Tapas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the synergistic effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the woven carbon fiber (CF)-reinforced epoxy composites. The GO nanofiller was incorporated into the epoxy resin with variations in the content, and the CF/epoxy composites were manufactured using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process and then cured at 70 and 120 °C. An analysis of the mechanical properties of the GO (0.2 wt.%)/CF/epoxy composites showed an improvement in the tensile strength, Young's modulus, toughness, flexural strength and flexural modulus by 34, 20, 83, 55 and 31%, respectively, when compared to the CF/epoxy composite. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the composites exhibited an enhancement of 56, 114 and 22% in the storage modulus, loss modulus and damping capacity (tan δ), respectively, at its glass transition temperature. The fiber-matrix interaction was studied using a Cole-Cole plot analysis.

  19. Progressive Damage and Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ashith P. K.

    Composite materials are widely used in various industries for making structural parts due to higher strength to weight ratio, better fatigue life, corrosion resistance and material property tailorability. To fully exploit the capability of composites, it is required to know the load carrying capacity of the parts made of them. Unlike metals, composites are orthotropic in nature and fails in a complex manner under various loading conditions which makes it a hard problem to analyze. Lack of reliable and efficient failure analysis tools for composites have led industries to rely more on coupon and component level testing to estimate the design space. Due to the complex failure mechanisms, composite materials require a very large number of coupon level tests to fully characterize the behavior. This makes the entire testing process very time consuming and costly. The alternative is to use virtual testing tools which can predict the complex failure mechanisms accurately. This reduces the cost only to it's associated computational expenses making significant savings. Some of the most desired features in a virtual testing tool are - (1) Accurate representation of failure mechanism: Failure progression predicted by the virtual tool must be same as those observed in experiments. A tool has to be assessed based on the mechanisms it can capture. (2) Computational efficiency: The greatest advantages of a virtual tools are the savings in time and money and hence computational efficiency is one of the most needed features. (3) Applicability to a wide range of problems: Structural parts are subjected to a variety of loading conditions including static, dynamic and fatigue conditions. A good virtual testing tool should be able to make good predictions for all these different loading conditions. The aim of this PhD thesis is to develop a computational tool which can model the progressive failure of composite laminates under different quasi-static loading conditions. The analysis

  20. Deposition of aluminum coatings on bio-composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccarusso, L.; Viscusi, A.; Durante, M.; Astarita, A.; De Fazio, D.; Sansone, R.; Caraviello, A.; Carrino, L.

    2018-05-01

    As a result of the increasing environmental awareness, the concern for environmental sustainability and the growing global waste problem, the interest of bio-composites materials is growing rapidly in the last years in order to use them in various engineering fields. Tremendous advantages and opportunities are associated with the use of these materials. On the other hand, some issues are related to the superficial properties of the bio-laminates, in particular the wear properties, the flame resistance and the aesthetic appearance have to be improved in order to extend the application fields of these materials. Aiming to these goals this paper deals with the study of the deposition of aluminum coating through cold spray process on hemp/PLA bio-composites manufactured by using the compression molding technique. Therefore, SEM observations, roughness analyses, bending tests, pin on disk and scratch tests were carried out in order to study the feasibility of the process and to investigate on the properties of the coated samples. The experimental results proved that when the process parameters of the deposition process are properly set, no damages are induced in the composite panel and that the aluminum coating, under specific load conditions, resulted to be able to protect the substrate.

  1. Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Low Velocity Impact on Laminated Composite Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Hassoon, O.; Lafdi, K.; Benyahia, H.; Nachtane, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, polymer laminated composites based on Epon 862 Epoxy resin, T300 6 k carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested with the aim to elucidate the effect of CNTs on impact properties including impact force and capacity to absorb impact energy. The polymer matrix was reinforced by a random distribution of CNTs with fraction ranging from 0.5 to 4.wt%. Composite panels were manufactured by using the infusion process. Taylor impact test was used to obtain the impact response of specimens. Projectile manufactured from a high strength and hardened steel with a diameter of 20 mm and 1.5 kg of mass was launched by a compressed gas gun within the velocity of 3 m/s. Impact force histories and absorbed energy of specimens were recorded. A numerical model was employed to simulate the impact performance. This model has been accomplished by forming a user established subroutine (VUMAT) and executing it in ABAQUS software. Finally, the effect of CNTs amount on dynamic properties of laminated composites was discussed.

  2. Probabilistic Modelling of Fatigue Life of Composite Laminates Using Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates subjected to constant-amplitude or variable-amplitude loading is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configuratio...

  3. Preparation and Performance of Amphiphilic Random Copolymer Noncovalently Modified MWCNTs/Epoxy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amphiphilic random copolymer of polyglycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinyl carbazole P(GMA-co-NVC was synthesized by free radical polymerization and was used to noncovalently modify multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The obtained P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs was mixed with epoxy resin and used to reinforce epoxy resin. Polymer modified carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites were prepared by a casting molding method. Tensile test, electrical resistivity test and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC analysis were used to study the effect of polymer modified carbon nanotubes on the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin. The results show that the epoxy composite reinforced with P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs shows a remarkable enhancement in both tensile strength and elongation at break compared to either the pure epoxy or the pristine MWCNTs/epoxy composites. In addition, the electrical conductivity of epoxy is significantly improved and the volume resistivity decreases from 1014Ω·m to 106Ω·m with 0.25% mass fraction loading of P(GMA-co-NVC/MWCNTs. Moreover, glass transition temperature of the epoxy composite also increases from 144℃ to 149℃.

  4. Effect of dielectrophoretic structuring on piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanbareh, H.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional granular composites of lead titanate particles in an epoxy matrix prepared by dielectrophoresis show enhanced dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties compared to 0-3 composites for different ceramic volume content from 10% to 50%. Two structuring parameters, the

  5. Materials Characterisation of Glass/epoxy Composites - Focusing on Process Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders; Jensen, Erik Appel

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composites taking the process conditions into account involves advanced modelling techniques and an extensive materials characterisation. The materials characterisation of a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy composite has been the focus...

  6. Thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Fanlong; Ma Changjie; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were functionalized by acid and amine treatments. → Epoxy resin/CNT composites were prepared. → T g of the composites increased by about 10 deg. C compared to neat epoxy resins. → Toughness of the composites was significantly improved by the addition of functionalized CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated by a mixture of acid and functionalized subsequently by amine treatment to improve interfacial interactions and dispersion of CNTs in epoxy matrix. The thermal stabilities and mechanical interfacial properties of epoxy/CNT composites were investigated using several techniques. The dispersion state of CNTs in the epoxy matrix was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result, the glass transition temperature of epoxy/CNT composites increased by about 11 deg. C compared to neat epoxy resins. The mechanical interfacial property of the composites was significantly increased by the addition of amine treated CNTs. The SEM and TEM results showed that the separation and uniform dispersion of CNTs in the epoxy matrix.

  7. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Naveh, Naum; Shepelev, Olga; Kenig, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called “stacked” graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, ...

  8. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  9. Mechanically programmed shape change in laminated elastomeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jaimee M; Torbati, Amir H; Rodriguez, Erika D; Mao, Yiqi; Baker, Richard M; Qi, H Jerry; Mather, Patrick T

    2015-07-28

    Soft, anisotropic materials, such as myocardium in the heart and the extracellular matrix surrounding cells, are commonly found in nature. This anisotropy leads to specialized responses and is imperative to material functionality, yet few soft materials exhibiting similar anisotropy have been developed. Our group introduced an anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composite (A-SMEC) composed of non-woven, aligned polymer fibers embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The composite exhibited shape memory (SM) behavior with significant anisotropy in room-temperature shape fixing. Here, we exploit this anisotropy by bonding together laminates with oblique anisotropy such that tensile deformation at room temperature - mechanical programming - results in coiling. This response is a breakthrough in mechanical programming, since non-affine shape change is achieved by simply stretching the layered A-SMECs at room temperature. We will show that pitch and curvature of curled geometries depend on fiber orientations and the degree of strain programmed into the material. To validate experimental results, a model was developed that captures the viscoplastic response of A-SMECs. Theoretical results correlated well with experimental data, supporting our conclusions and ensuring attainability of predictable curling geometries. We envision these smart, soft, shape changing materials will have aerospace and medical applications.

  10. Characterization of epoxy hybrid composites filled with cellulose fibers and nano-SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-04-06

    Three different approaches have been applied and investigated to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy system reinforced with either recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) or nanosilicon carbide (n-SiC) particles as well as with both RCF and n-SiC has been fabricated and investigated. The effect of RCF/n-SiC dispersion on the mechanical and thermal properties of these composites has been characterized. The fracture surface morphology and toughness mechanisms were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The dispersion of n-SiC particles into epoxy nanocomposites was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that mechanical properties increased as a result of the addition of n-SiC. The presence of RCF layers significantly increased the mechanical properties of RCF/epoxy composites when compared with neat epoxy and its nanocomposites. The influence of the addition of n-SiC to RCF/epoxy composites in mechanical properties was found to be positive in toughness properties. At high temperatures, thermal stability of neat epoxy increased due to the presence of either n-SiC particles or RCF layers. However, the presence of RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy as well as the addition of n-SiC to RCF/epoxy samples increased the rate of the major thermal degradation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enhanced Flexural Strength of Tellurium Nanowires/epoxy Composites with the Reinforcement Effect of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Aditya, D. B.; Vijaya Bhaskar, S.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2018-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposite materials has been greatly increased in the last decade. In particular, flexural strength plays a major role in resisting bending and shear loads of a composite material. Here, one dimensional (1D) tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) reinforced epoxy composites have been prepared and the flexural properties of resulted TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are studied. The diameter and length of the TeNWs used to make TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are 21±2.5 nm and 697±87 nm, respectively. Plain and TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Furthermore, significant enhancement in the flexural strength of TeNWs/epoxy nanocomposite is observed in comparison to plain epoxy composite, i.e. flexural strength is increased by 65% with the addition of very little amount of TeNWs content (0.05 wt.%) to epoxy polymer. Structural details of plain and TeNWs/epoxy at micrometer scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We believe that our results provide a new type of semiconductor nanowires based high strength epoxy polymer nanocomposites.

  12. Effect of Montmorillonite Nanogel Composite Fillers on the Protection Performance of Epoxy Coatings on Steel Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Wahby, Mohamed

    2017-06-02

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clay mineral is widely used as filler for several organic coatings. Its activity is increased by exfoliation via chemical modification to produce nanomaterials. In the present work, the modification of MMT to form nanogel composites is proposed to increase the dispersion of MMT into epoxy matrices used to fill cracks and holes produced by the curing exotherms of epoxy resins. The dispersion of MMT in epoxy improved both the mechanical and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coatings in aggressive marine environments. In this respect, the MMT surfaces were chemically modified with different types of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) nanogels using a surfactant-free dispersion polymerization technique. The effect of the chemical structure, nanogel content and the interaction with MMT surfaces on the surface morphology, surface charges and dispersion in the epoxy matrix were investigated for use as nano-filler for epoxy coatings. The modified MMT nanogel epoxy composites showed excellent resistance to mechanical damage and salt spray resistance up to 1000 h. The interaction of MMT nanogel composites with the epoxy matrix and good response of AMPS nanogel to sea water improve their ability to act as self-healing materials for epoxy coatings for steel.

  13. Numerical evaluation of delamination in CFRP laminates by stereo X-ray pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunoo, Kazuo; Uda, Nobuhide; Ono, Kousei; Onohara, Kaoru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hisahiro.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for quantifying damage in composite laminates by stereo X-ray pictures. A three dimensional image of delamination, which is one of the characteristic types of damage in composite laminates can be reconstructed with this method. A digital image processing technique is used to analyze X-ray pictures. Experimental results of reconstructing delaminations in carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates show that this method is accurate enough for practical usage. (author)

  14. Radiation effects on epoxy composites at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Miyata, K.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation effects on glass-fiber reinforced epoxy composites at cryogenic temperatures has been studied by measuring the changes in interlaminar shear strength of the specimens. The scanning electron microscope observation has also been performed on fracture surface of the specimens. At 8.5 MGy of absorbed dose, only 10 % decrease of the strength was observed in the case of gamma irradiation, whereas over 80 % decrease of the strength was found on the reactor irradiated specimen. The difference of degradation behavior between gamma and reactor irradiations is attributed to the additional absorbed dose in the latter from the nuclear reaction due to boron-10 contained in the glass fibers by capture of thermal neutrons. (author)

  15. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Harimi, M.; Maleque, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  16. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m 2 , meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m 2 . For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m 2 in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m 2 in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m 2 and 2.685 GN/m 2 , respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities

  17. Towards mechanisms-guided resistivity-based monitoring of damage evolution in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Nouri, Hedi; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    A convenient health monitoring technique for detecting degradation in laminated composite is to monitor the change of electrical resistance along multiple conduction paths within the structure. Yet, the relations between the global modification

  18. On the detectability of transverse cracks in laminated composites using electrical potential change measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Long, Quan; Prudhomme, Serge M.; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Real-time health monitoring of structures made of laminated composites is necessary as significant damage may occur without any visible signs on the surface. Inspection by electrical tomography (ET) seems a viable approach that relies on voltage

  19. On the detectability of transverse cracks in laminated composites through measurements of electrical potential change

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Long, Quan; Prudhomme, Serge; Lubineau, Giles

    2015-01-01

    For structures made of laminated composites, real-time structural health monitoring is necessary as significant damage may occur without any visible signs on the surface. Inspection by electrical tomography seems a viable approach as the technique

  20. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring the impedance response of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    impedance spectroscopy response at various frequencies of laminates chosen to be representative of classical layups employed in composite structures. We clarify the relationship between the frequency of the electrical current, the conductivity of the surface

  1. On micro-meso relations homogenizing electrical properties of transversely cracked laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Nouri, Hedi; Roger, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    A practical way to track the development of transverse cracking in a laminated composite is to monitor the change of its electrical resistance. Yet, the relations between transverse cracking and the global modification of resistivity is still

  2. Control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Soo Kim, Heung

    2014-01-01

    The control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in laminated composite structures using a stress function-based approach is proposed. The assumed stress fields satisfy pointwise traction and free boundary conditions at surfaces. Governing equations are derived using the principle of complementary virtual work. A general eigenvalue solution procedure was adopted to obtain accurate stress states of the laminated composite structure. The results obtained from the proposed method were compared with those obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. It was found that interlaminar stresses generated by mechanical loadings could be significantly reduced by applying proper electric fields to piezoelectric actuators, which were surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. Locations of piezoelectric actuators also influenced the distributions of interlaminar stresses. The results provided that piezoelectric actuators have potential in the application to actively control interlaminar stresses in composite laminates. (paper)

  3. Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either...

  4. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 10 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left-hand and right-hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 79,568 hours, with one ship set having nearly 28,000 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history obtained in this program indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  5. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  8. Impact Damage In Carbon/Epoxy And Carbon/PEEK Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes results of drop-weight impact testing of specimens of carbon-fiber/epoxy and carbon-fiber/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composite materials. Panels made of these materials assembled into lightweight, strong, stiff structures useful in automobiles, aircraft, sporting goods, and many other products. PEEK specimens showed less delamination than epoxy specimens at given impact energy.

  9. Hydrothermal ageing of glass/epoxy composites for wind turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, I.B.C.M.; Raijmaekers, S.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a glass/epoxy material system commonly applied in wind turbine design was used to evaluate damage processes brought by water ingression during service life. Composite short-beams and neat epoxy beams and dog-bones were conditioned by water immersion at 50º until saturation and tested

  10. Nonlinear vibrations of thin arbitrarily laminated composite plates subjected to harmonic excitations using DKT elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Xue, David Y.; Mei, Chuh

    1993-04-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for determining the large-amplitude free and steady-state forced vibration response of arbitrarily laminated anisotropic composite thin plates using the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) triangular elements. The nonlinear stiffness and harmonic force matrices of an arbitrarily laminated composite triangular plate element are developed for nonlinear free and forced vibration analyses. The linearized updated-mode method with nonlinear time function approximation is employed for the solution of the system nonlinear eigenvalue equations. The amplitude-frequency relations for convergence with gridwork refinement, triangular plates, different boundary conditions, lamination angles, number of plies, and uniform versus concentrated loads are presented.

  11. Optimization and characterization of woven kevlar reinforced epoxy matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, A.; Aslam, S.

    2007-01-01

    Composite materials are actually well established materials that have demonstrated their promising advantages among the light weight structural materials used for aerospace and advanced applications. An effort is now being made to develop and characterize the Kevlar Epoxy Composite Materials by changing the vol. fraction of Kevlar in epoxy matrix. The optimum characteristics were observed with 37% fiber with resin by applying hand-lay-up process. The composites produced were subjected to mechanical testing to evaluate the mechanical characteristics. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Impact Strength of Epoxy Based Hybrid Composites Reinforced with E-Glass/Kevlar 49

    OpenAIRE

    Jogi , Subhan Ali; Moazam Baloch , Muhammad; Chandio , Ali ,; Memon , Iftikhar Ahmed; Chandio , Ghulaqm Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In hybridization different fibers are stacked layer by layer to produce laminates have specific strength and stiffness and employed in light weight high strength applications. Physically mean fabricated hybrid composites used in aerospace, under water, body armors and armed forces establishment. In present work drop-weight impact response of hybrid composites were investigated by making laminates of hybrid composites. In Hybridization layers of E-glass (roving) and Kev...

  13. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  14. A study of thermal diffusivity of carbon-epoxy and glass-epoxy composites using the modified pulse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terpiłowski Janusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient heat transfer is studied and compared in two planeparallel composite walls and one EPIDIAN 53 epoxy resin wall acting as a matrix for both composites. The first of the two walls is made of carbonepoxy composite; the other wall is made of glass-epoxy composite, both with comparable thickness of about 1 mm and the same number of carbon and glass fabric layers (four layers. The study was conducted for temperatures in the range of 20-120 °C. The results of the study of thermal diffusivity which characterizes the material as a heat conductor under transient conditions have a preliminary character. Three series of tests were conducted for each wall. Each series took about 24 h. The results from the three series were approximated using linear functions and were found between (0.7-1.35×10−7m2/s. In the whole range of temperature variation, the thermal diffusivity values for carbon-epoxy composite are from 1.2 to 1.5 times higher than those for the other two materials with nearly the same thermal diffusivity characteristics.

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Zirconia-Impregnated Halloysite Nanotubes with Different Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Moon Il; Shon, Minyoung; Seo, Bongkuk; Lim, Choongsun

    2018-09-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in various industrial fields due to their low cost, good workability, heat resistance, and good mechanical strength. However, they suffer from brittleness, an issue that must be addressed for further applications. To solve this problem, additional fillers are needed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of the resins; zirconia is one such filler. However, it has been reported that aggregation may occur in the epoxy composites as the amount of zirconia increases, preventing enhancement of the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites. Herein, to reduce the aggregation, zirconia was well dispersed on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which have high thermal and mechanical strength, by a conventional wet impregnation method. The HNTs were impregnated with zirconia at different loadings using zirconyl chloride octahydrate as a precursor. The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with these fillers were investigated. The zirconia-impregnated HNTs (Zr/HNT) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). The hardening conditions of the epoxy composites were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal strength of the epoxy composites was studied by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and micro-calorimetry and the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites (flexural strength and tensile strength) was studied by using a universal testing machine (UTM). The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with Zr/HNT were improved compared to those of the epoxy composite with HNT, and also increased as the zirconia loading on HNT increased.

  16. Tensile Mechanical Property of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilan, A. L. Ahmad; Mokhtar, H.; Shaik Dawood, M. S. I.; Aminanda, Y.; Ali, J. S. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Natural, short, untreated and randomly oriented oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum bagging technique with 20% fiber volume composition. The performance of the composite was evaluated as an alternative to synthetic or conventional reinforced composites. Tensile properties such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio were compared to the tensile properties of pure epoxy obtained via tensile tests as per ASTM D 638 specifications using Universal Testing Machine INSTRON 5582. The tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were lower compared to plain epoxy structure with the decrement in performances of 38% for modulus of elasticity and 61% for tensile strength.

  17. The Influence of GI and GII on the Compression After Impact Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates and Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Scharber, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the compression after impact strength of IM7 carbon fiber laminates made from epoxy resins with various mode I and mode II toughness values to observe the effects of these toughness values on the resistance to damage formation and subsequent residual compression strength-carrying capabilities. Both monolithic laminates and sandwich structure were evaluated. A total of seven different epoxy resin systems were used ranging in approximate GI values of 245-665 J/sq m and approximate GII values of 840-2275 J/sq m. The results for resistance to impact damage formation showed that there was a direct correlation between GII and the planar size of damage, as measured by thermography. Subsequent residual compression strength testing suggested that GI had no influence on the measured values and most of the difference in compression strength was directly related to the size of damage. Thus, delamination growth assumed as an opening type of failure mechanism does not appear to be responsible for loss of compression strength in the specimens examined in this study.

  18. Effect of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of aluminum based epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Sarath Chandran, C.; Melnikova, T. V.; Nazarenko, S. Yu.; Kim, J.-C.

    2017-07-01

    The epoxy resins are widely used in nuclear and aerospace industries. The certain properties of epoxy resins as well as the resistance to radiation can be improved by the incorporation of different fillers. This study examines the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composites filled with aluminum nanoparticles at percentage of 0.35 wt%. The epoxy composites were exposed to the irradiation doses of 30, 100 and 300 kGy using electron beam generated by the linear electron accelerator ELU-4. The effects of the doses on thermal and mechanical properties of the aluminum based epoxy composites were investigated by the methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, tensile test, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results revealed that the studied epoxy composites showed good radiation resistance. The thermal and mechanical properties of the aluminum based epoxy composites increased with increasing the irradiation dose up to 100 kGy and decreased with further increasing the dose.

  19. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Song, Yue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Zhang, Jing [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); Liu, Wei [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Cui, Jihong, E-mail: cjh@nwu.edu.cn [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); and others

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  20. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  1. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  2. Feasibility on fiber orientation detection on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using nondestructive evaluation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Kil-Sung; Hsu, David K.; Im, Kwang-Hee

    2007-07-01

    In particular, CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have found wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. CFRP composites were manufactured from uni-direction prepreg sheet in this paper. It is important to assess fiber orientation, material properties and part defect in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP because strength and stiffness of composites depend on fiber orientation. It is desirable to perform nondestructive evaluation which is very beneficial. An new method for nondestructively determining the fiber orientation in a composite laminate is presented. A one-sided pitch-catch setup was used in the detection and evaluation of flaws and material anomalies in the unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Two Rayleigh wave transducers were joined head-to-head and used in the pitch-catch mode on the surface of the composites. The pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to subtle flaw conditions in the composite. Especially, ultrasonic waves were extensively characterized in the CFRP composite laminates both normal to fiber and along to fiber with using a one-sided direction of Rayleigh wave transducers. Also, one-sided ultrasonic measurement was made with using a Rayleigh wave transducers and a conventional scanner was used in an immersion tank for extracting fiber orientation information from the ultrasonic reflection in the unidirectional laminate. Therefore, it is thought that the proposed method is useful to evaluate integrity of CFRP laminates.

  3. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.my; Leenie, A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Harimi, M. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Beng, Y.K. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m{sup 2}, meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m{sup 2}. For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m{sup 2} in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m{sup 2} in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m{sup 2} and 2.685 GN/m{sup 2}, respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities.

  4. The effect of interlaminar graphene nano-sheets reinforced e-glass fiber/ epoxy on low velocity impact response of a composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maharma, A. Y.; Sendur, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we compare the inter-laminar effect of graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) and CNTs on the single and multiple dynamic impact response of E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite (GFEP). In the comparisons, raw GFEP composite is used as baseline for quantifying the improvement on the dynamic impact response. For that purpose, finite element based models are developed for GNSs on GFEP, graphene coating on glass fibers, inter-laminar composite of CNTs reinforced polyester at 7.5 vol%, and combinations of all these reinforcements. Comparisons are made on three metrics: (i) total deformation, (ii) the contact force, and (iii) internal energy of the composite plate. The improvement on axial modulus (E1) of GFEP reinforced with one layer of GNS (0.5 wt%) without polyester at lamination sequence of [0]8 is 29.4%, which is very close to the improvement of 31% on storage modulus for multi-layer graphene with 0.5 wt% reinforced E-glass/epoxy composite at room temperature. Using three GNSs (1.5 wt%) reinforced polyester composite as interlaminar layer results in an improvement of 57.1% on E1 of GFEP composite. The simulation results reveal that the interlaminar three GNSs/polyester composite at mid-plane of GFEP laminated composite can significantly improve the dynamic impact resistance of GFEP structure compared to the other aforementioned structural reinforcements. Reinforcing GFEP composite with three layers of GNSs/polyester composite at mid-plane results in an average of 35% improvement on the dynamic impact resistance for healthy and damaged composite plate under low velocity impacts of single and multiple steel projectiles. This model can find application in various areas including structural health monitoring, fire retardant composite, and manufacturing of high strength and lightweight mechanical parts such as gas tank, aircraft wings and wind turbine blades.

  5. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Baljinder K; Luangtriratana, Piyanuch; Duquesne, Sophie; Bourbigot, Serge

    2015-08-11

    Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m² heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  6. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder K. Kandola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m2 heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  7. Leaching of iodine from composites based on epoxy resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The scope for using solid composites obtained by incorporating dry powdery lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxy resin for prolonged immobilization of iodine-129 under monitorable storage conditions has been assessed by a study of leaching of iodine

  8. UV curing silicon-containing epoxy resin and its glass cloth reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Tang Zhuo; Huang Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    A UV-curable cationic silicon-containing epoxy resin formulation was developed. The gel conversion of the cured resin after 10-min UV irradiation reached 80% in the presence of 5% diaryliodonium salt photoinitiator and 5.5% polyol chain transfer agent by cationic ring-opening polymerization. The glass cloth-reinforced composites were fabricated with the silicon-containing epoxy resin using the wet lay-up technique and UV irradiation. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. Compared with glass cloth reinforced bisphenol A epoxy resin matrix composites, the silicon-containing epoxy resin matrix composites possessed higher tensile strength and interlayer shear strength which was 158.5MPa and 9.9MPa respectively while other mechanical properties such as flexural property and tensile modulus were similar. (authors)

  9. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment.

  10. Modeling and mechanical performance of carbon nanotube/epoxy resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MWCNT fillers are uniformly dispersed in the epoxy resin, which improved the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. ► Modified Halpin–Tsai model is useful to calculate the Young’s modulus of MWCNT/epoxy resin composite. ► The experimental moduli are within the variation of 27% with the theoretical values. -- Abstract: The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) addition on mechanical properties of epoxy resin was investigated to obtain the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus from load versus displacement graphs. The result shows that the tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus of epoxy resin were increased with the addition of MWCNT fillers. The significant improvements in tensile strength, compressive strength and Young’s modulus were obtained due to the excellent dispersion of MWCNT fillers in the epoxy resin. The dispersion of MWCNT fillers in epoxy resin was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Also, Halpin–Tsai model was modified by considering the average diameter of internal/external of multi-walled nanotube and orientation factor (α) to calculate the Young’s modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/epoxy resin composite. There was a good correlation between the experimentally obtained Young’s modulus and modified Halpin–Tsai model.

  11. Nanocellulose composites with enhanced interfacial compatibility and mechanical properties using a hybrid-toughened epoxy matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pei-Yu; Barros, Luizmar de Assis; Yan, Ning; Sain, Mohini; Qing, Yan; Wu, Yiqiang

    2017-12-01

    Although there is a growing interest in utilizing nanocellulose fibres (NCFs) based composites for achieving a higher sustainability, mechanical performance of these composites is limited due to the poor compatibility between fibre reinforcement and polymer matrices. Here we developed a bio-nanocomposite with an enhanced fibre/resin interface using a hybrid-toughened epoxy. A strong reinforcing effect of NCFs was achieved, demonstrating an increase up to 88% in tensile strength and 298% in tensile modulus as compared to neat petro-based P-epoxy. The toughness of neat P-epoxy was improved by 84% with the addition of 10wt% bio-based E-epoxy monomers, which also mitigated the amount of usage of bisphenol A (BPA). The morphological analyses showed that the hybrid epoxy improved the resin penetration and fibre distribution significantly in the resulting composites. Thus, our findings demonstrated the promise of developing sustainable and high performance epoxy composites combing NCFs with a hybrid petro-based and bio-based epoxy resin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser irradiation-induced laminated graphene/MoS2 composites with synergistically improved tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Chen, Xinchun; Li, Peisheng; Wang, Ping; Li, Cuncheng; Cao, Bingqiang; Luo, Jianbin; Yang, Shikuan

    2018-06-01

    Engineering lubricant additives that have extraordinary friction reduction and anti-wear performance is critical to almost any modern mechanical machines. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of laminated lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of zero-dimensional nanospheres and two-dimensional nanosheets. A simple in situ laser irradiation method is developed to prepare the laminated composite structure composed of ideally ultrasmooth MoS2 sub-microspheres embedded within multiple layers of graphene. These ultrasmooth MoS2 spheres within the laminated structure can change sliding friction into rolling friction under strong shear force created by moving contact surfaces to significantly reduce the friction. Meantime, the graphene layers can behave as ‘protection pads’ to efficiently avoid the formation of scars on the metal-to-metal contact surfaces. Overall, the laminated composites as lubricant additives synergistically improve the friction reduction and anti-wear properties. Additionally, due to the unique loosely packed laminated structure, the composites can stably disperse in the lubricant for more than 15 d and work under high temperatures without being oxidized. Such constructed laminated composites with outstanding tribological properties by an in situ laser irradiation method supply a new concept in designing lubricant additives that can combine the advantages of 0D and 2D structures.

  13. Evaluation of ionic liquid epoxy carbon fiber composites in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Christopher T.; Henry, Christopher R.; Kaukler, William F.; Grugel, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    A novel ionic liquid epoxy (ILE) was used to fabricate carbon fiber composite discs which were then subjected to biaxial strain testing in liquid nitrogen. The ILE composite showed a greater strain-to-failure at cryogenic temperatures when compared to a commercial epoxy. This result is likely an effect, as shown in micrographs, of the strong ILE bonding with the carbon fibers as well as it exhibiting plastic deformation at the fracture surface.

  14. Laser displacement sensor to monitor the layup process of composite laminate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Nick; Groves, Roger M.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze

    2013-04-01

    Several types of flaw can occur during the layup process of prepreg composite laminates. Quality control after the production process checks the end product by testing the specimens for flaws which are included during the layup process or curing process, however by then these flaws are already irreversibly embedded in the laminate. This paper demonstrates the use of a laser displacement sensor technique applied during the layup process of prepreg laminates for in-situ flaw detection, for typical flaws that can occur during the composite production process. An incorrect number of layers and fibre wrinkling are dominant flaws during the process of layup. These and other dominant flaws have been modeled to determine the requirements for an in-situ monitoring during the layup process of prepreg laminates.

  15. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  16. Adhesive properties and adhesive joints strength of graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Stančeková, Dana; Cubonova, Nadezda; Vitenko, Tetiana; Müller, Miroslav; Valášek, Petr

    2017-05-01

    The article presents the results of experimental research of the adhesive joints strength of graphite/epoxy composites and the results of the surface free energy of the composite surfaces. Two types of graphite/epoxy composites with different thickness were tested which are used to aircraft structure. The single-lap adhesive joints of epoxy composites were considered. Adhesive properties were described by surface free energy. Owens-Wendt method was used to determine surface free energy. The epoxy two-component adhesive was used to preparing the adhesive joints. Zwick/Roell 100 strength device were used to determination the shear strength of adhesive joints of epoxy composites. The strength test results showed that the highest value was obtained for adhesive joints of graphite-epoxy composite of smaller material thickness (0.48 mm). Statistical analysis of the results obtained, the study showed statistically significant differences between the values of the strength of the confidence level of 0.95. The statistical analysis of the results also showed that there are no statistical significant differences in average values of surface free energy (0.95 confidence level). It was noted that in each of the results the dispersion component of surface free energy was much greater than polar component of surface free energy.

  17. NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites fabricated by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guodong; Wang Zhi; Liang Jun; Wu Zhanjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The metal-ceramic laminate composites were fabricated by EB-PVD. → Both metal and ceramic layers consisted of straight columns with banded structures. → Columnar grain size was limited by the periodic layer interfaces in the laminates. → Effect of columns on fracture property was decreased by limiting layer thickness. → Laminates showed greater specific strength than monolithic metal foil. - Abstract: Two NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites (A and B) with different metal-layer thickness (∼35 μm and 14 μm, respectively) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Their microstructure was examined and their mechanical properties were compared with the 289 μm thick NiCoCrAl monolithic foil produced by EB-PVD. Both the YSZ and NiCoCrAl layers of the laminate composites had columnar grain structure. But the periodic layer interfaces limited the columnar grain size. Some pores between the columns were also observed. It was found that the strength of the laminate A was equal approximately to that of the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, and that laminate B had the greater strength. Moreover, the density of the foils decreased with the increasing thickness ratio of YSZ/NiCoCrAl layers and the increasing the layer number. Thus, comparing with the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, the NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites not only had the equal or greater strength, but also had the much greater specific strength.

  18. Development and characterization of woven kevlar reinforced epoxy matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, A.; Alam, S.; Irfan, S.; Iftikhar, F.; Raza, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials are actually well established materials that have demonstrated their promising advantages among the light weight structural materials used for aerospace and advanced applications. A great effort is now being made to develop and characterize the Kevlar Epoxy Composite Materials by changing the % age composition of curing agent in epoxy matrix. In order to study the phenomenon; how the change in composition of curing agent effect the composite material and which optimum composition can give the optimum properties of the material, when Kevlar reinforced to Epoxy Matrix by Hand Lay-up process. It was ensured that factors which can .affect the experiment remained the same for each experiment. The composite produced were subjected to mechanical tests to analyze the performance, to optimize the material. (author)

  19. Deflection of Cross-Ply Composite Laminates Induced by Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate.

  20. Enhancement of Dielectric Constant of Graphene-Epoxy Composite by Inclusion of Nanodiamond Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, A. A.; ul-Haq, Izhar; Khan, Ajmal; Hussain, Rizwan; Gul, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    The dielectric properties of a graphene-epoxy composite have been enhanced by filling with nanodiamond particles (NDPs) as secondary filler along with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The epoxy composite filled with only NDPs or GNPs to 0.1 wt.%, 0.3 wt.%, and 0.5 wt.% exhibited smaller dielectric constant compared with when filled with both. Hybrid epoxy composites were prepared with inclusion of both fillers to 0.05 + 0.05 = 0.1 wt.%, 0.15 + 0.15 = 0.3 wt.%, and 0.25 + 0.25 = 0.5 wt.%. Inclusion of NDPs in addition to GNPs also improved the dispersion of the latter in solution, which is attributable to kinetic energy transfer to GNPs and screening of van der Waals forces between GNPs. The enhanced dielectric constant after inclusion of NDPs is due to improved dispersion of GNPs in the epoxy matrix, which may increase the interfacial polarization.

  1. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Arce

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts, epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b organic PCM (paraffin, epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (<10 wt %; however, given its mass, the enthalpy detected in the composites was reduced as their loading further increased. The conductive phase combination (PCM + epoxy resin + hardener + thickening agent presents great potential as a heat-absorbing material at the temperatures employed.

  2. Evaluation of Nanomaterial Approaches to Damping in Epoxy Resin and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.

  3. Improvement of fatigue resistance of epoxy composite with microencapsulated epoxy-SbF5 self-healing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Ye

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid retardation and arresting of fatigue crack are successfully realized in the epoxy composite containing microencapsulated epoxy and ethanol solution of antimony pentafluoride-ethanol complex (SbF5·HOC2H5/HOC2H5. The effects of (i microcapsules induced-toughening, (ii hydrodynamic pressure crack tip shielding offered by the released healing agent, and (iii polymeric wedge and adhesive bonding of cured healing agent account for extension of fatigue life of the material. The two components of the healing agent can quickly react with each other soon after rupture of the microcapsules, and reconnect the crack only 20 seconds as of the test. The applied stress intensity range not only affects the healing efficiency, but also can be used to evaluate the healing speed. The present work offers a very fast healing system, and sets up a framework for characterizing speed of self-healing.

  4. Randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial of direct laminate veneers with two micro-hybrid resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Kalk, Warner; Ozcan, M.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objectives: This randomized, split-mouth clinical study evaluated the survival rate of direct laminate veneers made of two resin-composite materials. Methods: A total of 23 patients (mean age: 52.4 years old) received 96 direct composite laminate veneers using two micro-hybrid composites in

  5. Discrete Material Buckling Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures considering "Worst" Shape Imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Robust design of laminated composite structures is considered in this work. Because laminated composite structures are often thin walled, buckling failure can occur prior to material failure, making it desirable to maximize the buckling load. However, as a structure always contains imperfections...... and “worst” shape imperfection optimizations to design robust composite structures. The approach is demonstrated on an U-profile where the imperfection sensitivity is monitored, and based on the example it can be concluded that robust designs can be obtained....

  6. Nonlinear analysis of AS4/PEEK thermoplastic composite laminate using a one parameter plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.

    1990-01-01

    A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the orthotropic plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The nonlinear stress-strain relations were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter elastic-plastic constitutive model. The results show that the one-parameter orthotropic plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.

  7. Cooperative program for design, fabrication, and testing of graphite/epoxy composite helicopter shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. C.; Baker, D. J.; Corvelli, N.; Thurston, L.; Clary, R.; Illg, W.

    1971-01-01

    The fabrication of UH-1 helicopter tail rotor drive shafts from graphite/epoxy composite materials is discussed. Procedures for eliminating wrinkles caused by lack of precure compaction are described. The development of the adhesive bond between aluminum end couplings and the composite tube is analyzed. Performance tests to validate the superiority of the composite materials are reported.

  8. Analysis of spring-in in U-shaped composite laminates: Numerical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Costanzo; Sorrentino, Luca; Polini, Wilma; Parodo, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The phenomena that happen during the cure process of a composite material laminate are responsible for the rise of residual stresses and, consequently, for the deformation at the end of the manufacturing process. The most analyzed deformation is the spring-in, that represent the flange-to-flange angle deviance from the theoretical value. In this work, the influence of some parameters, such as the laminate thickness, the stacking sequence and the mold radius, on the spring-in angle of a U-shaped laminate was studied exploring a full factorial plan through numerical simulations. First of all, a numerical model proper for cure simulation was introduced and its suitability to simulate the deformation behavior was demonstrated. As a result, only the stacking sequence influenced the spring-in value, while the effect of the tool radius and laminate thickness was minimal.

  9. Vibrations of laminated composite thick shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Shikanai, Genji; Baba, Iwato

    1998-01-01

    An exact solution is presented for solving free vibrations of laminated composite thick shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature. Based on the thick lamination theory considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated cross-ply shells. Frequencies and mode shapes of shells of revolution having elliptical and parabolical meridians are presented for both ends clamped, and the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are discussed by comparing the results from the present theory with those from the thin lamination theory. (author)

  10. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials—Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Feijoo, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (phase combination (PCM + epoxy resin + hardener + thickening agent) presents great potential as a heat-absorbing material at the temperatures employed. PMID:29373538

  11. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  12. Mechanical characterization of epoxy composite with multiscale reinforcements: Carbon nanotubes and short carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, S.; Suraya, A.R.; Shazed, M.A.; Zahari, R.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiscale composite was prepared by incorporation of carbon nanotubes and fibers. • Carbon nanotubes were also grown on short carbon fibers to enhance stress transfer. • Significant improvements were achieved in mechanical properties of composites. • Synergic effect of carbon nanotubes and fibers was demonstrated. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and short carbon fibers were incorporated into an epoxy matrix to fabricate a high performance multiscale composite. To improve the stress transfer between epoxy and carbon fibers, CNT were also grown on fibers through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to produce CNT grown short carbon fibers (CSCF). Mechanical characterization of composites was performed to investigate the synergy effects of CNT and CSCF in the epoxy matrix. The multiscale composites revealed significant improvement in elastic and storage modulus, strength as well as impact resistance in comparison to CNT–epoxy or CSCF–epoxy composites. An optimum content of CNT was found which provided the maximum stiffness and strength. The synergic reinforcing effects of combined fillers were analyzed on the fracture surface of composites through optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  13. Embedding piezoresistive pressure sensors to obtain online pressure profiles inside fiber composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Maryam Kahali; Breede, Arne; Brauner, Christian; Lang, Walter

    2015-03-27

    The production of large and complex parts using fiber composite materials is costly due to the frequent formation of voids, porosity and waste products. By embedding different types of sensors and monitoring the process in real time, the amount of wastage can be significantly reduced. This work focuses on developing a knowledge-based method to improve and ensure complete impregnation of the fibers before initiation of the resin cure. Piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors were embedded in fiber composite laminates to measure the real-time the pressure values inside the laminate. A change of pressure indicates resin infusion. The sensors were placed in the laminate and the resin was infused by vacuum. The embedded piezoresistive pressure sensors were able to track the vacuum pressure in the fiber composite laminate setup, as well as the arrival of the resin at the sensor. The pressure increase due to closing the resin inlet was also measured. In contrast, the capacitive type of sensor was found to be inappropriate for measuring these quantities. The following study demonstrates real-time monitoring of pressure changes inside the fiber composite laminate, which validate the use of Darcy's law in porous media to control the resin flow during infusion.

  14. Evaluation of Material Models within LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) for a Kevlar/Epoxy Composite Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Michael A.; Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The performance of material models to simulate a novel composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was evaluated using the nonlinear explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). Prototypes of the DEA concept were manufactured using a Kevlar/Epoxy composite material in which the fibers are oriented at +/-45 degrees with respect to the loading axis. The development of the DEA has included laboratory tests at subcomponent and component levels such as three-point bend testing of single hexagonal cells, dynamic crush testing of single multi-cell components, and impact testing of a full-scale fuselage section fitted with a system of DEA components onto multi-terrain environments. Due to the thin nature of the cell walls, the DEA was modeled using shell elements. In an attempt to simulate the dynamic response of the DEA, it was first represented using *MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC, or *MAT_58, in LS-DYNA. Values for each parameter within the material model were generated such that an in-plane isotropic configuration for the DEA material was assumed. Analytical predictions showed that the load-deflection behavior of a single-cell during three-point bending was within the range of test data, but predicted the DEA crush response to be very stiff. In addition, a *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY, or *MAT_24, material model in LS-DYNA was developed, which represented the Kevlar/Epoxy composite as an isotropic elastic-plastic material with input from +/-45 degrees tensile coupon data. The predicted crush response matched that of the test and localized folding patterns of the DEA were captured under compression, but the model failed to predict the single-cell three-point bending response.

  15. Scattering of Lamb waves by cracks in a composite graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert; Datta, Subhendu K.; Shah, Arvind

    1990-01-01

    Recent investigations of space construction techniques have explored the used of composite materials in the construction of space stations and platforms. These composites offer superior strength to weight ratio and are thermally stable. For example, a composite material being considered is laminates of graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. The overall effective elastic constants of such a medium can be calculated from fiber and matrix properties by using an effective modulus theory as shown in Datta, el. al. The investigation of propagation and scattering of elastic waves in composite materials is necessary in order to develop an ability to characterize cracks and predict the reliability of composite structures. The objective of this investigation is the characterization of a surface breaking crack by ultrasonic techniques. In particular, the use of Lamb waves for this purpose is studied here. The Lamb waves travel through the plate, encountering a crack, and scatter. Of interest is the modeling of the scattered wave in terms of the Lamb wave modes. The direct problem of propagation and scattering of Lamb waves by a surface breaking crack has been analyzed. This would permit an experimentalist to characterize the crack by comparing the measured response to the analytical model. The plate is assumed to be infinite in the x and y directions with a constant thickness in the z direction. The top and bottom surfaces are traction free. Solving the governing wave equations and using the stress-free boundary conditions results in the dispersion equation. This equation yields the guided modes in the homogeneous plate. The theoretical model is a hybrid method that combines analytical and finite elements techniques to describe the scattered displacements. A finite region containing the defects is discretized by finite elements. Outside the local region, the far field solution is expressed as a Fourier summation of the guided modes obtained from the dispersion equation

  16. Analysis on and Optimization of a Circular Piezoelectric Composite Laminate for a Micro-Pump Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jianyuan; Wang, Weidong; Huang, Xinbo

    2002-01-01

    Among the various micro-pump actuation devices, piezoelectric composite laminate actuation has become an effective method. Due to lacking of analysis treatments, the design of this type micro-pump is in a great limitation. In this paper, an electromechanical-coupled mechanics model is established for the circle-flake micro-actuator. A kind of analysis and design method is presented that piezoelectric plate's radial strain induced by inverse piezoelectric effect is equivalently substituted with transverse stress on piezoelectric composite laminates. It is pointed out that the equivalent transverse load depends on the edge electric field distribution of parallel plate capacitor. The question has been solved that where the neutral plane in the piezoelectric composite laminates lies. Finally, an optimization design is developed on the radius ratio of piezoelectric-to-silicon plate radius by utilizing of FEA modeling

  17. Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis for Laminated Composite Plate Using Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokje; Kim, Ingul; Jang, Moonho; Kim, Jaeki; Moon, Jungwon

    2013-01-01

    Advanced fiber-reinforced laminated composites are widely used in various fields of engineering to reduce weight. The material property of each ply is well known; specifically, it is known that ply is less reliable than metallic materials and very sensitive to the loading direction. Therefore, it is important to consider this uncertainty in the design of laminated composites. In this study, reliability analysis is conducted using Callosum and Meatball interactions for a laminated composite plate for the case in which the tip deflection is the design requirement and the material property is a random variable. Furthermore, the efficiency and accuracy of the approximation method is identified, and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis is conducted. As a result, we can prove the applicability of the advanced design method for the stabilizer of an underwater vehicle

  18. Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis for Laminated Composite Plate Using Response Surface Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seokje; Kim, Ingul [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Moonho; Kim, Jaeki; Moon, Jungwon [LIG Nex1, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Advanced fiber-reinforced laminated composites are widely used in various fields of engineering to reduce weight. The material property of each ply is well known; specifically, it is known that ply is less reliable than metallic materials and very sensitive to the loading direction. Therefore, it is important to consider this uncertainty in the design of laminated composites. In this study, reliability analysis is conducted using Callosum and Meatball interactions for a laminated composite plate for the case in which the tip deflection is the design requirement and the material property is a random variable. Furthermore, the efficiency and accuracy of the approximation method is identified, and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis is conducted. As a result, we can prove the applicability of the advanced design method for the stabilizer of an underwater vehicle.

  19. Determination of Fracture Parameters for Multiple Cracks of Laminated Composite Finite Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Arora, P. K.; Srivastava, Sharad Chandra; Kumar, Harish; Lohumi, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    A predictive method for estimation of stress state at zone of crack tip and assessment of remaining component lifetime depend on the stress intensity factor (SIF). This paper discusses the numerical approach for prediction of first ply failure load (FL), progressive failure load, SIF and critical SIF for multiple cracks configurations of laminated composite finite plate using finite element method (FEM). The Hashin and Chang failure criterion are incorporated in ABAQUS using subroutine approach user defined field variables (USDFLD) for prediction of progressive fracture response of laminated composite finite plate, which is not directly available in the software. A tensile experiment on laminated composite finite plate with stress concentration is performed to validate the numerically predicted subroutine results, shows excellent agreement. The typical results are presented to examine effect of changing the crack tip distance (S), crack offset distance (H), and stacking fiber angle (θ) on FL, and SIF .

  20. A genetic algorithm for the optimization of fiber angles in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Shun Fa; Hsu, Ya Chu; Chen, Yuder

    2014-01-01

    A genetic algorithm for the optimization of composite laminates is proposed in this work. The well-known roulette selection criterion, one-point crossover operator, and uniform mutation operator are used in this genetic algorithm to create the next population. To improve the hill-climbing capability of the algorithm, adaptive mechanisms designed to adjust the probabilities of the crossover and mutation operators are included, and the elite strategy is enforced to ensure the quality of the optimum solution. The proposed algorithm includes a new operator called the elite comparison, which compares and uses the differences in the design variables of the two best solutions to find possible combinations. This genetic algorithm is tested in four optimization problems of composite laminates. Specifically, the effect of the elite comparison operator is evaluated. Results indicate that the elite comparison operator significantly accelerates the convergence of the algorithm, which thus becomes a good candidate for the optimization of composite laminates.

  1. Modeling of a partially debonded piezoelectric actuator in smart composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Soo Kim, Heung; Ho Yoon, Gil

    2015-01-01

    A partially debonded piezoelectric actuator in smart composite laminates was modeled using an improved layerwise displacement field and Heaviside unit step functions. The finite element method with four node plate element and the extended Hamilton principle were used to derive the governing equation. The effects of actuator debonding on the smart composite laminate were investigated in both the frequency and time domains. The frequency and transient responses were obtained using the mode superposition method and the Newmark time integration algorithm, respectively. Two partial actuator debonding cases were studied to investigate the debonding effects on the actuation capability of the piezoelectric actuator. The effect of actuator debonding on the natural frequencies was subtler, but severe reductions of the actuation ability were observed in both the frequency and time responses, especially in the edge debonded actuator case. The results provided confirmation that the proposed modeling could be used in virtual experiments of actuator failure in smart composite laminates. (paper)

  2. Relation between interlaminar fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding process of GFRP composite laminates; GFRP sekisoban no autoclave seikei ni okeru atsuryoku joken to sokan hakai jinseichi tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Motogi, S.; Fukuda, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-15

    Relation between fracture toughness and pressure condition in autoclave molding of GF composite laminates is investigated. Glass/epoxy prepregs are molded under different curing pressures, and UD laminates of [O{sub 8}]T and [O{sub 16}]T are fabricated. The results of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test show that the curing pressure has certain influences on the interlaminar fracture toughness via the change in morphology of matrix resin and fibers between laminae, and via the change in interfacial strength of fiber and matrix. It is also found that the fiber/matrix interfacial strength increases as the curing pressure increases by SEM photographs of the fracture surface in GF UD laminates. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Development and Application of Optimization Techniques for Composite Laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Institute of Technolgy Air University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by Gerald V. Flanagan, S.B. Lt. USAF...global minima [9]. An informal definition of convexity is that any two points in the space can be connected by a straight line which does not pass out of...question. A quick look at gradient information suggests that too few angles (2 for example) will make the laminate sensitive to small changes in

  4. Effect of filler geometry on coefficient of thermal expansion in carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Jang, J; Suhr, J

    2011-02-01

    This study involves the investigation of the geometry effect of nano-fillers on thermally induced dimensional stability of epoxy composites by experimentally evaluating the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were chosen as the filler in epoxy matrix to investigate the effect of an aspect ratio on the CTE of the nanocomposites at three different volume fractions of 0.5, 1, and 2% of the nano-filler. The composites were fabricated using a mechanical mixing method. The CTE values were evaluated by measuring thermal strains of the composites and also compared with a micromechanics model. It was observed that the composites with short CNF (average L/d = 10) show better thermal stability than one of the composites with long CNF (average L/d = 70), and the thermal stability of the composites was proportional to the volume fraction of the filler in each composite. In addition, the CTE of mutliwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) reinforced epoxy composites was evaluated and compared with the CTE of the CNF reinforced composites. Interestingly, the MWNT reinforced composites show the greatest thermal stability with an 11.5% reduction in the CTE over the pure epoxy. The experimental data was compared with micromechanics model.

  5. Free material stiffness design of laminated composite structures using commercial finite element analysis codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this work optimum stiffness design of laminated composite structures is performed using the commercially available programs ANSYS and MATLAB. Within these programs a Free Material Optimization algorithm is implemented based on an optimality condition and a heuristic update scheme. The heuristic...... update scheme is needed because commercially available finite element analysis software is used. When using a commercial finite element analysis code it is not straight forward to implement a computationally efficient gradient based optimization algorithm. Examples considered in this work are a clamped......, where full access to the finite element analysis core is granted. This comparison displays the possibility of using commercially available programs for stiffness design of laminated composite structures....

  6. Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures including failure criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work extends the Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization approach to structural optimization problems where strength considerations in the form of failure criteria are taken into account for laminated composite structures. It takes offset in the density approaches applied for stress...... constrained topology optimization of single-material problems and develops formulations for multi-material topology optimization problems applied for laminated composite structures. The method can be applied for both stress- and strain-based failure criteria. The large number of local constraints is reduced...

  7. Ballistic Performance of Mallow and Jute Natural Fabrics Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Marçal, Rubens Lincoln Santana Blazutti; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira; Margem, Jean Igor

    2017-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have recently been investigated as a component of multilayered armor system (MAS). These composites were found to present advantages when replacing conventional high strength synthetic aramid fabric laminate composite (KevlarTM, with same thickness, as MAS second layer. Continuous and loose natural fibers were up to now mostly used to reinforce these ballistic composites. Only two natural fabrics reinforced polymer composite were so far used with sa...

  8. Characterization and analysis of epoxy/clay nanotubes composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Tarcisio S.; Kock, Thyago; Coelho, Luiz A.F.; Becker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    An DGEBA epoxy matrix was used aiming to achieve a nanocomposite material, through the dispersion of (CNT) via mechanical stirring followed by sonication. In this work the following characterization were performed: mechanical characterization, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of CNT and modified clays promoted the increase of modulus of the epoxy matrix, and a synergistic effect between CNT and both clays could be presumed. SEM images of the fracture surface show the difference between the fracture surface area and the presence of clusters among the samples, allowing a correlation with the modulus of elasticity. X-ray diffractograms from 2Θ = 5 deg showed no peaks for modified clay samples, however it is possible to affirm that modified clay platelets are forming a less organized structure compared to the structure of the clay as natural in epoxy. (author)

  9. Effect of Filler Content on the Performance of Epoxy/PTW Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudradi Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical and tribological characteristics of potassium titanate whisker (PTW reinforced epoxy composites. The effect of various test variables and material parameters on the friction and wear behavior of epoxy/PTW composites has been studied systematically. Tribological tests were conducted on a pin-on-disc apparatus under dry sliding conditions. Addition of PTW was found to improve the wear resistance of the composites and 15 wt% PTW filled epoxy exhibited lowest specific wear rate and highest friction coefficient compared to other test samples. PTW additions showed beneficiary effect on density, hardness, and stiffness properties of composites; however, strength properties and ductility were found to decrease with the increasing content of PTW. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of tensile fractured surfaces and worn-out surfaces of selected samples revealed different fracture mechanisms.

  10. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh K.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The Finite Element Analysis-Micromechanics Analysis Code/Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (FEAMAC/CARES) program was used to characterize and predict the progressive damage response of silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix (SiC/RBSN) composite laminate tensile specimens. Studied were unidirectional laminates [0] (sub 8), [10] (sub 8), [45] (sub 8), and [90] (sub 8); cross-ply laminates [0 (sub 2) divided by 90 (sub 2),]s; angled-ply laminates [plus 45 (sub 2) divided by -45 (sub 2), ]s; doubled-edge-notched [0] (sub 8), laminates; and central-hole laminates. Results correlated well with the experimental data. This work was performed as a validation and benchmarking exercise of the FEAMAC/CARES program. FEAMAC/CARES simulates stochastic-based discrete-event progressive damage of ceramic matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures. It couples three software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating-unit-cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC, and Abaqus is used to model the overall composite structure. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events that incrementally progress until ultimate structural failure.

  11. Tensile properties of compressed moulded Napier/glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatinah, T. S.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Hong, T. W.; Amin, N. A. M.; Afendi, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of compressed moulded Napier grass fibres reinforced epoxy composites. The effect of treatment 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrated solution and hybridization of Napier with CSM E-glass fibres on tensile properties was also studied. The untreated and treated Napier fibres with 25% fibre loading were fabricated with epoxy resin by a cold press process. 7% fibre loading of CSM glass fibre was hybrid as the skin layer for 18% fibre loading of untreated Napier grass fibre. The tensile tests were conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance with ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the untreated Napier/epoxy composites were compared with treated Napier/epoxy and untreated Napier/CSM/epoxy composites. The results demonstrated that the tensile performance of untreated Napier fibre composites was significantly improved by both of the modification; alkali treatment and glass fibre hybridization. Napier grass fibres showed promising potentials to be used as reinforcement in the polymer based composites.

  12. Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M M; Sapuan, S M; Ali, Aidy; Ahmad, D; Khalina, A

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of thermoset resin as a bumper beam composite matrix is currently more dominated in car manufacturer suppliers, because of availability, easy processing, low material cost and production equipment investment. Moreover, low viscosity, shrinkage and excellent flow facilitate better fibre impregnation and proper surface resin wetting. Three-dimensional cross linking curing increase impact, creep and environmental stress cracking resistance properties. Low impact properties of natural fibre epoxy composite, are main issues in its employment for automotive structural components. Impact properties in epoxy composite bumper beam could be increased by modifying the resin, reinforcement and manufacturing process as well as geometry parameters such as cross section, thickness, added ribs and fixing method optimizations could strengthen impact resistance. There are two main methods, flexibilisation and toughening, as modifying the resin in order to improve the impact properties of epoxy composite, which form single phase or two-phase morphology to make modifier as epoxy or from separate phase to keep the thermo-mechanical properties. Liquid rubber, thermoplastic, core shell particle and rigid particle are different methods of toughening improvements. In this research, thermoplastic toughening has used to improve impact properties in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite for automotive bumper beam and has achieved reasonable impact improvements.

  13. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Resin Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zijun; Zhang, Tianchi; Qiao, Sen; Zhang, Luyihang

    2017-11-01

    The multilayer graphene powder as filler, epoxy modified silicone resin as film-forming agent, anticorrosion composite coating has been created using sand dispersion method, the electrochemical performance was compared with different content of graphene composite coating and pure epoxy resin coating. The open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel Plot) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were tested. The test results showed that the anti-corrosion performance of multilayer graphene added has improved greatly, and the content of the 5% best corrosion performance of graphene composite coating.

  14. Nonlinear DC Conduction Behavior in Graphene Nanoplatelets/Epoxy Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/Epoxy resin (ER) with a low percolation threshold were fabricated. Then the nonlinear DC conduction behavior of GNPs/ER composites was investigated, which indicates that dispersion, exfoliation level and conductivity of GNPs in specimens are closely related to the conduction of composites. Moreover, it could be seen that the modified graphene nanoplatelets made in this paper could be successfully used for increasing the electric conductivity of the epoxy resin, and the GNPs/ER composites with nonlinear conduction behavior have a good application prospects in the field of intelligent electromagnetic protection.

  15. Tensile and compressive failure modes of laminated composites loaded by fatigue with different mean stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Assa

    1990-01-01

    Laminated composite materials tend to fail differently under tensile or compressive load. Under tension, the material accumulates cracks and fiber fractures, while under compression, the material delaminates and buckles. Tensile-compressive fatigue may cause either of these failure modes depending on the specific damage occurring in the laminate. This damage depends on the stress ratio of the fatigue loading. Analysis of the fatigue behavior of the composite laminate under tension-tension, compression-compression, and tension-compression had led to the development of a fatigue envelope presentation of the failure behavior. This envelope indicates the specific failure mode for any stress ratio and number of loading cycles. The construction of the fatigue envelope is based on the applied stress-cycles to failure (S-N) curves of both tensile-tensile and compressive-compressive fatigue. Test results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  16. Damage evolution under cyclic multiaxial stress state: A comparative analysis between glass/epoxy laminates and tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaresimin, M.; Carraro, P.A.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation on damage initiation and evolution in laminates under cyclic loading is presented. The stacking sequence [0/θ2/0/-θ2]s has been adopted in order to investigate the influence of the local multiaxial stress state in the off-axis plies and the possible effect...

  17. Characterization and Formability of Titanium/Aluminum Laminate Composites Fabricated by Hot Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Wang, Hui; Cui, Shengqiang; Wu, Qian; Fan, Minyu; Yang, Zonghui; Tao, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The Ti/Al laminate composites were prepared by hot pressing to investigate the forming performance due to the corresponding potential applications in both the aerospace and auto industry. The bonding interface morphology and element distributions were characterized by SEM and EDS. The phase constituent was detected by XRD. It was observed that these composites presented good bonding interfaces between Ti and Al layers, and no low-sized voids and intermetallic compounds formed at the interface. In addition, the formability of these laminate composites was studied by the uniaxial tension tests, the limit drawing ratio (LDR) and the forming limit curve (FLC) experiments, respectively. The results indicated that the flow stress increased along with the strain rate increment. A constitutive equation was developed for deformation behavioral description of these laminate composites. The LDR value was 1.8, and the most susceptible region to present cracks was located at the punch profile radius. The forming limit curve of the laminate composites was located between the curves of titanium and aluminum and intersected with the major strain line at approximately 0.31. The macroscopic cracks of the FLC sample demonstrated a saw-toothed crack feature.

  18. Evaluation of shear-compressive strength properties for laminated GFRP composites in electromagnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun Hee; Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Sam Yeon

    2014-07-01

    Laminated fiber-reinforced composites can be applied to an insulating structure of a nuclear fusion device. It is necessary to investigate the interlaminar fracture characteristics of the laminated composites for the assurance of design and structural integrity. The three methods used to prepare the glass fiber reinforced plastic composites tested in this study were vacuum pressure impregnation, high pressure laminate (HPL), and prepreg laminate. We discuss the design criteria for safe application of composites and the shear-compressive test methods for evaluating mechanical properties of the material. Shear-compressive tests could be performed successfully using series-type test jigs that were inclined 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° to the normal axis. Shear strength depends strongly on the applied compressive stress. The design range of allowable shear stress was extended by use of the appropriate composite fabrication method. HPL had the largest design range, and the allowable interlaminar shear stress was 0.254 times the compressive stress.

  19. Moisture Absorption of Epoxy Matrix Composites Immersed in Liquids and in Humid Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Eq. 4). -34- TEMPERATURE, T (K) 165 40 350 300 Neat ResinA / Fit to Data 0\\ 0 o Composite Calculated 0- Data Delasi and Whiteside (1977) 168 AS/3501...moisture ab - sorption characteristics of T300/1034, AS/3501-5 and T300/5208 graphite-epoxy composites. 1) Material immersed in liquid at temperatures 300 to

  20. An Experimental Study of Circular Cutout Hole Effect of Kevlar/epoxy-Al2O3 Composite under Subjected to Quasi-Static Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Abed Ramadhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has presented an experimental study of quasi-static compressive and tensile loading of cutout hole specimens of Kevlar-29/epoxy-Al2O3 laminated composite. The experimental procedure hasbeen developed to study the performance of (50%, 55% and 60% volume fraction (vf and (0o/90o and +45o/-45o fiber orientation angle effects of these composites under quasi-static tensile and compressiveload using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The study was concluded that the ultimate load capacity increases as volume fraction increases in tensile test. While, the maximum load bearing capacity increaseswith the decrease of volume fraction in compression test. Hence, from the results obtained it can have considered the 55% volume fraction of composite panels is a good value for tensile and compressionapplications.

  1. Long-Term Chemical Resistance of Ecological Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Debska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resin concretes belong to a small group of building materials which, besides high strength parameters, also have a very good chemical resistance. This is confirmed by the studies carried out by various research institutions around the world. However, there is little data on the behaviour of composite resin exposed to corrosive solutions for an extended period of time. This article presents the results of the research on weight changes in samples of epoxy mortar modified with poly(ethylene terephthalate glycolysates, immersed for 5 years in four different aggressive media i.e. 10% aqueous solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids, sodium hydroxide, and sodium chloride. The actual average weight changes obtained were compared with the data calculated on the basis of the regression functions fitted to the data recorded after 3.5 years of exposure. This allowed verification of the model selection correctness and evaluation of the effectiveness of the fitted regression curve. In the case of aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride solutions, it can be assumed that the logarithmic model describes weight changes well. It was observed that the weight of the samples exposed to NaCl solutions and NaOH stabilizes over prolonged monitoring time and reaches a plateau. However, the weight changes in mortar samples immersed for 5 years in aqueous solution of sulphuric and nitric acids quite significantly differ from the data calculated on the basis of the trend line fitted to the results of the tests carried out after 3.5 years of exposure. It seems that the better solution in this case is the selection of an exponential model. In addition, placing the logarithmic trendlines for all corrosive media together on a chart allows to note which of the solutions is the most aggressive. It was found that after 5 years of immersion in aqueous solutions of acids, mortar samples became brittle, and the observation of their fractures confirmed the weakness of the

  2. Current injection phase thermography for low-velocity impact damage identification in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatikos, S.A.; Kordatos, E.Z.; Matikas, T.E.; David, C.; Paipetis, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel Current injection phase thermography NDE method has been developed. • Blind impact damage has been successfully detected in composite laminates. • Carbon nanotubes enhance detection by improving of through thickness conductivity. • Detection is feasible with considerably less energy than for IR excited thermography. - Abstract: An innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique is presented based on current stimulated thermography. Modulated electric current is injected to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminates as an external source of thermal excitation. Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) is concurrently employed to identify low velocity impact induced (LVI) damage. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated for both plain and with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) modified laminates, which are subjected to low-velocity impact damaged composite laminates at different energy levels. The presence of the nano reinforcing phase is important in achieving a uniform current flow along the laminate, as it improves the through thickness conductivity. The acquired thermographs are compared with optical PPT, C-scan images and Computer Tomography (CT) representations. The typical energy input for successful damage identification with current injection is three to four orders of magnitude less compared to the energy required for optical PPT

  3. Fabrication of epoxy composites with large-pore sized mesoporous silica and investigation of their thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Kiba, Shosuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-02-01

    We fabricate epoxy composites with low thermal expansion by using mesoporous silica particles with a large pore diameter (around 10 nm) as inorganic fillers. From a simple calculation, almost all the mesopores are estimated to be completely filled with the epoxy polymer. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) values of the obtained epoxy composites proportionally decrease with the increase of the mesoporous silica content.

  4. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  5. Novel Formulations of Phase Change Materials-Epoxy Composites for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Maria Elena; Alvarez Feijoo, Miguel Angel; Suarez Garcia, Andres; Luhrs, Claudia C

    2018-01-26

    This research aimed to evaluate the thermal properties of new formulations of phase change materials (PCMs)-epoxy composites, containing a thickening agent and a thermally conductive phase. The composite specimens produced consisted of composites fabricated using (a) inorganic PCMs (hydrated salts), epoxy resins and aluminum particulates or (b) organic PCM (paraffin), epoxy resins, and copper particles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of the samples, while hardness measurements were used to determine changes in mechanical properties at diverse PCM and conductive phase loading values. The results indicate that the epoxy matrix can act as a container for the PCM phase without hindering the heat-absorbing behavior of the PCMs employed. Organic PCMs presented reversible phase transformations over multiple cycles, an advantage that was lacking in their inorganic counterparts. The enthalpy of the organic PCM-epoxy specimens increased linearly with the PCM content in the matrix. The use of thickening agents prevented phase segregation issues and allowed the fabrication of specimens containing up to 40% PCM, a loading significantly higher than others reported. The conductive phase seemed to improve the heat transfer and the mechanical properties of the composites when present in low percentages (material at the temperatures employed.

  6. Composite properties for S-2 glass in a room-temperature-curable epoxy matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. L.; Moore, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have measured thermal and mechanical properties of several composites of S-2 glass fiber in a room-temperature-curable epoxy matrix. The filament-wound composites ranged from 50 to 70 vol% fiber. The composites had generally good to excellent mechanical properties, particularly in view of the moderate cost of the material. However, the composites showed rapid increases in transverse thermal expansion above 50 C, and this property must be carefully considered if any use above that temperature is contemplated.

  7. Mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zuhri Mohamed Yusoff; Mohd Sapuan Salit; Napsiah Ismail; Riza Wirawan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the study of mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy (OPF/epoxy) composites. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) was selected as the fibre and epoxy as the matrix. Composite plate with four different volume fractions of oil palm fibre was fabricated, (5 vol %, 10 vol %, 15 vol % and 20 vol %). The fabrication was made by hand-lay up techniques. The tensile and flexural properties showed a decreasing trend as the fibre loading was increased. The highest tensile properties was obtained for the composite with fibre loading of 5 vol % and there were no significant effect for addition of more than 5 vol % to the flexural properties. Interaction between fibre and matrix was observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph. (author)

  8. Self-healing of low-velocity impact damage in glass fabric/epoxy composites using an epoxy–mercaptan healing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yan Chao; Qin, Shi Xiang; Ye, Yueping; Chen, Haibin; Wu, Jingshen; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Yang, Gui Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Self-healing woven glass fabric-reinforced epoxy composite laminates were made by embedding epoxy- and mercaptan-loaded microcapsules. After being subjected to low-velocity impact, the laminates were able to heal the damage in an autonomic way at room temperature. The healing-induced reduction in the damaged areas was visualized using a scanning acoustic microscope. The rate of damage area reduction, which is closely related to the effect of crack rehabilitation and mechanical recovery, is a function of impact energy, content and size of the healing microcapsules. Minor damage, such as microcracks in the matrix, can be completely repaired by the healing system without manual intervention, including external pressure. Microcapsules with larger size and/or higher concentration are propitious for delivering more healing agent to cracked portions, while imposition of lateral pressure on damaged specimens forces the separated faces to approach each other. Both can improve the rate of damage area reduction in the case of severe damage

  9. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura; Benzerga, Ratiba; Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu; Pouliguen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S 11 coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S 11 of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  10. Electromagnetic absorber composite made of carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for anechoic chamber application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méjean, Chloé; Pometcu, Laura [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Sharaiha, Ala; Le Paven-Thivet, Claire; Badard, Mathieu [Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22000 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pouliguen, Philippe [Département Recherche et Innovation Scientifique de la Direction Générale de l’Armement, 7-9 rue des Mathurins, 92221 Bagneux (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam composites are proposed as microwave absorbers. • Dielectric properties (ε′, tanδ) of composites increase with carbon fibers content and length. • S{sub 11} coefficient of a pyramidal prototype was characterized in anechoic chamber. • Epoxy prototype shows better absorption performance than commercial absorber. • S{sub 11} of the prototype is lower than −30 dB (4–18 GHz) at normal and oblique incidences. - Abstract: This paper presents a new electromagnetic absorbing material developed from carbon fibers loaded epoxy foam for an application in anechoic chamber. The composite was developed in order to replace the currently used pyramidal absorbers made of carbon particles loaded polyurethane foam. Epoxy-composites filled with different weight percentages (from 0 wt.% to 4 wt.%) and length (1 and 3 mm) of carbon fibers were achieved. After an optimization of the dispersion of carbon fibers in composite materials, the dielectric properties of the composites were measured using a coaxial-probe in the frequency range 4–18 GHz. Results have shown that the complex permittivity of the composites increases with the amount of charge and also with the length of the carbon fibers. Absorption performance of a prototype prepared with a low concentration (0.5 wt.%) of carbon fibers was measured in an anechoic chamber: it shows a mean gain of 10 dB compared to a commercial absorber.

  11. Effect of Ultrasonic Versus Manual Cementation on the Fracture Strength of Resin Composite Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M.; Mese, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of conventional versus ultrasonic cementation techniques on the fracture strength of resin composite laminates. In addition, the failure modes were assessed. Window-type preparations I mm above the cemento-enamel junction were made on intact human maxillary central

  12. Prediction of process induced shape distortions and residual stresses in large fibre reinforced composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani

    to their accuracy in predicting process induced strain and stress development in thick section laminates during curing, and more precisely regarding the evolution of the composite thermoset polymer matrix mechanical behaviour during the phase transitions experienced during curing. The different constitutive...

  13. A Novel Rational Design Method for Laminated Composite Structures Exhibiting Complex Geometrically Nonlinear Buckling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...

  14. Design Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures with Many Local Strength Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents different strategies for handling very many local strength criteria in structural optimization of laminated composites. Global strength measures using Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser or p-norm functions are introduced for patch-wise parameterizations, and the efficiency of the metho...

  15. Modeling and Chaotic Dynamics of the Laminated Composite Piezoelectric Rectangular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multipulse heteroclinic bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of a laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate by using an extended Melnikov method in the resonant case. According to the von Karman type equations, Reddy’s third-order shear deformation plate theory, and Hamilton’s principle, the equations of motion are derived for the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate with combined parametric excitations and transverse excitation. The method of multiple scales and Galerkin’s approach are applied to the partial differential governing equation. Then, the four-dimensional averaged equation is obtained for the case of 1 : 3 internal resonance and primary parametric resonance. The extended Melnikov method is used to study the Shilnikov type multipulse heteroclinic bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate. The necessary conditions of the existence for the Shilnikov type multipulse chaotic dynamics are analytically obtained. From the investigation, the geometric structure of the multipulse orbits is described in the four-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations show that the Shilnikov type multipulse chaotic motions can occur. To sum up, both theoretical and numerical studies suggest that chaos for the Smale horseshoe sense in motion exists for the laminated composite piezoelectric rectangular plate.

  16. A multiscale and multiphysics numerical framework for modelling of hygrothermal ageing in laminated composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcelos Carneiro M Rocha, Iuri; van der Meer, F.P.; Nijssen, RPL; Sluijs, Bert

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a numerical framework for modelling of hygrothermal ageing in laminated composites is proposed. The model consists of a macroscopic diffusion analysis based on Fick's second law coupled with a multiscale FE2 stress analysis in order to take microscopic degradation

  17. Wear resistance and electrical properties of functionally graded epoxy-resin/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, Y. A.; Abd El-Bary, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper graded Silica/Epoxy composite fabricated by controlled mold filling to obtain a stepwise graded structure. The generated graded structure was controlled by the w 1% content of silica particulates of size range from (45 μm-250 μm). Microstructural characterization was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electrical properties were conducted in High Voltage-Lab using Sphere-Plate Electrode System and Insulating resistance equipment s. Wear characteristics were studied using Block-on-Ring wear testing machine for the different layers of the graded silica/epoxy composites, The prepared materials are used as coating materials for the floors of chemical laboratories. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites fabricated using ionic liquid based epoxies for cryogenic fluid applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Grugel

    Full Text Available Utilizing tanks fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric composites for storing cryogenic fluids such as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen is of great interest to NASA as considerable weight savings can be gained. Unfortunately such composites, especially at cryogenic temperatures, develop a mismatch that initiates detrimental delamination and crack growth, which promotes leaking. On-going work with ionic liquid-based epoxies appears promising in mitigating these detrimental effects. Some recent results are presented and discussed. Keywords: Ionic liquid, Carbon fiber, Epoxy, COPV, Cryogenic fluids

  19. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  20. Use of graphite epoxy composites in the Solar-A Soft X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of composite materials in the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT). One of the primary structural members of the telescope is a graphite epoxy metering tube. The metering tube maintains the structural stability of the telescope during launch as well as the focal length through various environmental conditions. The graphite epoxy metering tube is designed to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion to compensate for the positive expansion of titanium structural supports. The focus is maintained to + or - 0.001 inch by matching the CTE of the composite tube to the remaining structural elements.

  1. Scheming of microwave shielding effectiveness for X band considering functionalized MWNTs/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, S.; Saha, S.

    2016-02-01

    Present typescript encompasses anextraordinary electrical and mechanical behaviors of carboxylic (-COOH) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs)/epoxy composites at low wt.% (0,5, 0,75, 1wt.%). Functionalization on the surface of the nanotube assists MWNTs in dispersing it into epoxy polymer in a respectable manner, Fabricated composites are exposed to different characterization techniques in order to examine the overall physical properties, Microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) for X band (8-12 GHz) and the flexural properties have been premeditated to predict the electrical and mechanical performances. It was found that the total SE of the nanocomposites was increased with the positive gradient of MWNT contents, The best result was recorded for 1 wt.% MWNT loading (SE of about 51,72 dB).In addition, incorporation of nanofillers enhanced the flexural modulus, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the resulting composites while comparing with neat epoxy, Nanocomposites with 0,75 wt,% MWNT loading demonstrated an incrementof 101% in modulus than that of neat epoxy, Theincrement in mechanical properties was due to achievement of good dispersion quality, effective bonding between MWNTs and epoxy polymer analyzed by micrographs of fracture surfaces

  2. Scheming of microwave shielding effectiveness for X band considering functionalized MWNTs/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, S; Saha, S

    2016-01-01

    Present typescript encompasses anextraordinary electrical and mechanical behaviors of carboxylic (-COOH) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs)/epoxy composites at low wt.% (0,5, 0,75, 1wt.%). Functionalization on the surface of the nanotube assists MWNTs in dispersing it into epoxy polymer in a respectable manner, Fabricated composites are exposed to different characterization techniques in order to examine the overall physical properties, Microwave shielding effectiveness (SE) for X band (8-12 GHz) and the flexural properties have been premeditated to predict the electrical and mechanical performances. It was found that the total SE of the nanocomposites was increased with the positive gradient of MWNT contents, The best result was recorded for 1 wt.% MWNT loading (SE of about 51,72 dB).In addition, incorporation of nanofillers enhanced the flexural modulus, flexural strength and micro-hardness of the resulting composites while comparing with neat epoxy, Nanocomposites with 0,75 wt,% MWNT loading demonstrated an incrementof 101% in modulus than that of neat epoxy, Theincrement in mechanical properties was due to achievement of good dispersion quality, effective bonding between MWNTs and epoxy polymer analyzed by micrographs of fracture surfaces (paper)

  3. Nanosilica reinforced epoxy floor coating composites: preparation and thermophysical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flooring grade epoxy/nanoSiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization method. Nano silica was treated by coupling agent in order to surface treating and introducing of reactive functional groups to achieving adequate bonding between polar inorganic nano particles and epoxy organic polymer. γ-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (Amino A-100 was used as an effective and commercially available coupling agent and nano silica treated in acetone media. SEM observations of cured samples revealed that the nano silica was completely dispersed into polymer matrix into nanoscale particles. Thermal and physical properties of prepared samples were investigated and data showed improvements in physical and mechanical properties of the flooring samples in comparison with unfilled resin.

  4. Mechanical Characterization and Water Absorption Behaviour of Interwoven Kenaf/PET Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Dan-mallam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of interwoven fabric for composite production is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balanced mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of polymer composites. In this paper, kenaf and PET (polyethylene terephthalate fibre were selected as reinforcing materials to develop the woven fabric, and low viscosity epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. Vacuum infusion process was adopted to produce the hybrid composite due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up technique. The weight percentage composition of the Epoxy/kenaf/PET hybrid composite was maintained at 70/15/15 and 60/20/20, respectively. A significant increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus of approximately 73% and 53% was recorded in relation to neat epoxy. Similarly, a substantial increase in flexural, impact, and interlaminar properties was also realized in relation to neat epoxy. This enhancement in mechanical properties may be attributed to the interlocking structure of the interwoven fabric, individual properties of kenaf and PET fibres, strong interfacial bonding, and resistance of the fibres to impact loading. The water absorption of the composites was studied by prolonged exposure in distilled water, and the moisture absorption pattern was found to follow Fickian behaviour.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling of Carbon Nano fiber/Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.H.; Yang, Z.G.; Ounaies, Z.; Whalen, C.A.; Gao, X.L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of systematic investigations on both mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nano fiber (CNF)-reinforced epoxy matrix nano composites. In this paper, an in-depth study of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and electrical properties of CNF/epoxy nano composites with various contents of CNFs is provided. A modified Halpin-Tsai equation is used to evaluate the Young's modulus and storage modulus of the nano composites. The values of Young's modulus predicted using this method account for the effect of the CNF agglomeration and fit well with those obtained experimentally. The results show that the highest tensile strength is found in the epoxy nano composite with a 1.0 wt % CNFs. The alternate-current (AC) electrical properties of the CNF/epoxy nano composites exhibit a typical insulator-conductor transition. The conductivity increases by four orders of magnitude with the addition of 0.1 wt % (0.058 vol %) CNFs and by ten orders of magnitude for nano composites with CNF volume fractions higher than 1.0 wt % (0.578 vol %). The percolation threshold (i.e., the critical CNF volume fraction) is found to be at 0.057 vol %.

  6. Subscale Development of Advanced ABM Graphite/Epoxy Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    laminate analysis computer code (Reference 5). eie output of this code yields lamina stresses and strains, equivalent elastic and shear modulii for the...was not accounted for. Therefore the net effect was that the analysis tended to yield conservative results. For design purposes, this conservative...extracted using a Soxhlet Extraction apparatus, recycling the solvent af least 4 to 10 times every hour for a minimum of 6 hours. (4) All samples are

  7. Heat transfer in neuron composite laminated phase-change drywall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; Kim, J.S. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom). School of Property and Construction

    2004-04-01

    Inadequate heat transfer and overall reduction in thermal conductivities during energy recovery are identified as the main barriers affecting the performance of a phase-change material (PCM) wallboard system. Two integrated PCM drywall systems have been evaluated numerically, and the results showed a great advantage of the laminated PCM wallboard system over the randomly mixed PCM type in terms of enhanced thermal performance and rapid heat transfer rates under a narrow temperature swing. For instance, the maximum instantaneous enhancement in heat flux obtained was between 20 and 50 per cent higher during the phase change process, with up to about 18 per cent more heat storage and release capacity. However, experimental evaluation is required for validation and development. (author)

  8. Lower bound buckling loads for design of laminate composite cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, James G. A.; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-01-01

    Over a period of more than 45 years, an extensive research program has allowed a series of very simple propositions, relating to the safe design of shells experiencing imperfection sensitive buckling, to be recast in the form of a series of lemmas. These are briefly summarized and their practical use is illustrated in relation to the prediction of safe lower bounds to the imperfection sensitive buckling of axially loaded, fiber reinforced polymeric, laminated cylinders. With a fundamental aspect of the approach, sometimes referred to as the reduced stiffness method, being the delineation of the various shell membrane and bending stiffness (or perhaps more appropriately energy) components contributing to the buckling resistance, the method will be shown to also provide a powerful way of making rational design decisions to optimize the use of fiber reinforcement.

  9. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  10. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  11. Synthesis and comparison of mechanical behavior of fly ash-epoxy and silica fumes-epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamesh; Ravishankar, K. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    Present day innovation requires materials with a typical combination of properties that are not possible by conventional metal, alloys, ceramics and polymeric materials. Particulate reinforcements for polymers are selected with the dual objective of improving composite properties and save on the total cost of the system. The point of this study is to utilize and compare the mechanical properties of filler (fly ash and silica fumes) reinforced epoxy composites. The composites of different proportions by percentage of matrix (100%), fillers (5%, 10% and 15%) volume are developed using hand lay-up process are tested for tensile and compression, according to ASTM Standards. From these mechanical properties, the flexural analysis of these composites is simulated. And which are characterized by Scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface study, which reveals the brittle fracture, this also conforms from the Finite element analysis (FEA). And the overall mechanical properties of the fly ash reinforced polymer composites were found to have better than silica fumes reinforced composites.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfei Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of ceramic particulate reinforcements into titanium alloys can improve the specific strength and specific stiffness, while inevitably reduce the plasticity and ductility. In this study, in situ synthesized multilayer Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite was designed by learning from the microstructure of nature biological materials with excellent mechanical properties. The Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite with unique characteristic of laminated structure was prepared by combined powder metallurgy and hot rolling. The method has the synthesize advantages with in-situ reaction of Ti and LaB6 at high temperature and controllability of reinforcements size and constituent phases in composites. The result shows that the pores in the as sintered laminated structure composite completely disappeared after hot rolling at 1050 °C. The agglomerated reinforcement particles were well dispersed and distributed uniformly along the rolling direction. The thickness of pure Ti layer and (TiB+La2O3/Ti composite layer decreased from 1 mm to about 200 μm. Meanwhile, the grains size was refined obviously after rolling deformation. The room temperature tensile test indicates that the elongation of the laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite improved from 13% to 17% in comparison with the uniform (TiB+La2O3/Ti composite, while the tensile strength had little change. It provides theoretical and experimental basis for fabricating the novel high performance laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composites.

  13. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroid, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Mechanical properties of laminated composites of Al 1100/Al 2024 in three aging states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al 2024 were produced by hot rolling, with a volume fraction of 49% of Al 2024. These composites used in nuclear reactor tecnology, were given under-aging, aging and over-aging heat treatments at 448k for 1h, 4h and 96h, respectively. Tests of microhardness, tension and fatigue in the divider orientation were performed. (Author) [pt

  15. Mechanical properties of epoxy composites with plasma-modified rice-husk-derived nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubilla, Fatima Athena D.; Panghulan, Glenson R.; Pechardo, Jason; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the use of rice-husk-derived nanosilica (nSiO2) as fillers in epoxy resins. The nSiO2 was irradiated with a capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma using an admixture of argon (Ar) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) or 1,7-octadiene (OD) monomers. The plasma-polymerized nSiO2 was loaded at various concentrations (1-5%) into the epoxy matrix. Surface hydrophobicity of the plasma-treated nSiO2-filled composites increased, which is attributed to the attachment of functional groups from the monomer gases on the silica surface. Microhardness increased by at least 10% upon the inclusion of plasma-modified nSiO2 compared with pristine nSiO2-epoxy composites. Likewise, hardness increased with increasing loading volume, with the HMDSO-treated silica composite recording the highest increase. Elastic moduli of the composites also showed an increase of at least 14% compared with untreated nSiO2-filled composites. This work demonstrated the use of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as a nSiO2 source for epoxy resin fillers.

  16. Strengthening Performance of PALF-Epoxy Composite Plate on Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew C.; Tong, Foo S.; Doh, Shu I.; Gimbun, Jolius; Ong, Huey R.; Serigar, Januar P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effective strengthening potential of pineapple leaves fiber (PALF)-epoxy composite plate on reinforced concrete (RC) beam. At first the PALF is treated with alkali (NaOH) and its morphology is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composite plates made of PALF and epoxy with fiber loading ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 v/v was tested for its flexural behaviour. The composite was then used for external RC beam strengthening. The structural properties of RC beams were evaluated and all the beams were tested under four-point bending. It was found that the flexural strength increased as the fiber volume ratio increases. The maximum flexural strength (301.94 MPa) was obtained at the fiber volume ratio of 40%. The beam strengthened with PALF-epoxy composite plate has a 7% higher beam capacity compared to the control beam. Cracks formed at the edge of the plate of PALF-strengthened beams resulted in diagonal cracking. Result from this work shows that the PALF-epoxy composite plate has the potential to be used as external strengthening material for RC beam.

  17. Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    R Varatharajoo; M Salit; G Hong

    2016-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is ...

  18. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Failure Modes of a Basalt Fiber/Epoxy Resin Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingjing; Shi, Junping; Cao, Xiaoshan; Hu, Yifeng

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests of basalt fiber/epoxy (BF/EP) composite material with four different fiber orientations were conducted under four different fiber volume fractions, and the variations of BF/EP composite material failure modes and tensile mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that when the fiber volume fraction is constant, the tensile strength, elastic modulus, and limiting strain of BF/EP composite material all decrease with increasing fiber orientation angle. When the ...

  19. Effect of Stacking Layup on Spring-back Deformation of Symmetrical Flat Laminate Composites Manufactured through Autoclave Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Seman, M. A.; Mezeix, L.; Aminanda, Y.; Rivai, A.; Ali, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The residual stresses that develop within fibre-reinforced laminate composites during autoclave processing lead to dimensional warpage known as spring-back deformation. A number of experiments have been conducted on flat laminate composites with unidirectional fibre orientation to examine the effects of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on the warpage. This paper extends the study on to the symmetrical layup effect on spring-back for flat laminate composites. Plies stacked at various symmetrical sequences were fabricated to observe the severity of the resulting warpage. Essentially, the experimental results demonstrated that the symmetrical layups reduce the laminate stiffness in its principal direction compared to the unidirectional laminate thus, raising the spring-back warpage with the exception of the [45/-45]S layup due to its quasi-isotropic property.

  20. Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of MWCNTS/ Epoxy and SWCNTS/ Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khansaa D. Salman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The single – walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi – walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs embedded into resin matrix with different weight concentrations ranging about (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 wt. %, the nanocomposites are synthesized by casting method. The main applications of this nanocomposites are in the sensors, actuators, radar. Mechanical tests were done for this study such as: tensile test, bending test and hardness test. Also many examinations were utilized to define the microstructure like scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results of this work showed that obviously an improvement in mechanical properties of the processed nanocomposites such as young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, bending strength and Shore hardness. Also the micrographs of SEM demonstrated that SWCNTs and MWCNTs homogeneously dispersed into epoxy. On the other hand Raman spectra and XRD revealed that same results for SEM. Finally all the results for mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation show that SWCNTs give extremely higher values and properties than MWCNTs.

  1. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  2. The microwave absorbing properties of SmCo attached single wall carbon nanotube/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Bo; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The SmCo nanoparticles attached SWCNTs were prepared by dc arc discharge method. •The nano-composite prepared by a rare earth permanent magnet Sm 2 Co 17 as catalyst. •The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites have an excellent electromagnetic matching characteristics. •The reflection loss and bandwidth below −20 dB of the composite can reach −23.7 dB, 6.2 GHz, respectively. -- Abstract: The SmCo nanoparticles attached single wall carbon nanotubes (SmCo attached SWCNTs) were prepared by hydrogen dc arc discharge method using 2:17 type SmCo permanent powder as catalyst. The SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites with different doping ratios were investigated in the frequency region of 2–18 GHz. The complex permittivity and permeability of the SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites were calculated. The reflection loss properties were simulated by transmission line theory and the microwave absorptive mechanisms were discussed. The results indicate that, due to the better interfacial polarization absorption mechanism of SmCo attached SWCNTs and the electromagnetic (EM) matching of magnetic loss and dielectric loss, the microwave absorption properties of SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy are evidently improved. When the SmCo attached SWCNTs is doped by 1 wt%, the composite display a larger and wider absorption peak, and the bandwidth of the reflection loss below −20 dB is larger than 6 GHz with the thickness of 3.3 mm. It is expected that the new SmCo attached SWCNT/epoxy composites will be a good microwave absorbing material for the applications in X band, Ku band, or even K band

  3. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Nanostructure of tetrafunctional epoxy resins and composites: Correlation to moisture absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Brett Andrew

    The effect that changes in network topology, while maintaining a constant network polarity (i.e. thermodynamic driving force was kept constant), had upon the moisture absorption properties of an aerospace grade tetrafunctional epoxy (TGMDA) cured with multifunctional amines were investigated. Utilizing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) to characterize the nanoscale structure of these epoxies, it was found that as the "static" hole volume (a measurement of packing defects at 0K) increased so did the equilibrium uptake. PALS studies of one of these resins cured to varying extents, found that this static amount increased with degree of cure indicating that the network becomes more open as a direct consequence of crosslinking. Polar groups, which are the attractive force for diffusion, are in the vicinity of these crosslinks, therefore it is believed that the increase in static hole volume results in exposing more polar groups for absorption. The diffusion coefficient, which is representative of the kinetic aspect of diffusion, was also investigated. It was discovered that the amount of nanohole volume in the polymer; whether the total, the static, or dynamic (i.e. thermally activated) does not correlate to the diffusion coefficient in anyway. Furthermore, at an isotherm the diffusion coefficients for all these materials were relatively constant. From this it is hypothesized that it is the similar sub-Tsb{g} motions of these resins which is the rate limiting step in diffusion. This was bolstered by the fact that the activation energy for diffusion and for the sub-Tsb{g} motions for these epoxies are of the same order of magnitude. The nanostructure of fiber reinforced epoxy composites (i.e. a boron/epoxy and a graphite/epoxy) were probed with the bulk PALS technique as well. It was observed that for the graphite/epoxy composite and its flash (i.e. no fibers present) cured under identical conditions, that the nanoholes in the composite were larger than

  6. Study on mechanical properties and damage behaviors of Kevlar fiber reinforced epoxy composites by digital image correlation technique under optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Shao, Wenquan; Ji, Hongwei

    2010-10-01

    Kevlar fiber-reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are widely used in the fields of aerospace, weapon, shipping, and civil industry, due to their outstanding capabilities. In this paper, mechanical properties and damage behaviors of KFRE laminate (02/902) were tested and studied under tension condition. To precisely measure the tensile mechanical properties of the material and investigate its micro-scale damage evolution, a micro-image measuring system with in-situ tensile device was designed. The measuring system, by which the in-situ tensile test can be carried out and surface morphology evolution of the tensile specimen can be visually monitored and recorded during the process of loading, includes an ultra-long working distance zoom microscope and a in-situ tensile loading device. In this study, a digital image correlation method (DICM) was used to calculate the deformation of the tensile specimen under different load levels according to the temporal series images captured by an optical microscope and CCD camera. Then, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the KFRE was obtained accordingly. The damage progresses of the KFRE laminates were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that: (1) the KFRE laminate (02/902) is almost elastic, its failure mode is brittle tensile fracture.(2) Mechanical properties parameters of the material are as follows: elastic modulus is 14- 16GPa, and tensile ultimate stress is 450-480 Mpa respectively. (3) The damage evolution of the material is that cracks appear in epoxy matrix firstly, then, with the increasing of the tensile loading, matrix cracks add up and extend along a 45° angle direction with tensile load. Furthermore, decohesion between matrix and fibers as well as delamination occurs. Eventually, fibers break and the material is damaged.

  7. Tensile properties of interwoven hemp/PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) epoxy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Firdaus, A. Z. A.; Amin, N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composites. The effect of hybridization of hemp (warp) with PET fibres (weft) on tensile properties was of interest. Hemp and PET fibres were selected as the reinforcing material while epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. The interwoven Hemp/PET fabric was used to produce hybrid composite using a vacuum infusion process. The tensile test was conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance to the ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composite were then compared with the neat woven hemp/epoxy composite. The results show that the strength of hemp/PET with the warp direction was increased by 8% compared to the neat woven hemp composite. This enhancement of tensile strength was due to the improved interlocking structure of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid fabric.

  8. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  9. Bending test in epoxy composites reinforced with continuous and aligned PALF fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oliveira Glória

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable actions aiming to prevent increasing worldwide pollution are motivating the substitution of environmentally friendly materials for conventional synthetic ones. A typical example is the use of natural lignocellulosic fiber (LCF as reinforcement of polymer composites that have traditionally been reinforced with glass fiber. Both scientific research and engineering applications support the use of numerous LCFs composites. The pineapple fiber (PALF, extracted from the leaves of Ananas comosus, is considered a LCF with potential for composite reinforcement. However, specific mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are still necessary for this purpose. Therefore, the objective of this short work is to evaluate the flexural properties, by means of three points, bend tests, of epoxy composites incorporated with up to 30 vol% of PALF. Results reveal that continuous and aligned fibers significantly increase the flexural strength. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed the fracture mechanism responsible for this reinforcement. Keywords: Pineapple fibers, PALF, Flexural properties, Bending test, Epoxy composites, Fracture mechanism

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Basalt/Epoxy Composites under Bending Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Memar, Mahdi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the stress corrosion behavior of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in 5% sulfuric acid corrosive medium. There are limited numbers of research in durability of fiber reinforced polymer composites. Moreover, studies on basalt fibers and its composites are very limited. In this research, mechanical property degradation of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in acidic corrosive medium is investigated. Three states of stress, equal to 30%, 50% and 70% of the ultimate strength of composites, are applied on samples. High stress states are applied to the samples to accelerate the testing procedure. Mechanical properties degradation consists of bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity and fracture energy of samples are examined. Also, a normalized strength degradation model for stress corrosion condition is presented. Finally, microscopic images of broken cross sections of samples are examined.

  11. Guided Wave Propagation Study on Laminated Composites by Frequency-Wavenumber Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward the goal of delamination detection and quantification in laminated composites, this paper examines guided wave propagation and wave interaction with delamination damage in laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using frequency-wavenumber (f-kappa) analysis. Three-dimensional elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to acquire simulated time-space wavefields for a CFRP composite. The time-space wavefields show trapped waves in the delamination region. To unveil the wave propagation physics, the time-space wavefields are further analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms (FT). In the analysis results, new f-k components are observed when the incident guided waves interact with the delamination damage. These new f-kappa components in the simulations are experimentally verified through data obtained from scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) tests. By filtering the new f-kappa components, delamination damage is detected and quantified.

  12. Analysis of Thermo-Acoustic Emission from Damage in Composite Laminates under Thermal Cyclic Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Bok; Min, Dae Hong; Lee, Deok Bo; Choi, Nak Sam

    2001-01-01

    An investigation on nondestructive evaluation of thermal stress-reduced damage in the composite laminates (3mm in thickness and [+45 6 /-45 6 ] S lay-up angles) has been performed using the thermo-acoustic emission technique. Reduction of thermo-AE events due to repetitive thermal load cycles showed a Kaiser effect. An analysis of the thermo-AE behavior determined the stress free temperature of composite laminates. Fiber fracture and matrix cracks were observed using the optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ultrasonic C-sean. Short-Time Fourier Transform of thermo-AE signals offered the time-frequency characteristics which might classify the thermo-AE as three different types to estimate the damage processes of the composites

  13. Determination of maximum negative Poisson's ratio for laminated fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokrieh, M.M.; Assadi, A. [Composites Research Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Contrary to isotropic materials, composites always show complicated mechanical behavior under external loadings. In this article, an efficient algorithm is employed to obtain the maximum negative Poisson's ratio for laminated composite plates. We try to simplify the problem based on normalization of parameters and some manufacturing constraints to overlook the additional constraint of the optimization procedure. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal thickness of each lamina with a specified fiber direction. It is observed that the laminated composite with the configuration of (15/60/15) has the maximum negative Poisson's ratio. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Bending Response of Cross-Ply Laminated Composite Plates with Diagonally Perturbed Localized Interfacial Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Zhou Kam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite plate element with an interface description is developed using the finite element approach to investigate the bending performance of two-layer cross-ply laminated composite plates in presence of a diagonally perturbed localized interfacial degeneration between laminae. The stiffness of the laminate is expressed through the assembly of the stiffnesses of lamina sub-elements and interface element, the latter of which is formulated adopting the well-defined virtually zero-thickness concept. To account for the extent of both shear and axial weak bonding, a degeneration ratio is introduced in the interface formulation. The model has the advantage of simulating a localized weak bonding at arbitrary locations, with various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. Numerical results show that the bending behavior of laminate is significantly affected by the aforementioned parameters, the greatest effect of which is experienced by those with a localized total interface degeneration, representing the case of local delamination.

  15. Sliding wear behavior of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT composites: An experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has evaluated the sliding wear properties of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotube composite and Epoxy/MWCNT composite. Four different reinforcements (0, 0.5,1 and 1.5 wt % of MWCNTs are dispersed into an epoxy resin. Design of experiments (DOE and Analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to understand the relationship between control factors (Percentage of reinforcement, Sliding distance, Sliding velocity and Normal load and response measures (specific wear rate and friction coefficient. The control variables such as sliding distance (300, 600, 900 and 1200 m and normal loads of 10, 15, 20 and 25 N and at sliding velocities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 m/s are chosen for this study. It is observed that that the specific wear rate and friction coefficient can be reduced by the addition of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to observe the worn surfaces of the samples. Compared with neat epoxy, the composites with MWCNTs showed a lower mass loss, friction coefficient and wear rate and these parameters decreased with the increase of MWCNT percentage. Microscopic investigation of worn out sample fracture surface has revealed that fiber debonding happens when the stresses at the fiber matrix interface exceeds the interfacial strength, causing the fiber to debond from the matrix. The optimum control variables have been derived to reduce both wear and friction coefficient of composites.

  16. Effect of stitch density on fatigue characteristics and damage mechanisms of stitched carbon/epoxy composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief; Watanabe, Naoyuki; Iwahori, Yutaka; Hoshi, Hikaru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of stitch density (SD) on fatigue life, stiffness degradation and fatigue damage mechanisms in carbon/epoxy (T800SC/XNRH6813) stitched using Vectran thread is presented in this paper. Moderately stitched composite (SD = 0.028/mm2

  17. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaomin; Zhu, Bo; Cai, Xun; Liu, Jianjun; Qiao, Kun; Yu, Junwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  18. Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaomin [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhu, Bo, E-mail: zhubo@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cai, Xun, E-mail: caixunzh@sdu.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250101 (China); Liu, Jianjun [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qiao, Kun [Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yu, Junwei [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fiber Engineering Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • An improved interfacial adhesion in CF/EP composite by FSMPA sizing was put forward. • Sized CFs featured promotions of wettability, chemical activity and mechanical property. • A sizing mechanism containing chemical interaction and physical absorption was proposed. - Abstract: The adhesion behavior of epoxy resin to carbon fibers has always been a challenge, on account of the inertness of carbon fibers and the lack of reactive functional groups. In this work, a modified polyacrylate sizing agent was prepared to modify the interface between the carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. The surface characteristics of carbon fibers were investigated to determine chemical composition, morphology, wettability, interfacial phase analysis and interfacial adhesion. Sized carbon fibers featured improved wettability and a slightly decreased surface roughness due to the coverage of a smooth sizing layer, compared with the unsized ones. Moreover, the content of surface activated carbon atoms increased from 12.65% to 24.70% and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy composites raised by 14.2%, indicating a significant improvement of chemical activity and mechanical property. SEM images of the fractured surface of composites further proved that a gradient interfacial structure with increased thicknesses was formed due to the transition role of the sizing. Based on these results, a sizing mechanism consisting of chemical interaction bonding and physical force absorption was proposed, which provides an efficient and feasible method to solve the poor adhesion between carbon fiber and epoxy matrix.

  19. Pressure and temperature induced electrical resistance change in nano-carbon/epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J. T.; Buschhorn, S. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Schulte, K.; Fiedler, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the changes of electrical resistance of the carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube (CNT) filled epoxy composites upon compression, swelling and temperature variation. For all samples we observe a decrease of electrical resistance under compression, while an increase of

  20. A comparative study on low-velocity impact response of fabric composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Diantang; Sun, Ying; Chen, Li; Pan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the low-velocity behavior of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric composites. • Three-coordinate measuring device was used to acquire the 3D topographies. • Single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric composites show better impact performance. • Impact properties will increase if in-plane yarns and Z-yarns of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric are optimized. - Abstract: Impact behaviors at low velocity of composite laminates reinforced with fabrics of different architectures are investigated. Unidirectional prepreg, 2D woven and 3D orthogonal fabrics, all formed of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) filaments, were selected as reinforcements to form composite laminates using hot pressing technology. Low velocity impact tests were conducted using a drop-weight impact equipment at the energy level of 35 J. A three-coordinate measuring device was employed to determine the volume of plastic deformation and surface dent diameter. The results show that the composite laminates of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric exhibit better energy absorbed capacity and impact damage resistance as compared to those of unidirectional and 2D plain-woven fabric

  1. Strength and fatigue life evaluation of composite laminate with embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Vivek T.; Hiremath, S. R.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Prognosis regarding durability of composite structures using various Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques is an important and challenging topic of research. Ultrasonic SHM systems with embedded transducers have potential application here due to their instant monitoring capability, compact packaging potential toward unobtrusiveness and noninvasiveness as compared to non-contact ultrasonic and eddy current techniques which require disassembly of the structure. However, embedded sensors pose a risk to the structure by acting as a flaw thereby reducing life. The present paper focuses on the determination of strength and fatigue life of the composite laminate with embedded film sensors like CNT nanocomposite, PVDF thin films and piezoceramic films. First, the techniques of embedding these sensors in composite laminates is described followed by the determination of static strength and fatigue life at coupon level testing in Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Failure mechanisms of the composite laminate with embedded sensors are studied for static and dynamic loading cases. The coupons are monitored for loading and failure using the embedded sensors. A comparison of the performance of these three types of embedded sensors is made to study their suitability in various applications. These three types of embedded sensors cover a wide variety of applications, and prove to be viable in embedded sensor based SHM of composite structures.

  2. The performance of integrated active fiber composites in carbon fiber laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnykowycz, M; Brunner, A J

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric elements integrated into fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix laminates can provide various functions in the resulting adaptive or smart composite. Active fiber composites (AFC) composed of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers can be used as a component in a smart material system, and can be easily integrated into woven composites. However, the impact of integration on the device and its functionality has not been fully investigated. The current work focuses on the integration and performance of AFC integrated into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates, focusing on the strain sensor performance of the AFC–CFRP laminate under tensile loading conditions. AFC were integrated into cross-ply CFRP laminates using simple insertion and interlacing of the CFRP plies, with the AFC always placed in the 90° ply cutout area. Test specimens were strained to different strain levels and then cycled with a 0.01% strain amplitude, and the resulting signal from the AFC was monitored. Acoustic emission monitoring was performed during tensile testing to provide insight to the failure characteristics of the PZT fibers. The results were compared to those from past studies on AFC integration; the strain signal of AFC integrated into CFRP was much lower than that for AFC integrated into woven glass fiber laminates. However, the profiles of the degradations of the AFC signal resulting from the strain were nearly identical, showing that the PZT fibers fragmented in a similar manner for a given global strain. The sensor performance recovered upon unloading, which is attributed to the closure of cracks between PZT fiber fragments

  3. Ultrasonic Characterisation of Epoxy Resin/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran ORAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out in order to determine the elastic properties of the Epoxy Resin (ER / Polyethylene terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites by ultrasonic wave velocity measurement method. Plastic waste was recycled as raw material for the preparation of epoxy composite materials. The supplied chars were mixed with epoxy resin matrix at weight percentages of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % for preparing ER/PET Char Powder (PCP composites. The effect of PET char powder on the elastic properties of ER/PCP composites were investigated by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. According to the obtained results, the composition ratio of 80:20 is the most appropriate composition ratio, which gave the highest elastic constants values for ER/PCP composites. On the other hand, the best electrical conductivity value was obtained for 70:30 composition ratio. It was observed that ultrasonic shear wave velocity correlated more perfectly than any other parameters with hardness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12190

  4. X-ray imaging inspection of fiberglass reinforced by epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rique, A.M.; Machado, A.C.; Oliveira, D.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Lima, I.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the voids presented in bonded joints in order to minimize failures due to low adhesion of the joints in the industry field. One of the main parameters to be characterized is the porosity of the glue, since these pores are formed by several reasons in the moment of its adhesion, which are formed by composite of epoxy resin reinforced by fiberglass. For such purpose, it was used high energy X-ray microtomography and the results show its potential effective in recognizing and quantifying directly in 3D all the occlusions regions presented at glass fiber-epoxy adhesive joints

  5. Thermomechanical response and toughening mechanisms of a carbon nano bead reinforced epoxy composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyat, M.S., E-mail: goyatmanjeetsingh@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Suresh, Sumit; Bahl, Sumit [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Halder, Sudipta [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, 788010, Assam (India); Ghosh, P.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2015-09-15

    The current research on carbon nano beads (CNB) is focused on various applications such as high strength nanocomposites, electronic devices, lubricants, semiconductors, and high-performance batteries, etc. The commercial uses of CNB are yet juvenile for the market. Only limited results have been published so far on CNB reinforced polymers [1]. This study highlights the synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The synthesized CNB are introduced into epoxy matrix by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route to produce CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. The CNB are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the CNB/epoxy nanocomposites is characterized by FESEM, Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and tensile and bending tests respectively. A noticeable improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of CNB reinforced epoxy matrix with low nanofiller content is observed. Several toughening mechanisms such as particle pull out, crack deflection, particle bridging, crack pinning, shear yielding or plastic deformation, and microcracking are identified. But, only the crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding or plastic deformations are recognized as the leading toughening mechanisms for CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. These results can be considered as symptomatic of a potential CNB espousal in new composites. - Highlights: • Synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition method. • Fabrication of CNB/epoxy nanocomposites by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route. • Significant enhancement in thermomechanical properties of CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. • Main toughening mechanisms: Crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding.

  6. Thermomechanical response and toughening mechanisms of a carbon nano bead reinforced epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyat, M.S.; Suresh, Sumit; Bahl, Sumit; Halder, Sudipta; Ghosh, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The current research on carbon nano beads (CNB) is focused on various applications such as high strength nanocomposites, electronic devices, lubricants, semiconductors, and high-performance batteries, etc. The commercial uses of CNB are yet juvenile for the market. Only limited results have been published so far on CNB reinforced polymers [1]. This study highlights the synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The synthesized CNB are introduced into epoxy matrix by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route to produce CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. The CNB are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the CNB/epoxy nanocomposites is characterized by FESEM, Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and tensile and bending tests respectively. A noticeable improvement in thermal and mechanical properties of CNB reinforced epoxy matrix with low nanofiller content is observed. Several toughening mechanisms such as particle pull out, crack deflection, particle bridging, crack pinning, shear yielding or plastic deformation, and microcracking are identified. But, only the crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding or plastic deformations are recognized as the leading toughening mechanisms for CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. These results can be considered as symptomatic of a potential CNB espousal in new composites. - Highlights: • Synthesis of uniform size, spherical CNB using chemical vapour deposition method. • Fabrication of CNB/epoxy nanocomposites by ultrasonic dual mode mixing route. • Significant enhancement in thermomechanical properties of CNB/epoxy nanocomposite. • Main toughening mechanisms: Crack deflection, particle bridging and shear yielding.

  7. Design of Automobile Driveshaft using Carbon/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy Composites

    OpenAIRE

    R. Srinivasa Moorthy

    2013-01-01

    Use of advanced composites has resulted in remarkable achievements in many fields including aviation, marine and automobile engineering, medicine, prosthetics and sports, in terms of improved fatigue and corrosion resistances, high specific strength and specific modulus and reduction in energy requirements owing to reduction in weight. The aim of this work is to replace the conventional steel driveshaft of automobiles with an appropriate composite driveshaft. The conventional driveshafts ar...

  8. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MWCNTs/P(St-co-GMA) composite nanofibers of engineered interface chemistry for epoxy matrix nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden-Yenigün, Elif; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z; Papila, Melih

    2012-02-01

    Strengthened nanofiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites are demonstrated by engineering composite electrospun fibers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reactive P(St-co-GMA). MWCNTs are incorporated into surface-modified, reactive P(St-co-GMA) nanofibers by electrospinning; functionalization of these MWCNT/P(St-co-GMA) composite nanofibers with epoxide moieties facilitates bonding at the interface of the cross-linked fibers and the epoxy matrix, effectively reinforcing and toughening the epoxy resin. Rheological properties are determined and thermodynamic stabilization is demonstrated for MWCNTs in the P(St-co-GMA)-DMF polymer solution. Homogeneity and uniformity of the fiber formation within the electrospun mats are achieved at polymer concentration of 30 wt %. Results show that the MWCNT fraction decreases the polymer solution viscosity, yielding a narrower fiber diameter. The fiber diameter drops from an average of 630 nm to 460 nm, as the MWCNTs wt fraction (1, 1.5, and 2%) is increased. The electrospun nanofibers of the MWCNTs/P(St-co-GMA) composite are also embedded into an epoxy resin to investigate their reinforcing abilities. A significant increase in the mechanical response is observed, up to >20% in flexural modulus, when compared to neat epoxy, despite a very low composite fiber weight fraction (at about 0.2% by a single-layer fibrous mat). The increase is attributed to the combined effect of the two factors the inherent strength of the well-dispersed MWCNTs and the surface chemistry of the electrospun fibers that have been modified with epoxide to enable cross-linking between the polymer matrix and the nanofibers.

  10. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber to reinforce epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Feng; Lu, Chunxiang; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Lu, Huibin; He, Shuqing; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were uniformly grown onto the carbon fibers. → No obvious mechanical properties of carbon fiber were observed after CNT growth. → The IFSS of multiscale epoxy composite was measured by single fiber pull-out tests. → Observing fractography of composite, the fracture modes of CNTs were discussed. -- Abstract: The multiscale carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber was prepared by a newly developed aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were carried out to characterize this multiscale material. Compared with the original carbon fibers, the fabrication of this hybrid fiber resulted in an almost threefold increase of BET surface area to reach 2.22 m 2 /g. Meanwhile, there was a slight degradation of fiber tensile strength within 10%, while the fiber modulus was not significantly affected. The interfacial shearing strength of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite with carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix was determined from the single fiber pull-out tests of microdroplet composite. Due to an efficient increase of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interfaces, the interracial shear strength of composite reinforced by carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber is almost 94% higher than that of one reinforced by the original carbon fiber. Based on the fractured morphologies of the composites, the interfacial reinforcing mechanisms were discussed through proposing different types of carbon nanotube fracture modes along with fiber pulling out from epoxy composites.

  11. Investigations on Thermal Conductivities of Jute and Banana Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Satish; Ramakrishna, Avasarala; Balaram Padal, Korabu Tulasi

    2017-04-01

    The Jute and Banana fibers are used as reinforcement in epoxy resin matrix for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. The thermal conductivity of the jute fiber epoxy composites and banana fiber epoxy composites at different volume fraction of the fiber is determined experimentally by using guarded heat flow meter method. The experimental results had shown that thermal conductivity of the composites decrease with an increase in the fiber content. Experimental results are compared with theoretical models (Series model, Hashin model and Maxwell model) to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity versus the volume fraction of the fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is observed. Thermal conductivity of Banana fiber composite is less when compared to that of Jute composite which indicates banana is a good insulator and also the developed composites can be used as insulating materials in building, automotive industry and in steam pipes to save energy by reducing rate of heat transfer.

  12. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compression and flexural loadings; and microscopic study with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM has been performed on failed (fractured composite surfaces to identify the principle features of failure. Efforts have been made in correlating the fracture surface characteristics to the failure mode. The micro-mechanics analysis of failure serves as a useful guide in selecting constituent materials and designing composites from the failure behavior point of view. Also, the local failure initiation results obtained here has been reliably extended to global failure prediction.

  13. Reversible superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic transition of ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Ziyin; Lin, Wei; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Wong, C P

    2012-08-01

    Tuning the surface wettability is of great interest for both scientific research and practical applications. We demonstrated reversible transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite film. The epoxy resin serves as an adhesion and stress relief layer. The ZnO nanorods were exposed after oxygen reactive ion etching of the epoxy matrix. A subsequent chemcial treatment with fluoroalkyl and alkyl silanes resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to 158.4° and a hysteresis as low as 1.3°. Under UV irradiation, the water contact angle decreased gradually, and the surface eventually became superhydrophilic because of UV induced decomposition of alkyl silanes and hydroxyl absorption on ZnO surfaces. A reversible transition of surface wettability was realized by alternation of UV illumination and surface treatment. Such ZnO nanocomposite surface also showed improved mechanical robustness.

  14. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  15. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  16. Viscoelastic behaviour and static fatigue strength of glass/epoxy composites. Influence of hydrothermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine

    1991-01-01

    As ageing strength of composites appears to be one of the main criteria of their durability, this research thesis addresses the hydrothermal ageing of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites used for load-bearing structures. After having presented the used materials (epoxy matrix, reinforcement, composite elaboration), the author present the experimental techniques: viscoelastic analysis, three-point bend static fatigue test, coupled gravimetry and calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. In the next parts, the author reports the study of water sorption processes (bibliographical study, experimental study of water sorption kinetics, experimental study of interfacial diffusion within the composite), the study of plasticizing phenomena (methodology of study of plasticizing phenomena, study of the modifications of the linear viscoelastic behaviour in the glass transition region and at room temperature, relationship between plasticizing and fatigue mechanical properties by fracture studies), and the study of irreversible degradation and damage mechanisms

  17. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  18. Ballistic Impact Response of Woven Hybrid Coir/Kevlar Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrin Hani A.R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different laminated hybrid composites stacking configuration subjected to ballistic impact were investigated. The hybrid composites consist of woven coir (C and woven Kevlar (K layers laminated together. The samples of woven coir were prepared using handloom device. The composites were produced by stacking the laminated woven coir and Kevlar alternately with the presence of the binder. The samples were tested under ballistic impact with different stacking configuration. The results obtained had successfully achieved the National Institute of Justice (NIJ standard level IIA with energy absorption of 435.6 kJ and 412.2 kJ under the projectile speed of between 330 m/s and 321 m/s respectively. Samples that having Kevlar layer at the front face and woven coir layer as back face achieved partial penetration during projectile impact. This orientation is proven to have good impact energy absorption and able to stop projectile at the second panel of the composites.

  19. In-Situ Observations of Longitudinal Compression Damage in Carbon-Epoxy Cross Ply Laminates Using Fast Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Garcea, Serafina C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of longitudinal compressive failure mechanisms in notched cross-ply laminates is studied experimentally with in-situ synchrotron radiation based computed tomography. Carbon/epoxy specimens loaded monotonically in uniaxial compression exhibited a quasi-stable failure process, which was captured with computed tomography scans recorded continuously with a temporal resolutions of 2.4 seconds and a spatial resolution of 1.1 microns per voxel. A detailed chronology of the initiation and propagation of longitudinal matrix splitting cracks, in-plane and out-of-plane kink bands, shear-driven fiber failure, delamination, and transverse matrix cracks is provided with a focus on kink bands as the dominant failure mechanism. An automatic segmentation procedure is developed to identify the boundary surfaces of a kink band. The segmentation procedure enables 3-dimensional visualization of the kink band and conveys the orientation, inclination, and spatial variation of the kink band. The kink band inclination and length are examined using the segmented data revealing tunneling and spatial variations not apparent from studying the 2-dimensional section data.

  20. Effect of silane coupling agent on interfacial adhesion of copper/glass fabric/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langroudi, A. E.; Yousefi, A. A.; Kabiri, Kourosh

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silane coupling agent on the peel strength of copper/prep reg/copper composites was investigated. The composite consisted of one or two sheets of prepress covered by two copper plates. The prep reg was prepared by hand dry-lay-up technique using an epoxy resin and an electrical resistant glass fabric (e-glass style 2165). 4,4'-methylene dianiline. An aromatic amine, was used as curing agent. curing times for prep reg and composite at 120 d ig C and 170 d ig C were 15 min and 1 h, respectively. γ-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was used as coupling agent. The effect of aminopropyl trimethoxy silane on the adhesion of epoxy/glass and epoxy/copper interfaces was investigated by two methods. In the first method, the surface of the glass fabric and/or the copper plates were treated by aminopropyl trimethoxy silane. In the second method, aminopropyl trimethoxy silane was directly added to epoxy resin. In addition, the effect of additional resin on the adhesion strength was also studied by the latter method

  1. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Naum; Shepelev, Olga; Kenig, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called "stacked" graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior.

  2. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naum Naveh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called “stacked” graphene (SG. This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior.

  3. Utilization of ilmenite/epoxy composite for neutrons and gamma rays attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Abdo, A. E-mail: attiaabdo11@hotmail.com; El-Sarraf, M.A.; Gaber, F.A

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the study of ilmenite/epoxy composite as an injecting mortar for cracks developed in biological concrete shields, as well as, neutrons and gamma rays attenuation. Effects of the particle size on the mechanical strengths have been studied for epoxy resin filled with crushed ilmenite with different maximum particle sizes ranging from 32 to 500 {mu}m. Thermal neutrons and gamma rays attenuation in ilmenite/epoxy composites with 75 and 80 wt.% of ilmenite concentration have been investigated. The total mass attenuation coefficients {mu}/{rho} (cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}) of gamma ray for five ilmenite/epoxy composites have been calculated using the XCOM program (version 3.1) at energies from 10 keV to 100 MeV. Also, the total mass attenuation coefficients ({mu}/{rho}) have estimated based on the measured total linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) and compared with the calculated results where, a reasonable agreement was found.

  4. Stress and strain field singularities, micro-cracks, and their role in failure initiation at the composite laminate free-edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Joshua S.

    A state-of-the-art multi-scale analysis was performed to predict failure initiation at the free-edge of an angle-ply laminate using the Strain Invariant Failure Theory (SIFT), and multiple improvements to this analysis methodology were proposed and implemented. Application of this analysis and theory led to the conclusion that point-wise failure criteria which ignore the singular stress and strain fields from a homogenized analysis and the presence of free-edge damage in the form of micro-cracking, may do so at the expense of failure prediction capability. The main contributions of this work then are made in the study of the laminate free-edge singularity and in the effects of micro-cracking at the composite laminate free-edge. Study of both classical elasticity and finite element solutions of the laminate free-edge stress field based upon the assumption of homogenized lamina properties reveal that the order of the free-edge singularity is sufficiently small such that the domain of dominance of this term away from the laminate free-edge is much smaller than the relevant dimensions of the microstructure. In comparison to a crack-tip field, these free-edge singularities generate stress and strain fields which are half as intense as those at the crack-tip, leading to the conclusion that existing flaws at the free-edge in the form of micro-cracks would be more prone to the initiation of free-edge failure than the existence of a singularity in the free-edge elasticity solutions. A methodical experiment was performed on a family of [±25°/90°] s laminates made of IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy composite, to both characterize micro-cracks present at the laminate free-edge and to study their behavior under the application of a uniform extensional load. The majority of these micro-cracks were of length on the order of a few fiber diameters, though larger micro-cracks as long as 100 fiber diameters were observed in thicker laminates. A strong correlation between the application of

  5. Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites and Methods of Making Same Without the Use of Oven or Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Stienecker, Rick D. (Inventor); Nickerson, David M. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Method embodiments for producing a fiber-reinforced epoxy composite comprise providing a mold defining a shape for a composite, applying a fiber reinforcement over the mold, covering the mold and fiber reinforcement thereon in a vacuum enclosure, performing a vacuum on the vacuum enclosure to produce a pressure gradient, insulating at least a portion of the vacuum enclosure with thermal insulation, infusing the fiber reinforcement with a reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent under vacuum conditions, wherein the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent generates exothermic heat, and producing the fiber-reinforced epoxy composite having a glass transition temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. by curing the fiber reinforcement infused with the reactive mixture of uncured epoxy resin and curing agent by utilizing the exothermically generated heat, wherein the curing is conducted inside the thermally insulated vacuum enclosure without utilization of an external heat source or an external radiation source.

  6. A One-Component, Fast-Cure, and Economical Epoxy Resin System Suitable for Liquid Molding of Automotive Composite Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole cured epoxy resin systems were evaluated for one-component, fast-curing resins for liquid molding of automotive composite parts according to industry requirements. It was demonstrated that an epoxy resin-1-(cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol(EP-1C2E4MIM system would cure in a few minutes at 120 °C, while exhibiting acceptable pot life, viscosity profiles, and low water absorption. Moreover, this system yielded high Tg parts with mechanical properties similar to the amine-epoxy systems, which are the mainstream two-component epoxy resin systems for automobiles.

  7. Flight service evaluation of kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft: Flight service report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 7 years service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a slid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 52,500 hours, with one ship set having 17.700 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  8. Conduction noise absorption by fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lim, Yun-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all electronic equipment is susceptible to malfunction as a result of electromagnetic interference. In this study, glass fiber, and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave. - Research Highlights: → In this study, glass fiber and carbon fiber as a type reinforcement and epoxy as a matrix material were used to fabricate composite materials. In an attempt to increase the conduction noise absorption, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on the surface of glass fibers and carbon fibers. A microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω in connection with network analyzer was used to measure the conduction noise absorption. → In comparing a glass fiber/epoxy composite with a GF-CNT/Ep composite, it was demonstrated that the CNTs significantly influence the noise absorption property mainly due to increase in electric conductivity. In the carbon fiber composites, however, the effectiveness of CNTs on the degree of electric conductivity is negligible, resulting in a small change in reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave.

  9. Influence of the reaction stoichiometry on the mechanical and thermal properties of SWCNT-modified epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Johnston, Andrew; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Kingston, Christopher T; Simard, Benoit; Khoun, Lolei; Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Hubert, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a considerable influence on the curing behavior and crosslink density of epoxy resins. This invariably has an important effect on different thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy network. This work focuses on the important role of the epoxy/hardener mixing ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of a high temperature aerospace-grade epoxy (MY0510 Araldite as an epoxy and 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone as an aromatic hardener) modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The effects of three different stoichiometries (stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric) on various mechanical and thermal properties (fracture toughness, tensile properties, glass transition temperature) of the epoxy resin and its SWCNT-modified composites were obtained. The results were also supported by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the neat resin, it was found that an epoxy/hardener molar ratio of 1:0.8 provides the best overall properties. In contrast, the pattern in property changes with the reaction stoichiometry was considerably different for composites reinforced with unfunctionalized SWCNTs and reduced SWCNTs. A comparison among composites suggests that a 1:1 molar ratio considerably outperforms the other two ratios examined in this work (1:0.8 and 1:1.1). This composition at 0.2 wt% SWCNT loading provides the highest overall mechanical properties by improving fracture toughness, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate tensile strain of the epoxy resin by 40%, 34%, 54%, respectively. (paper)

  10. The analysis of composite laminated beams using a 2D interpolating meshless technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, S. H. M.; Belinha, J.; Parente, M. P. L.; Natal Jorge, R. M.; de Sá, J. M. A. César; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2018-02-01

    Laminated composite materials are widely implemented in several engineering constructions. For its relative light weight, these materials are suitable for aerospace, military, marine, and automotive structural applications. To obtain safe and economical structures, the modelling analysis accuracy is highly relevant. Since meshless methods in the recent years achieved a remarkable progress in computational mechanics, the present work uses one of the most flexible and stable interpolation meshless technique available in the literature—the Radial Point Interpolation Method (RPIM). Here, a 2D approach is considered to numerically analyse composite laminated beams. Both the meshless formulation and the equilibrium equations ruling the studied physical phenomenon are presented with detail. Several benchmark beam examples are studied and the results are compared with exact solutions available in the literature and the results obtained from a commercial finite element software. The results show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed numeric technique.

  11. Meshless Solution of the Problem on the Static Behavior of Thin and Thick Laminated Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, S.; Kang, G. W.

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, the static behavior of laminated composite beams is analyzed using the meshless collocation method based on a thin-plate-spline radial basis function. In the approximation of a partial differential equation by using a radial basis function, the shape parameter has an important role in ensuring the numerical accuracy. The choice of a shape parameter in the thin plate spline radial basis function is easier than in other radial basis functions. The governing differential equations are derived based on Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory. Numerical results are obtained for symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beams with simple-simple and cantilever boundary conditions under a uniform load. The results found are compared with available published ones and demonstrate the accuracy of the present method.

  12. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  13. Effects of the shock duration on the response of CFRP composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Elise; Berthe, Laurent; Boustie, Michel; Arrigoni, Michel; Buzaud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Shock loads induce a local tensile stress within a sample. The location and amplitude of this high strain rate stress can be monitored respectively by the duration and intensity of the shock. The process is applied to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites, involved in aeronautic or defense industry. This paper describes the response of CFRP laminates of different thicknesses to a shock load normal to the fibres direction. The effects of the shock duration on the wave propagation are key issues of this work. Experiments have been performed on high power laser facilities and on a high power pulsed generator to get a wide range of pulse duration from fs to µs. Numerical simulation provides a comprehensive approach of the wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these complex materials. The main result concerns the relation between the load duration, the tensile stress and the induced delamination within 1, 4 and 8 ply composite laminates. (paper)

  14. Design and manufacturing of skins based on composite corrugated laminates for morphing aerodynamic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Alessandro; Fournier, Stephane; Borlandelli, Elena; Bettini, Paolo; Sala, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The paper discusses the approaches for the design and manufacturing of morphing skins based on rectangular-shaped composite corrugated laminates and proposes a novel solution to prevent detrimental effects of corrugation on aerodynamic performances. Additionally, more complex corrugated shapes are presented and analysed. The manufacturing issues related to the production of corrugated laminates are discussed and tests are performed to compare different solutions and to assess the validity of analytical and numerical predictions. The solution presented to develop an aerodynamically efficient skin consists in the integration of an elastomeric cover in the corrugated laminate. The related manufacturing process is presented and assessed, and a fully nonlinear numerical model is developed and characterized to study the behaviour of this skin concept in different load conditions. Finally, configurations based on combinations of individual rectangular-shaped corrugated panels are considered. Their structural properties are numerically investigated by varying geometrical parameters. Performance indices are defined to compare structural stiffness contributions in non-morphing directions with the ones of conventional panels of the same weight. Numerical studies also show that the extension of the concept to complex corrugated shapes may improve both the design flexibility and some specific performances with respect to rectangular shaped corrugations. The overall results validate the design approaches and manufacturing processes to produce corrugated laminates and indicate that the solution for the integration of an elastomeric cover is a feasible and promising method to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of corrugated skins.

  15. Study of fatigue crack propagation in laminated metal composites alluminium 1100/alluminium 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been made of fatigue crack propagation in laminated metal composites with different volume fraction of constituents. The composites were produced by hot rolling, combining 1100 and 2024 aluminum alloys in crack divider orientation. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of the composites and original alloys sheets have been evaluated. Paris type relationship, corresponding to stage II of fatigue crack propagation curves, has been determined by two different methods, wich have shown to be equivalent. A computer software in FORTRAN language was developed for all the mathematical manipulation of fatigue data including statistical analysis and graphics. (Author) [pt

  16. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  17. Processing and Characterization of Needled Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    needle is used to insert high strength yarns (i.e., threads) through the dry fabric or prepreg laminate , leaving a loose thread loop underneath [9-11...capability which uses commercially-available felting needles to insert z-fibers into composite laminates at different angles (±45/90°) relative to the... laminate plane. Previous work with needled glass/epoxy composites has shown a 270% improvement in Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness when needled

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  19. Damping mathematical modelling and dynamic responses for FRP laminated composite plates with polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qimao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assumption that the fibre is elastic material and polymer matrix is viscoelastic material so that the energy dissipation depends only on the polymer matrix in dynamic response process. The damping force vectors in frequency and time domains, of FRP (Fibre-Reinforced Polymer matrix laminated composite plates, are derived based on this assumption. The governing equations of FRP laminated composite plates are formulated in both frequency and time domains. The direct inversion method and direct time integration method for nonviscously damped systems are employed to solve the governing equations and achieve the dynamic responses in frequency and time domains, respectively. The computational procedure is given in detail. Finally, dynamic responses (frequency responses with nonzero and zero initial conditions, free vibration, forced vibrations with nonzero and zero initial conditions of a FRP laminated composite plate are computed using the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology in this paper is easy to be inserted into the commercial finite element analysis software. The proposed assumption, based on the theory of material mechanics, needs to be further proved by experiment technique in the future.

  20. Damping mathematical modelling and dynamic responses for FRP laminated composite plates with polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qimao

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an assumption that the fibre is elastic material and polymer matrix is viscoelastic material so that the energy dissipation depends only on the polymer matrix in dynamic response process. The damping force vectors in frequency and time domains, of FRP (Fibre-Reinforced Polymer matrix) laminated composite plates, are derived based on this assumption. The governing equations of FRP laminated composite plates are formulated in both frequency and time domains. The direct inversion method and direct time integration method for nonviscously damped systems are employed to solve the governing equations and achieve the dynamic responses in frequency and time domains, respectively. The computational procedure is given in detail. Finally, dynamic responses (frequency responses with nonzero and zero initial conditions, free vibration, forced vibrations with nonzero and zero initial conditions) of a FRP laminated composite plate are computed using the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology in this paper is easy to be inserted into the commercial finite element analysis software. The proposed assumption, based on the theory of material mechanics, needs to be further proved by experiment technique in the future.

  1. Self-healing woven glass fabric/epoxy composites with the healant consisting of micro-encapsulated epoxy and latent curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Tao; Zhou Lin; Rong Minzhi; Zhang Mingqiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of self-healing woven glass fabric reinforced epoxy composites. The healing agent was a two-component one synthesized in the authors' laboratory, which consisted of epoxy-loaded urea-formaldehyde microcapsules as the polymerizable binder and CuBr 2 (2-methylimidazole) 4 (CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 ) as the latent hardener. Both the microcapsules and the matching catalyst were pre-embedded and pre-dissolved in the composites' matrix, respectively. When the microcapsules are split by propagating cracks, the uncured epoxy can be released into the damaged areas and then consolidated under the catalysis of CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 that was homogeneously distributed in the composites' matrix on a molecular scale. As a result, the cracked faces can be bonded together. The influence of the content of the self-healing agent on the composites' tensile properties, interlaminar fracture toughness and healing efficiency was evaluated. It was found that a healing efficiency over 70% relative to the fracture toughness of virgin composites was obtained in the case of 30 wt% epoxy-loaded microcapsules and 2 wt% latent hardener

  2. Study on polyethylene glycol/epoxy resin composite as a form-stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yutang; Kang Huiying; Wang Weilong; Liu Hong; Gao Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)/epoxy resin (EP) composite as a novel phase change material (PCM) was prepared using casting molding method. In this new material, PEG acts as the latent heat storage material and EP polymer serves as the supporting material, which provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the melted PEG. The structure and morphology of the novel composite were observed using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermo-mechanical property and transition behavior were characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), static thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The experimental results show that, as a result of the physical tangled function of the epoxy resin carrier to the PEG segment, the composite macroscopically presents the solid-solid phase change characteristic.

  3. The effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S.M.; Hamdan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    A study on the effect of alkaline treatment on tensile properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The treatment was carried out using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at two different concentrations and three different soaking times. The hydrophilic nature of sugar palm fibre makes it difficult to adhere to hydrophobic epoxy and therefore posed the problem of interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix and such treatment was needed to alleviate such problem. The composite specimens were tested for tensile property determination. Some fractured specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the microstructure of the materials. Inconsistent results were obtained for tensile strengths, which indicate that the treatment is not very effective yet to improve the interfacial bonding. However, for tensile modulus, the results are much higher than untreated fibre composite specimens, which proved the effectiveness of the treatment

  4. Local and global nonlinear dynamics of a parametrically excited rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Min; Lu Jing; Zhang Wei; Ding Qian

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with nonlinear dynamic behavior of a parametrically excited simply supported rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite thin plate for the first time. The governing equation of motion for rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite thin plate is derived by using von Karman equation. The geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear damping are included in the governing equations of motion. The Galerkin approach is used to obtain a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system under parametric excitation. The method of multiple scales is utilized to transform the second-order non-autonomous differential equations to the first-order averaged equations. Using numerical method, the averaged equations are analyzed to obtain the steady state bifurcation responses. The analysis of stability for steady state bifurcation responses in laminated composite thin plate is also given. Under certain conditions laminated composite thin plate may have two or multiple steady state bifurcation solutions. Jumping phenomenon occurs in the steady state bifurcation solutions. The chaotic motions of rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite thin plate are also found by using numerical simulation. The results obtained here demonstrate that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions coexist for a parametrically excited fore-edge simply supported rectangular symmetric cross-ply laminated composite thin plate under certain conditions

  5. Static Aeroelastic Optimization of Composite Wings with Variable Stiffness Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillinger, J.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of composite material in load carrying structural components of an aircraft is rapidly gaining momentum. While part of the reason for this can certainly be attributed to an increasing confidence of designers in the new material as a result of growing experience, two other crucial

  6. Delamination and debonding failure of laminated composite T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, H.

    2014-01-01

    Composites are increasingly being used in aerospace, automotive and other industries. The T-joint (also named stringer stiffened skin) is a typical connection, broadly used in thin-walled structures, such as the wing and fuselage of aircraft. This thesis presents the analysis of the delamination and

  7. Optimal Design of Variable Stiffness Composite Structures using Lamination Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuiden, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composite materials have gained widespread acceptance for a multitude of applications in the aerospace, automotive, maritime and wind-energy industries. Automated fiber placement technologies have developed rapidly over the past two decades, driven primarily by a need to reduce

  8. Designing of epoxy composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes grown carbon fiber fabric for improved electromagnetic interference shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report preparation of strongly anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs carbon fiber (CF fabric preforms. These preforms were reinforced in epoxy resin to make multi scale composites for microwave absorption in the X-band (8.2-12.4GHz. The incorporation of MWCNTs on the carbon fabric produced a significant enhancement in the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE from −29.4 dB for CF/epoxy-composite to −51.1 dB for CF-MWCNT/epoxy multiscale composites of 2 mm thickness. In addition to enhanced EMI-SE, interlaminar shear strength improved from 23 MPa for CF/epoxy-composites to 50 MPa for multiscale composites indicating their usefulness for making structurally strong microwave shields.

  9. Dry sliding wear behavior of epoxy composite reinforced with short palmyra fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, Somen; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-01-01

    The present work explores the possibility of using palmyra fiber as a replacement for synthetic fiber in conventional polymer composites for application against wear. An attempt has been made in this work to improve the sliding wear resistance of neat epoxy by reinforcing it with short palmyra fibers (SPF). Epoxy composites with different proportions (0, 4, 8 and 12 wt. %) of SPF are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear tests are performed on the composite samples using a pin-on-disc test rig as per ASTM G 99-05 standards under various operating parameters. Design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's L16 Orthogonal Arrays is used for the analysis of the wear. This parametric analysis reveals that the SPF content is the most significant factor affecting the wear process followed by the sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extensive range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN). A well trained ANN has been used to predict the sliding wear response of epoxy based composites over a wide range. (paper)

  10. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict...... the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre...

  11. Boride ceramics covalent functionalization and its effect on the thermal conductivity of epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang, E-mail: yuzhiqiang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wu, Yicheng [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Wei, Bin; Baier, Horst [Institute of Lightweight Structures, Technical University Munich (TUM), Boltzmannstr. 15, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Zirconium diboride/aluminium oxide (ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composite particles were functionalized with epoxide functionalized γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane by the covalent bonding approach to improve the interfacial compatibility of composite particles in epoxy matrix. The composites of epoxy resin filled with functionalized ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by in situ bulk condensation polymerization of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin in the presence of ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The heat-conducting properties of composites were investigated by the finite element method (FEM) and the thermal conductivity test. The finite-element program ANSYS was used for this numerical analysis, and three-dimensional spheres-in-cube lattice array models were built to simulate the microstructure of composite materials for different filler contents. The thermal conductivity of composites was determined by laser flash method (LFA447 Nanoflash), using the measured heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, with separately entered density data. The results show that the effective chemical bonds are formed between ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane after the surface functionalization. The interfacial compatibility and bonding of modified particles with the epoxy matrix are improved. The thermal conductivities of functionalized composites with 3 vol% and 5 vol% loading are increased by 8.3% and 12.5% relative to the unmodified composites, respectively. Comparison of experimental values and calculated values of the thermal conductivity, the average relative differences are under 5%. The predictive values of thermal conductivity of epoxy composites are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values. - Highlights: • The surfaces of ZrB{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were functionalized by silane coupling agents. • The thermal conductivity (TC) of modified epoxy composites is improved significantly. • The FEM values of TC are in

  12. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  13. Equivalent Circuit Model of Low-Frequency Magnetoelectric Effect in Disk-Type Terfenol-D/PZT Laminate Composites Considering a New Interface Coupling Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Guofeng; Yu, Xinjie; Lu, Shihua

    2017-06-15

    This paper describes the modeling of magnetoelectric (ME) effects for disk-type Terfenol-D (Tb 0.3 Dy 0.7 Fe 1.92 )/PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃) laminate composite at low frequency by combining the advantages of the static elastic model and the equivalent circuit model, aiming at providing a guidance for the design and fabrication of the sensors based on magnetoelectric laminate composite. Considering that the strains of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are not equal in actual operating due to the epoxy resin adhesive bonding condition, the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers were first modeled through the equation of motion separately, and then coupled together with a new interface coupling factor k c , which physically reflects the strain transfer between the phases. Furthermore, a theoretical expression containing k c for the transverse ME voltage coefficient α v and the optimum thickness ratio n optim to which the maximum ME voltage coefficient corresponds were derived from the modified equivalent circuit of ME laminate, where the interface coupling factor acted as an ideal transformer. To explore the influence of mechanical load on the interface coupling factor k c , two sets of weights, i.e., 100 g and 500 g, were placed on the top of the ME laminates with the same thickness ratio n in the sample fabrication. A total of 22 T-T mode disk-type ME laminate samples with different configurations were fabricated. The interface coupling factors determined from the measured α v and the DC bias magnetic field H bias were 0.11 for 500 g pre-mechanical load and 0.08 for 100 g pre-mechanical load. Furthermore, the measured optimum thickness ratios were 0.61 for k c = 0.11 and 0.56 for k c = 0.08. Both the theoretical ME voltage coefficient α v and optimum thickness ratio n optim containing k c agreed well with the measured data, verifying the reasonability and correctness for the introduction of k c in the modified equivalent circuit model.

  14. Equivalent Circuit Model of Low-Frequency Magnetoelectric Effect in Disk-Type Terfenol-D/PZT Laminate Composites Considering a New Interface Coupling Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Lou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modeling of magnetoelectric (ME effects for disk-type Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92/PZT (Pb(Zr,TiO3 laminate composite at low frequency by combining the advantages of the static elastic model and the equivalent circuit model, aiming at providing a guidance for the design and fabrication of the sensors based on magnetoelectric laminate composite. Considering that the strains of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are not equal in actual operating due to the epoxy resin adhesive bonding condition, the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers were first modeled through the equation of motion separately, and then coupled together with a new interface coupling factor kc, which physically reflects the strain transfer between the phases. Furthermore, a theoretical expression containing kc for the transverse ME voltage coefficient αv and the optimum thickness ratio noptim to which the maximum ME voltage coefficient corresponds were derived from the modified equivalent circuit of ME laminate, where the interface coupling factor acted as an ideal transformer. To explore the influence of mechanical load on the interface coupling factor kc, two sets of weights, i.e., 100 g and 500 g, were placed on the top of the ME laminates with the same thickness ratio n in the sample fabrication. A total of 22 T-T mode disk-type ME laminate samples with different configurations were fabricated. The interface coupling factors determined from the measured αv and the DC bias magnetic field Hbias were 0.11 for 500 g pre-mechanical load and 0.08 for 100 g pre-mechanical load. Furthermore, the measured optimum thickness ratios were 0.61 for kc = 0.11 and 0.56 for kc = 0.08. Both the theoretical ME voltage coefficient αv and optimum thickness ratio noptim containing kc agreed well with the measured data, verifying the reasonability and correctness for the introduction of kc in the modified equivalent circuit model.

  15. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated

  16. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: j.h.you@ipp.mpg.de

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated.

  17. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alajmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE, Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE, and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE. The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR and coefficient of friction (COF of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs, as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  18. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah

    2015-07-08

    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  19. Fabrication of laminated ZrC-SiC composite by vacuum hot-pressing sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminated ZrC-SiC ceramic was prepared through tape casting and hot pressing. The green tapes of ZrC and SiC were prepared at room temperature. In order to improve the density of composite, the binder of green tapes were removed at 550 °C for 1 h. The laminated structure and the cracks propagation path, which is not a straight line, are observed by optical metalloscope. The compact laminated ZrC-SiC composite sintered by vacuum hot-pressing at 1650 °C for 90 min under pressure of 20 MPa was researched by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results showed that interlayer bonding is tight, and no disordered phase has formed in the interlayers of ZrC or SiC, and the combination mode is physical mechanism.

  20. Investigation of actuator debonding effects on active control in smart composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical study of active vibration control of smart composite laminates in the presence of actuator debonding failures. A comparison between the smart composite laminates with healthy actuator and various partially debonded actuator cases is performed to investigate the debonding effects on the vibration suppression. The improved layerwise theory with Heaviside’s unit step function is adopted to model the displacement field with actuator debonding failure. The higher order electric potential field is adopted to describe the potential variation through the thickness. The finite element method–based formulations are derived using the plate element, taking into consideration the electro-mechanical coupling effect. The reduced-order model is represented by the state-space form and further for the vibration suppression using a simple constant gain velocity feedback control strategy. For the purpose of demonstration, a 16-layer cross-ply substrate laminate ([0/90]4s is employed for the numerical study. The results show that the actuator debonding affects the closed-loop frequencies, active damping ratios, and efficiency of vibration suppression.

  1. Statistical damage analysis of transverse cracking in high temperature composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zuo; Daniel, I.M.; Luo, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature polymer composites are receiving special attention because of their potential applications to high speed transport airframe structures and aircraft engine components exposed to elevated temperatures. In this study, a statistical analysis was used to study the progressive transverse cracking in a typical high temperature composite. The mechanical properties of this unidirectional laminate were first characterized both at room and high temperatures. Damage mechanisms of transverse cracking in cross-ply laminates were studied by X-ray radiography at room temperature and in-test photography technique at high temperature. Since the tensile strength of unidirectional laminate along transverse direction was found to follow Weibull distribution, Monte Carlo simulation technique based on experimentally obtained parameters was applied to predict transverse cracking at different temperatures. Experiments and simulation showed that they agree well both at room temperature and 149 deg. C (stress free temperature) in terms of applied stress versus crack density. The probability density function (PDF) of transverse crack spacing considering statistical strength distribution was also developed, and good agreements with simulation and experimental results are reached. Finally, a generalized master curve that predicts the normalized applied stress versus normalized crack density for various lay-ups and various temperatures was established

  2. Characterization of fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic laminate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic paperboard composites, of interest for food and beverage packaging industry, can be determined by performing tensile tests on non-conventional heterogeneous specimens. The region of interest of the investigated material samples is monitored all along the experiment by digital image correlation techniques, which allow to recover qualitative and quantitative information about the metal deformation and about the evolution of the damaging processes leading to the detachment of the inclusion from the surrounding laminate composite. The interpretation of the laboratory results is supported by the numerical simulation of the tests.

  3. On micro-meso relations homogenizing electrical properties of transversely cracked laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    A practical way to track the development of transverse cracking in a laminated composite is to monitor the change of its electrical resistance. Yet, the relations between transverse cracking and the global modification of resistivity is still unclear that makes difficult to interpret these non-destructive-testing results. Here, we introduce the homogenization process that defines at the meso scale an equivalent homogeneous ply that is energetically equivalent to the cracked one. It is shown that this equivalent ply mainly depends on the cracking level while it can be considered independent on the rest of the laminated structure. The direct consequence is that the meso scale is a pertinent one to perform the homogenization. Then, non-destructive electrical measurements can be considered as a reliable technique to access meso scale damage indicators. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Electrical behavior of laminated composites with intralaminar degradation: A comprehensive micro-meso homogenization procedure

    KAUST Repository

    Selvakumaran, Lakshmi

    2014-03-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is a promising health monitoring technique to assess damage in laminated composites. Yet, the missing link between the various complex degradation mechanisms within the laminate and its global change in resistivity prevents ERT from being used as a quantitative technique. We propose an electrical mesomodel that can establish this link between the various microscale degradations and the resistivity changes in the measurements. The mesoscale homogenization of transverse cracks with local delamination of the ply is first described for in-plane electrical loading for both the outer and the inner plies. The mesoscale model is then extended to include the out-of-plane loading. The relationship between the mesoscale damage indicators and the degradation morphology is identified. These damage indicators are found to be intrinsic to the ply. As such, this defines the first step towards the interpretation of resistivity measurement in terms of micromechanical damage. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effect of fibre loading and graphene on the mechanical properties of goat hair fibre epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, J.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Ethiraj, N.; Sivabalan, T.; nallayan, W. Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Composite materials are heterogenous materials containing one or more solid phases. In recent years cost-effective composite making is an ideal task. Hence we have come out with a natural fibre composite, which contains goat hair and epoxy as a binding element, with the combination of Graphene as a main source of enhanced mechanical property. Fabrication of natural composite consists of five layers of goat hair sandwiched in epoxy matrix. These composites made are tested for mechanical properties including Tensile strength, Flexural strength, Inter laminar shear and Impact strength. The mechanical properties of the six composite sets are analyzed and reported.

  6. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  7. Determination of kinetic parameters during the thermal decomposition of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study to determine the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters such as the activation energy E_a, the reaction order n, and the pre-exponential factor A of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material has been conducted. We employ not only the modified peak property method that is proposed here, but also the conventional method in analyzing the experimental data, and compare the results to show the performance of the proposed model. The pyrolysis tests for the epoxy/carbon fiber composite materials are conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser at various heating rates. As a result, the best prediction to the experimental data can be obtained by the modified peak property method. Besides, among the methods applied here, the modified peak property method provides most convenient way to recover the parameters: it does not require a curve fitting of the data nor a long iterative computation

  8. Ultrasonic Determination of the Elastic Constants of Epoxy-natural Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, C. A. Meza; Pazos-Ospina, J. F.; Franco, E. E.; Ealo, Joao L.; Collazos-Burbano, D. A.; Garcia, G. F. Casanova

    This paper shows the applications ultrasonic through-transmission technique to determine the elastic constants of two polymer-natural fiber composite materials with potential industrial application and economic and environmental advantages. The transversely isotropic coconut-epoxy and fique-epoxy samples were analyzed using an experimental setup which allows the sample to be rotated with respect to transducers faces and measures the time-of-flight at different angles of incidence. Then, the elastic properties of the material were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Christoffel equation. Results show a good agreement between the measured elastic constants and the values predicted by an analytical model. The velocities as a function of the incidence angle are reported and the effect of the natural fiber on the stiffness of the composite is discussed.

  9. Pyrolysis responses of kevlar/epoxy composite materials on laser irradiating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ping; Wei, Cheng-hua; Zhou, Meng-lian; Ma, Zhi-liang; Song, Ming-ying; Wu, Li-xiong

    2017-05-01

    The pyrolysis responses of kevlar/epoxy composite materials are valuable to study in a case of high temperature rising rate for its widely application. Distinguishing from the Thermal Gravimetric Analysis method, an apparatus is built to research the pyrolysis responses of kevlar/epoxy composite materials irradiated by laser in order to offer a high temperature rising rate of the sample. By deploying the apparatus, a near real-time gas pressure response can be obtained. The sample mass is weighted before laser irradiating and after an experiment finished. Then, the gas products molecular weight and the sample mass loss evolution are derived. It is found that the pressure and mass of the gas products increase with the laser power if it is less than 240W, while the molecular weight varies inversely. The variation tendency is confusing while the laser power is bigger than 240W. It needs more deeper investigations to bring it to light.

  10. Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valdirene Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Folgueras, Luiza de Castro; Candido, Geraldo Mauricio; Paula, Adriano Luiz de; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira, E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais; Costa, Michelle Leali [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DMT/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multifunctional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. The combination of epoxy resin with multi walled carbon nanotubes results in a new functional material with enhanced electromagnetic properties. The objective of this work was the processing of radar absorbing materials based on formulations containing different quantities of carbon nanotubes in an epoxy resin matrix. To reach this objective the adequate concentration of CNTs in the resin matrix was determined. The processed structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and reflectivity in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz analyses. The microwave attenuation was up to 99.7%, using only 0.5% (w/w) of CNT, showing that these materials present advantages in performance associated with low additive concentrations (author)

  11. ‘Containers’ for self-healing epoxy composites and coating: Trends and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of self-healing functionality into epoxy matrix is an important and challenging topic. Various micro/nano containers loaded self-healing agents are developed and incorporated into epoxy matrix to impart self-healing ability. The current report reviews the major findings in the area of self-healing epoxy composites and coatings with special emphasis on these containers. The preparation and use of polymer micro/nano capsules, polymer fibers, hollow glass fibers/bubbles, inorganic nanotubes, inorganic meso- and nano-porous materials, carbon nanotubes etc. as self-healing containers are outlined. The nature of the container and its response to the external stimulations greatly influence the self-healing performance. The self-healing mechanism associated with each type of container and the role of container parameters on self-healing performance of self-healing epoxy systems are reviewed. Comparison of the efficiency offered by different types of containers is introduced. Finally, the selection of containers to develop cost effective and green self-healing systems are mentioned.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xia; Guo Chun-Wei; Chen Yu; Su Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of the indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy composite exhibit dramatic variations as functions of the ITO composition and ITO particle size. Sharp increases in the conductivity in the vicinity of a critical volume fraction have been found within the framework of percolation theory. A conductive and insulating transition model is extracted by the ITO particle network in the SEM image, and verified by the resistivity dependence on the temperature. The dependence of the optical transmittance on the particle size was studied. Further decreasing the ITO particle size could further improve the percolation threshold and light transparency of the composite film. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  13. Mechanical properties of unidirectional oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, C. S.; Yeo, C. W.; Sahari, B.; Salit, M. S.; Aziz, N. Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Natural fibers have proven to be an excellent reinforcement material for various polymers. In this study, OPEFB fiber with unidirectional alignment was incorporated in epoxy and an investigation on tensile and flexural characteristics of the composite has been carried out. A fiber surface modification utilizing alkaline treatment with 1 sodium hydroxide solution was used in order to increase the fiber matrix bond in the composite. The investigation was carried out for 0°, 45° and 90° fiber orientation. Result showed that the higher the angle of the fiber orientation, the higher the tensile strength and flexural strength the composite will yield.

  14. Material Optimization of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Rotor for Spacecraft Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Varatharajoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation to optimize the carbon/epoxy composite rotor is performed for the spacecraft energy storage application. A highspeed multi-layer rotor design is proposed and different composite materials are tested to achieve the most suitable recipe. First, the analytical rotor evaluation is performed to establish a reliable numerical rotor model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA is employed in order to optimise the multi-layer composite rotor design. Subsequently, the modal analysis is carried out to determine the rotor natural frequencies and mode shapes for a safe operational regime below 50, 000 rpm.

  15. Voltage-Induced Nonlinear Conduction Properties of Epoxy Resin/Micron-Silver Particles Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaoming; Lu, Pin; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    The nonlinear conduction properties of epoxy resin (ER)/micron-silver particles (MP) composites were investigated. Under sufficient high intensity applied constant voltage, the obvious nonlinear conduction properties of the samples with volume fraction 25% were found. With increments in the voltage, the conductive switching effect was observed. The nonlinear conduction mechanism of the ER/MP composites under high applied voltages could be attributed to the electrical current conducted via discrete paths of conductive particles induced by the electric field. The test results show that the ER/MP composites with nonlinear conduction properties are of great potential application in electromagnetic protection of electron devices and systems.

  16. Study of thermal properties and the dispersion state of nano composites epoxy/clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Juliana D.; Bertholdi, Jonas; Toledo, Tais C.; Folgueras, Marilena V.; Pezzin, Sergio H.; Coelho, Luiz A.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates an exfoliation/intercalation of nano clays in an epoxy resin by means of x-rays diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and dilatometric analysis. A comparison of two techniques for preparing nano composites is addressed: mechanical stirring and sonication. X-rays analysis showed that an exfoliation/intercalation is occurring in some samples. TG analysis indicated and increase in thermal stability of the nano composites compared to the neat resin. Finally, dilatometric analysis indicates and increase in Tg for nano composites compared to the neat resin. (author)

  17. Temperature dependence of broadline NMR spectra of water-soaked, epoxy-graphite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, David; Fornes, R. E.; Gilbert, R. D.; Memory, J. D.

    1981-10-01

    Water-soaked, epoxy resin-graphite fiber composites show a waterline in their broadline proton NMR spectrum which indicates a state of intermediate mobility between the solid and free water liquid states. The line is still present at -42 °C, but shows a reversible decrease in amplitude with decreasing temperature. The line is isotropic upon rotation of the fiber axis with respect to the external magnetic field.

  18. Investigation of Brittle Fractures in Graphite-Epoxy Composites Subjected to Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Steel Impacto ; 121 CL• BIDIRECTION1AL PRD 49-EPOXYONIAGE ZONIE BIDIRECTIONAL THORNEL 300-EPOXY 0.10•,, A/0’.• 05 t=0.125 IN. 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20...1973. 38. Olster, E. F., and Woodbury, H. A., EVALUATION OF BALLIS- TIC DAMAGE RESISTANCE AND FAILURE MECHANISMS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, AVCO Corp

  19. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  20. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.