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Sample records for epoxy coatings

  1. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  2. Adhesion between coating layers based on epoxy and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jacob R.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion between a silicon tie-coat and epoxy primers, used in marine coating systems, has been studied in this work. Six epoxy coatings (with varying chain lengths of the epoxy resins), some of which have shown problems with adhesion to the tie-coat during service life, have been considered....... The experimental investigation includes measurements of the surface tension of the tie-coat and the critical surface tensions of the epoxies, topographic investigation of the surfaces of cured epoxy coatings via atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pull-off tests for investigating the strength of adhesion...... to the silicon/epoxy systems. Calculations for determining the roughness factor of the six epoxy coatings (based on the AFM topographies) and the theoretical work of adhesion have been carried out. The coating surfaces are also characterized based on the van Oss-Good theory. Previous studies on the modulus...

  3. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  4. Corrosion Protection of Steel by Epoxy-Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Domna Merachtsaki; Panagiotis Xidas; Panagiotis Giannakoudakis; Konstantinos Triantafyllidis; Panagiotis Spathis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the corrosion behavior of steel coated with epoxy-(organo) clay nanocomposite films. The investigation was carried out using salt spray exposures, optical and scanning electron microscopy examination, open circuit potential, and electrochemical impedance measurements. The mechanical, thermomechanical, and barrier properties of pristine glassy epoxy polymer and epoxy-clay nanocomposites were examined. The degree of intercalation/exfoliation of clay ...

  5. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  6. Behavior of Epoxy-Coated Textured Reinforcing Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Cracking in bridge decks is a common but difficult problem to control. Both research and experience show that the use of epoxy-coated reinforcement, which is mandated by most state departments of transportation (DOTs) for bridge decks, increases c...

  7. Thermal conductive epoxy enhanced by nanodiamond-coated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Jiang, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles were coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical reactions. Reliable bonding was formed by the combination of acyl chloride on NDs and amine group on CNTs. ND coated CNTs (CNT-ND) were dispersed into epoxy to fabricate thermal conductive resins. The results show that the surface energy of CNTs is decreased by the coated NDs, which is contributed to the excellent dispersion of CNT-NDs in the epoxy matrix. The heat-transfer channels were built by the venous CNTs cooperating with the coated NDs, which not only plays an effective role of heat conduction for CNTs and NDs, but also avoids the electrical leakage by the protection of NDs surrounding outside of CNTs. Electrical and thermal conductance measurements demonstrate that the influence of the CNT-ND incorporation on the electrical conductance is minor, however, the thermal conductivity is improved significantly for the epoxy filled with CNT-ND.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Corrosion performance of epoxy-coated reinforcement in aggressive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca Cortes, Enrique

    The objective of this research was to investigate the integrity and corrosion performance of epoxy-coated reinforcement in aggressive environments. A series of experimental studies were conducted: (a) hot water immersion and knife adhesion testing for assessment of coating adhesion; (b) materials and procedures for repairing coating damage; (c) degree of mechanical damage caused during concrete placement when using metal head and rubber head vibrators; (d) accelerated corrosion of coated bars embedded in macrocell and beam specimens placed in a corrosive environment for more than four years. The effects of coating condition and amount of damage, repaired vs. unrepaired damage, bar fabrication, and concrete cracking were studied. Regardless of coating condition, the performance of epoxy-coated bars was better than that of uncoated bars. Unlike black bars, coated bars did not exhibit deep pitting or substantial loss of cross section at crack locations. Damage to epoxy coating was the most significant factor affecting corrosion performance. Bars with coating in good condition, without any visible damage, performed best. The greater the size and frequency of damage, the more severe and extensive the amount of corrosion. The performance of bars that were fabricated or bent after coating was worse than that of coated straight bars. Mixing coated and uncoated bars in the same concrete member led to undesirable performance. Patching damaged coating reduced but did not prevent corrosion, particularly at bar ends. The most important factor in coating repair was the type and properties of the patching material. Surface preparation prior to coating had little effect. The absence of cracks in the concrete delayed, but did not prevent the onset of corrosion of coated bars. During consolidation of concrete, rubber head vibrators caused less damage to epoxy-coated reinforcement than did comparable metal heads. Hot water and adhesion tests were useful and practical for evaluating

  9. Adhesion of epoxy primer to hydrotalcite conversion coated AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Robert Benton, III

    Hydrotalcite-based (HT) conversion coatings are being developed as an environmentally benign alternative to chromate conversion coatings (CCC). Accelerated exposure tests were conducted on epoxy primed, HT-modified AA2024 to gauge service performance. HT-based conversion coatings did not perform as well as the CCC when used with an epoxy primer. The current HT chemistries are optimized for stand-alone corrosion protection, however additional research into the primer/HT interactions is necessary before they can be implemented within a coating scheme. The relative contribution of mechanical and physico-chemical interactions in controlling adhesion has been investigated in this study. Practical adhesion tests were used to assess the dry and wet bond strength of epoxy primer on HT coatings using the pull-off tensile strength (POTS) as the figure of merit. The practical adhesion of HT coated samples generally fell between that observed for the CCC and bare AA2024. Laboratory testing was done to assess the physical and chemical properties of HT coatings. Contact angle measurements were performed using powders representative of different HT chemistries to evaluate the dispersive and acid-base character of the surface. The wet POTS correlated with the electrodynamic (dipole + dispersive) parameter of the surface tension. The HT surfaces were found to be predominantly basic. Given the basicity of epoxy, these results indicate that increasing the acidic character of HT coatings may increase the adhesion performance. This was supported by electrokinetic measurements in which the dry POTS was found to increase with decreasing conversion coating iso-electric point. The correlations with the dry and wet state adhesion are interpreted as indicating that dry state adhesion is optimized by minimizing unfavorable polar interactions between the basic epoxy and HT interfaces. Wet state adhesion, where polar interactions are disrupted, is dictated by non-polar bonding. FTIR

  10. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  11. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yu Min

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  12. Preparation and Properties of Epoxy Resin-Coated Micro-Sized Ferrosilicon Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ku,Jiangang; Chen,Huihuang; He,Kui; Yan,Quanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Ferrosilicon powder surface coated with a dense epoxy resin membrane was prepared via coating precipitation methods using silane coupling agents as the modifier and epoxy resin as the coating agent. FTIR, FESEM, MPMS-XL, and TG-DSC were used to analyze the morphology, surface composition, magnetic property and thermostability of ferrosilicon powder before and after the modification and coating. The experimental results indicate that epoxy resin membranes of a certain thickness were successful...

  13. Degradation of epoxy coatings under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouani, F.; Zahra, Y.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy networks based on Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and cured with Jeffamine® (POPA) or polyamidoamine (PAA) were gamma irradiated at 25 °C in air. Dose rates of 50, 200 or 2000 Gy h −1 for doses up 100 kGy were used. Structural changes were monitored by IR spectrophotometry, DSC and sol–gel analysis. Both networks display some common features: for I≥200 Gy h −1 , reaction products grow proportionally to time and the rate is a decreasing function of dose rate. The simplest explanation is that peroxy radicals are the main precursors of these products (in the dose rate domain under study), through a unimolecular rearrangement of which an hypothetical mechanism is proposed. DGEBA–POPA are more reactive then DGEBA–PAA networks (according to IR criteria), that can be attributed to the high reactivity of tertiary CH bands in polyoxypropylene segments. The oxidation of these sites leads to methyl ketones. A simple kinetic model in which methyl ketones result from rearrangements of tertiary peroxyls and from tertiary alkoxyls was proposed. It leads to an expression of the radiochemical yield of methyl ketones (G(MK)) of the form G(MK)=a+bI −1/2 where a and b are parameters depending of elementary rate constants. Experimental G(MK) values are reasonably well fitted by this equation. In DGEBA–PAA networks, a wide variety of oxidation products, among which amides predominate, can be observed. In these networks, chain scissions predominate over crosslinking, whereas a slight predominance of crosslinking was observed, at least for the lowest dose rate, in DGEBA–POPA. - Highlights: ► The effects of irradiation at three distinct dose rates have been studied on two epoxy networks. ► DGEBA–polyamidoamine networks appear more stable than DGEBA–polyoxypropylene diamine ones. ► A simple kinetic model involving methyl ketones is proposed.

  14. ELABORATION OF AN EPOXY COATING REINFORCED WITH ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE NANOSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia G. Díaz-Barriga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the preparation of a transparent epoxy coating reinforced with 200 PPM of zirconium carbide nanostructures. The nanostructures of ZrC were prepared by mechanosynthesis. The additive characteristics analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were presented. Epoxy coating adhesion on a steel plate was analyzed using MEB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to the reinforced paints between 20-700 °C. The reinforced enamel was compared with an enamel without nanostructures. There is not vaporization of reinforced enamel at a 95 y 100 °C with ZrC particles size of 10 µm y 120 nm respectively. The final enamel degradation is slower when there is a 14% by weight of the residue and 426 °C with 120nm diameter particles.

  15. Mechanical behavior of nanocellulose coated jute/green epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A.; Militký, J.; Ali, A.; Usman Javed, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of nanocellulose coating on the mechanical behavior of jute/green epoxy composites. Cellulose was purified from waste jute fibers, converted to nanocellulose by acid hydrolysis and subsequently 3, 5 and 10 wt % of nanocellulose suspensions were coated over woven jute reinforcement. The composites were prepared by hand layup and compression molding technique. The surface topologies of treated jute fibers, jute cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), nanocellulose coated jute fabrics and fractured surfaces of composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composites were evaluated for tensile, flexural, fatigue and fracture toughness properties. The results revealed the improvement in tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fatigue life and fracture toughness of composites with the increase in concentration of nanocellulose coating over jute reinforcement except the decrease in tensile strength.

  16. Fault-tolerant epoxy-silane coating for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Xue, H.B.; Meis, N.N.A.H.; Esteves, A.C.C.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a hybrid epoxy-silane coating was developed for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy AZ31. The average thickness of the film produced by dip-coating procedure was 14 µm. The adhesion strength of the epoxy-silane coating to the Mg substrate was evaluated by pull-off tests and was

  17. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation behavior of modified Carbon Black (CB) epoxy coating was studied under UV irradiation using based on EIS technique. • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed in an epoxy matrix. • ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the CB coatings were degraded less than epoxy coating. • EIS results showed the coating with 2.5 wt% CB nanoparticles had higher corrosion resistance than neat epoxy. - Abstract: Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  18. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad_usk@yahoo.com [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariatpanahi, Homeira, E-mail: shariatpanahih@ripi.ir [Coating Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, Jaber [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil [Coating Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation behavior of modified Carbon Black (CB) epoxy coating was studied under UV irradiation using based on EIS technique. • By using SDS as a surfactant, nano particles of CB were uniformly dispersed in an epoxy matrix. • ATR-FTIR analysis showed that the CB coatings were degraded less than epoxy coating. • EIS results showed the coating with 2.5 wt% CB nanoparticles had higher corrosion resistance than neat epoxy. - Abstract: Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  19. Determination of Young's modulus of epoxy coated polyethylene micro-cantilever using phase-shift shadow moiré method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. H.; Ratnam, M. M.; Azid, I. A.; Mutharasu, D.

    2011-11-01

    Young's moduli of various epoxy coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) micro-cantilevers were determined from the deflection results obtained using the phase-shift shadow moiré (PSSM) method. The filler materials for epoxy coatings were aluminum and graphite powders that were mixed with epoxy at various percentages. Young's moduli were calculated from theory based on the deflection results. The PET micro-cantilever coated with aluminum-epoxy coating showed increasing value of Young's modulus when the ratios of the aluminum-epoxy were increased. The graphite-epoxy coating on the PET micro-cantilever also showed the same trend. The experimental results also show that Young's modulus of the graphite-epoxy coating is higher than aluminum-epoxy coating in comparison at the same mixing ratio.

  20. Stochastic estimation of acoustic impedance of glass-reinforced epoxy coating 128-134

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu [School of MechatronicEngineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Hwan Seon [Structural Engineering Lab., Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    An epoxy coating applied to the concrete surface of a containment building deteriorates in hazardous environments such as those containing radiation, heat, and moisture. Unlike metals, the epoxy coating on a concrete liner absorbs and discharges moisture during the degradations process, so it has a different density and volume during service. In this study, acoustic impedance was adopted for characterizing the degradation of a glass-reinforced epoxy coating using the acoustic reflection coefficient (reflectance) on a rough epoxy coating. For estimating the acoustic reflectance on a wavy epoxy coating surface, a probabilistic model was developed to represent the multiple irregular reflections of the acoustic wave from the wavy surface on the basis of the simulated annealing technique. A number of epoxy-coated concrete specimens were prepared and exposed to accelerated aging conditions to induce an artificial aging degradation in them. The acoustic impedance of the degraded epoxy coating was estimated successfully by minimizing the error between a waveform calculated from the mathematical model and a waveform measured from the surface of the rough coating.

  1. Stochastic estimation of acoustic impedance of glass-reinforced epoxy coating 128-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Nah, Hwan Seon

    2014-01-01

    An epoxy coating applied to the concrete surface of a containment building deteriorates in hazardous environments such as those containing radiation, heat, and moisture. Unlike metals, the epoxy coating on a concrete liner absorbs and discharges moisture during the degradations process, so it has a different density and volume during service. In this study, acoustic impedance was adopted for characterizing the degradation of a glass-reinforced epoxy coating using the acoustic reflection coefficient (reflectance) on a rough epoxy coating. For estimating the acoustic reflectance on a wavy epoxy coating surface, a probabilistic model was developed to represent the multiple irregular reflections of the acoustic wave from the wavy surface on the basis of the simulated annealing technique. A number of epoxy-coated concrete specimens were prepared and exposed to accelerated aging conditions to induce an artificial aging degradation in them. The acoustic impedance of the degraded epoxy coating was estimated successfully by minimizing the error between a waveform calculated from the mathematical model and a waveform measured from the surface of the rough coating.

  2. Effect of Montmorillonite Nanogel Composite Fillers on the Protection Performance of Epoxy Coatings on Steel Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Wahby, Mohamed

    2017-06-02

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clay mineral is widely used as filler for several organic coatings. Its activity is increased by exfoliation via chemical modification to produce nanomaterials. In the present work, the modification of MMT to form nanogel composites is proposed to increase the dispersion of MMT into epoxy matrices used to fill cracks and holes produced by the curing exotherms of epoxy resins. The dispersion of MMT in epoxy improved both the mechanical and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coatings in aggressive marine environments. In this respect, the MMT surfaces were chemically modified with different types of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) nanogels using a surfactant-free dispersion polymerization technique. The effect of the chemical structure, nanogel content and the interaction with MMT surfaces on the surface morphology, surface charges and dispersion in the epoxy matrix were investigated for use as nano-filler for epoxy coatings. The modified MMT nanogel epoxy composites showed excellent resistance to mechanical damage and salt spray resistance up to 1000 h. The interaction of MMT nanogel composites with the epoxy matrix and good response of AMPS nanogel to sea water improve their ability to act as self-healing materials for epoxy coatings for steel.

  3. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  4. Corrosion study of the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide-based epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Raza, Mohsin Ali; Saad Baig, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Shoaib

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to determine the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) incorporation as filler on the corrosion protection ability of epoxy coatings in saline media. GO was derived from graphite powder following modified Hummers’ method, whereas rGO was obtained after reduction of GO with hydrazine solution. About 1 wt.% of GO or rGO were incorporated in epoxy resin by solution mixing process followed by ball milling. GO and rGO-based epoxy composite coatings were coated on mild steel substrates using film coater. The coated samples were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests after 1 and 24 h immersion in 3.5% NaCl. The results suggested that GO-based epoxy composite coatings showed high impedance and low corrosion rate.

  5. Interpretation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Heavy Duty Epoxy Based Floor Coating Doped by Nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikje, M. M. Alavi; Khanmohammadi, M.; Garmarudi, A. Bagheri

    Epoxy-nano silica composites were prepared using Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (Araldite® GY 6010) resin obtained from in situ polymerization or blending method. SiO2 nanoparticles were pretreated by a silan based coupling agent. Surface treated nano silica was dispersed excellently by mechanical and ultrasonic homogenizers. A dramatic increase in the interfacial area between fillers and polymer can significantly improve the properties of the epoxy coating product such as tensile, elongation, abrasion resistance, etc.

  6. Protection of Steel Rebar in Salt-Contaminated Cement Mortar Using Epoxy Nanocomposite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Huu Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy reinforced with two kinds of nanoparticles dealing with nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 was coated on steel rebar embedded in a chloride contaminated cement mortar. NaCl was added to the fresh Portland cement paste (at 0.3% and 0.5% by weight of cement to simulate the chloride contamination at the critical level. The effect of incorporating nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated steel rebar was investigated by linear potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the 0.3 wt.% chloride mortars, the electrochemical monitoring of the coated steel rebars during immersion for 56 days in 0.1 M NaOH solutions suggested the beneficial role of nano-Fe2O3 particles in significantly improving the corrosion resistance of the epoxy-coated rebar. After 56 days of immersion, the nano-Fe2O3 reduced the corrosion current of epoxy-coated rebar by a factor of 7.9. When the chloride concentration in the cement mortar was 0.5 wt.%, the incorporation of nanoparticles into the epoxy matrix did not enhance the corrosion resistance of epoxy coating for the rebar. At this critical level, chloride ions initiated rebar corrosion through nanoparticles at the epoxy/rebar interface.

  7. Degradation of modified carbon black/epoxy nanocomposite coatings under ultraviolet exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Degradation of epoxy coatings with and without Carbon Black (CB) nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to obtain a good dispersion of CB nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. TEM analysis proved a uniform dispersion of modified CB nanoparticles in epoxy coating. The coatings were subjected to UV radiation to study the degradation behavior and then immersed in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The results showed that the electrochemical behavior of neat epoxy coating was related to the formation and development of microcracks on the surface. The occurrence of microcracks on the surface of the coatings and consequently the penetration of ionic species reduced by adding CB nanoparticles into the formulation of the coatings. CB nanoparticles decreased degradation of CB coatings by absorbing UV irradiation. The ATR-FTIR results showed that decrease in the intensity of methyl group as main peak in presence of 2.5 wt% CB was lower than neat epoxy. In addition, the reduction in impedance of neat epoxy coating under corrosive environment was larger than CB coatings. The CB coating with 2.5 wt% nanoparticles had the highest impedance to corrosive media after 2000 h UV irradiation and 24 h immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl.

  8. Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Milica M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of the coating. PANI film was deposited electrochemically on mild steel from an aqueous solution of 0.5 mol dm"3 sodium benzoate and 0.1 mol dm"3 aniline at a constant current density of 1.5 mA cm"2. Non-pigmented epoxy coatings on mild steel and on mild steel with PANI film were obtained by cathodic electrode position at constant voltage and stirring conditions. The resin concentration in the electrode position bath was 10 wt.% solid dispersion in water at pH 5.7. The applied voltage was 250 V, the temperature 26°C and the deposition time 3 min. It was shown that thin PANI film could be used to modify the surface of mild steel prior to epoxy coating deposition, due to the increased corrosion protection of a duplex PANI/epoxy coating comparing to an epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl solution.

  9. Synthesis of cuprous oxide epoxy nanocomposite as an environmentally antimicrobial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M El Saeed, Ashraf; Abd El-Fattah, M; Azzam, Ahmed M; Dardir, M M; Bader, Magd M

    2016-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment; paint manufacturers begin to employ cuprous oxide as booster biocides in their formulations, to replace the banned organotins as the principal antifouling compounds. Epoxy coating was reinforced with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs). The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of Cu2O epoxy nanocomposite (Cu2O EN) coating films was investigated. Cu2O NPs were also experimented for antibiofilm and time-kill assay. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of Cu2O EN coating films were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity results showed slowdown, the growth of organisms on the Cu2O EN coating surface. TGA results showed that incorporating Cu2O NPs into epoxy coating considerably enhanced the thermal stability and increased the char residue. The addition of Cu2O NPs at lower concentration into epoxy coating also led to an improvement in the mechanical resistance such as scratch and abrasion. Cu2O NPs purity was confirmed by XRD. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the synthesized Cu2O NPs were of cubic shape and the average diameter of the crystals was around 25nm. The resulting perfect dispersion of Cu2O NPs in epoxy coating revealed by SEM ensured white particles embedded in the epoxy matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphene/Epoxy Coating as Multifunctional Material for Aircraft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Monetta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of graphene as a conductive nanofiller in the preparation of inorganic/polymer nanocomposites has attracted increasing interest in the aerospace field. The reason for this is the possibility of overcoming problems strictly connected to the aircraft structures, such as electrical conductivity and thus lightning strike protection. In addition, graphene is an ideal candidate to enhance the anti-corrosion properties of the resin, since it absorbs most of the light and provides hydrophobicity for repelling water. An important aspect of these multifunctional materials is that all these improvements can be realized even at very low filler loadings in the polymer matrix. In this work, graphene nanoflakes were incorporated into a water-based epoxy resin, and then the hybrid coating was applied to Al 2024-T3 samples. The addition of graphene considerably improved some physical properties of the hybrid coating as demonstrated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS analysis, ameliorating anti-corrosion performances of raw material. DSC measurements and Cross-cut Test showed that graphene did not affect the curing process or the adhesion properties. Moreover, an increment of water contact angle was displayed.

  11. Effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Frankel, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples was studied using SKP. ► Delamination of the coating decreased with increased substrate surface roughness. ► Delamination of the coating was faster on the substrate with parallel surface scratches. ► Delamination of the coating exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure. - Abstract: The Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) technique was used to investigate the effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel. The cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coatings dramatically decreased with increased surface roughness of the underlying steel substrate. The surface texture of the steel substrates also had a significant effect in that samples with parallel abrasion lines exhibiting faster cathodic delamination in the direction of the lines compared to the direction perpendicular to the lines. The cathodic delamination kinetics of epoxy coatings previously exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure due to pronounced polymer degradation. SEM observation confirmed that the cyclic exposure to UV radiation and water condensation caused severe deterioration in the polymer structures with surface cracking and erosion. The SKP results clearly showed that the cathodic delamination of the epoxy coatings was significantly influenced by the surface features of the underlying steel substrates and the degradation of the coatings.

  12. Epoxy-based broadband antireflection coating for millimeter-wave optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Darin; Suzuki, Aritoki; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-11-20

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband antireflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixing three types of epoxy and doping with strontium titanate powder required for the high dielectric mixtures. At 140 K, the band-integrated absorption loss in the coatings was suppressed to less than 1% for the two-layer coating, and below 10% for the three-layer coating.

  13. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Resin Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zijun; Zhang, Tianchi; Qiao, Sen; Zhang, Luyihang

    2017-11-01

    The multilayer graphene powder as filler, epoxy modified silicone resin as film-forming agent, anticorrosion composite coating has been created using sand dispersion method, the electrochemical performance was compared with different content of graphene composite coating and pure epoxy resin coating. The open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel Plot) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were tested. The test results showed that the anti-corrosion performance of multilayer graphene added has improved greatly, and the content of the 5% best corrosion performance of graphene composite coating.

  14. Towards Washable Electrotextile UHF RFID Tags: Reliability Study of Epoxy-Coated Copper Fabric Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of washing on the performance of passive UHF RFID tags based on dipole antennas fabricated from copper fabric and coated with protective epoxy coating. Initially, the tags achieved read ranges of about 8 meters, under the European RFID emission regulation. To assess the impact of washing on the performance of the tags, they were washed repeatedly in a washing machine and measured after every washing cycle. Despite the reliability challenges related to mechanical stress, the used epoxy coating was found to be a promising coating for electrotextile tags in moist conditions.

  15. An experimental study on moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite with coatings exposed to different pH media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Londhe

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the moisture absorption and mechanical properties of jute-epoxy composites. Jute fibres are treated with NaOH before manufacturing of composite laminate in order to improve adhesion with epoxy material. Further jute-epoxy composite specimens were coated with epoxy resin and acrylic paint. Composite specimens with and without coatings are subjected to absorption in solutions of different pH media, for 28 days (666 h. The effect of coatings on reduction in moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite is presented in this current work.

  16. Effect of nitrogen-doped carbon dots on the anticorrosion properties of waterborne epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Siming; Cui, Mingjun; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) are prepared by solvothermal method and the effect of NCDs on the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy (EP) is investigated. Scanning probe microscopy results show that the size of the NCDs is about 4–6 nm. In addition, the anticorrosion property of NCD-incorporated waterborne epoxy coatings is investigated via electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the impedance modulus of 2.0% NCDs/EP is 364 times higher than that of blank EP after 800 h of immersion, indicating significant enhancement in the anticorrosion property of waterborne epoxy coating. The reason is that NCDs with lots of surface functional groups can connect with waterborne epoxy to suppress enlargement of the pores, and reduce the diffusion of oxygen in the coating, thus cutting off the connection between the substrate and oxygen, and delaying corrosion of the substrate.

  17. Velocity Measurement of ultrasonic for evaluation of aging epoxy coating in containment structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Gil Soo; Kim, Noh Yu; Nah, Hwan Seon; Song, Young Chol

    2001-01-01

    Relative variation of ultrasonic velocity in aging epoxy coating in nuclear plant is measured for evaluation of the degradation of the epoxy coating. Time delay for ultrasound to travel through the epoxy film due to change of ultrasonic velocity is measured indirectly using ultrasonic interferometry which compares two reflection waves from the same point of coating surface at two different distances. Magnitude of the difference of two waves increases or decreases depending on change of the time of flight of ultrasound in the epoxy film caused by heat damage in the epoxy coating. Based on the transfer functions of the wedge and the epoxy coating in frequency domain, the reflection wave is analyzed and related to the velocity of ultrasound in the epoxy coating. A specially designed conical wedge is adopted to minimize the waviness effect of the surface of the epoxy coating. Epoxy films are fabricated, degraded under the accelerated aging conditions and tested to evaluate the change of ultrasonic velocity in the films. The experimental results show that the method can be applied to evaluate quantitatively the sealing quality of the epoxy coating.

  18. The Effect of Substrate Contaminates on the Life of Epoxy Coatings Submerged in Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    contaminants: coal tar, SovaPon, Mare Island and Aquapon . Aquapon is a clear (unpigmented) polyamide epoxy coating. While Aquapon is not normally used for...pigmented coatings. It was found that the Aquapon and coal tar coatings performed similarly, and blistered to the same extent, at the contamination levels...used in the test program. The Sovapon and Mare Island coatings were slightly more resistive to blistering when compared to Aquapon or coal tar but they

  19. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Shihui; Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun; Li, Wei; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-dopedpolyaniline (SPANi) with good conductivity and dispersibility in water was copolymerized by aniline and its derivative. • Environmental friendly SPANi/epoxy composite coating with remarkable anti-corrosion performance was prepared. • The corrosion product of pure epoxy or composite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Abstract: Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  20. Corrosion protection performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing self-doped polyaniline nanofiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Chen, Cheng; Cui, Mingjun [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Li, Wei [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Self-dopedpolyaniline (SPANi) with good conductivity and dispersibility in water was copolymerized by aniline and its derivative. • Environmental friendly SPANi/epoxy composite coating with remarkable anti-corrosion performance was prepared. • The corrosion product of pure epoxy or composite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern and scanning electron microscope (SEM). - Abstract: Self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANi) nanofiber was synthesized by the copolymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ASA) and aniline via a rapid mixing polymerization approach. The chemical structure of SPANi was investigated by the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The as-prepared SPANi nanofibers had 45 nm average diameter and length up to 750 nm as measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The self-doped SPANi nanofiber possessed excellent aqueous solubility, good conductivity (0.11 S/cm) and reversible redox activity, making it suitable as a corrosion inhibitor for waterborne coatings. The prepared SPANi/waterborne epoxy composite coatings exhibited remarkably improved corrosion protection compared with pure waterborne epoxy coating as proved by the polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The passivation effect of SPANi nanofiber and the corrosion products beneath the epoxy coatings immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution as a function of time were also investigated in this study.

  1. Enhanced protective properties and UV stability of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite coating on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alhumade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy-Graphene (E/G nanocomposites with different loading of graphene were prepared via in situ prepolymerization and evaluated as protective coating for Stainless Steel 304 (SS304. The prepolymer composites were spin coated on SS304 substrates and thermally cured. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were utilized to examine the dispersion of graphene in the epoxy matrix. Epoxy and E/G nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR techniques and the thermal behavior of the prepared coatings is analyzed using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The corrosion protection properties of the prepared coatings were evaluated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV measurements. In addition to corrosion mitigation properties, the long-term adhesion performance of the coatings was evaluated by measuring the adhesion of the coatings to the SS304 substrate after 60 days of exposure to 3.5 wt% NaCl medium. The effects of graphene loading on the impact resistance, flexibility, and UV stability of the coating are analyzed and discussed. SEM was utilized to evaluate post adhesion and UV stability results. The results indicate that very low graphene loading up to 0.5 wt % significantly enhances the corrosion protection, UV stability, and impact resistance of epoxy coatings.

  2. Epoxy-based broadband anti-reflection coating for millimeter-wave optics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Darin; Suzuki, Aritoki; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L.; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-01-01

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband anti-reflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixin...

  3. Morphology and Properties of Geopolymer Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahedan Noor Fifinatasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer coatings were coated on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE pipe by using kaolin, white clay and silica sand as source materials and sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 as alkaline solution. The microstructure and mechanical property of geopolymer coating on GRE pipe were methodically investigated through morphology analysis, and flexural strength test. The result indicates the microstructure and interfacial layer between geopolymer coating and GRE pipe significantly influence the mechanical property of geopolymer coating. However, different source materials gave different microstructure and property in geopolymer coating.

  4. Epoxy coatings for anticorrosion challenges: a link between chemistry and performance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvant-Moynot, Valerie; Schweitzer, Sylvie; Grenier, Jacky; Duval, Sebastien [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 avenue Bois Preau, 92450 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Epoxy coatings have been used extensively for pipeline protection in the oil and gas industries over the past decades. Thank to their outstanding adhesive properties, epoxy resins are classically used for external coating of offshore pipelines although cathodic protection is applied. They provide corrosion protection while being used as neat coating or as primer layer in a three-layer coating. Protection of internal pipelines devoted to gas transport is another application of epoxy coatings. Whatever the case, the choice of the right epoxy formulation should be adapted to the service conditions, namely exposition medium and temperature, in order to provide efficient and sustainable corrosion protection. Epoxy resins constitute a wide family and classical formulations may not fulfill the requirements of today's challenges: as pipelines are require d to operate in more and more difficult conditions, coatings are expected to function in higher temperature conditions; additionally, practical conditions such as temporary injection of methanol make the environmental exposure of the epoxy coating harsher. Therefore, there is a need of a better knowledge of technical performance and limitations of high temperature epoxy resins. This paper examined the influence of the epoxy network architecture on their protection properties and durability while exposed to distilled / sea water at 110 deg. C and to methanol at room temperature. The objective was to investigate the link between resin chemistry and final performance with respect to anticorrosion applications. Five epoxy resin formulations mixed in stoichiometric proportions were cured and post-cured to infinite extent in order to achieve densely cross-linked networks exhibiting controlled and reproducible architectures. Gravimetric and pressurised differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to evaluate the plasticization effect of both water and methanol on formulations under study. The related

  5. Steel Protective Coating Based on Plasticized Epoxy Acrylate Formulation Cured by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Mohamed, I.M.; Mohamed, H.A.; Kandile, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) was used to cure coatings based on epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) and different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil. The effect of irradiation doses (10, 25, 50 kGy) on the curing epoxy acrylate formulations containing plasticizers was studied. In the addition, the effect of the different plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coatings such as hardness, bending, adhesion, acid and alkali resistance tests were investigated. It was observed that the incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate, diluted by 1,6 hexandiol diacrylate monomer (HD) with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under the dose 10 kGy improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizers. On the other hand, sunflower free fatty acids were epoxidized in-situ under well established conditions and then was subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 degree C. The produced adduct was added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was observed that the formula containing 0.4 gm of aniline adduct / 100 gm epoxy acrylate resin gave the best corrosion protection for carbon steel

  6. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Truc Trinh, Anh; To, Thi Xuan Hang; Duong Nguyen, Thuy; Trang Nguyen, Thu; Hoan Nguyen, Xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this study Fe3O4/CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe3O4/CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe3O4/CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe3O4/CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe3O4/CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe3O4/CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix.

  7. Incorporation of Fe3O4/CNTs nanocomposite in an epoxy coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Gia Vu; Trinh, Anh Truc; Hang To, Thi Xuan; Nguyen, Thuy Duong; Nguyen, Thu Trang; Nguyen, Xuan Hoan

    2014-01-01

    In this study Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite with magnetic property was prepared by attaching magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by hydrothermal method. The obtained Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was then incorporated into an epoxy coating at concentration of 3 wt%. Corrosion protection of epoxy coating containing Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and adhesion measurement. The impedance measurements show that Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite enhanced the corrosion protection of epoxy coating. The corrosion resistance of the carbon steel coated by epoxy coating containing Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite was significantly higher than that of carbon steel coated by clear epoxy coating and epoxy coating containing CNTs. FE-SEM photographs of fracture surface of coatings showed good dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs composite in the epoxy matrix. (paper)

  8. Assessment of integrity of containment coating (Epoxy) using beta radiometry and NDT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujala, Usha; Sujatha, P.N.; Kumar, Amit; Menaka, M.; Subramanian, V.; Sriniyas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkataraman, B.; Preetha, R.; Kumar, J. Ashok

    2018-01-01

    The inner sides of walls of reactor containments and other fuel handling areas are coated with paint made of epoxy resins mainly for ease of decontamination and protecting rebar from corrosion environment. In addition, this gives the advantage in terms of ensuring additional leak tightness of reactor containment building (RCB) during the hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). During CDA, RCB will be bottled-up with sodium aerosols along with fuel and fission product aerosols. Sodium aerosols undergo chemical changes with progress of time to form hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate species upon reaction with atmospheric constituents. Of which, hydroxide aerosols are highly corrosive due to alkaline nature and it can cause damages to the epoxy coating. In this context, experiments have been conducted at ATF to assess the integrity of epoxy coating under the alkaline atmospheric conditions. Plywood, ordinary concrete and zinc plates are coated with epoxy paint and integrity of the coating is checked by exposing to sodium aerosols using beta radiometry technique (BRT), NDT techniques and gravimetric analysis. The results are presented in this paper

  9. A biomimetic approach to enhancing interfacial interactions: polydopamine-coated clay as reinforcement for epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Phua, Si Lei; Teo, Jun Kai Herman; Toh, Cher Ling; Lau, Soo Khim; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong

    2011-08-01

    A facile biomimetic method was developed to enhance the interfacial interaction in polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was constructed on clay surface by a controllable coating method. The modified clay (D-clay) was incorporated into an epoxy resin, it is found that the strong interfacial interactions brought by the polydopamine benefits not only the dispersion of the D-clay in the epoxy but also the effective interfacial stress transfer, leading to greatly improved thermomechanical properties at very low inorganic loadings. Rheological and infrared spectroscopic studies show that the interfacial interactions between the D-clay and epoxy are dominated by the hydrogen bonds between the catechol-enriched polydopamine and the epoxy.

  10. Radiochemical ageing of epoxy coating for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, D.P.R.; Fraisse, F.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of an epoxy-amine network exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere has been studied by using a variety of analytical methods, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and sol-gel analysis. Results show that the oxidation of epoxy systems grows with the irradiation dose. Hydroperoxides, which are species resulting from oxidation, were identified and quantified by DSC. As indicated by the sol-gel analysis, the mechanism of degradation of chain scission seems to be predominant over crosslinking. The modifications induced by irradiation reflect in a greater capacity of water absorption.

  11. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli; Veronica Perozzo Frizzo; Diego Piazza; Lisete Cristine Scienza; Ademir José Zattera

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneo...

  12. Effect of epoxy resin sealing on corrosion resistance of arc spraying aluminium coating using cathode electrophoresis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuming; Wang, Runqiu; Wei, Qian; Zhou, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Arc-sprayed Al coating was sealed with epoxy resin using the cathode electrophoresis method. The anti-corrosion performance of the coatings sealed with epoxy resin was studied by means of a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution test at 40 °C. For comparison, the anti-corrosion performance of Al coating sealed with boiling water was also performed under the same conditions. The results show that epoxy resin with a thickness of about 20 microns can entirely cover open pores and decreases the surface roughness of the as-sprayed Al coating, and the epoxy resin even permeates into the gaps among lamellar splats from open pores. After corrosion, the thickness of the epoxy resin layer is unchanged and can still cover the as-sprayed Al coating entirely. However, the thickness of Al coating sealed with boiling water decreases from 100 to 40 microns, which indicates that the arc-sprayed Al coating has much better corrosion resistance than the Al coating sealed with boiling water. Meanwhile, the content of substituted benzene ring in the epoxy resin increases, but aromatic ring decreases according to the fourier transform infrared spectra, which will cause the rigidity of the epoxy resin to increase, but the toughness slightly decreases after corrosion.

  13. Erosion protection of carbon-epoxy composites by plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, F.; Fagoaga, I.; Oregui, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the production of plasma-sprayed erosion-resistant coatings on carbon-fibre - epoxy composites, and the study of their erosion behaviour. The heat sensitivity of the composite substrate requires a specific spraying procedure in order to avoid its degradation. In addition, several bonding layers were studied to allow spraying of the protective coatings. Two different functional coatings were sprayed onto an aluminium-glass bonding layer, a WC-12Co cermet and an Al 2 O 3 ceramic oxide. The microstructure and properties of these coatings were studied and their erosion behaviour determined experimentally in an erosion-testing device. (orig.)

  14. Corrosion protection of Mg-5Li alloy with epoxy coatings containing polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yawei; Huang Hui; Zhang Tao; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The protective ability of epoxy coating containing polyaniline (PANI coating) on Mg-5Li alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution has been studied by means of EIS and electrochemical noise measurements (EN). The results of EN and EIS revealed that the PANI coating protected Mg-5Li alloy from corrosion perfectly. XPS results indicated that the presence of polyaniline changed the chemical structure of the corrosion film on the alloy surface. An analysis of the electrochemical noise data based on stochastic analysis indicated that the corrosion growth probability of Mg-5Li alloy beneath the coating was decreased by the addition of polyaniline.

  15. Failure behavior of nano-SiO2 fillers epoxy coating under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Cui Yu; Li Ying; Zhang Tao; Wang Fuhui

    2012-01-01

    The failure of organic coating (epoxy resin filled with 5 mass% nano-SiO 2 particles) on mild steel under high hydrostatic pressure (35 atm) has been studied compared with that under atmospheric pressure (1 atm), using impedance measurements, gravimetric testing, adhesion testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that high hydrostatic pressure accelerated the failure of the organic coating by promoting diffusion of water in the coating, which speeds up water spread and electrochemical reactions at the interface. The roughness of the coating and steel has been discussed from point of view of their respective fractal dimensions D fc and D fdl , as deduced from impedance measurements

  16. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  17. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  18. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh, E-mail: pourali2020@ut.ac.ir; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  19. Investigation of parameters governing the corrosion protection efficacy of fusion bonded epoxy coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Ramniceanu, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    The primary cause of corrosion in transportation structures is due to chlorides which are applied to bridge decks as deicing salts. The direct cost of corrosion damage to the countryâ s infrastructure is approximately $8.3 billion per year. One of the most common corrosion abatement methods in the United States is the barrier protection implemented through the application of fusion bonded epoxy coatings. The purpose of this study was to investigate various coating and exposure param...

  20. Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Mi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Husan Chang; Jung-Hun Seo; Huilong Zhang; Sang June Cho; Nader Behdad; Zhenqiang Ma; Chunhua Yao; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2016-01-01

    Wood pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film is a novel recyclable and biodegradable material. We investigated the microwave dielectric properties of the epoxy coated-CNF thin film for potential broad applications in flexible high speed electronics. The characterizations of dielectric properties were carried out in a frequency range of 1–10 GHz. The dielectric...

  1. Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Reinforced with Amino-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Applications in Underwater Oil Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Saliba; Alexandra A. P. Mansur; Herman S. Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The performance of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings can be improved through advanced composite coatings reinforced with nanomaterials. Hence, in this study a novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite finish was designed, synthesized, and characterized, achieved by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles produced via sol-gel process in epoxy-based powder. After the curing process of the coating reinforced with nanoparticles, the formation of a homogenous novel nanocomposite w...

  2. Nanosilica reinforced epoxy floor coating composites: preparation and thermophysical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flooring grade epoxy/nanoSiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization method. Nano silica was treated by coupling agent in order to surface treating and introducing of reactive functional groups to achieving adequate bonding between polar inorganic nano particles and epoxy organic polymer. γ-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (Amino A-100 was used as an effective and commercially available coupling agent and nano silica treated in acetone media. SEM observations of cured samples revealed that the nano silica was completely dispersed into polymer matrix into nanoscale particles. Thermal and physical properties of prepared samples were investigated and data showed improvements in physical and mechanical properties of the flooring samples in comparison with unfilled resin.

  3. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi Golru, S., E-mail: samanesharifi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B. [Department of Surface Coating and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, No. 59,Vafamanesh St, Hosainabad Sq, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  4. Tensile strength of glass fibres with carbon nanotube–epoxy nanocomposite coating: Effects of CNT morphology and dispersion state

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Naveed A.; Li, Erin L.; Sham, Man-Lung; Tang, Ben Zhong; Gao, Shang Lin; Mäder, Edith; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A study has been made of a concept of 'healing' coatings applied onto the brittle fibre surface to reduce the stress concentrations and thus to improve the reinforcing efficiency in a composite. Coatings made from neat epoxy and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced epoxy nanocomposite were applied onto the individual glass fibres as well as rovings. It is shown that the 0.3 wt.% CNT–epoxy nanocomposite coating gave rise to a significant increase in tensile strength of the single fibre for all gau...

  5. Novel epoxy-benzoxazine water-based emulsions with reactive benzoxazine surfactants for coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel epoxy-benzoxazine emulsions designed for water-based coatings were prepared and investigated. Bisphenol A-based epoxy resins with molar weights of 340, 377 and 1750 g/mol along with epoxidized soybean oil were emulsified using mono- and bi-functional benzoxazine surfactants, which are able to react with epoxy resins at their cure temperature. The structure of synthesized surfactants carrying one or two polyether chains was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability of emulsions was verified by particle diameters measurements. Coatings, made directly from emulsions, were dried and cured at elevated temperature using 3,3'-dimetoxybenzidine as curing agent to ensure a highly cross-linked structure of thermosetting films. Curing process, thermal properties and hardness of cured films were investigated. It was found that benzoxazine molecules were well incorporated into the epoxy network upon curing, which ensures no void structure of cured copolymer and enhanced coating properties.

  6. Monitoring underlying epoxy-coated St-37 corrosion via 8-hydroxyquinoline as a fluorescent indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Shamim; Sarabi Dariani, Ali Asghar; Mokhtari, Javad

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, successful performance of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as a ferric ion sensitive indicator is described. 8-HQ was used in epoxy coating because of its desirable properties. It doesn't exhibit premature fluorescence when mixed with coating precursors. Additionally it shows fluorescence turn-on mechanism upon chelate formation with Fe2+/Fe3+ ions produced during anodic reaction. The effect of different concentrations of 8-HQ (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 wt.%) incorporated in the epoxy coating on corrosion detection as well as optical and electrochemical behavior of the applied coating were studied. The fluorescence property of 8-HQ/Fe3+ solutions was evaluated by using fluorometer. The UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of 8-HQ presence in the coating on transparency of the free films of the samples. The corrosion detection was performed by fluorescence microscope and the anti-corrosion performance of coated samples containing different concentrations of 8-HQ was studied using salt spray standard test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of UV-Visible spectroscopy demonstrated that increasing 8-HQ concentration causes a slight decrease in coating transparency. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, the polarization resistance of the coated St-37 sample containing 0.1 wt.% 8-HQ was about 109 Ohm cm2 after 6 weeks immersion in corrosive electrolyte, while St-37 plates coated with other 8-HQ concentrations showed decreased resistance levels of about 106 Ohm cm2, during the same immersion period. Based on fluorescence microscopic investigation, as a result of incorporating 8-HQ into the epoxy matrix, fluorescence could be observed in regions where Fe2+/Fe3+ ions were produced through anodic reactions. This method is capable of detecting corrosion in situ at early stages before the metal surface suffers serious damages.

  7. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than n...

  8. Long-Term Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of Epoxy Prime Coated Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6 in Coastal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of epoxy prime coated aluminum alloy 7075-T6 exposed for 7, 12 and 20 years was investigated. The remaining thicknesses of epoxy prime coatings for macroscopically intact coating areas followed a normal distribution and decreased linearly. EIS results demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of the coating decreased with exposure time. After 20 years of exposure, the epoxy coating had lost its protection as cracks existed within the coating and exfoliation corrosion had occurred on the substrate. The substrate was sensitive to exfoliation corrosion through metallographic and TEM analysis. The corrosion products were mainly hydroxides of aluminum. The morphology and chemical compositions of the coating bubbling area and propagation characterizations of exfoliation corrosion were analyzed by SEM, EPMA and EDS. Cracks between the lumps of corrosion products provided the channels for the transmission of corrosion mediums. Furthermore, the mechanical model was proposed to analyze the propagation characterization of exfoliation corrosion.

  9. Friction and wear behavior of nanosilica-filled epoxy resin composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yingke; Chen Xinhua; Song Shiyong; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic silica nanoparticles (abridged as nano-SiO 2 ) surface-capped with epoxide were dispersed in the solution of epoxy resin (abridged as EP) in tetrahydrofuran under magnetic stirring. Resultant suspension of nano-SiO 2 in EP was then coated onto the surface of glass slides and dried at 80 °C in a vacuum oven for 2 h, generating epoxy resin-nanosilica composite coatings (coded as EP/nano-SiO 2 ). EP coating without nano-SiO 2 was also prepared as a reference in the same manner. A water contact angle meter and a surface profiler were separately performed to measure the water contact angles and surface roughness of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings. The friction and wear behavior of as-prepared EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings sliding against steel in a ball-on-plate contact configuration under unlubricated condition was evaluated. Particularly, the effect of coating composition on the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings was highlighted in relation to their microstructure and worn surface morphology examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that EP/nano-SiO 2 composite coatings have a higher surface roughness and water contact angle than EP coating. The EP-SiO 2 coatings doped with a proper amount of hydrophilic SiO 2 nanoparticles show lower friction coefficient than EP coating. However, the introduction of surface-capped nanosilica as the filler results in inconsistent change in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the filled EP-matrix composites; and it needs further study to achieve well balanced friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the composite coatings for tribological applications.

  10. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  11. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  12. Fluidization bed coating of copper bars with epoxy powder

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Chiaw Min

    2014-01-01

    Fluidized bed coating (FBC) is a process where preheated material is dipped into a flowing liquid bed of powder. Although FBC has existed for more than half a century, however there is little knowledge about the fluidized bed design that gives excellent fluidization quality as well as reducing powder entrainment. The objectives of this thesis are to investigate the effect of two different types of distributor with different pressure drop on powder coating, hydrodynamics of fluidized bed coati...

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneous migration was assessed after the completion of salt spray testing, which can compromise the use of paints obtained as primers.

  14. Corrosion protection of the reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment through epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh; Dehghanian, Changiz; Kosari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating well protects steel rebar. • Coating performance is evaluated by impedance measurements up to 1 year. • Ultimate bond strength between the coated rebars and concrete is measured. • Self-compacting concrete shows better anticorrosive property compared to normal one. - Abstract: In this study, an epoxy/polyaniline–camphorsulfonate nanocomposite (epoxy/PANI–CSA) is employed to protect reinforcing steels in chloride-laden concrete environment. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Bare, epoxy-coated and epoxy/PANI–CSA nanocomposite-coated steel rebars were embedded in normal and self-compacting concretes. To evaluate their corrosion behaviors, open circuit potential and impedance measurements were performed for the duration of 1 year. Ultimate bond strength of concrete with the reinforcement bars were measured in corroded and uncorroded conditions. It was found that epoxy/PANI–CSA coating provides good corrosion resistance and durable bond strength with concrete for steel rebars

  15. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mingjun; Ren, Siming; Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan; Zhang, Guangan; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2017-03-01

    Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT-) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT-, as proved by Raman and UV-vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 106 Ω cm2) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  16. Anticorrosive performance of waterborne epoxy coatings containing water-dispersible hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Siming [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Jia; Liu, Shuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Guangan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Haichao, E-mail: zhaohaichao@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xue, Qunji, E-mail: qjxue@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were well dispersed by using water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer as dispersant. • The best corrosion performance of waterborne epoxy coatings was achieved with the addition of 1 wt% h-BN. • The decrease of the pores and defects of coating matrix inhibits the diffusion and water absorption of corrosive medium in the coating. - Abstract: Homogenous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets in solvents or in the polymer matrix is crucial to initiate their many applications. Here, homogeneous dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in epoxy matrix was achieved with a water-soluble carboxylated aniline trimer derivative (CAT{sup −}) as a dispersant, which was attributed to the strong π-π interaction between h-BN and CAT{sup −}, as proved by Raman and UV–vis spectra. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed a random dispersion of h-BN nanosheets in the waterborne epoxy coatings. The deterioration process of water-borne epoxy coating with and without h-BN nanosheets during the long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical measurements and water absorption test. Results implied that the introduction of well dispersed h-BN nanosheets into waterborne epoxy system remarkably improved the corrosion protection performance to substrate. Moreover, 1 wt% BN/EP composite coated substrate exhibited higher impedance modulus (1.3 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm{sup 2}) and lower water absorption (4%) than those of pure waterborne epoxy coating coated electrode after long-term immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, demonstrating its superior anticorrosive performance. This enhanced anticorrosive performance was mainly ascribed to the improved water barrier property of epoxy coating via incorporating homogeneously dispersed h-BN nanosheets.

  17. Protective Performance of Polyaniline-Sulfosalicylic Acid/Epoxy Coating for 5083 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suyun; Liu, Li; Meng, Fandi; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy coatings incorporating different content of sulfosalicylic acid doped polyaniline (PANI-SSA) have been investigated for corrosion protection of 5083 aluminum alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The performance of the coatings is studied using a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP), gravimetric tests, adhesion tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the content of PANI-SSA not only affects the coating compactness and the transportation of aggressive medium, but also has a significant influence on the-based aluminum. The coating with 2 wt. % PANI-SSA exhibits the best corrosion inhibition due to its good protective properties and the formation of a complete PANI-SSA induced oxide layer. PMID:29438304

  18. Properties of a epoxy-based powder coating containing modified montmorillonite with cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beux, A.R.D.; Piazza, D.; Zattera, A.J.; Ferreira, C.A.; Scienza, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Organic coatings are widely used to prevent corrosion in metal structures. The incorporation of nanofiller the polymer matrix in order to obtain polymer nanocomposites has been arousing scientific and technological interest, because it provides significant improvements when incorporated into pure polymeric materials or conventional composites. In the present study were been developed epoxy-based powder coating with addition of different concentrations (2, 4 and 8% (w / w)) of the montmorillonite type Cloisite® 15A modified with cerium in the melt state on a double-screw extruder co-rotating. The coatings were characterized by average particle size, time (gel time) gel, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Coatings with intercalated structure was observed in the XRD analysis and confirmed by SEM to the observe an increase in the concentration of tactoids an increased filler content. (author)

  19. ‘Containers’ for self-healing epoxy composites and coating: Trends and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of self-healing functionality into epoxy matrix is an important and challenging topic. Various micro/nano containers loaded self-healing agents are developed and incorporated into epoxy matrix to impart self-healing ability. The current report reviews the major findings in the area of self-healing epoxy composites and coatings with special emphasis on these containers. The preparation and use of polymer micro/nano capsules, polymer fibers, hollow glass fibers/bubbles, inorganic nanotubes, inorganic meso- and nano-porous materials, carbon nanotubes etc. as self-healing containers are outlined. The nature of the container and its response to the external stimulations greatly influence the self-healing performance. The self-healing mechanism associated with each type of container and the role of container parameters on self-healing performance of self-healing epoxy systems are reviewed. Comparison of the efficiency offered by different types of containers is introduced. Finally, the selection of containers to develop cost effective and green self-healing systems are mentioned.

  20. Cage and linear structured polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids for coatings: Surface property and film permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanli; He, Ling; Jia, Mengjun; Zhao, Lingru; Zuo, Yanyan; Hu, Pingan

    2017-08-15

    Three polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids obtained by evolving cage- or linear-structured polysiloxane into poly glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) matrix are compared used as coatings. One is the cage-structured hybrid of P(GMA/MA-POSS) copolymer obtained by GMA and methacrylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MA-POSS) via free radical polymerization, the other two are PGMA/NH 2 -POSS and PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrids by cage-structured aminopropyllsobutyl POSS (NH 2 -POSS) or linear-structured diamino terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH 2 -PDMS) to cure PGMA. The effect of MA-POSS, NH 2 -POSS and NH 2 -PDMS on polysiloxane/epoxy hybrid films is characterized according to their surface morphology, transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermo-mechanical properties. Due to caged POSS tending to agglomerate onto the film surface, P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS films exhibit much more heterogeneous surfaces than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film, but the well-compatibility between epoxy matrix and MA-POSS has provided P(GMA/MA-POSS) film with much higher transmittance (98%) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS film (24%), PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film (27%) and traditional epoxy resin film (5%). The introduction of polysiloxane into epoxy matrix is confirmed to create hybrids with strong adhesive strength (526-1113N) and high thermos-stability (T g =262-282°C), especially the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid (1113N and 282°C), but the flexible PDMS improves PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid with much higher storage modulus (519MPa) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS (271MPa), which suggests that PDMS is advantage in improving the film stiffness than POSS cages. However, cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS indicate higher permeability than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS and traditional epoxy resin. Comparatively, the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid is the best coating in transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermostability, but linear-structured PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid behaviors the best coating in

  1. Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride

  2. Preparation and performance evaluation of epoxy-based heat reflective coating for the pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Liang, Y. H.; Guo, L. Y.; Jiang, T.

    2017-04-01

    According to the basic characteristics and composition of heat-reflective coating, combining with the functional requirements of road materials, the experiment selects the epoxy resin with good wear resistance and adhesive force as a film forming material, with TiO2, SiO2 and extinction powder as the main functional filler. The experiment gets a good formula with suitable viscosity, low glossiness and good cooling effect, optimizes by orthogonal experiment. The experiment evaluates the indoor and outdoor cooling effect of heat-reflective coating, and analyses the road performance of the coating. The results shows that the better heat-reflective coating formula included 12% of titanium dioxide, 4% of silica and 4% of extinction powder. When the dosage of coating is 0.8kg/m2, the indoor specimen of heat-reflective coating decrease the temperature of 12 ˜ 14°C, and the specimen under solar radiation can reduce the temperature of 7 ˜ 9°C. The pavement of heat-reflective coating has good wear resistance, but the road slip resistance partly declines. Therefore, it needs to add the anti-sliding particles to meet the safe driving requirements.

  3. Laboratory and gas-fired furnace performance tests of epoxy primers for intumescent coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Catala, Pere

    2014-01-01

    , either to ensure adhesion of the intumescent coating to the steel or to provide corrosion resistance. It is essential to document the performance of the intumescent coating together with the primer to ensure the overall quality of coating system. In the present work, two epoxy primers were used...... to a gas-fired furnace following the ISO834 fire curve (a so-called cellulosic fire), one of the primers selected performed well and the other poorly. From tests in the electrically heated oven, it was found that both primers were sensitive to the film thickness employed and the presence of oxygen....... At oxygen-rich conditions, higher primer thicknesses gave weaker performance. In addition, a color change from red to black was observed in nitrogen, while the color remained red in the oxygen-nitrogen mixture. In summary, the results suggest that an adequate choice of primer, primer thickness...

  4. Atmospheric corrosion resistance of epoxy duplex coated electrogalvanized steel exposed in marine, industrial and urban sites at pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, H.; Kazmi, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    An epoxy based duplex coating system (Electrogalvanized Mild Steel/Etch Primer/Epoxy-Polyamide Primer/ Epoxy-Amine Topcoat System) embedded with iron oxide, zinc chromate and titanium dioxide pigments was studied to ascertain its corrosion resistant synergistic performance at various anthropogenic sites of Karachi coastal city while salt spray test was also executed for reference. Coating performance was ascertained by visual morphological inspection, gloss measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. SEM and EDX results corroborated high degradation of epoxy coating at marine site experiment as substantial increment in oxygen/carbon ratio and high concentration of Ti at coating surface due to ex-corporation of pigments were noticed. Worst performance of epoxy coating at marine test site as compared to salt spray testing may be due to the salt-laden winds of Karachi coastal city and corrosive constituents incorporated in atmospheres from industrial and automobiles exhaust. General diminution trend in gloss value, depletion of morphological features witnessed through SEM micrographs, curtailment of aryl ether and aromatic nuclei signals in FTIR spectrum, and emergence of new peaks in the 1620-1800 cm-1 region correspond to formation of new oxidation products; concluded that an insignificant protection offered by the epoxy coating due to its outdoor aging which led to ex-capsulation of pigments under moist conditions. Appraisal of these results have furnished an average coating performance correlation of 547.5 hpy (hours of salt spray test equivalence per year exposure test) at marine test site and 528 hpy at industrial test site in terms of blistering while equivalence mean in terms of rusting were found 680 hpy and 567 hpy at marine and industrial test sites respectively. (author)

  5. The Role of interfacial layers on the performance of an epoxy / polyester powder coated Aluminium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabedini, M.; Moradian, S.; Scanteburg, D.; Thonpson, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of polyacrylic acid and a blend of polyacrylic acid with hexa fluorozirconic acid treatments on the performance of an epoxy/polyester powder coating on a 1050 Al substrate has been studied and compared to the performance of the same system using a so-called chromate/phosphate conversion coating. The chemical interactions between pretreatments and Al substrates were examined using FTIR spectroscopy and various accelerated test methods were also employed. Two mechanical adhesion measurement methods were used under wet and dry conditions, namely a vertical pull-off test in the dry state and the tape test under dry conditions. The water permeation of the differently pretreated powder coated samples was studied using a capacitance measurement method. FTIR results showed two modes of interaction; namely ionic and complex formation between COO - and Al 3+ Various experiments revealed that polyacrylic acid improved only the dry adhesion but as a standing alone treatment it did not provide an overall improvement in anti-corrosive performance. The water uptake measurements proved that pretreatment does not considerably affect the properties of the coatings during water permeation stage. The use of various techniques revealed that relatively good performance of powder coating is due to a high ohmic resistance of the coating prior to and after saturation with water, reasonably low water solubility and good adhesion to the substrate

  6. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; McCollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-11-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  7. The mechanism of cathodic electrodeposition of epoxy coatings and the corrosion behaviour of the electrodeposited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA B. MISKOVIC-STANKOVIC

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The model of organic film growth on a cathode during electrodeposition process proposes the current density-time and film thickness-time relationships and enables the evaluation of the rate contants for the electrochemical reaction of OH– ion evolution and for the chemical reaction of organic film deposition. The dependences of film thickness and rate constants on the applied voltage, bath temperature and resin concentration in the electrodeposition bath have also been obtained. The deposition parameters have a great effect on the cathodic electrodeposition process and on the protective properties of the obtained electrodeposited coatings. From the time dependences of the pore resistance, coating capacitance and relative permittivity, obtained from impedance measurements, the effect of applied voltage, bath temperature and resin concentration on the protective properties of electrodeposited coatings has been shown. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, gravimetric liquid sorption experiments, differential scanning calorimetry and optical miscroscopy, the corrosion stability of epoxy coatings was investigated. A mechanism for the penetration of electrolyte through an organic coating has been suggested and the shape and dimensions of the conducting macropores have been determined. It was shown that conduction through a coating depends only on the conduction through the macropores, although the quantity of electrolyte in the micropores of the polymer net is about one order of magnitude greater than that inside the conducting macropores.

  8. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H 2 SO 4 solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H 2 SO 4 solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates

  9. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong.2006@yahoo.com.cn

    2014-04-15

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates.

  10. Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Reinforced with Amino-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Applications in Underwater Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Saliba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings can be improved through advanced composite coatings reinforced with nanomaterials. Hence, in this study a novel organic-inorganic nanocomposite finish was designed, synthesized, and characterized, achieved by adding γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silica nanoparticles produced via sol-gel process in epoxy-based powder. After the curing process of the coating reinforced with nanoparticles, the formation of a homogenous novel nanocomposite with the development of interfacial reactions between organic-inorganic and inorganic-inorganic components was observed. These hybrid nanostructures produced better integration between nanoparticles and epoxy matrix and improved mechanical properties that are expected to enhance the overall performance of the system against underwater corrosion.

  11. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-chrome titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating is prepared on AA6063 at room temperature. • The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating is produced on AA6063 within 50 s. • The adhesion strength between epoxy coating and AA6063 is improved significantly after the Ti/Zr/V conversion treatment. - Abstract: An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 , Al 2 O 3 , etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF 4 , AlF 3 , etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  12. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang, E-mail: mewfli@scut.edu.cn; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • A non-chrome titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating is prepared on AA6063 at room temperature. • The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating is produced on AA6063 within 50 s. • The adhesion strength between epoxy coating and AA6063 is improved significantly after the Ti/Zr/V conversion treatment. - Abstract: An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF{sub 4}, AlF{sub 3}, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  13. Microwave electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Yuchang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic characteristics of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coatings were studied. The reflection loss of the coatings exceeds -10 dB at 8-18 GHz and -9 dB at 2-18 GHz when the coating thickness is 1 and 3 mm, respectively. The dielectric and magnetic absorbers filled coatings possess excellent microwave absorption, which could be attributed to the proper incorporate of the multi-polarization mechanisms as well as strong natural resonance. It is feasible to develop the thin and wideband microwave absorbing coatings using carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder.

  14. Microwave electromagnetic properties of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yuchang; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic characteristics of carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder filled epoxy-silicone coatings were studied. The reflection loss of the coatings exceeds -10 dB at 8-18 GHz and -9 dB at 2-18 GHz when the coating thickness is 1 and 3 mm, respectively. The dielectric and magnetic absorbers filled coatings possess excellent microwave absorption, which could be attributed to the proper incorporate of the multi-polarization mechanisms as well as strong natural resonance. It is feasible to develop the thin and wideband microwave absorbing coatings using carbonyl iron particles and Si/C/N nano-powder.

  15. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-01

    An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5, Al2O3, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF4, AlF3, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  16. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives in hardeners for epoxy paints and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suomela, Sari; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2016-12-01

    Amines in epoxy hardeners are significant causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis among workers who use epoxy resin systems. To describe a novel group of contact allergens: N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives of the reactive amine 1,3-benzenedimethanamine (1,3-BDMA). We describe the clinical examinations and exposure of 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. Of the 6 patients, 4 were spray painters who used epoxy paints, 1 was a floor layer who handled a variety of epoxy coatings, and 1 was a worker in epoxy hardener manufacture. We were able to confirm exposure to epoxy hardeners that contained derivatives of 1,3-BDMA in 5 of the 6 sensitized patients. Despite the close structural resemblance between derivatives of 1,3-BDMA and m-xylylenediamine (MXDA), only 3 patients reacted positively to MXDA. Concomitant contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin was seen in 2 of the 6 patients. Because of the lack of a commercially available patch test substance, the diagnosis of contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA requires patch testing with either the epoxy hardener product or a hardener ingredient that contains the derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Center of excellence for research in engineering materials (CEREM), Advance Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Rawaiz [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammad Asif [Center of excellence for research in engineering materials (CEREM), Advance Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Othman, Othman Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Deanship of Graduate Studies, The Saudi Electric University, P. O. Box 93499, Riyadh 11673 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Zahrani, Saeed M. [Center of excellence for research in engineering materials (CEREM), Advance Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); SABIC Polymer Research Center (SPRC) and department of chemical engineering, college of engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-22

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90 µm. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale.

  18. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus; Khan, Rawaiz; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Al-Othman, Othman Y.; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90 µm. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale

  19. Effect of addition of Ag nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy/polyaminoamide adduct coatings filled with conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Ubair Abdus; Khan, Rawaiz; Alam, Mohammad Asif; Al-Othman, Othman Y.; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M.

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of Ag Nano powder on mechanical properties of epoxy coatings filled with optimized ratio of conducting polymers (Polyaniline and Polyppyrole) was evaluated. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin (DGEBA) along with polyaminoamide adduct (ARADUR 3282-1 BD) is used as curing agent under optimized stoichiometry values. Curing is performed at room temperature with different percentages of Nano filler. Glass and steel panels were used as coating substrate. Bird applicator was used to coat the samples in order to obtain thin film with wet film thickness (WFT) of about 70-90 µm. The samples were kept in dust free environment for about 7 days at room temperature for complete curing. The coated steel panels were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of coating such as hardness, scratch and impact tests whereas coated glass panels were used for measuring pendulum hardness of the coatings. To check the dispersion and morphology of Nano filler in epoxy matrix scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in addition Nano indentation was also performed to observe the effect of Nano filler on modulus of elasticity and hardness at Nano scale.

  20. Comparative study on Ti/Zr/V and chromate conversion treated aluminum alloys: Anti-corrosion performance and epoxy coating adhesion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang, E-mail: mewfli@163.com; Mu, Songlin; Fu, Nianqing; Liao, Zhongmiao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The surface roughness and surface free energy of the AA6063 are significantly increased after TZVCC treatment. • The anti-corrosion performance of the AA6063 is effectively enhanced after TZVCC treatment. • Both the corrosion resistance and wet adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the AA6063 are noticeably improved after TZVCC treatment. - Abstract: In this study, a Ti/Zr/V conversion coating (TZVCC) was deposited on the surface of aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063) as an alternative of the chromate conversion coating (CCC). Both the TZVCC treated AA6063 (TZVCC/AA6063) and CCC treated AA6063 (CCC/AA6063) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device. The anti-corrosion performance of the TZVCC/AA6063 and CCC/AA6063 was evaluated by electrochemical measurements and neutral salt spray tests. It showed that both the surface roughness and surface free energy of the AA6063 were significantly increased after TZVCC treatment. The anti-corrosion performance of TZVCC/AA6063 was superior to that of CCC/AA6063. In addition, the effects of the TZVCC and CCC on the adhesion properties and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coating applied on samples were examined by pull-off tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The dry, wet and recovery adhesive strengths of the epoxy coating on TZVCC treated samples (epoxy coated TZVCC/AA6063) were very close to those of epoxy coating on CCC treated ones (epoxy coated CCC/AA6063). The epoxy coated TZVCC/AA6063 showed better corrosion resistance than the epoxy coated CCC/AA6063 and epoxy coated AA6063.

  1. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, J.F.; Tournerie, N.; Maillard, H.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m 2 to 70 mJ/m 2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic C-O and C=O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  2. Effect of Surface Contaminants Remained on the Blasted Surface on Epoxy Coating Performance and Corrosion Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Kwang Ki; Park, Chung Seo; Kim, Ki Hong; Chung, Mong Kyu; Park, Jin Hwan

    2006-01-01

    One of the critical issues in the coating specification is the allowable limit of surface contaminant(s) - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust - after grit blasting. Yet, there is no universally accepted data supporting the relationship between the long-term coating performance and the amount of various surface contaminants allowed after grit blasting. In this study, it was attempted to prepare epoxy coatings applied on grit-blasted steel substrate dosed with controlled amount of surface contaminants - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust. Then, coating samples were subjected to 4,200 hours of cyclic test(NORSOK M-501), which were then evaluated in terms of resistance to rust creepage, blistering, chalking, rusting, cracking and adhesion strength. Additional investigations on the possible damage at the paint/steel interface were carried out using an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy(EIS) and observations of under-film-corrosion. Test results suggested that the current industrial specifications were well matched with the allowable degree of rust, whereas the allowable amount of soluble salt and grit dust after grit blasting showed a certain deviation from the specifications currently employed for fabrication of marine vessels and offshore facilities

  3. Corrosion protection and delamination mechanism of epoxy/carbon black nanocomposite coating on AA2024-T3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyet, A.; Wu, T.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Ven, van der L.G.J.; With, de G.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The barrier property of a nanocomposite epoxy coating containing 1 or 1.25 vol% of carbon black (CB) applied on AA2024-T3 was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Micro-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and optical microscopy were also used to investigate the

  4. Processing, properties and applications of composites using powder-coated epoxy towpreg technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, T. D.; Osborne, P. P.; Thrasher, T. P.; Hartness, J. T.; Johnston, N. J.; Marchello, J. M.; Hugh, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Composite manufacturing using the current prepregging technology of impregnating liquid resin into three-dimensionally reinforced textile preforms can be a costly and difficult operation. Alternatively, using polymer in the solid form, grinding it into a powder, and then depositing it onto a carbon fiber tow prior to making a textile preform is a viable method for the production of complex textile shapes. The powder-coated towpreg yarn is stable, needs no refrigeration, contains no solvents and is easy to process into various woven and braided preforms for later consolidation into composite structures. NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program has provided an avenue for developing the technology by which advanced resins and their powder-coated preforms may be used in aircraft structures. Two-dimensional braiding and weaving studies using powder-coated towpreg have been conducted to determine the effect of resin content, towpreg size and twist on textile composite properties. Studies have been made to customize the towpreg to reduce friction and bulk factor. Processing parameters have been determined for three epoxy resin systems on eight-harness satin fabric, and on more advanced 3-D preform architectures for the downselected resin system. Processing effects and the resultant mechanical properties of these textile composites will be presented and compared.

  5. On-Chip Bondwire Magnetics with Ferrite-Epoxy Glob Coating for Power Systems on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of on-chip bondwire inductors and transformers with ferrite epoxy glob coating is proposed to offer a cost effective approach realizing power systems on chip (SOC. We have investigated the concept both experimentally and with finite element modeling. A Q factor of 30–40 is experimentally demonstrated for the bondwire inductors which represents an improvement by a factor of 3–30 over the state-of-the-art MEMS micromachined inductors. Transformer parameters including self- and mutual inductance and coupling factors are extracted from both modeled and measured S-parameters. More importantly, the bondwire magnetic components can be easily integrated into SOC manufacturing processes with minimal changes and open enormous possibilities for realizing cost-effective, high-current, high-efficiency power SOCs.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY COATING CONTAINING MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE/ POLY ORTHO AMINOPHENOL NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bahrami Panah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxy coatings containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/ poly ortho aminophenol nanocomposite were prepared and used as anticorrosive coatings. The nanocomposites with different contents of carbon nanotube were synthesized in a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ammonium peroxy disulfate as a surfactant and an oxidant, respectively. The morphology and structural properties were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The mean size of nanocomposite particles was 20-35 nm determined by scanning electron microscopy. The epoxy coatings containing the nanocomposites were applied over mild steel panels and their corrosion performance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The results showed that epoxy coatings consisting of nanocomposite with 1 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotube exhibited higher anticorrosive properties than other prepared coatings of different carbon nanotube contents, which could be due to the strong interaction between the mild steel surface and the conjugated nanocomposite.

  7. New method for determination of epichlorohydrin in epoxy-coated cans by oxolane derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jun Hyun; Lee, Young Ja; Park, Hyun Jin

    2008-08-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of epichlorohydrin (ECH) in food contact surface of epoxy-coated cans. The oxolane derivative, which produced by reaction of epoxy moiety in ECH with cyclopentanone in the presence of borontrifluoride-diethyletherate, was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS). 1,2-Epoxyhexane was used as internal standard (IS), which produced an oxolane derivative under the same reaction mechanism as ECH. The developed method was validated with 1 ng ml(-1) of limit of detection (LOD, surface area related 20 ng dm(-2)), >0.999 of linearity. Good precision, which was tested both in terms of intra-day repeatability and inter-day reproducibility, and 97.3-102.7% of good recoveries were obtained on three spiked levels of 5.2, 40.3 and 149.1 ng ml(-1). The excellent validation data suggests that this method is more simple, quick and effective than the official method in European Committee for Standardization (CEN) to determine the residual amount of ECH in food contact materials for food law compliance test. The residual amount of ECH for 13 epoxy-coated can samples was analyzed, and none of the samples was found to be detectable levels of ECH in epoxy-coated cans.

  8. Characterization, optical properties and laser ablation behavior of epoxy resin coatings reinforced with high reflectivity ceramic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Kong, Jing; Wu, Taotao; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Zhuang; Liu, Yanbo; Wang, Fuchi; Wei, Chenghua; Wang, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    Thermal damage induced by high power energy, especially high power laser, significantly affects the lifetime and performance of equipment. High-reflectance coating/film has attracted considerable attention due to its good performance in the damage protection. Preparing a high-reflectance coating with high reaction endothermal enthalpy will effectively consume a large amount of incident energy and in turn protect the substrate from thermal damage. In this study, a low temperature process was used to prepare coatings onto substrate with complex shape and avoid thermal effect during molding. An advanced high reflection ceramic powder, La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ , was added in the epoxy adhesive matrix to improve the reflectivity of coating. The optical properties and laser ablation behaviors of coatings with different ceramic additive ratio of La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ and modified epoxy-La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ with ammonium polyphosphate coatings were investigated, respectively. We found that the reflectivity of coatings is extremely high due to mixed high-reflection La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ particles, up to 96% at 1070 nm, which can significantly improve the laser resistance. In addition, the ammonium polyphosphate modifies the residual carbon structure of epoxy resin from discontinuous fine particles structure to continuous and porous structure, which greatly enhances the thermal-insulation property of coating. Furthermore, the laser ablation threshold is improved obviously, which is from 800 W cm‑2 to 1000 W cm‑2.

  9. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforced Epoxy Coatings and Zinc-Rich Coatings Under an Erosion and Corrosion Environment for Oil and Gas Industry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin

    During oil and gas production and transportation, the presence of an oil-sand slurry, together with the presence of CO2, H2S, oxygen, and seawater, create an erosive/abrasive and corrosive environment for the interior surfaces of undersea pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms. Erosion/wear and corrosion are often synergic processes leading to a much greater material loss of pipeline cross-section than that caused by each individual process alone. Both organic coatings and metallic sacrificial coatings have been widely employed to provide protection to the pipeline steels against corrosion through barrier protection and cathodic protection, and these protection mechanisms have been well studied. However, coating performance under the synergic processes of erosion/wear and corrosion have been much less researched and coating degradation mechanisms when erosion/wear and corrosion are both going on has not been well elucidated. In the work presented in this dissertation, steel panels coated with filler reinforced epoxy coatings and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced zinc-rich coatings have been evaluated under erosion/wear followed by an exposure to a corrosive environment. Electrochemical tests and material characterization methods have been applied to study the degradation mechanisms of the coatings during the tests and coating degradation mechanisms have been proposed. While organic coatings with a lower amount of filler particles provided better protection in a corrosive environment alone and in solid particle impingement erosion testing alone, organic coatings with a higher amount of filler particles showed better performance during wear testing alone. A higher amount of filler particles was also beneficial in providing protection against wear and corrosion environment, and erosion and corrosion environment. Coating thickness played a significant role in the barrier properties of the coatings under both erosion and corrosion tests. When the

  10. Investigation of non-isocyanate urethane functional latexes and carbon nanofiller/epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei

    This dissertation consists of two parts. In the first part, a new class of non-isocyanate urethane methacrylates was synthesized and the effect of the new monomers on the urethane functional latex was investigated. The second part focused on a comparison of carbon nanofillers in inorganic/organic epoxy coating system for anticorrosive applications. A new class of non-isocyanate urethane methacrylates (UMAs) monomers was synthesized through an environmentally friendly non-isocyanate pathway. The kinetics of seeded semibatch emulsion polymerization of UMAs with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) was monitored. The particle size and morphology were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), ultrasound acoustic attenuation spectroscopy (UAAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The minimum film formation temperature (MFFT), mechanical and viscoelastic properties were studied. It was found that the emulsion polymerization processes all proceeded via Smith-Ewart control, leading to the uniform morphology and particle size. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the mechanical properties of poly(MMA/BA/UMA) decreased with the increasing chain length of urethane methacrylate monomers due to the increasing flexibility of side chains. Without the effect of Tg, lower MFFT and improved mechanical properties were observed from urethane functional latexes. The improved mechanical properties were due to the increasing particle interaction by forming hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, the effect of urethane functionality in terms of the polymer composition, the location and the concentration was investigated by the batch, single-stage and two-stage semibatch polymerization of 2-[(butylcarbamoyl)oxy]ethyl methacrylate (BEM) with MMA and BA. The core-shell and homogeneous structures were evaluated by TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR). The compositional drift was observed from the batch

  11. Corrosion Protection of Phenolic-Epoxy/Tetraglycidyl Metaxylediamine Composite Coatings in a Temperature-Controlled Borax Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Zhenyu; Han, En-Hou; Liu, Chunbo

    2017-12-01

    The failure behavior for two kinds of phenolic-epoxy/tetraglycidyl metaxylediamine composite coatings in 60 °C borax aqueous solution was evaluated using electrochemical methods (EIS) combined with scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscope, water immersion test, and Raman spectrum. The main focus was on the effect of curing agent on the corrosion protection of coatings. Results revealed that the coating cured by phenolic modified aromatic amine possessed more compact cross-linked structure, better wet adhesion, lower water absorption (0.064 mg h-1 cm-2) and its impedance values was closed to 108 Ω cm2 after immersion for 576 h, while the coating cured by modified aromatic ring aliphatic amine was lower than 105 Ω cm2. The corrosion mechanism of the two coatings is discussed.

  12. Chloride-induced corrosion mechanism and rate of enamel- and epoxy-coated deformed steel bars embedded in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Fujian; Chen, Genda; Brow, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    The chloride-induced corrosion mechanisms of uncoated, pure enamel (PE)-coated, mixed enamel (ME)-coated, double enamel (DE)-coated, and fusion bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated deformed steel bars embedded in mortar cylinders are investigated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and compared through electrochemical tests and visual inspection. Corrosion initiated after 29 or 61 days of tests in all uncoated and enamel-coated steel bars, and after 244 days of tests in some FBE-coated steel bars. In active stage, DE- and FBE-coated steel bars are subjected to the highest and lowest corrosion rates, respectively. The uncoated and ME-coated steel bars revealed relatively uniform corrosion while the PE-, DE-, and FBE-coated steel bars experienced pitting corrosion around damaged coating areas. Due to the combined effect of ion diffusion and capillary suction, wet–dry cyclic immersion caused more severe corrosion than continuous immersion. Both exposure conditions affected the corrosion rate more significantly than the water–cement ratio in mortar design.

  13. Electrochemical and anticorrosion behaviors of hybrid functionalized graphite nano-platelets/tripolyphosphate in epoxy-coated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Taromi, Faramarz Afshar; Neshati, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • FGNP was combined with TPP to obtain a hybrid nano-particle. • TEM image showed uniform distribution of the hybrid nanoparticles in epoxy coating. • FGNP is a substrate for linking of TPP anions by hydrogen bonding. • FGNP as an accelerator, provides rapid iron phosphate passive film formation. • The hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection. - Abstract: Functionalized graphite nano-platelets (FGNP) were combined with tripolyphosphate (TPP) to gain a hybrid nano-particle (FGNP-TPP) with homogenous dispersion in epoxy, resulting in an excellent anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel substrate. Characterization analyses of the hybrid nano-particle were performed by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and TEM. TPP was linked to FGNP nano-particles by hydrogen bondings. Different epoxy coatings formulated with 1 wt.% of FGNP, FGNP-TPP and TPP were evaluated. Electrochemical investigations, salt spray and pull-off tests showed that the hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection compared to FGNP and TPP due to synergistic effect between FGNP as an accelerator and TPP as a corrosion inhibitor to produce a uniform and stable iron-phosphate passive film with high surface coverage.

  14. Electrochemical and anticorrosion behaviors of hybrid functionalized graphite nano-platelets/tripolyphosphate in epoxy-coated carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh, E-mail: somaye.mohammadi32@aut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariatpanahi, Homeira [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taromi, Faramarz Afshar [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, Jaber [Corrosion Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • FGNP was combined with TPP to obtain a hybrid nano-particle. • TEM image showed uniform distribution of the hybrid nanoparticles in epoxy coating. • FGNP is a substrate for linking of TPP anions by hydrogen bonding. • FGNP as an accelerator, provides rapid iron phosphate passive film formation. • The hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection. - Abstract: Functionalized graphite nano-platelets (FGNP) were combined with tripolyphosphate (TPP) to gain a hybrid nano-particle (FGNP-TPP) with homogenous dispersion in epoxy, resulting in an excellent anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel substrate. Characterization analyses of the hybrid nano-particle were performed by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and TEM. TPP was linked to FGNP nano-particles by hydrogen bondings. Different epoxy coatings formulated with 1 wt.% of FGNP, FGNP-TPP and TPP were evaluated. Electrochemical investigations, salt spray and pull-off tests showed that the hybrid nano-particle can provide long-term corrosion protection compared to FGNP and TPP due to synergistic effect between FGNP as an accelerator and TPP as a corrosion inhibitor to produce a uniform and stable iron-phosphate passive film with high surface coverage.

  15. The effects of addition of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as a green corrosion inhibitor to the phosphate conversion coating on the anticorrosion and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir; Vakili, H.; Amini, R.

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature zinc phosphate coating was applied on the surface of steel sample. • Poly(vinyl) alcohol was added to the phosphating bath as a green corrosion inhibitor. • The adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating were investigated. • PVA decreased the phosphate crystal size and porosity. • PVA enhanced the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Steel substrates were chemically treated by room temperature zinc phosphate conversion coating. Poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) was added to the phosphate solution as a green corrosion inhibitor. Finally, the epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and surface treated steel samples. The effects of PVA on the morphological properties of the phosphate coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring device. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coatings applied on the surface treated samples were investigated by pull-off and cathodic delamination tests. Also, the anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coatings were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that addition of PVA to the phosphate coating increased the population density of the phosphate crystals and decreased the phosphate grain size. The contact angle of the steel surface treated by Zn-PVA was lower than Zn treated one. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was considerably increased on the steel substrate treated by zinc phosphate conversion coating containing PVA. PVA also enhanced the adhesion properties of the epoxy coating to the steel surface and decreased the cathodic delamination significantly.

  16. Tribological properties of epoxy composite coatings reinforced with functionalized C-BN and H-BN nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingjing; Zhao, Wenjie; Wu, Yinghao; Wang, Deliang; Feng, Ruotao

    2018-03-01

    A series of epoxy resin (EP) composite coatings reinforced with functionalized cubic boron nitride (FC-BN) and functionalized hexagonal boron nitride (FH-BN) were fabricated successfully on 316L stainless steel by hand lay-up technique. The structure properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, UMT-3 tribometer and surface profiler were used to investigate tribological behaviors of as-prepared composite coatings under dry friction and seawater conditions respectively. The results demonstrated that the presence of FC-BN or FH-BN fillers could greatly decrease the friction coefficient (COF) and wear rate of epoxy, in addition, composite coatings possess better tribological properties under seawater condition which was attributed to the lubricating effect of seawater. Moreover, FC-BN endows the composite coatings the highest wear resistance, and FH-BN /EP composite coatings exhibited the best friction reduction performance which is attributed to the self-lubricating performance of lamella structure for FH-BN sheet.

  17. Investigation of the cure behaviour of an epoxy polyester powder coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishrat, S.; Nadeem, M.

    1993-01-01

    The epoxy polyester based thermo sets make attractive matrix materials for many industrial and commercial applications because of their excellent performance properties. These properties for example, dimensional stability, adhesion, chemical resistance, and thermal stability arise primarily from the formation of crosslinks during cure. While many factors, such as the reactivity and stoichiometry of the reactants can influence the course of the crosslinking reaction, the cure temperature and cure time ultimately govern the end use performance of the thermosetting systems of powder coatings. The interrelationship between the network formation process and performance properties makes cure process studies critically important in product development. A products end use performance properties can be correlated with the processing conditions by monitoring specific polymeric properties such as gel points, glass transition temperature (TgS,) and the kinetics of the crosslinking reaction. By plotting the change in these properties against cure time and or cure temperature, a 'profile' or degree of cure (DOC) curve can be formed. These profiles illustrate the progress of the crosslinking reaction and can be used to optimize thermo set handling, processing and cure process. (author)

  18. Wear-resistant and electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of oleic acid post-modified ferrite-filled epoxy resin composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2015-03-01

    The post-modified Mn-Zn ferrite was prepared by grafting oleic acid on the surface of Mn-Zn ferrite to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the particle surfaces. The friction and electromagnetic absorbing properties of a thin coating fabricated by dispersing ferrite into epoxy resin (EP) were investigated. The roughness of the coating and water contact angle were measured using the VEECO and water contact angle meter. Friction tests were conducted using a stainless-steel bearing ball and a Rockwell diamond tip, respectively. The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the composite coating were studied in the low frequency (10 MHz-1.5 GHz). Surface modified ferrites are found to improve magnetic particles dispersion in EP resulting in significant compatibility between inorganic and organic materials. Results also indicate that modified ferrite/EP coatings have a lower roughness average value and higher water contact angle than original ferrite/EP coatings. The enhanced tribological properties of the modified ferrite/EP coatings can be seen from the increased coefficient value. The composite coatings with modified ferrite are observed to exhibit better reflection loss compared with the coatings with original ferrite.

  19. Comparison of the degradation behaviour of fusion-bonded epoxy powder coating systems under flowing and static immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.H.; Zhang, L.X.; Ke, W.

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of three different fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) powder coating systems under flowing and static immersion condition has been monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) when exposed to 3% NaCl aqueous solution at 60 o C. The aim of this project was to determine the impact of flowing condition on the degradation of the protective properties of polymer coatings during exposure to corrosive medium. Using a rotating cylinder apparatus, the immersion tests under the flowing condition were performed. The relative permittivity of coating, ε r =C c δε 0 A, where the coating capacitance C c was calculated from the high frequency data of impedance spectrum, was selected as the index to monitor property variation with immersion time. Experimental results showed that the flowing condition aggravated the deterioration of coatings. The results were interpreted in terms of a model in which flowing condition changes coating/solution interface state and then accelerates the ions to diffuse through the coating. The electrochemical results were in agreement with the final visual observation. The present investigation suggests that flowing test provides an effective accelerating way to evaluate the degradation of coating system

  20. Improving the interfacial and mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites by coating the glass fibers with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Asadi; M. Miller; Robert Moon; K. Kalaitzidou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the interfacial and mechanical properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) coated glass fiber/epoxy composites were investigated as a function of the CNC content on the surface of glass fibers (GF). Chopped GF rovings were coated with CNC by immersing the GF in CNC (0–5 wt%) aqueous suspensions. Single fiber fragmentation (SFF) tests showed that the...

  1. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  2. A new strategy for improvement of the corrosion resistance of a green cerium conversion coating through thermal treatment procedure before and after application of epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidashti, Z. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), P.O. 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ce conversion coating was post-heated at various conditions. • The corrosion resistance of post-heated Ce films was evaluated. • A crack free and denser Ce film were obtained after post-heating. • The corrosion resistance of Ce film noticeably increased. • Post-heated Ce film resulted better protection performance of epoxy coating. - Abstract: The effect of post-heating of CeCC on its surface morphology and chemistry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The corrosion protection performance of the coatings was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of thermal treatment of CeCC on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating was investigated by EIS. Results showed that the heat treatment of Ce film noticeably improved its corrosion resistance and adhesion properties compared to that of untreated samples. The CeCC deposited on the steel substrate at room temperature had a highly cracked structure, while the amount of micro-cracks significantly reduced after post-heating procedure. Results obtained from EIS analysis confirmed the effect of post-heating of CeCC on its corrosion protection performance enhancement. The increase of post-heating temperature and time up to 140 °C and 3 h led to better results.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Zinc molybdate (ZM) is a safer anticorrosive additive for cooling systems when compared with chromates and lead salts, due to its insolubility in aqueous media. For most molybdate pigments, their molybdate anion (MoO 4 -2 ) acts as an anionic inhibitor and its passivation capacity is comparable with chromate anion (CrO 4 -2 ). To alleviate the environmental concerns involving chromates-based industrial protective coatings, we have proposed new alternative in this work. We have synthesized ZM nanocrystals via ultrasound-assisted process and encapsulated them within an epoxy/PDMS coating towards corrosion protection. The surface morphology and mechanical properties of these ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings is exhaustively discussed to show the effect of ZM content on protective properties. The presence of ZM nanocrystals significantly contributed to the corrosion barrier performance of the coating while the amount of ZM nanocrystals needed to prepare an epoxy coating with optimum barrier performance was established. Beyond 2 wt% ZM concentration, the siloxane-structured epoxy coating network became saturated with ZM pigments. This further broadened inherent pores channels, leading to the percolation of corrosion chloride ions through the coating. SEM evidence has revealed proof of surface delamination on ZM3 coating. A model mechanism of corrosion resistance has been proposed for ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings from exhaustive surface morphological investigations and evidence. This coating matrix may have emerging applications in cooling systems as anticorrosive surface paints as well as create an avenue for environmental corrosion remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardant for transparent intumescent fire resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Guojian, E-mail: wanggj@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, 4800 Cao' an Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The novel halogen-free flame retardant containing silicon and caged bicyclic phosphate was synthesized. • A novel transparent intumescent fire resistant coating was developed by the P-Si synergistic flame retardant and melamine formaldehyde resin. • Excellent fire protection of the transparent intumescent fire resistant coating. • The P-Si synergistic flame retardant could improve the thermo-oxidation resistance of transparent fire resistant coating. - Abstract: A series of novel silicon-containing epoxy/PEPA phosphate flame retardants (EPPSi) were synthesized by polyphosphoric acid (PPA), caged bicyclic phosphate 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-L-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA), and different ratios of silicon-containing epoxy 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-bis(3-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)propyl)disiloxane (TMSEP) to 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE). The chemical structure of EPPSi was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Afterwards, the transparent intumescent fire resistant coatings were prepared by mixing EPPSi and melamine formaldehyde resin. The influence of silicon on the fire protection of coatings was intensively investigated by fire protection test, intumescence ratio, scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive strength test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and real-time FTIR. It was found that the fire resistant coatings obtained the best fire protection when the ratio of TMESP/BDE was 20/100, while excessive TMSEP made the fire protection of coatings deceased sharply. The intumescence ratio, compressive strength test and SEM result showed that a synergistic effect existed between phosphorus and silicon, which improved the foam structure and compressive strength of the char layer significantly. XPS result proved the out-migration effect of silicon. The high concentration silicon on surface played

  5. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  6. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Nurulhuda Mohd Yunus; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  7. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  8. Enhanced lifetime characteristics in flexible polymer light-emitting devices by encapsulation of epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Pin-Hsiang; Huang, Chien-Jung; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Meen, Teen-Hang; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a new multilayer encapsulation for the lifetime of flexible PLEDs on plastic substrate. The multilayer encapsulation consisted of a novel epoxy/silica-coated gold nanoparticles resin (ESGR) as the pre-encapsulation layer and a SiO 2 layer as the encapsulation cap. The ESGR was prepared by mixing UV-curable epoxy resin and powders of silica-coated gold nanoparticles. The silica-coated gold nanoparticles is a necessity because the epoxy resin is not a good moisture barrier. The flexible PLEDs with multilayer encapsulation exhibited no dark spots after being stored for over 300 h at 25 deg. C and 60% relative humidity. Also, the operational half-luminance decay time of device was 1360 h, seven times longer than that of a device without encapsulation. These results confirmed that the multilayer encapsulation, which restricted the moisture that penetrated into the devices, could be applied to the encapsulation of flexible PLEDs.

  9. Fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation of an epoxy based nano intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, P. S. M. Megat; Zia-ul-Mustafa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is a passive fire protection system which swells upon heating to form expanded multi-cellular char layer that protects the substrate from fire. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder and cured together using curing agent. IFRC was then reinforced with nano magnesium oxide and nano alumina as inorganic fillers to study their effect towards fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation. Small scale fire test was conducted to investigate the thermal insulation of coating whereas fire performance was calculated using thermal margin value. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of char obtained after fire test. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that the performance of the coating was enhanced by reinforcement with nano size fillers as compared to non-filler based coating. Comparing both nano size magnesium oxide and nano size alumina; nano size alumina gave better fire performance with improved microstructure of char and high residual weight.

  10. Anti-corrosion mechanism of epoxy-resin and different content Fe2O3 coatings on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Kong, Fan-mei; Bai, Rui-qin; Zhang, Ru-liang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, anti-corrosion coatings were prepared and coated successfully on magnesium alloy substrates by mixing nanopowders, solvent, curing agent with epoxy resin. The effect of the amount of iron trioxide (Fe2O3) on the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy was investigated with standard protocols, and electrochemical measurements were also made in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions. The surface morphology and corrosion mechanism after corrosion tests was characterized using FESEM analysis. Nanoparticles in matrix acted as filler, and interstitial cross-linked spaces and other coating artifacts regions (micro cracks and voids) would all affect the anti-corrosion properties of coating. The results showed the proper powder content not only provided adhesion strength to these coatings but also improved obviously their anticorrosion. Hydrogen bound to the amine nitrogen (1N) could take part in the curing process rather than hydrogen of the amide site due to the smaller Δ G and the more stable configuration.

  11. The impact of nano-coating on surface charge accumulation of epoxy resin insulator: characteristic and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bo; Gao, Chunjia; Lv, Yuzhen; Li, Chengrong; Tu, Youping; Xiong, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The flashover phenomenon of the insulator is the main cause for insulating failure of GIS/GIL, and one of the most critical impacting factors is the accumulation of surface charge. The common methods to restrain the surface charge accumulation are reviewed in this paper. Through the reasonable comparison and analysis of these methods, nano-coatings for the insulator were selected as a way to restrain the surface charge accumulation. Based on this, six nano-coated epoxy resin samples with different concentrations of P25-TiO2 nanoparticles were produced. A high precision 3D surface charge measurement system was developed in this paper with a spatial resolution of 4.0 mm2 and a charge resolution of 0.01 µC (m2 · mV)‑1. The experimental results for the epoxy resin sample showed that with the concentration of nanoparticles of the coating material increasing, the surface charge density tended to first decrease and then increase. In the sample coated with 0.5% concentration of nanoparticles, the suppression effect is the optimum, leading to a 63.8% reduction of charge density under DC voltage. The application test for actual nano-coated GIS/GIL basin insulator indicated that the maximum suppression degree for the charge density under DC voltage could reach 48.3%, while it could reach 22.2% for switching impulse voltage and 12.5% for AC context. The control mechanism of nano-coatings on charge accumulation was proposed based on the analysis for surface morphology features and traps characteristics; the shallow traps dominate in the migration of charges while the deep traps operate on the charge accumulation. With the concentration of nanoparticles in nano-coating material mounting up, the density of shallow traps continuously increases, while for deep traps, it first decreases and then increases. For the sample with 0.5% concentration of nanoparticles coated, the competition between shallow traps and deep traps comes to the most balanced state, producing the most

  12. Cationic Reduced Graphene Oxide as Self-Aligned Nanofiller in the Epoxy Nanocomposite Coating with Excellent Anticorrosive Performance and Its High Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaohu; Zhong, Jiawen; Zhou, Qiulan; Du, Shuo; Yuan, Song; Liu, Yali

    2018-05-17

    The design and preparation of an excellent corrosion protection coating is still a grand challenge and is essential for large-scale practical application. Herein, a novel cationic reduced graphene oxide (denoted as RGO-ID + )-based epoxy coating was fabricated for corrosion protection. RGO-ID + was synthesized by in situ synthesis and salification reaction, which is stable dispersion in water and epoxy latex, and the self-aligned RGO-ID + -reinforced cathodic electrophoretic epoxy nanocomposite coating (denoted as RGO-ID + coating) at the surface of metal was prepared by electrodeposition. The self-alignment of RGO-ID + in the coatings is mainly attributed to the electric field force. The significantly enhanced anticorrosion performance of RGO-ID + coating is proved by a series of electrochemical measurements in different concentrated NaCl solutions and salt spray tests. This superior anticorrosion property benefits from the self-aligned RGO-ID + nanosheets and the quaternary-N groups present in the RGO-ID + nanocomposite coating. Interestingly, the RGO-ID + also exhibits a high antibacterial activity toward Escherichia coli with 83.4 ± 1.3% antibacterial efficiency, which is attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-ID + and the electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between RGO-ID + and E. coli. This work offers new opportunities for the successful development of effective corrosion protection and self-antibacterial coatings.

  13. Three-dimensional (3D) plasma micro-nanotextured slides for high performance biomolecule microarrays: Comparison with epoxy-silane coated glass slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougeni, Katerina; Ellinas, Kosmas; Koukouvinos, George; Petrou, Panagiota S; Tserepi, Angeliki; Kakabakos, Sotirios E; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-05-01

    Glass slides coated with a poly(methyl methacrylate) layer and plasma micro-nanotextured to acquire 3D topography (referred as 3D micro-nanotextured slides) were evaluated as substrates for biomolecule microarrays. Their performance is compared with that of epoxy-coated glass slides. We found that the proposed three-dimensional (3D) slides offered significant improvements in terms of spot intensity, homogeneity, and reproducibility. In particular, they provided higher spot intensity, by a factor of at least 1.5, and significantly improved spot homogeneity when compared to the epoxy-silane coated ones (intra-spot and between spot coefficients of variation ranging between 5 and 15% for the 3D micro-nanotextured slides and between 25 and 85% for the epoxy-silane coated ones). The latter was to a great extent the result of a strong "coffee-ring" effect observed for the spots created on the epoxy-coated slides; a phenomenon that was severely reduced in the 3D micro-nanotextured slides. The 3D micro-nanotextured slides offered in addition higher signal to noise ratio values over a wide range of protein probe concentrations and shelf-life over one year without requirement for specific storage conditions. Finally, the protocols employed for protein probe immobilization were extremely simple. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of a microcomposite and a nanocomposite on the properties of an epoxy-based powder coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, Diego [Polymers Laboratory, Caxias do Sul University - Exact Science and Technology Center, Francisco Getulio Vargas Street, 1130, Petropolis, CEP 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Lorandi, Natalia P. [Corrosion and Surface Protection Laboratory, Caxias do Sul University - Exact Science and Technology Center, Francisco Getulio Vargas Street, 1130, Petropolis, CEP 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Pasqual, Charles I. [Polymers Laboratory, Caxias do Sul University - Exact Science and Technology Center, Francisco Getulio Vargas Street, 1130, Petropolis, CEP 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Scienza, Lisete C. [Corrosion and Surface Protection Laboratory, Caxias do Sul University - Exact Science and Technology Center, Francisco Getulio Vargas Street, 1130, Petropolis, CEP 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Zattera, Ademir J., E-mail: ajzattera@terra.com.br [Polymers Laboratory, Caxias do Sul University - Exact Science and Technology Center, Francisco Getulio Vargas Street, 1130, Petropolis, CEP 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} New materials for using as protective coatings for metal surfaces. {yields} Development of nanostructured powder paints. {yields} Characterization of the new material in the powder and coating form. {yields} Development of a new material for use in the automotive industry, industrial production of appliances, furniture industry. {yields} Development of new material using the process of mixing using a twin-screw extruder, followed by sintering process on a metal plate. - Abstract: The incorporation of nanoclays into coatings has been considered to be commercially favorable due to the improvements obtained in the barrier, thermal, and anticorrosion properties, among others, leading to the development of a new segment in the area of clean technologies: the application of nanocomposites to powder coatings. In this study, in order to compare the performance of a powder coating with the addition of a conventional load (barium sulfate) and a montmorillonite clay (MMT), two mixtures of commercial epoxy-based powder coating were prepared in the melt state, with the addition of 2 and 4% (w/w) of MMT, or 2 and 4% (w/w) of barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}). The thermal properties were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the load dispersion and the morphology of the systems formed. The physical and anticorrosion properties of the coatings were also investigated. The interaction of the MMT with the polymeric matrix, associated to the aspect ratio, resulted in better barrier properties, thermal stability, and adhesion to the metal substrate.

  15. Influence of a microcomposite and a nanocomposite on the properties of an epoxy-based powder coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, Diego; Lorandi, Natalia P.; Pasqual, Charles I.; Scienza, Lisete C.; Zattera, Ademir J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New materials for using as protective coatings for metal surfaces. → Development of nanostructured powder paints. → Characterization of the new material in the powder and coating form. → Development of a new material for use in the automotive industry, industrial production of appliances, furniture industry. → Development of new material using the process of mixing using a twin-screw extruder, followed by sintering process on a metal plate. - Abstract: The incorporation of nanoclays into coatings has been considered to be commercially favorable due to the improvements obtained in the barrier, thermal, and anticorrosion properties, among others, leading to the development of a new segment in the area of clean technologies: the application of nanocomposites to powder coatings. In this study, in order to compare the performance of a powder coating with the addition of a conventional load (barium sulfate) and a montmorillonite clay (MMT), two mixtures of commercial epoxy-based powder coating were prepared in the melt state, with the addition of 2 and 4% (w/w) of MMT, or 2 and 4% (w/w) of barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ). The thermal properties were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the load dispersion and the morphology of the systems formed. The physical and anticorrosion properties of the coatings were also investigated. The interaction of the MMT with the polymeric matrix, associated to the aspect ratio, resulted in better barrier properties, thermal stability, and adhesion to the metal substrate.

  16. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalili, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid. • 2 wt% of zinc dust in zinc-rich paint was substituted by aluminum nanoparticles. • Surface modified aluminum nanoparticle improved the cathodic period of protection. • Aluminum nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion protection of the zinc-rich coating. - Abstract: Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  17. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid. • 2 wt% of zinc dust in zinc-rich paint was substituted by aluminum nanoparticles. • Surface modified aluminum nanoparticle improved the cathodic period of protection. • Aluminum nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion protection of the zinc-rich coating. - Abstract: Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties

  18. Electrochemical investigation of the properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticle as a corrosion inhibitive pigment for modifying corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, M.; Rasouli, S.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Askari, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion inhibitive pigment based on ZnOCo was synthesized through combustion method. • Doping ZnO nanoparticle with Co enhanced its inhibition properties considerably. • ZnOCo nanoparticle could enhance corrosion protective performance of epoxy coating. • Co doped ZnO nanoparticles behaved as efficient barrier and inhibitive pigment. - Abstract: Co doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion method. Then, the epoxy nanocomposites were prepared using various amounts of nanoparticles. Salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used in order to investigate the corrosion inhibition effects of nanoparticles on the steel substrate. The morphology and composition of the films precipitated on the steel surface were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results revealed that the corrosion inhibition properties of ZnO nanoparticle were significantly enhanced after doping with Co. Moreover, Co doped ZnO nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating effectively

  19. Influence of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Moshabab A.; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; Almoammar, Salem; Durgesh, Bangalore H.; Kheraif, Abdulaziz A. Al; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium surface coatings on surface roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires Methods. Three different coated (Epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and rhodium) and one uncoated Ni-Ti archwires were evaluated in the present study. Surface roughness (Ra) was assessed using a non-contact surface profilometer. The mechanical properties (nano-hardness and elastic modulus) were measured using a nanoindenter. Bacterial adhesion assays were performed using Streptococcus mutans (MS) and streptococcus sobrinus (SS) in an in-vitro set up. The data obtained were analyzed using analyses of variance, Tukey’s post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Result. The highest Ra values (1.29 ± 0.49) were obtained for epoxy coated wires and lowest Ra values (0.29 ± 0.16) were obtained for the uncoated wires. No significant differences in the Ra values were observed between the rhodium coated and uncoated archwires (P > 0.05). The highest nano-hardness (3.72 ± 0.24) and elastic modulus values (61.15 ± 2.59) were obtained for uncoated archwires and the lowest nano-hardness (0.18 ± 0.10) and elastic modulus values (4.84 ± 0.65) were observed for epoxy coated archwires. No significant differences in nano-hardness and elastic modulus values were observed between the coated archwires (P > 0.05). The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (MS) to the wires was significantly greater than that of streptococcus sobrinus (SS). The epoxy coated wires demonstrated an increased adhesion of MS and SS and the uncoated wires demonstrated decreased biofilm adhesion. The Spearman correlation test showed that MS and SS adhesion was positively correlated with the surface roughness of the wires. Conclusion. The different surface coatings significantly influence the roughness, nano-mechanical properties and biofilm adhesion parameters of the archwires. The

  20. Corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating applied on the steel substrate pre-treated by a sol-gel based silane coating filled with amino and isocyanate silane functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Nafise; Ramezanzadeh, Bahram; Shahrabi, Taghi

    2018-05-01

    This research has focused on the effect of graphene oxide (GO) nano-fillers embedded in the sol-gel based silane coating on the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating applied on the steel substrate pre-treated by silane coatings. For this purpose, a mixture of Methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) silane precursors was used for preparation of composite matrix and the GO nanosheets, which are covalently functionalized with 3-(Triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (TEPI, IGO nano-fillers) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES, AGO nano-fillers), were used as filler. The GO, AGO and IGO nanosheets were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Visible analysis and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniques. The performance of the silane/epoxy coatings was investigated by pull-off adhesion, cathodic delamination, salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Results revealed that AGO and IGO nano-fillers significantly improved the corrosion resistance and adhesion properties of the top epoxy coating due to better compatibility with silane matrix, excellent barrier properties and the formation of covalent bonds with the top epoxy coating.

  1. Influence of the Addition of Montmorillonite in an Epoxy Powder Coating Applied on Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza,Diego; Baldissera,Alessandra Fiorini; Kunst,Sandra Raquel; Rieder,Ester Schmidt; Scienza,Lisete Cristine; Ferreira,Carlos Arthur; Zattera,Ademir José

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPolymer coatings have been used for the corrosion protection of metal surfaces acting as a physical barrier against several corroding media. In spite of the good efficiency of these coatings their resistance is limited due to the presence of localized defects which give place to localized corrosion. Aiming to improve the barrier properties of these coatings this work has proposed the use of nanocomposites as powder coatings based on a standard formulation of a commercial powder varnis...

  2. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of an epoxy-polyamide coating containing different ratios of micaceous iron oxide/Al pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikravesh, B.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Sarabi, A.A.; Kasiriha, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of the coating was improved using MIO and Al pigments. → The greatest coating corrosion resistance was observed at MIO/Al ratio of 10/90. → The cathodic disbonded area of the coating was decreased using MIO and Al particles. → The lowest disbonded area was observed at MIO/Al ratio of 10/90. → Al particles had high capability of reacting with the OH - ions. - Abstract: The corrosion resistance of an epoxy coating reinforced with different ratios of MIO/Al pigments was studied. The coatings properties were investigated by an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray test, cathodic disbonding and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was improved using MIO (micaceous iron oxide) and Al pigments. The corrosion resistance of the purely Al pigmented coating was considerably greater than the purely MIO pigmented coating. The cathodic disbonded area of coating was decreased using MIO and Al pigments. The decrease in disbonded area was more pronounced in the presence of Al particles.

  3. Evolution of microstructure of epoxy coating during UV degradation progress studied by slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fuwei; Yin, Mingxi; Xiong, Bangyun; Zheng, Feng; Mao, Wenfeng; Chen, Zhe; He, Chunqing; Zhao, Xipo; Fang, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decrements in S value and water uptake coefficient confirm the post-cure process. • Molecular chain scission leads to the formation of microporous structure. • The formation of an aged layer with high density is verified by EIS. - Abstract: Evolution of chemical functional groups, microstructure and water barrier properties of a polyamide-cured epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin, DGEBA) coating during ultraviolet A (UV-A) photo-oxidative aging is systematically investigated. At the early stage of aging, decrements of S parameter and water uptake coefficient indicate the formation of a more compact structure induced by the post-curing process. After 208 hours (h) of UV irradiation, a novel time constant at relatively high frequency (3.5 × 10 2 Hz) appears in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra suggesting that a microporous layer generates near the surface of DGEBA film. With the increase in irradiation time, overlap of two time constants at frequencies around 18 Hz and 3.7 × 10 3 Hz is observed after 1.33 h of immersion, indicating that the micropores grow towards the bulk and form more characteristic layers with microporous structures. After irradiation for 399 h, a low S parameter region near the sample surface is observed, which implies that a surface layer with low free volume may have formed. With longer exposure, EIS results also reveal that the water barrier property of the coating can be improved, which confirms the formation of the denser surface layer near the surface as a result of radical recombination during UV-A treatment

  4. Preparation of new biobased coatings from a triglycidyl eugenol derivative through thiol-epoxy click reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Dailyn; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Fernández Francos, Xavier; de la Flor1 López, Sílvia; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2018-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. A new triglycidyl eugenol derivative (3EPO-EU) was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and used as starting monomer in the preparation of novel bio-based thiol-epoxy thermosets. As thiols, commercially available tetrathiol derived from pentaerythritol (PETMP), a trithiol derived from eugenol (3SH-EU) and the hexathiol derived from squalene (6SH-SQ) were used in the presence of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine as the basic catalyst. A flexible diglycidy...

  5. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Baljinder K; Luangtriratana, Piyanuch; Duquesne, Sophie; Bourbigot, Serge

    2015-08-11

    Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m² heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  6. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder K. Kandola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m2 heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  7. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, A.N.K.; Thompson, I.

    2012-01-01

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (−850 to −950 mV) and high potential (−1200 to −1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 °C, compared to the more typical 230–240 °C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper presents and

  8. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadoon, A.N.K., E-mail: ammer.jadoon@bp.com [BP Exploration and Production Technology, Chertsey Road, Sunbury TW16-7LN (United Kingdom); Thompson, I. [GL Industrial Services UK, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11-3GR (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (-850 to -950 mV) and high potential (-1200 to -1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 Degree-Sign C, compared to the more typical 230-240 Degree-Sign C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper

  9. Anticorrosion efficiency of zinc-filled epoxy coatings containing conducting polymers and pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Kohl, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, January (2015), s. 1-20 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * zinc metal * organic coating Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2015

  10. Dual functions of imidazole-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) on the anticorrosive performance of graphene-based waterborne epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengbao; Du, Peng; Nan, Feng; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2018-06-01

    Dispersion of graphene nanosheets in a water and polymer matrix has been rarely achieved due to graphene’s hydrophobicity, which thus impedes its potential anticorrosive application. In this study, stable graphene aqueous dispersion was obtained by using imidazole-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as the dispersant with ultrasonic vibration. Stacked graphene sheets were exfoliated to a few layers via cation-π interaction between PIL and graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical impedance measurements were taken to investigate the anticorrosion performance of epoxy coatings with or without polymeric ionic liquid–graphene (PIL–G) hybrids. Results indicated that the PIL–G hybrid significantly enhanced the long-term protective performance of epoxy coatings, which was attributed to the synergistic effects of the corrosion-inhibitive PIL and impermeable graphene nanosheets.

  11. The role of crosslinkers in epoxy-amine crosslinked silicon sol-gel barrier protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreugdenhil, A.J.; Gelling, V.J.; Woods, M.E.; Schmelz, J.R.; Enderson, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The search for chromate replacements in corrosion prevention materials has identified the use of hybrid sol-gel coatings as one, very promising approach. Appropriately functionalized hybrid sol-gel materials can be crosslinked to enhance their chemical durability and mechanical strength. In this work, we evaluate three crosslinkers used in a tetramethoxysilane-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane binary sol-gel system in order to identify the role of the crosslinkers in corrosion protection. The crosslinkers examined were ethylenediamine, N-aminethylepiperazine, and diethylenetriamine. The sol-gel coatings were examined by contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Circuit modeling of the EIS results yielded valuable insights into the significant differences between the durabilities of the variously crosslinked coatings. Crosslinker hydrophobicity was identified as not playing a significant role whereas the number of reactive sites per crosslinker and the resulting morphology of the material may be an important parameter

  12. Preparation and surface characterization of novel epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Brus, Jiří; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Kotek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2005), s. 237-242 ISSN 1476-4865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Grant - others:European Union(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00306 Keywords : coatings * sol-gel process * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2005

  13. High-Performance Epoxy-Resin-Bonded Magnets Produced from the Sm2Fe17Nx Powders Coated by Copper and Zinc Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Machida, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Gin-ya

    2001-04-01

    Fine powders of Sm2Fe17Nx coated with copper metal reduced from CuCl2 and/or zinc metal subsequently derived by photo-decomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2] were prepared, and their magnetic properties were characterized in addition to those of epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the coated powders (Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx, Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx and Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx). The remanence (Br) and maximum energy product [(\\mathit{BH})max] of double metal-coated Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders were maintained at higher levels than those of single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx ones (Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx) even after heat treatment at 673 K since the oxidation resistance and thermal stability were effectively improved by formation of the thick and uniform protection layer on the surface of Sm2Fe17Nx particles. Moreover, the epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders possessed good corrosion resistance in air at 393 K which it resulted in the smaller thermal irreversible flux loss than that of uncoated and single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx powders in the temperature range of above 393 K.

  14. Electrosprayed core–shell solid dispersions of acyclovir fabricated using an epoxy-coated concentric spray head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe-Peng; Cui, Lei; Yu, Deng-Guang; Zhao, Zhuan-Xia; Chen, Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel structural solid dispersion (SD) taking the form of core–shell microparticles for poorly water-soluble drugs is reported for the first time. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer matrix, the SDs were fabricated using coaxial electrospraying (characterized by an epoxy-coated concentric spray head), although the core fluids were unprocessable using one-fluid electrospraying. Through manipulating the flow rates of the core drug-loaded solutions, two types of core–shell microparticles with tunable drug contents were prepared. They had average diameters of 1.36±0.67 and 1.74±0.58 μm, and were essentially a combination of nanocomposites with the active ingredient acyclovir (ACY) distributed in the inner core, and the sweeter sucralose and transmembrane enhancer sodium dodecyl sulfate localized in the outer shell. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that ACY, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sucralose were well distributed in the PVP matrix in an amorphous state because of favorable second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the core–shell microparticle SDs rapidly freed ACY within 1 minute and promoted nearly eightfold increases in permeation rate across the sublingual mucosa compared with raw ACY powders. PMID:24790437

  15. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  16. Synthesis of Polyurethane/Silica Modified Epoxy Polymer Based on 1,3-Propanediol for Coating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutviasari Nuraini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the synthesis of polyurethane/silica modified epoxy polymer using 1,3-propanediol has been conducted. Synthesis of polymers made by reaction of tolonate and 1,3-propanediol (ratio NCO/OH=2.5 as the building blocks of polyurethane with diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy and catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL.The total weight of the polyurethane used was 20% (w/w of the total epoxy. Based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectra indicated the existence of a new bond that is formed from the reaction of isocyanate group and hydroxyl group, where the hydroxyl groups derived from epoxy and 1,3-propanediol. The addition of silica (5, 10, and 15% w/w to epoxy into the epoxy-modified polyurethane has been carried out through sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. The isocyanate conversion rate for the addition of silica 5, 10, and 15% are 95.69; 100, and 100%, respectively. The morphology and element identification by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX, showed that Si element has been successfully added in the polymer. From the tensile strength and elongation analysis, also thermal stability analysis using Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA, the increase of silica amount into the polyurethane modified epoxy did not significantly affect to thermal properties, but decrease the tensile strength of the polymer.

  17. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  18. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N.V., E-mail: murillo@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, Toulouse (France); Ansart, F.; Bonino, J-P. [Université de Toulouse UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, Toulouse (France); Kunst, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Sul, Laboratory of Corrosion Research (LAPEC), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol–gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol–gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  19. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N. V.; Ansart, F.; Bonino, J.-P.; Kunst, S. R.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-08-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol-gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol-gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol-gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  20. Architectural optimization of an epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo-Gutiérrez, N.V.; Ansart, F.; Bonino, J-P.; Kunst, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    An epoxy-based hybrid sol–gel coating was prepared in various architectural configurations has been studied for the corrosion protection of a cast Elektron21 magnesium alloy. The creation of a single layer of this coating presents defects consisting of macro-pores and protuberances, which opens access for corrosive species to reach the metallic substrate. These defects are suspected to result from the high reactivity of the substrate, as well as to the irregular topography of the substrate disrupted by the microstructure of the own magnesium alloy. Hence, a sol–gel coating in bilayer architecture is proposed, where the first layer would “inert” the surface of the magnesium substrate, and the second layer would cover the defects of the first layer and also thickening the coating. The morphological characteristics of the sol–gel coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their corrosion behavior was evaluated by OCP (open circuit potential) monitoring and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride media. It is shown that both the architectural arrangement and the individual thickness of the first and second layers have an important influence on the anticorrosion performances of the protective system, just as much as its global thickness.

  1. Stronger Fire-Resistant Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, George M.; Parker, John A.; Kumar, Devendra

    1988-01-01

    New curing agent improves mechanical properties and works at lower temperature. Use of aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene curing agents yields stronger, more heat- and fire-resistant epoxy resins. Used with solvent if necessary for coating fabrics or casting films.

  2. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  3. Multi function Finishing and Pigment Printing of UV Cured Cotton/Polyester Fabrics Coated with Plasticized Epoxy Resin/ZnO Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.S.; Mousaa, I.M.; Ali, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton/ Polyester fabrics were coated with epoxy acrylate (EA) formulations plasticized by castor oil (CO), in the presence of benzophenone as initiator, ZnO (antibacterial agent) and pigment printing. Ultra violet (UV) irradiation was used as a curing system. The effect of UV irradiation time and CO percentage on the mechanical and crease recovery properties were investigated. The effect of the coating process on the cross-section feature by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the antibacterial properties, water retardance, colour difference and the durability for washing of the coated fabrics were also investigated. From the results, it was found that the crease recovery and antibacterial properties were enhanced. Also, the colour durability against multiple washing cycles gave adequate results after application of the investigated coating formulation. The most fitting castor oil per cent was found to be 45%, while the 3% ZnO recorded the best antibacterial and mechanical properties. The pigment per cent that gave the highest durability and adequate colour strength was 0.6%.

  4. Surface chemical functionalisation of epoxy photoresist-based microcantilevers with organic-coated TiO2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrosso, C.; Sardella, E.; Keller, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a solution-based approach has been used for chemically immobilising oleic acid (OLEA)-capped TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) on the surface of microcantilevers formed of SU-8, a negative tone epoxy photoresist. The immobilisation has been carried out at room temperature, under visible lig...

  5. Synthesize and characterization of a novel anticorrosive cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix (CoFe2O4-SiO2) to improve the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharagozlou, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Baradaran, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anticorrosive cobalt ferrite nanopigment dispersed in silica matrix was synthesized. • The nanopigment showed proper inhibition performance in solution study. • The nanopigment significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: This study aimed at studying the effect of an anticorrosive nickel ferrite nanoparticle dispersed in silica matrix (NiFe 2 O 4 -SiO 2 ) on the corrosion protection properties of steel substrate. NiFe 2 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 -SiO 2 nanopigments were synthesized and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, 1 wt.% of nanopigments was dispersed in an epoxy coating and the resultant nanocomposites were applied on the steel substrates. The corrosion inhibition effects of nanopigments were tested by an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray test. Results revealed that dispersing nickel ferrite nanoparticles in a silica matrix (NiFe 2 O 4 -SiO 2 ) resulted in the enhancement of the nanopigment dispersion in the epoxy coating matrix. Inclusion of 1 wt.% of NiFe 2 O 4 -SiO 2 nanopigment into the epoxy coating enhanced its corrosion protection properties before and after scratching.

  6. The effect of cerium-based conversion treatment on the cathodic delamination and corrosion protection performance of carbon steel-fusion-bonded epoxy coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Steel surface was treated by Ce and acid phosphoric solutions. • Ce treatment considerably enhanced the surface energy and produce nanoscale roughness. • Ce treated samples showed enhanced adhesion to FBE coating. • Ce treatment of steel significantly reduced the FBE cathodic delamination rate. • Ce treated sample showed enhanced corrosion resistance. - Abstract: The effect of surface pre-treatment of pipe surface by green cerium compound and phosphoric acid solution on the fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coating performance was studied. The composition and surface morphology of the steel samples treated by acid and Ce solutions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Also, the surface free energy was evaluated on these samples through contact angle measurements. In addition, the effect of Ce and acid washing procedures on the adhesion properties and corrosion protection performance of the FBE was examined by pull-off, salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Results showed that compared to acid washing, the chemical treatment by Ce solution noticeably increased the surface free energy of steel, improved the adhesion properties of FBE, decreased the cathodic delamination rate of FBE, and enhanced the coating corrosion resistance compared to the acid washed samples.

  7. Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysilvia Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½ e avaliou-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfícieMechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½ and the effect from surface treatment on coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

  8. Enhanced microwave absorption performance of lightweight absorber based on reduced graphene oxide and Ag-coated hollow glass spheres/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xu, Renxin; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of Ag-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Ag) and a small quantity of graphene sheets within the epoxy matrix, we have prepared a novel lightweight high efficiency microwave absorption composite. Compared with pure HGS@Ag and graphene composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum reflection loss of the novel composite are improved. Reflection loss exceeding −20 dB is obtained for composites in a wide frequency range and the minimum reflection loss reaches −46 dB while bandwidth less than −10 dB can reach up to 4.1 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness between 2 and 3.5 mm is chosen. The enhanced microwave absorption performance of the novel composite is due to the enhanced dielectric response, enhanced conductivity, and the trap of electromagnetic radiation with increased propagation paths by multiple reflections

  9. A new approach for enhancement of the corrosion protection properties and interfacial adhesion bonds between the epoxy coating and steel substrate through surface treatment by covalently modified amino functionalized graphene oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhizkar, N.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The steel substrate was treated by a covalently modified amino functionalized graphene oxide (fGO) film. •Deposition of fGO film at the interface of steel and epoxy could effectively improve the adhesion strength and corrosion protection properties. •More stable and stronger interfacial bonds was obtained when treating the interface by fGO film. -- Abstract: This study introduces a novel surface treatment approach of steel substrate by covalent modification of graphene oxide (fGO) nanosheets with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to improve the adhesion and corrosion protection properties of an epoxy coating. The effect of fGO film on the epoxy coating performance was studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Pull-off adhesion, salt spray and cathodic delamination tests. Results revealed that deposition of fGO film on steel surface can effectively improve the adhesion strength and corrosion protection properties and reduce the cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coating.

  10. Active corrosion protection performance of an epoxy coating applied on the mild steel modified with an eco-friendly sol-gel film impregnated with green corrosion inhibitor loaded nanocontainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the corrosion resistance, active protection, and cathodic disbonding performance of an epoxy coating were improved through surface modification of steel by a hybrid sol-gel system filled with green corrosion inhibitors loaded nanocontainer as intermediate layer on mild steel substrate. The green inhibitor loaded nanocontainers (GIN) were used to induce active inhibition performance in the protective coating system. The corrosion protection performance of the coated panels was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), salt spray, and cathodic disbonding tests. It was observed that the corrosion inhibition performance of the coated mild steel panels was significantly improved by utilization of active multilayer coating system. The inhibitor release from nanocontainers at the epoxy-silane film/steel interface resulted in the anodic and cathodic reactions restriction, leading to the lower coating delamination from the substrate and corrosion products progress. Also, the active inhibition performance of the coating system was approved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis on the panels with artificial defects. The inhibitive agents were released to the scratch region and blocked the active sites on the metal surface.

  11. Improved Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage Density of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite with Hydantoin Epoxy Resin Coated BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-04-22

    Energy storage materials are urgently demanded in modern electric power supply and renewable energy systems. The introduction of inorganic fillers to polymer matrix represents a promising avenue for the development of high energy density storage materials, which combines the high dielectric constant of inorganic fillers with supernal dielectric strength of polymer matrix. However, agglomeration and phase separation of inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix remain the key barriers to promoting the practical applications of the composites for energy storage. Here, we developed a low-cost and environmentally friendly route to modifying BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles by a kind of water-soluble hydantoin epoxy resin. The modified BT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) matrix and strong interfacial adhesion with the polymer matrix. The dielectric constants of the nanocomposites increased significantly with the increase of the coated BT loading, while the dielectric loss of the nanocomposites was still as low as that of the pure P(VDF-HFP). The energy storage density of the nanocomposites was largely enhanced with the coated BT loading at the same electric field. The nanocomposite with 20 vol % BT exhibited an estimated maximum energy density of 8.13 J cm(-3), which was much higher than that of pure P(VDF-HFP) and other dielectric polymers. The findings of this research could provide a feasible approach to produce high energy density materials for practical application in energy storage.

  12. Rapid capillary coating by epoxy-poly-(dimethylacrylamide): Performance in capillary zone electrophoresis of protein and polystyrene carboxylate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiari, M.; Cretich, M.; Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2001), s. 656-659 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary coating * capillary zone electrophoresis * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  13. Low content Ag-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and graphene for enhanced microwave absorption performance epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Chen, Xiaocheng; Su, Xiaogang; Zou, Yi; Huo, Siqi; Chen, Wei; Wang, Junpeng

    2018-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles was uniformly anchored on the surface of hollow poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres with a facile chemical method using hydrazine hydrate as reductant. Integrating these conducting hollow spheres (PANS@Ag) with chemical reduced graphene oxide (RGO) dispersed in epoxy resin, a lightweight microwave absorber was successfully prepared with enhanced microwave absorption performance. The chemical constitution and surface morphology of as-synthesized RGO and PANS@Ag powders were characterized by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM and SAED, while the electromagnetic properties of these different proportion PANS@Ag-RGO/EP samples were analyzed through vector network analyzer (VNA). The minimum reflection loss (RL) could reach up to ‑28.1 dB at 8.8 GHz with a layer thickness of 2 mm, and the corresponding effective absorption bandwidth (RL values less than ‑10 dB) was from 7.9 GHz to 9.8 GHz. However, the dosage of PANS@Ag and RGO was merely 3 wt% and 1 wt%, respectively. As the content of PANS@Ag powders decreased to 1 wt%, the PANS@Ag-RGO/EP samples still retained effective microwave absorption performance and the optimal RL was ‑14.7 dB. The density of as-prepared absorbers was in the range of 0.49 ∼ 0.87 g cm‑3. The low content, low density and enhanced microwave absorption performance endow the hybrid composites with competitive application prospect in stealth technology field.

  14. Studies on Preparation and Characterization of Aluminum Nitride-Coated Carbon Fibers and Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Hye Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work; the effects of an aluminum nitride (AlN ceramic coating on the thermal conductivity of carbon fiber-reinforced composites were studied. AlN were synthesized by a wet-thermal treatment (WTT method in the presence of copper catalysts. The WTT method was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace at above 1500 °C under an ammonia (NH3 gas atmosphere balanced by a nitrogen using aluminum chloride as a precursor. Copper catalysts pre-doped enhance the interfacial bonding of the AlN with the carbon fiber surfaces. They also help to introduce AlN bonds by interrupting aluminum oxide (Al2O3 formation in combination with oxygen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM; Transmission electron microscopy (TEM; and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the carbon fiber surfaces and structures at each step (copper-coating step and AlN formation step. In conclusion; we have demonstrated a synthesis route for preparing an AlN coating on the carbon fiber surfaces in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  15. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  16. IPN Polysiloxane-Epoxy Resin for High Temperature Coatings: Structure Effects on Layer Performance after 450 °C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giaveri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coatings for high temperatures (HT > 400 °C are obtained from interpenetrating polymer network (IPN binders formed by simultaneous polymerization of silicone and epoxide pre-polymers. A ceramic layer; mainly composed of silica and fillers; remains on the metal surface after a thermal treatment at 450 °C. The layer adhesion and the inorganic filler’s distribution have been investigated by, firstly, exchanging the organic substituents (methyl and phenyl of the silicone chains and, secondly, by adding conductive graphene nanoplatelets with the aim to assure a uniform distribution of heat during the thermal treatment. The results are evidence that different substituent ratios affect the polymer initial layout. The adhesion tests of paint formulations are analysed and were related to instrumental analyses performed using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES; thermal analyses (TG/DTA and DSC; electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX. A greater resistance to powdering using phenyl groups instead of methyl ones; and an improved distribution of fillers due to graphene nanoplatelet addition; is evidenced.

  17. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. PMID:28348313

  18. Improvement of the epoxy coating properties by incorporation of polyaniline surface treated TiO2 nanoparticles previously modified with vitamin B6

    OpenAIRE

    Radoman, Tijana S.; Džunuzović, Jasna V.; Grgur, Branimir; Gvozdenović, Milica M.; Jugović, Branimir; Miličević, Dejan S.; Džunuzović, Enis S.

    2016-01-01

    Novel TiO2-PANI core-shell nanocomposite, prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles surface modified with vitamin B6, was used to reinforce epoxy resin. The size of prepared TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2-PANI nanocomposite were determined by a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR and UV–vis spectroscopy, while the morphology of PANI and TiO2-PANI nanocomposite was investig...

  19. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    The scientific hypothesis of this work is that modulation of the properties of hard materials to exhibit abrasion-reducing and low-energy surfaces will extend the functional lifetimes of elastomeric seals pressed against them in abrasive underwater systems. The initial motivation of this work was to correct a problem noted in the leaking of seals at major hydropower generating facilities subject to fouling by abrasive zebra mussel shells and extensive corrosion. Similar biofouling-influenced problems can develop at seals in medical devices and appliances from regulators in anesthetic machines and SCUBA diving oxygen supply units to autoclave door seals, injection syringe gaskets, medical pumps, drug delivery components, and feeding devices, as well as in food handling equipment like pasteurizers and transfer lines. Maritime and many other heavy industrial seal interfaces could also benefit from this coating system. Little prior work has been done to elucidate the relationship of seal plate surface properties to the friction and wear of elastomeric seals during sliding contacts of these articulating materials, or to examine the secondary influence of mineralized debris within the contacting interfaces. This investigation utilized the seal materials relevant to the hydropower application---neoprene elastomer against carbon steel---with and without the application of a silicone-epoxy coating (WearlonRTM 2020.98) selected for its wear-resistance, hydrophobicity, and "easy-release" capabilities against biological fouling debris present in actual field use. Analytical techniques applied to these materials before and after wear-producing processes included comprehensive Contact Angle measurements for Critical Surface Tension (CA-CST) determination, Scanning Electron Microscopic inspections, together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements for determination of surface texture and inorganic composition, Multiple

  20. A built-in sensor with carbon nanotubes coated by Ag clusters for deformation monitoring of glass fibre/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, P.; Riha, P.; Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Lloret Pertegás, S.; Schledjewski, R.; Kovar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A multiwalled carbon nanotube network embedded in a polyurethane membrane was integrated into a glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite by means of vacuum infusion to become a part of the composite and has been serving for a strain self-sensing functionality. Besides the pristine nanotubes also nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles attached to their surfaces were used to increase strain sensing. Moreover, the design of the carbon nanotube/polyurethane sensor allowed formation of network micro-sized cracks which increased its reversible electrical resistance resulted in an enhancement of strain sensing. The resistance sensitivity, quantified by a gauge factor, increased more than hundredfold in case of a pre-strained sensor with Ag decorated nanotubes in comparison with the sensor with pristine nanotubes.

  1. Submicrometer characterization of surfaces of epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings. A comparison of AFM study with currently used testing techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bláhová, O.; Farkačová, T.; Benešová, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2006), s. 5763-5774 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanocomposite * coating * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2006

  2. The study of epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins as corrosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion resistance of two commonly used protective coatings (epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been assessed. The coatings on low carbon steel were subjected to varying conditions of pH, temperature and exposure time and the corrosion rates calculated. At a pH of 2, 3, 4, ...

  3. Synthesis and properties of a novel UV-cured fluorinated siloxane graft copolymer for improved surface, dielectric and tribological properties of epoxy acrylate coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenlong; Liu, Weiqu; Gao, Nan; Wang, Honglei; Su, Kui

    2013-01-01

    A novel functional fluorinated siloxane graft copolymer bearing with vinyl end-groups was synthesized from dihydroxypropyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), dicarboxyl terminated poly(2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl acrylate) oligomer (CTHFA), 2,4-toluene diissocyanate (TDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and GPC. The effect of concentration of the vinyl-capped fluorosilicone graft copolymer (Vi-PFSi) on the surface, thermal properties, dielectric and tribological properties of UV-cured films was investigated. Contact angles and surface energies showed that the high hydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces were obtained by incorporation of Vi-PFSi at very low amount (0.5 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the fluorinated and siloxane moiety selectively migrated to the outermost surface of UV-cured film, thus reduced its surface energy from 45.42 to 15.40 mN/m 2 without affecting its bulk properties. The morphology of fracture surface of modified film exhibited rough fracture surface only at the outermost surface, revealing fluorinated and siloxane groups migrated toward air-side surface. The dielectric constants decreased from 5.32 (1 MHz) for bisphenol-A epoxy methacrylate (EMA) to 2.82 (1 MHz) for modified film when the Vi-PFSi copolymer concentration increased from 0 to 0.8 wt%. Tribological results from abrasion tester suggested that the Vi-PFSi could obviously reduce the abrasion weight loss of modified films.

  4. Combined use of lightweight magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-coated hollow glass spheres and electrically conductive reduced graphene oxide in an epoxy matrix for microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wgdfrp@whut.edu.cn; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin based lightweight composites comprising Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared. Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic are used for analysis of the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and RGO composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites are enhanced. RL values less than −10 dB are obtained in a wide frequency range and the corresponding bandwidth can reach up to 3.6 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness is chosen. The density of the hybrid composite is in the range of 0.57–0.72 g/cm{sup 3}, which is attractive candidate for a new type of lightweight microwave absorber. - Highlights: • Lightweight composites comprising HGS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and RGO were prepared. • The RL less than −10 dB can reach up to 3.6 GHz with layer thickness of 2.5 mm. • The density of the composites is in the range of 0.57−0.72 g/cm{sup 3}.

  5. Incorporation of the Fe3O4 and SiO2 nanoparticles in epoxy-modified silicone resin as the coating for soft magnetic composites with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dahao; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2018-04-01

    Three inorganic-organic hybrids have been designed by incorporating epoxy-modified silicone resin (ESR) with SiO2, Fe3O4 and their mixture in the application as the coating of Fe soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The introduced SiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the ESR, while the Fe3O4 tends to agglomerate or even separate from the ESR. Simultaneous addition of the SiO2 and Fe3O4 gives rise to satisfactory distribution of both nanoparticles and optimized magnetic performance of the SMCs with high permeability (124.6) and low loss (807.8 mW/cm3). On one hand, introduction of the ferromagnetic Fe3O4 reduces the magnetic dilution effect, which is beneficial for improved magnetization and permeability. On the other hand, SiO2 incorporation prevents the agglomeration of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and gives rise to increased electrical resistivity for reduced core loss as well as enhanced mechanical strength of the SMCs.

  6. The optimal structure-conductivity relation in epoxy-phthalocyanine nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, L.J.; Brom, H.B.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Kemerink, M.; Chen, Z.; Goeje, de M.P.; Yuan, M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalcon-11 (aquocyanophthalocyaninatocobalt (III)) forms semiconducting nanocrystals that can be dispersed in epoxy coatings to obtain a semiconducting material with a low percolation threshold. We investigated the structure-cond. relation in this composite and the deviation from its optimal

  7. Gold Nanospheres Dispersed Light Responsive Epoxy Vitrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitrimers represent a new class of smart materials. They are covalently crosslinked like thermosets, yet they can be reprocessed like thermoplastics. The underlying mechanism is the rapid exchange reactions which form new bonds while breaking the old ones. So far, heating is the most widely used stimulus to activate the exchange reaction. Compared to heating, light not only is much more convenient to achieve remote and regional control, but can also offer fast healing. Gold nanospheres are excellent photothermal agents, but they are difficult to disperse into vitrimers as they easily aggregate. In this paper, we use polydopamine to prepare gold nanospheres. The resultant polydopamine-coated gold nanospheres (GNS can be well dispersed into epoxy vitrimers, endowing epoxy vitrimers with light responsivity. The composites can be reshaped permanently and temporarily with light at different intensity. Efficient surface patterning and healing are also demonstrated.

  8. Bio-Based Aromatic Epoxy Monomers for Thermoset Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polymers from renewable resources is a burning issue that is actively investigated. Polyepoxide networks constitute a major class of thermosetting polymers and are extensively used as coatings, electronic materials, adhesives. Owing to their outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, chemical resistance, adhesion, and minimal shrinkage after curing, they are used in structural applications as well. Most of these thermosets are industrially manufactured from bisphenol A (BPA, a substance that was initially synthesized as a chemical estrogen. The awareness on BPA toxicity combined with the limited availability and volatile cost of fossil resources and the non-recyclability of thermosets implies necessary changes in the field of epoxy networks. Thus, substitution of BPA has witnessed an increasing number of studies both from the academic and industrial sides. This review proposes to give an overview of the reported aromatic multifunctional epoxide building blocks synthesized from biomass or from molecules that could be obtained from transformed biomass. After a reminder of the main glycidylation routes and mechanisms and the recent knowledge on BPA toxicity and legal issues, this review will provide a brief description of the main natural sources of aromatic molecules. The different epoxy prepolymers will then be organized from simple, mono-aromatic di-epoxy, to mono-aromatic poly-epoxy, to di-aromatic di-epoxy compounds, and finally to derivatives possessing numerous aromatic rings and epoxy groups.

  9. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.; Newey, H.A.

    Primary diamines are prepared for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and preimpregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses a room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  10. The study of a Mg-rich epoxy primer for protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiangyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zuo Yu, E-mail: zuoy@mail.buct.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao Xuhui; Tang Yuming; Feng Xingguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles in epoxy coating. Cross scratch testing results showed that in 3% NaCl solution the Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. {yields} The open circuit potential of AZ91D alloy in NaCl solution decreased after coated with Mg-rich coating, suggesting that cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich coating on AZ91D alloy was present. {yields} EIS studies showed that during the immersion tests of AZ91D alloy with Mg-rich coating the magnesium particles in coating dissolved with the charge-transfer resistance R{sub ct} at the magnesium particle/coating interface decreased and the double-layer capacitance Q{sub dl} increased. While the coating resistance remained stable for a long time and corrosion of the AZ91D alloy substrate was obviously delayed. - Abstract: A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles to an epoxy coating. The coating properties were studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. The open circuit potential measurements showed cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich primer on AZ91D alloy. Cross scratch testing showed that the Mg-rich primer provided better protection for the substrate than original epoxy coating. The precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} in the coating also provided some degree of barrier protection.

  11. The study of a Mg-rich epoxy primer for protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangyu; Zuo Yu; Zhao Xuhui; Tang Yuming; Feng Xingguo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles in epoxy coating. Cross scratch testing results showed that in 3% NaCl solution the Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. → The open circuit potential of AZ91D alloy in NaCl solution decreased after coated with Mg-rich coating, suggesting that cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich coating on AZ91D alloy was present. → EIS studies showed that during the immersion tests of AZ91D alloy with Mg-rich coating the magnesium particles in coating dissolved with the charge-transfer resistance R ct at the magnesium particle/coating interface decreased and the double-layer capacitance Q dl increased. While the coating resistance remained stable for a long time and corrosion of the AZ91D alloy substrate was obviously delayed. - Abstract: A Mg-rich epoxy primer was prepared by adding pure magnesium particles to an epoxy coating. The coating properties were studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Mg-rich primer showed better protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy than the same epoxy primer without Mg addition. The open circuit potential measurements showed cathodic protection effect of the Mg-rich primer on AZ91D alloy. Cross scratch testing showed that the Mg-rich primer provided better protection for the substrate than original epoxy coating. The precipitation of Mg(OH) 2 in the coating also provided some degree of barrier protection.

  12. Plasma Treated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nanocoating of allylamine were deposited on the surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs to provide desirable functionalities and thus to tailor the surface characteristics of MWCNTs for improved dispersion and interfacial adhesion in epoxy matrices. Plasma nanocoated MWCNTs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, surface contact angle, and pH change measurements. Mechanical testing results showed that epoxy reinforced with 1.0 wt % plasma coated MWCNTs increased the tensile strength by 54% as compared with the pure epoxy control, while epoxy reinforced with untreated MWCNTs have lower tensile strength than the pure epoxy control. Optical and electron microscopic images show enhanced dispersion of plasma coated MWCNTs in epoxy compared to untreated MWCNTs. Plasma nanocoatings from allylamine on MWCNTs could significantly enhance their dispersion and interfacial adhesion in epoxy matrices. Simulation results based on the shear-lag model derived from micromechanics also confirmed that plasma nanocoating on MWCNTs significantly improved the epoxy/fillers interface bonding and as a result the increased composite strength.

  13. Silane coupling agent for attaching fusion-bonded epoxy to steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine R; Belec, Lénaïk; Aragon, Emmanuel; Joliff, Yoann; Lanarde, Lise; Perrin, François-Xavier

    2013-07-24

    We describe the possibility of using γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) to increase the durability of epoxy powder coating/steel joints. The curing temperature of epoxy powder coatings is frequently above 200 °C, which is seen so far as a major limitation for the use of the heat-sensitive aminosilane coupling agent. Despite this limitation, we demonstrate that aminosilane is a competitive alternative to traditional chromate conversion to enhance the durability of epoxy powder coatings/steel joints. Fourier-transform reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to identify the silane deposition conditions that influence the adhesion of epoxy powder coatings on steel. We show that AFM analysis provides highly sensitive measurements of mechanical property development and, as such, the degree of condensation of the silane. The joint durability in water at 60 °C was lower when the pH of the γ-APS solution was controlled at 4.6 using formic acid, rather than that at natural pH (10.6). At the curing temperature of 220 °C, oxidation of the carbon adjacent to the amine headgroup of γ-APS gives amide species by a pseudofirst-order kinetics. However, a few amino functionalities remain to react with oxirane groups of epoxy resin and, thus, strengthen the epoxy/silane interphase. The formation of ammonium formate in the acidic silane inhibits the reaction between silane and epoxy, which consequently decreases the epoxy/silane interphase cohesion. We find that the nanoroughness of silane deposits increases with the cure temperature which is beneficial to the wet stability of the epoxy/steel joints, due to increased mechanical interlocking.

  14. Corrosion-Protection Coatings for Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Study investigates 21 combinatios of surface treatments, primers and topcoats. Study considers several types of coatings, including primers, enamels, chlorinated rubbers, alkyds, epoxies, vinyls, polyurethanes, waterbased paints, and antifouling paints. 20-page report summarizes the study.

  15. Treatment of high-latency microcapsules containing an aluminium complex with an epoxy-functionalised trialkoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    Some aluminium complexes are excellent catalysts of cationic polymerisation and are used for low-temperature and fast-curing adhesive, used in electronic part mounting. Microencapsulation is a suitable technique for getting high latency of the catalysts and long shelf life of the adhesives. For the higher latency in a cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, the microcapsule surface which retained small amount of aluminium complex was coated with epoxy polymer and the effect was examined. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results, the surface was recognised to be sufficiently coated and the differential scanning calorimetric analyses showed that the coating did not significantly affect the low-temperature and fast-curing properties of adhesive. After storing the mixture of cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, coated microcapsules, triphenylsilanol and silane coupling agent for 48 h at room temperature, the increase in viscosity was only 0.01 Pa s, resulting in the excellent shelf life.

  16. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  17. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  18. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periolatto, M.; Sangermano, M.; Spena, P. Russo

    2016-05-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  19. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, Bolzano (Italy); Sangermano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  20. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo; Sangermano, M.

    2016-01-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  1. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  2. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  3. Preparation and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with polyglycidyl methacrylate grafted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Viswanath, Anand; Schadler, Linda S; Benicewicz, Brian C; Siegel, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Visibly highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing polyglycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) grafted ITO nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy resin. The oleic acid stabilized, highly crystalline, and near monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a nonaqueous synthetic route with multigram batch quantities. An azido-phosphate ligand was synthesized and used to exchange with oleic acid on the ITO surface. The azide terminal group allows for the grafting of epoxy resin compatible PGMA polymer chains via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide "click" chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that PGMA grafted ITO particles were homogeneously dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Optical properties of ITO/epoxy nanocomposites with different ITO concentrations were studied with an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrometer. All the ITO/epoxy nanocomposites show more than 90% optical transparency in the visible light range and absorption of UV light from 300 to 400 nm. In the near-infrared region, ITO/epoxy nanocomposites demonstrate low transmittance and the infrared (IR) transmission cutoff wavelength of the composites shifts toward the lower wavelength with increased ITO concentration. The ITO/epoxy nanocomposites were applied onto both glass and plastic substrates as visibly transparent and UV/IR opaque optical coatings.

  4. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30–300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  5. Multifunctionality in epoxy/glass fibers composites with graphene interphase

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Haroon

    2017-01-01

    In this project, the synergetic effect of a graphene interphase in epoxy/glass fibers composites was investigated by coating glass fibers (GF) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. Graphite oxide was prepared using modified Hummers method in which raw graphite powder was oxidized using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic solution. Using ultrasonic technique, the graphite oxide was dispersed homogenously in w...

  6. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, C.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Oteo, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30-300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  7. Organo-Aluminate Polymeric Materials as Advanced Erosion/Corrosion Resistant Thin Film Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The coating system is based on the development of carboxylato- alumoxane precursors for fabrication of corrosion resistant oxide barrier layers and alumoxane-epoxy based primer coats...

  8. Adhesion and corrosion studies of a lithium based conversion coating film on the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.R.S.; Nogueira, J.C.; Thim, G.P.; Oliveira, M.A.S.

    2004-01-01

    AA2024-T3-aluminum alloy surfaces were coated using non-chromate and chromate conversion coatings. All coatings were painted with the 10P4-2-primer epoxy resin. Independent on the film formation process, films passed on the substrate/conversion coating wet tape adhesion test. However, only the chromate conversion coating passed on the conversion coating/primer epoxy resin adhesion test. Electrochemical corrosion measurements showed that non-chromate conversion coated surfaces present lower corrosion current density, bigger polarization resistance and less negative corrosion potential than chromate conversion coated surfaces

  9. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... and modifiers to create products with an almost unlimited range and variety of performance properties [The epoxy book, 2000]. Epoxy resins are widely used as high-grade synthetic resins, for example, in the electronics, aeronautics and astronautic industries...

  10. Formulation of eb-curable epoxy resin : some important parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd; Hosoi, Fumio; Sasaki, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    The works on the electron-beam curing of surface coatings using epoxy acrylic-based resins were discussed. The works covered among other things the effect of molecular weights of the resins on the physical properties of coatings and their physical and chemical characterizations. The emphasis was given to formulating the resins applicable to surface coatings. Curings were done on a low-energy electron beam accelerator operating at 250 kV. A number of parameters deemed important to formulations, such as the molecular weights of the oligomers and monomers, monomer ratios, and HEA additions were explored. It was found that one could modify the physical properties of the coatings by changing or adjusting those parameters. (author)

  11. Flame resistant hybrid epoxy composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Śliwa, R.; Oleksy, M.; Heneczkowski, M.; Oliwa, R.; Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Markowska, O.; Strachota, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2015), s. 667-670 ISSN 0032-2725 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy resin * quaternary phosphonium salts * modified bentonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  12. Improved Metallography Of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1991-01-01

    New technique for preparation of metallographic samples makes interpretation of images of pores and microcracks more reliable. Involves use of vacuum epoxy infiltration and interference-film coating to reduce uncertainty. Developed for inspection of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal-barrier coatings on metals but applicable to other porous, translucent materials, including many important ceramics.

  13. Effect of Sonification Time on Synthesisi and Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Bahrami Panah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many research works have been carried out on anti-corrosive nanocomposites coatings containing mineral reinforcements. The most important criteria in these attempts are polymerization method and the type of matrix and reinforcement of nanocomposites. In this regard, the physical and mechanical properties of the polymers in which a small amount of filler is used can be improved. In this research, an epoxy-clay nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ polymerization method using a resin matrix based on bisphenol-A type epoxy and montmorillonite clay (Closite 15A. The treatment was used at different ultrasonic stirring times to disperse 1-4 weight percentages of clay particles into the matrix. The structure of synthesized epoxy-clay nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average size of clay particles was determined by X-ray diffraction measurement. Then, anti-corrosion properties of epoxy-clay coatings, prepared under different ultrasonic durations and applied on carbon steel panels, were investigated by Tafel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. For this purpose, the carbon steel panels coated with these coatings were immersed in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and tested at different immersion times. The results indicated that a nanocomposite containing 1% clay, synthesized, stirred 60 min ultrasonically, produced smaller particle size, lower corrosion current density and higher coating corrosion resistance than the other composite formulations. This nanocomposite provided superior protection against corrosion in sodium chloride solution.

  14. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  15. How PE tape performs under concrete coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritt, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The program objectives were to evaluate the performance of polyethylene tape plant coating and fusion bonded epoxy powder systems with particular respect to the following: 1. Concrete coating application procedures; 2. The shear resistance during laying and retrieving operations of the coating at the various interfaces (a) Pipe and anti-corrosion coating; (b) Anti-corrosion coating and outerwrap; (c) Overlap areas of the anti-corrosion and outerwrap layers; (d) Between concrete and the various corrosion coatings during laying and retrieving operations. 3. Resistance to damage of the coating as a consequence of cracking or slippage of the concrete weight coating. 4. Ability of various coatings to withstand the damage during concrete application by both impact and compression methods; 5. Evaluation of tape and shrink sleeve joint coatings at the cut-back area as well as performance of tape under hot asphalt coating

  16. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  17. Strand Burner Results of AFP-001 Propellant with Inert Coating for Temperature Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    there were 4 different configurations: baseline, a C-100 coated, an SC-11 coated, and a urethane acrylate (UA) coated. C-100 is a polyurea based...coating, SC-11 is an epoxy-based coating, and UA is a urethane- acrylate -based coating. These coatings were chosen to target a specific strength...Ignition was achieved by running current through a nichrome wire placed on top of the sample. Events were recorded with a Phantom high-speed camera

  18. Influence of nanoclay particles modification by polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer on the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjaee Sari, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Shahbazi, M.; Pakdel, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoclay particles were modified with polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer. • Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared using modified clay particles. • Surface modification enhanced the clay particles exfoliation properties. • Surface modified clay particles enhanced corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanoclay particles was carried out by various amounts of polyester-amide hyperbranched polymer (HBP). Thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to estimate the efficiency of the HPB grafting on the clay particles. Epoxy/clay nanocomposites were prepared by addition of 1 wt.% unmodified and modified clays. The corrosion protection properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that surface modification of the clay particles by HBP caused significant enhancement of the epoxy coating corrosion resistance especially when the ‘polymer/clay’ ratios were 10/1 and 5/1

  19. Studies on preparation and properties of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huayang; Cao Qi; Wang Xianyou; Chen Quanqi; Kuang Hao; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We use the modified MWNTs as fillers fabricated epoxy nanocomposites. → The mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of nanocomposites are measured. → The nanocomposites exhibited better mechanical and dielectric properties. - Abstract: The MWNTs were coated with polyaniline (PANI) by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the MWNTs were coated with PANI. The MWNTs/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by using the solution blending method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, HP 4294A impedance analyzer and SEM were used to investigate the properties of the nanocomposites. The results showed that the modified carbon nanotubes were well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The nanocomposites have enhancements in mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties compare with the neat epoxy resin. The nanocomposites were proven to be a good polymer dielectric material.

  20. The role of the substrate in micro-scale scratching of epoxy-polyester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.

    2011-02-01

    The present investigation analyzes the deformation response of electrostatically sprayed epoxy-polyester powder coatings by 'in situ' micro-mechanical tests. The characterization of the performance of the coatings was carried out by micro-scale scratching, by varying the indenter type, the applied load and the sliding speed. The tests were carried out on polymeric coatings deposited on as-received, micro and macro-corrugated AISI 304 stainless steel substrates and 'rigidly adhered' to them. Further tests were performed on 'free-standing' coatings, that is, on the as-received metal substrates pre-coated with an intermediate layer of silicon-based heat curable release coating. Experimental data allow us to evaluate the influence of the contact conditions between substrate and indenter and the role of the loading conditions on the scratch and penetration resistance of the epoxy-polyester coatings. The different responses of the polymeric coatings when deposited on untreated or pre-treated substrates as well as on an intermediate layer of release coating, contribute to a better understanding of the intrinsic roles of the polymeric material and substrate as well as the influence of the interfacial adhesion between coating and substrate.

  1. Analysis of electrochemical noise data in both time and frequency domains to evaluate the effect of ZnO nanopowder addition on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy–ZnO nanocomposite coatings have been developed for corrosion protection of steel. Structural characterization of the prepared nanocomposites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The anti-corrosive properties of the coatings were evaluated by electrochemical noise (EN. On the basis of the EN results in both time and frequency domains, the nanocomposite material with low ZnO concentration (0.1% wt.% was found to be much superior in corrosion protection when tested in aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Finally, EIS measurements were carried out and the data fitted with suitable equivalent circuit. Resistance parameters obtained by both techniques were found to be in relatively good agreement.

  2. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... are electrical insulators, and the widespread use of the epoxy resins for many high-performance applications is constrained because of their inherent brittleness, delamination and fracture toughness limitations. There were quite a few approaches to enhance...

  3. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  4. Synthesis, structure and properties of novel epoxy and rubber-modified epoxy impregnated Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.; Lim, F.W.; Chisholm, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, structure and properties of novel YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x (123) - polymer composites. The polymers used were epoxy and rubber-modified epoxy resins. Superconducting composites with good strength, toughness, hardness and chemical resistance have been successfully fabricated. The presence of polymer(s) does not appear to affect the superconducting (T c ) of about 90 K. Levitation experiments show that the height (z) of the levitating magnet depends on sample thickness, and mass and pole strength of the magnet. A simple image force model best describes the observed dependence of z on the mass and pole strength. Atomic absorption and pH measurements in the corrosion study show that the polymer coating provides an impermeable barrier to the ingress of solvents and a concomitant resistance to phase decomposition. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Induces Multifunctionality in Epoxy Nanocomposites by Simultaneous Improvement in Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, Leslie; Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Idowu, Adeyinka; Boesl, Benjamin; Agarwal, Arvind

    2017-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene foam based multifunctional epoxy composites are developed in this study. Facile dip-coating and mold-casting techniques are employed to engineer microstructures with tailorable thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. These processing techniques allow capillarity-induced equilibrium filling of graphene foam branches, creating epoxy/graphene interfaces with minimal separation. Addition of 2 wt % graphene foam enhances the glass transition temperature of epoxy from 106 to 162 °C, improving the thermal stability of the polymer composite. Graphene foam aids in load-bearing, increasing the ultimate tensile strength by 12% by merely 0.13 wt % graphene foam in an epoxy matrix. Digital image correlation (DIC) analysis revealed that the graphene foam cells restrict and confine the deformation of the polymer matrix, thereby enhancing the load-bearing capability of the composite. Addition of 0.6 wt % graphene foam also enhances the flexural strength of the pure epoxy by 10%. A 3D network of graphene branches is found to suppress and deflect the cracks, arresting mechanical failure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the composites demonstrated their vibration damping capability, as the loss tangent (tan δ) jumps from 0.1 for the pure epoxy to 0.24 for ∼2 wt % graphene foam-epoxy composite. Graphene foam branches also provide seamless pathways for electron transfer, which induces electrical conductivity exceeding 450 S/m in an otherwise insulator epoxy matrix. The epoxy-graphene foam composite exhibits a gauge factor as high as 4.1, which is twice the typical gauge factor for the most common metals. Simultaneous improvement in thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of epoxy due to 3D graphene foam makes epoxy-graphene foam composite a promising lightweight and multifunctional material for aiding load-bearing, electrical transport, and motion sensing in aerospace, automotive, robotics, and smart device structures.

  6. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  8. Study by dynamic light scattering of an o/w emulsion of an epoxi resin dispersed in water by means of a triblock copolymer of type PEO-PPO-PEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscanga, E. H.; Rio, J. M. del; Avendano-Gomez, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    The curing epoxy resins are widely used in various fields of chemical industry, such as adhesives, automotive, coatings, etc. The process operation consisting of flow and mixing of epoxy resins become difficult due to their high viscosity. One solution is to dissolve the epoxy resin in volatile organic solvents (VOS) such as toluene, xylene or benzene. However, the use of VOS is not only expensive but harmful to the environment. (Author)

  9. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings

  10. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  11. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the University of Houston. Testing was conducted over a period of six months to evaluate the coating’s (1) chemical resistance and (2) bonding strength for infrastructure applications. For chemical resistance, coated concrete and clay bricks with holidays (holes created in the coating) were used to evaluate the chemical resistance of the coating/substrate bond under a corrosive environment. Twenty coated concrete (dry and wet) and 20 coated clay brick (dry and wet) specimens were exposed to DI water and sulfuric acid solution (pH=1), and the specimens were visually inspected and weight changes measured. Evaluation of the coating-to-substrate bonding strength was determined using two modified ASTM test methods – one to determine bond strength of the coating with two specimens sandwiched together using the coating, and the second to determine the bond strength by applying a tensile load to the coating applied to specimens of each substrate. Forty-eight bonding tests were performed over the six month evaluation. The tests resulted in the following conclusions about Standard Cement’s SEC 4553 coating: • After the six-month chemi

  12. Epoxy cracking in the epoxy-impregnated superconducting winding: nonuniform dissipation of stress energy in a wire-epoxy matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Iwasa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors present the epoxy-crack-induced temperature data of copper wires imbedded in wire-epoxy resin composite model at 4.2 K. The experimental results show that the epoxy-crackinduced temperature rise is higher in the copper wires than in the epoxy matrix, indicating that in stress-induced wire-epoxy failure, stress energy stored in the wire-epoxy matrix is preferrentially dissipated in the wire. A plausible mechanism of the nonuniform dissipation is presented

  13. Evaluation of Nanomaterial Approaches to Damping in Epoxy Resin and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Heimann, Paula J.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Johnston, J. Chris; Roberts, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration mitigation in composite structures has been demonstrated through widely varying methods which include both active and passive damping. Recently, nanomaterials have been investigated as a viable approach to composite vibration damping due to the large surface available to generate energy dissipation through friction. This work evaluates the influence of dispersed nanoparticles on the damping ratio of an epoxy matrix. Limited benefit was observed through dispersion methods, however nanoparticle application as a coating resulting in up to a three-fold increase in damping.

  14. Wear resistance and electrical properties of functionally graded epoxy-resin/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, Y. A.; Abd El-Bary, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper graded Silica/Epoxy composite fabricated by controlled mold filling to obtain a stepwise graded structure. The generated graded structure was controlled by the w 1% content of silica particulates of size range from (45 μm-250 μm). Microstructural characterization was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electrical properties were conducted in High Voltage-Lab using Sphere-Plate Electrode System and Insulating resistance equipment s. Wear characteristics were studied using Block-on-Ring wear testing machine for the different layers of the graded silica/epoxy composites, The prepared materials are used as coating materials for the floors of chemical laboratories. (Author)

  15. Prediction of energy absorption characteristics of aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidt, D; Figiel, Ł; Buggy, M

    2012-01-01

    This research aims ultimately at improving the impact performance of laminates by applying a coating of epoxy containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here, 2D and 3D computational modelling was carried out to predict energy absorption characteristics of aligned CNT/epoxy nanocomposites subjected to macroscopic compression under different strain rates (quasi-static and impact rates). The influence of the rate-dependent matrix behaviour, CNT aspect ratio and CNT volume fraction on the energy absorption characteristics of the nanocomposites was evaluated. A strong correlation between those parameters was found, which provides an insight into a rate-dependent behaviour of the nanocomposites, and can help to tune their energy absorption characteristics.

  16. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases

  17. Experimental use of Line-X coated steel pipe piles, Clay Hill Bridge (#2157) replacement project over the Mousam River, Route 9/Western Avenue, Kennebunk, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Steel pipe piles used by MaineDOT for bridge construction are typically coated with a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE). FBE is a powder-based coating with properties similar to traditional : epoxies. Its name is derived from the process by which it adheres ...

  18. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  19. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.; Pastine, Stefan J.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Frechet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic films with fractal structures using epoxy resin microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Li-Zhi, E-mail: lzzhang@scut.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    A simple method has been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with fractal structures with epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs). The ERMs is produced by phase separation in an epoxy-amine curing system with a silica sol (SS) dispersant. The transparent epoxy solution becomes cloudy and turns into epoxy suspension (ES) in this process. The fractal structure (two tier structure) generated by synthetic epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs) and deposited nanoincrutations on the surfaces of these ERMs, which have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The curing time of ES is an important condition to obtain films with good comprehensive performances. Superhydrophobic films can be prepared by adding extra SS into ES with a curing time longer than 5 h. The optimal curing time is 10 h to fabricate a film with good mechanical stability and high superhydrophobicity. In addition, a surface with anti-wetting property of impacting microdroplets can be fabricated by prolonging the curing time of ES to 24 h. The gradually decreased hydrophilic groups resulted from a longer curing time enable the surface to have smaller surface adhesions to water droplets, which is the main reason to keep its superhydrophobicity under impacting conditions. The coated surface is highly hydrophobic and the impacting water droplets are bounced off from the surface.

  3. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic films with fractal structures using epoxy resin microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2014-02-01

    A simple method has been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with fractal structures with epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs). The ERMs is produced by phase separation in an epoxy-amine curing system with a silica sol (SS) dispersant. The transparent epoxy solution becomes cloudy and turns into epoxy suspension (ES) in this process. The fractal structure (two tier structure) generated by synthetic epoxy resin microspheres (ERMs) and deposited nanoincrutations on the surfaces of these ERMs, which have been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The curing time of ES is an important condition to obtain films with good comprehensive performances. Superhydrophobic films can be prepared by adding extra SS into ES with a curing time longer than 5 h. The optimal curing time is 10 h to fabricate a film with good mechanical stability and high superhydrophobicity. In addition, a surface with anti-wetting property of impacting microdroplets can be fabricated by prolonging the curing time of ES to 24 h. The gradually decreased hydrophilic groups resulted from a longer curing time enable the surface to have smaller surface adhesions to water droplets, which is the main reason to keep its superhydrophobicity under impacting conditions. The coated surface is highly hydrophobic and the impacting water droplets are bounced off from the surface.

  4. Emerging Nanotechnology-based Corrosion Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Carbon black Calcium carbonate Carbon nanotubes Cerium oxide Dendrimers, hyperbranched and supramolecules Indium... Microcapsule with Bisphenol A epoxy Microcapsule with Ketimine O O O O O O O H O n Selected SEM images of various microcapsules SEM and optical...microscopy images of cross-section of self-healing coating Microcapsule rupture and healing agent release is triggered by: T> Tm

  5. A strategy for prediction of the elastic properties of epoxy-cellulose nanocrystal-reinforced fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnathan E. Goodsell; Robert J. Moon; Alionso Huizar; R. Byron Pipes

    2014-01-01

    The reinforcement potential of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) additions on an idealized 2-dirmensional (2-D) fiber network structure consisting of micron sized fiber elements was investigated. The reinforcement mechanism considered in this study was through the stiffening of the micron sized fiber elements via a CNC-epoxy coating. A hierarchical analytical modeling...

  6. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  7. EPOXI at comet Hartley 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F; Belton, Michael J S; Delamere, W Alan; Feaga, Lori M; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P; McFadden, Lucy A; Meech, Karen J; Melosh, H Jay; Schultz, Peter H; Sunshine, Jessica M; Thomas, Peter C; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D; Yeomans, Donald K; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J; Carcich, Brian T; Collins, Steven M; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S; Kelley, Michael S; Li, Jian-Yang; Lindler, Don J; Lisse, Carey M; McLaughlin, Stephanie A; Merlin, Frédéric; Protopapa, Silvia; Richardson, James E; Williams, Jade L

    2011-06-17

    Understanding how comets work--what drives their activity--is crucial to the use of comets in studying the early solar system. EPOXI (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation) flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus, taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nucleus is outgassing primarily because of CO(2), which drags chunks of ice out of the nucleus. It also shows substantial differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  8. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  9. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-01-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  10. Analyzing FTIR spectra using high sensitivity compare function of FTIR software for 2-pack epoxy paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaid, Farish Irfal; Chan, Chin Han; Ong, Max Chong Hup; Winie, Tan; Harun, Mohamad Kamal

    2015-08-01

    The existing problem of oil and gas companies faced for on-site jobs of polymeric coatings on steel pipelines is that the quality of polymeric coatings varies from job to job for the same product brand from the same supplier or paint manufacturer. This can be due to the inherent problem of the reformulation of polymeric coatings or in other words adulterated polymeric coatings are supplied, where the quality of the coatings deviates from the submitted specifications for prequalification and tender purpose. Major oil and gas companies in Malaysia are calling for Coating Fingerprinting Certificate for the supply of polymeric coatings from local paint manufactures as quality assurance requirement of the coatings supplied. This will reduce the possibility of failures of the polymeric coatings, which lead to the corrosion of steel pipelines resulting in leakage of crude oil and gas to the environment. In this case, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) is a simple and reliable tool for coating fingerprinting. In this study, we conclude that, revelation of possible components of the 2-pack epoxy paints by carrying out extensive FTIR libraries search on FTIR spectra seems to be extremely challenging. Estimation of correlation of the sample spectrum to that of the reference spectrum using Compare function from one FTIR manufacturer, even the FTIR spectra are collected by different FTIR spectrometers from different FTIR manufacturers, can be made. The results of the correlation are reproducible.

  11. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing carbon fiber composite or by protecting the previously used epoxy-based composite with some fire resistant coating. In this context, work is carried out to evaluate the fire resistance performance o...

  12. Aging of Organic Matrices, Epoxy Resins; Causas de envejecimiento de matrices organicas. Resinas epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Prendes, P.; Varela, M.; Paz, S. [Departamento de I mas D de Gairesa, La Coruna (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Epoxy resins are very important polymers widely used in advance materials. Approximately 200.000 Tns/year are used in different fields such as coating, floor and paving, adhesives, composites, etc. Due to the importance of these polymers, aging studies are necessary. In this work most important aging-factors are described. We have observed that the water plays a very important role in the degradation-process. (Author)

  13. Tritium sorption on protective coatings for concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Senohrabek, J.A.; Allsop, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    Because of the high sorption level of tritium on unprotected concrete, a program to examine the effectiveness of various concrete coatings and sealants in reducing tritium sorption was undertaken, and various exposure conditions were examined. Coatings of epoxy, polyurethane, bituminous sealant, bituminous sealant covered with polyvinylidene chloride wrap, alkyd paint, and sodium silicate were investigated with tritium (HTO) vapor concentration, humidity and contact time being varied. An exposure to HT was also carried out, and the effect of humidity on the tritium desorption rate was investigated. The relative effectiveness of the coatings was in the order of bituminous sealant + wrap > bituminous sealant > solvent-based epoxy > 100%-solids epoxy > alkyd paint > sodium silicate. The commercially available coatings for concrete resulted in tritium sorption being reduced to less than 7% of unprotected concrete. This was improved to ∼0.1% with the use of the Saran wrap (polyvinylidene chloride). The amount of tritium sorbed was proportional to tritium concentration. The total tritium sorbed decreased with an increase in humidity. A saturation effect was observed with increasing exposure time for both the coated and unprotected samples. Under the test conditions, complete saturation was not achieved within the maximum 8-hour contact time, except for the solvent-based epoxy. The desorption rate increased with a higher-humidity air purge stream. HT desorbed more rapidly than HTO, but the amount sorbed was smaller. The experimental program showed that HTO sorption by concrete can be significantly reduced with the proper choice of coating. However, tritium sorption on concrete and proposed coatings will continue to be a concern until the effects of the various conditions that affect the adsorption and desorption of tritium are firmly established for both chronic and acute tritium release conditions. Material sorption characteristics must also be considered in

  14. Studies of decontamination using easy removable coatings technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oglaza, J.; Nowak, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The usefulness of removable coatings for decontamination of steel and epoxy-resin painted surfaces was examined. Natural latex, Revultex, butadiene-styrene latex as well as mixtures of latex with complexing agents and surfactants were used as decontaminating coats. The best decontamination was obtained by removable coatings of natural latex with EDTA additive for all surfaces and radionuclides tested. (author). 16 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Coating Performance in Duluth Superior Harbor. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    tures in fresh water , and nine coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection of CS coupons and I-beams around DSH after 46 and 35 months...following coatings were selected for this evaluation: 1 Aquapure HR* 2 Chevron Phillips 1ZSMV 3 Standard epoxy 4 HumidurML* 5 Wasser MC-zinc/MC-tar* 6...one option for protection of extensive structures in fresh water , and nine coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection of CS coupons and I-beams

  16. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  17. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed

  18. Manufacturing of REBCO coils strongly bonded to cooling members with epoxy resin aimed at its application to Maglev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi, E-mail: mizuno.katsutoshi.14@rtri.or.jp; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. • We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. • The coil is tightly bonded to cooling members by epoxy resin without the degradation. • We made a REBCO racetrack coil with the same outer dimension as the Maglev magnet. - Abstract: The REBCO coated conductor has been attracted attention because of its high current density in the presence of high magnetic field. If the coated conductor is applied to Maglev, the operational temperature of the on-board magnets will be over 40 K and energy consumption of cryocoolers will be reduced. That high operational temperature also means the absence of liquid helium. Therefore, reliable thermal coupling is desirable for cooling the coils. We propose an epoxy impregnated REBCO coil co-wound with PTFE tape. While the PTFE tape prevents the performance degradation of the coil, the epoxy resin bonds the coil to cooling members. We carried out three experiments to confirm that the coil structure which we propose has robust thermal coupling without the degradation. First, thermal resistances of paraffin and epoxy were measured varying the temperature from room temperature to 10 K. The measurement result indicates that paraffin has a risk of losing thermal coupling during cooling down. In another experiment, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tape insulator prevented performance degradation of a small epoxy impregnated REBCO coil, while another REBCO coil with polyimide tape showed clear performance degradation. Finally, we produced a racetrack REBCO coil with the same outer dimension as a Maglev on-board magnet coil. Although the racetrack coil was installed in a GFRP coil case and tightly bonded to the case by epoxy impregnation, any performance degradation was not observed.

  19. Studies on Mathematical Models of Wet Adhesion and Lifetime Prediction of Organic Coating/Steel by Grey System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fandi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-06-28

    A rapid degradation of wet adhesion is the key factor controlling coating lifetime, for the organic coatings under marine hydrostatic pressure. The mathematical models of wet adhesion have been studied by Grey System Theory (GST). Grey models (GM) (1, 1) of epoxy varnish (EV) coating/steel and epoxy glass flake (EGF) coating/steel have been established, and a lifetime prediction formula has been proposed on the basis of these models. The precision assessments indicate that the established models are accurate, and the prediction formula is capable of making precise lifetime forecasting of the coatings.

  20. The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in the crack propagation analysis of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D. P.; Al-Hassani, A. H. M.; Richardson, M. O. W.

    The ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) technique at high magnification levels is demonstrated to be of considerable value in interpreting the fracture behaviour of epoxy resins. The fracture toughness of powder coating system at different thicknesses has been measured using a TDCB (tapered double cantilever beam) technique and the deformation zone at the tip of the moving crack monitored. Initial indications are that a mechanistic changeover occurs at a critical bond (coating) thickness and that this is synonymous with the occurence of a fracture toughness maximum, which in turn is associated with a deformation zone of specific diameter.

  1. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water are comparable, being somewhat larger for HTO. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl proving to be unique in behaviour and morphology. Because of a highly porous surface structure water condensation takes place at high relative humidities, leading to an abnormally high retention of free water. Desorption rates from the four coatings were otherwise quite similar. Of practical importance was the observation that more effective desorption of tritiated water could be carried out at relatively high humidities, in this case 60%. It was believed that isotopic exchange was responsible for this phenomenon. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities

  2. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  3. Epoxy Nanocomposites Containing Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Mullins, Michael; Hawkins, Spencer; Kotaki, Masaya; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2018-01-10

    Zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) is utilized as a functional filler and a curing agent in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites. The imidazole group on the surface of the ZIF-8 initiates epoxy curing, resulting in covalent bonding between the ZIF-8 crystals and epoxy matrix. A substantial reduction in dielectric constant and increase in tensile modulus were observed. The implication of the present study for utilization of metal-organic framework to improve physical and mechanical properties of polymeric matrixes is discussed.

  4. Solid Particle Erosion Behaviors of Carbon-Fiber Epoxy Composite and Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Gao, Feng; Pant, Shashank; Huang, Xiao; Yang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rotor blades of Bell CH-146 Griffon helicopter experience excessive solid particle erosion at low altitudes in desert environment. The rotor blade is made of an advanced light-weight composite which, however, has a low resistance to solid particle erosion. Coatings have been developed and applied to protect the composite blade. However, due to the influence of coating process on composite material, the compatibility between coating and composite base, and the challenges of repairing damaged coatings as well as the inconsistency between the old and new coatings, replaceable thin metal shielding is an alternative approach; and titanium, due to its high-specific strength and better formability, is an ideal candidate. This work investigates solid particle erosion behaviors of carbon-fiber epoxy composite and titanium in order to assess the feasibility of titanium as a viable candidate for erosion shielding. Experiment results showed that carbon-fiber epoxy composite showed a brittle erosion behavior, whereas titanium showed a ductile erosion mode. The erosion rate on composite was 1.5 times of that on titanium at impingement angle 15° and increased to 5 times at impact angle 90°.

  5. Epoxy-coal hydraulic insulation for structures of the Nurek Hydroelectric Powerplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakharov, V I; Segal, M S; Solov' ev, I N; Yazev, R E

    1978-03-01

    The design of the Nurek Powerplant exposed the base of the core of the dam to a head of 270 m. To avoid seepage, it was decided to construct an antiseepage screen. Given the total hydraulic insulation area required, 26,540 m/sup 2/, the use of a metal screen would be quite expensive. It was therefore decided to use an epoxy-coal material consisting of a primer, varnish and enamel based on epoxy resins modified by the addition of coal tar, a waste product from the dry distillation of coal. A typical hydraulic insulation layer consists of a coat of primer, three or four coats of varnish and a coat of enamel. Glass-reinforced fabric is used with the first through third coats of varnish to increase crack resistance. The coating thus produced is found to be resistant to overbearing soil pressure of up to 600 t/m/sup 2/, hydrostatic head of up to 300 m and constant shear forces of up to 100 t/m/sup 2/. The method also saves labor and expensive metal.

  6. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  7. Tricky choices in pipe coatings can end with epoxy powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, B

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview of the economic and social impact of development of the resources of Newfoundland is presented. Currently, the thrust of governmental efforts is to promote the development of the countries resources in the fields of hydrocarbons, hydroelectric, fish, tourism, etc., rather than to permit exploitation and exportation of these resources. In this development, the past problems of ice-locked harbors is now seen as having been solved. (BLM)

  8. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is strongly dependent on the amount and shape of the porosity in the coating. Current metallographic techniques do not provide polished surfaces that are adequate for a repeatable interpretation of the coating structures. A technique recently developed at NASA-Lewis for preparation of thermal barrier coating sections combines epoxy impregnation, careful sectioning and polishing, and interference layering to provide previously unobtainable information on processing-induced porosity. In fact, increased contrast and less ambiguous structure developed by the method make automatic quantitative metallography a viable option for characterizing thermal barrier coating structures.

  9. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  10. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  11. Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Blocking Efficiency on Epoxy-Functionalized Substrates for Microarray Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    Microarrays provide a platform for high-throughput characterization of biomolecular interactions. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of microarrays, surface blocking is required to minimize the nonspecific interactions between analytes and unprinted yet functionalized surfaces. To block amine- or epoxy-functionalized substrates, bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most commonly used blocking reagents because it is cheap and easy to use. Based on standard protocols from microarray manufactories, a BSA concentration of 1% (10 mg/mL or 200 μM) and reaction time of at least 30 min are required to efficiently block epoxy-coated slides. In this paper, we used both fluorescent and label-free methods to characterize the BSA blocking efficiency on epoxy-functionalized substrates. The blocking efficiency of BSA was characterized using a fluorescent scanner and a label-free oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) microscope. We found that (1) a BSA concentration of 0.05% (0.5 mg/mL or 10 μM) could give a blocking efficiency of 98%, and (2) the BSA blocking step took only about 5 min to be complete. Also, from real-time and in situ measurements, we were able to calculate the conformational properties (thickness, mass density, and number density) of BSA molecules deposited on the epoxy surface. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Effect of Graphene Oxide Mixed Epoxy on Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Ge, Heyi; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhifang; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jingyi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the watersoluble epoxy resin was prepared via the ring-opening reaction between diethanolamine and epoxy resin. The modified resin mixed with graphene oxide (GO) as a sizing agent was coated onto carbon fiber (CF) and then the GO-CF reinforced acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS) composites were prepared. The influences of the different contents of GO on CF and CF/ABS composite were explored. The combination among epoxy, GO sheets and maleic anhydride grafted ABS (ABSMA) showed a synergistic effect on improving the properties of GO-CF and GO-CF/ABS composite. The GO-CF had higher single tensile strength than the commercial CF. The maximum ILSS of GO-CF/ABS composite obtained 19.2% improvement as compared with that of the commercial CF/ABS composite. Such multiscale enhancement method and the synergistic reinforced GO-CF/ABS composite show good prospective applications in many industry areas.

  14. Analysis and modeling of delamination factor in drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy using Box Behnken experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.; Afifah, M. A.; Nor Khairusshima, M. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this research study, it presents a comprehensive mathematical model for correlating the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates using the Box Behnken experimental design. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated HSS drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs.

  15. The optimal structure-conductivity relation in epoxy-phthalocyanine nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, L J; Brom, H B; Brokken-Zijp, J C M; Kemerink, M; Chen, Z; Goeje, M P de; Yuan, M; Michels, M A J

    2006-11-23

    Phthalcon-11 (aquocyanophthalocyaninatocobalt (III)) forms semiconducting nanocrystals that can be dispersed in epoxy coatings to obtain a semiconducting material with a low percolation threshold. We investigated the structure-conductivity relation in this composite and the deviation from its optimal realization by combining two techniques. The real parts of the electrical conductivity of a Phthalcon-11/epoxy coating and of Phthalcon-11 powder were measured by dielectric spectroscopy as a function of frequency and temperature. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) was applied to quantify the conductivity through the coating locally along the surface. This combination gives an excellent tool to visualize the particle network. We found that a large fraction of the crystals is organized in conducting channels of fractal building blocks. In this picture, a low percolation threshold automatically leads to a conductivity that is much lower than that of the filler. Since the structure-conductivity relation for the found network is almost optimal, a drastic increase in the conductivity of the coating cannot be achieved by changing the particle network, but only by using a filler with a higher conductivity level.

  16. Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Jungewelter, Soile; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2009-07-01

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. We reviewed the 1994-2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA.

  17. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  18. Mechanical Properties Analysis Of Composite Magnetic Base On hexa ferrite And Polyester Or Epoxy Matrix With Silane Additive Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirman; Ridwan; Mujamilah; K K, Aloma; Rembulan, Marisa; Fitriyanti

    2003-01-01

    Application of composite magnetic especially hexa ferrite magnet for industry and home industry in Indonesia has been used. Research purposes were making composite magnetic by mixing hexa ferrite powder with polyester or epoxy and studying the effect of coupling agent 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APE) addition on mechanical properties of composite magnetic. The coupling agent may increase bonding properties between magnetic powder and matrix polymer, so that tensile strength of magnetic composite will increase without decreasing the magnetic properties. Magnetic powder (SrM or BaM) wich be coated by coupling agent were added to matrix polyester and mekpo or epoxy and versamid, mixed until homogen then pressing into to the dumbbell form molding. For epoxy matrix, pressing was done in hot press at 70 deg. C and 150 kg/cm 2 following by cooling in cold press, while for polyester matrix pressing was done in hydraulic press and following by curing at 70 deg. C in an oven for 1 hour. The composition of magnetic powder were varied to 30, 40 and 50% volume fraction and coupling agent were varied to 5, 10 and 15 ml for every volume fraction. The result showed that 10 ml added of coupling agent was give best mechanical properties both polyester and epoxy matrix. However generally, increasing of magnetic powder content decreased the tensile strength of magnetic composite. The properties of magnetic composite SrM was better than BaM either in polyester or epoxy matrix

  19. BLISTERING AND DEGRADATION OF POLYURETHANE COATINGS UNDER DIFFERENT ACCELERATED WEATHERING TESTS. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An epoxy primer with a high gloss polyurethane topcoat coating system was exposed either only in a QUV chamber or exposed in a QUV chamber and a Prohesion chamber, alternatively, in this study. AFM studies found that micro blisters formed on the coating surface after both expo...

  20. Color stability of esthetic coatings applied to nickel-titanium archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Neiva Nunes do REGO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Color stability is an important feature to be considered when using esthetic coated archwires. Objective To evaluate color changes on the surface of esthetic nickel-titanium archwires coated with Teflon (Ortho Organizers, USA or epoxy resin (Tecnident, Brazil after immersion in staining solution. Material and method Twelve 20-mm-long wire segments were used for each type of coating, which were mounted as two test specimens with a width of 7 mm each. The buccal surface of the archwires was evaluated for fluorescence and color measurements both at baseline and after immersion in a staining solution for 21 days using the VITA Easyshade® Compact spectrophotometer (Model DEASYC220. Differences in total color change according to coating type were compared using an independent samples t-test (p<0.05. The surface characteristics of as-received coated archwires were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Result Color changes were observed on the esthetic coatings, with a significant difference between the two brands analyzed. Surface analysis revealed flaws such as wear, pitting, elevations, lack of material, granulation, grooves, cracks, and lack of standardization in the coating process in all as-received archwires, but flaws were less evident in epoxy-resin coatings. Conclusion The two esthetic coatings did not show color stability, but Teflon coatings showed a more intense color change than epoxy-resin coatings.

  1. Comparison of anti-corrosion properties of polyurethane based composite coatings with low infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yajun; Xu Guoyue; Yu Huijuan; Hu Chen; Yan Xiaoxing; Guo Tengchao; Li Jiufen

    2011-01-01

    Four polyurethane resins, pure polyurethane (PU), epoxy modified polyurethane (EPU), fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) and epoxy modified fluorinated polyurethane (EFPU), with similar polyurethane backbone structure but different grafting group were used as organic adhesive for preparing low infrared emissivity coatings with an extremely low emissivity near 0.10 at 8-14 μm, respectively. By using these four resins, the effect of different resin matrics on the corrosion protection of the low infrared emissivity coatings was investigated in detail by using neutral salt spray test, SEM and FTIR. It was found that the emissivity of the coatings with different resin matrics changes significantly in corrosion media. And the results indicated that the coating using EFPU as organic adhesive exhibited excellent corrosion resistance property which was mainly attributed to the presence of epoxy group and atomic fluorine in binder simultaneously.

  2. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  3. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  4. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  5. Epoxy Nanocomposites filled with Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gallego, M; Yuste-Sanchez, V; Sanchez-Hidalgo, R; Verdejo, R; Lopez-Manchado, M A

    2018-01-10

    Over the past decades, the development of high performance lightweight polymer nanocomposites and, in particular, of epoxy nanocomposites has become one the greatest challenges in material science. The ultimate goal of epoxy nanocomposites is to extrapolate the exceptional intrinsic properties of the nanoparticles to the bulk matrix. However, in spite of the efforts, this objective is still to be attained at commercially attractive scales. Key aspects to achieve this are ultimately the full understanding of network structure, the dispersion degree of the nanoparticles, the interfacial adhesion at the phase boundaries and the control of the localization and orientation of the nanoparticles in the epoxy system. In this Personal Account, we critically discuss the state of the art and evaluate the strategies to overcome these barriers. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments.

  7. Influence on the anticorrosive properties of the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator in an epoxy powder clearcoat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.J.; Suay, J.

    2007-01-01

    New low curing temperature epoxy powder coatings cured cationically by the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator have been formulated. Their curing kinetics and anticorrosive properties have been studied and compared with a system commonly used in industry (o-tolylbiguanide/epoxy resin). Three different tests of anticorrosive properties (EIS, AC/DC/AC, and salt fog spray) have been used together with an adherence test, in order to establish the optimal system. Results show that a system employing 1 phr of erbium triflate presents good anticorrosive properties. The technique AC/DC/AC has shown its ability to evaluate properly, much faster, and in accordance to anticorrosive properties results' of powder coatings obtained by other techniques

  8. Influence on the anticorrosive properties of the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator in an epoxy powder clearcoat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: sangares@upvnet.upv.es; Suay, J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    New low curing temperature epoxy powder coatings cured cationically by the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator have been formulated. Their curing kinetics and anticorrosive properties have been studied and compared with a system commonly used in industry (o-tolylbiguanide/epoxy resin). Three different tests of anticorrosive properties (EIS, AC/DC/AC, and salt fog spray) have been used together with an adherence test, in order to establish the optimal system. Results show that a system employing 1 phr of erbium triflate presents good anticorrosive properties. The technique AC/DC/AC has shown its ability to evaluate properly, much faster, and in accordance to anticorrosive properties results' of powder coatings obtained by other techniques.

  9. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  10. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  11. Kevlar 49/Epoxy COPV Aging Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Salem, Jonathan L.; Thesken, John C.; Russell, Richard W.; Littell, Justin; Ruggeri, Charles; Leifeste, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA initiated an effort to determine if the aging of Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) affected their performance. This study briefly reviews the history and certification of composite pressure vessels employed on NASA Orbiters. Tests to evaluate overwrap tensile strength changes compared 30 year old samples from Orbiter vessels to new Kevlar/Epoxy pressure vessel materials. Other tests include transverse compression and thermal analyses (glass transition and moduli). Results from these tests do not indicate a noticeable effect due to aging of the overwrap materials.

  12. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  13. WEATHERING DEGRADATION OF A POLYURETHANE COATING. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of polyurethane topcoat over a chromate pigmented epoxy primer was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) after the coated pane...

  14. Improved anti-stiction coating of SU-8 molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jacob Moresco; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2010-01-01

    of the epoxy groups by oxygen plasma or sulfuric acid improves the deposition of FDTS. The deposition of FDTS on acid-activated and untreated SU-8 gave an identical well performing anti-stiction coating, as opposed to oxygen plasma activated surface which resulted in a poor FDTS coverage. In this paper...

  15. Formulation parameters influencing self-stratification of coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bots, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Research was carried out aimed at the development of self-stratifying paints for steel which after application during film formation spontaneously form two well established layers of primer and top coat. The parameters affecting stratification were investigated for combinations of epoxy resins and

  16. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Self-assembly of a superparamagnetic raspberry-like silica/iron oxide nanocomposite using epoxy-amine coupling chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Manuel; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-02-28

    The fabrication of colloidal nanocomposites would benefit from controlled hetero-assembly of ready-made particles through covalent bonding. Here we used epoxy-amine coupling chemistry to promote the self-assembly of superparamagnetic raspberry-like nanocomposites. This adaptable method induced the covalent attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles sparsely coated with amine groups onto epoxylated silica cores in the absence of other reactants.

  18. Characterization of Epoxy Functionalized Graphite Nanoparticles and the Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Bauer, Jonathan L.; Maryanski, Michael J.; Heimann, Paula J.; Barlow, Jeremy P.; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Allred, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to the functionalization of graphite nanoparticles. The technique provides a mechanism for covalent bonding between the filler and matrix, with minimal disruption to the sp2 hybridization of the pristine graphene sheet. Functionalization proceeded by covalently bonding an epoxy monomer to the surface of expanded graphite, via a coupling agent, such that the epoxy concentration was measured as approximately 4 wt.%. The impact of dispersing this material into an epoxy resin was evaluated with respect to the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the graphite-epoxy nanocomposite. At a loading as low as 0.5 wt.%, the electrical conductivity was increased by five orders of magnitude relative to the base resin. The material yield strength was increased by 30% and Young s modulus by 50%. These results were realized without compromise to the resin toughness.

  19. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eMäder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test.In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis.The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this

  20. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  1. Study on epoxy/BaTiO3 composite embedded capacitor films (ECFs) for organic substrate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Hyun, Jin-Gul; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2004-01-01

    Embedded capacitor films (ECFs) were newly designed for high dielectric constant and low capacitance tolerance (less than ±5%) embedded capacitor fabrication for organic substrates. ECFs are transferable and B-stage films which can be coated on a releasing film. In terms of materials formulation, ECFs are composed of high dielectric constant BaTiO 3 (BT) powder, specially formulated epoxy resin, and latent curing agent. And in terms of coating process, a roll coating method is used for obtaining film thickness uniformity in a large area. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) thermal analysis was conducted to determine the optimum amount of curing agent, curing temperature, and curing time. Changes in the dielectric constant of epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite ECFs with BT particle sizes and contents were investigated. Dielectric constant of 90 was obtained using two different size BaTiO 3 powders mixture. Typically, capacitors of 12 μm thick film with 8 nF/cm 2 with less than ±5% capacitance tolerance and low leakage current (less than 10 -7 A/cm 2 at 10 V) were successfully demonstrated on PCBs using epoxy/BaTiO 3 composite embedded capacitor films

  2. Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Y.; Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ► Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ► The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ► The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

  3. Hybrid Ultra-Low VOC and Non-HAP Rain Erosion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    provide excellent rain erosion resistance, superior mechanical properties, good adhesion to the substrate and meet a host of other metrics outlined in MIL... common urethane and/or epoxy topcoat systems based on their high impact energy and erosive nature. Specialty formulations are thus required to...in films having excellent performance properties. The most common high performance two-component coatings are epoxy systems and isocyanate based

  4. Quantitative Mapping of Mechanisms for Photoinitiated Coating Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2015-01-01

    be used toimplement the various effects of water on the degradation mechanisms of cross-linked coatings is also presented and experiments to test the approach are suggested. Additionally, simulations with an existing degradation model for an epoxy–amine coating are used to map the influence of model......This work concerns the mathematical modeling of photoinitiated coating degradation. Using experimental evidence available, some of the most importantassumptions underlying existing models for the rmoset coatings are analyzed and suggestions for further work provided. A modeling approach that can...... parameters on the lag time (i.e., the time passing prior to the onset of erosion) and the stable erosion rate. The simulation results can be used in the optimization of UV radiation-induced intercoat adhesion losses, which are often observed in multilayer coating systems based on top coated epoxy coatings...

  5. Effection of UV-LED Illuminant on the Curation of Photolatent-amidine Mixed with Bisphenol A Epoxy Acrylate under Printing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make photocuring ink or coating cured by UV-LED illuminant, we synthesized (4-((hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-1 (2H-ylmethylphenyl(phenylmethanone(PL -DBN and (4-((octahydropyrimido[1,2-a]azepin-1(2H-ylmethylphenyl(phenylmet hanone(PL -DBU as photoinitiators. Different mass fraction of the photoinitiators was mixed with bisphenol A epoxy acrylate, cured by different wavelengths and power of UV-LED illuminant,and investigated the curing effects of photoinitiators on bisphenol A epoxy acrylate. The results show that the conversion of C=C double bonds of bisphenol A epoxy acrylate will increase as the mass fraction of the photoinitiators or the power of UV-LED illuminant increase. In the same conditions, the curing effect of using 365nm UV-LED illuminant on bisphenol A epoxy acrylate is better than using 395nm UV-LED illuminant. PL-DBU has a better curing effect on the bisphenol A epoxy acrylate rather than PL-DBN. When using the 8W/cm2 of 365nm UV-LED illuminant to cure a mixture of 3% PL-DBU and 97% bisphenol A epoxy acrylate, it will be dry completely in 2 seconds, moreover, the conversion reach 79%.

  6. Radiation damage on high polymer epoxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, H M [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The effect of irradiation in a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor on the adhesive strength of epoxy resins was studied using the ASTM D897 standard testing procedure. Although the results were variable, indicating the doses were not well defined, nevertheless, there was evidence of strengthening associated with radiation-induced crosslinking. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  8. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  9. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  10. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria Jr, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Ni...

  11. Tuning the adhesion between polyimide substrate and MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite by surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhamed, Ayda; Kia, Alireza Mohammadian; Naifar, Slim; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Müller, Christian; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Choura, Slim; Kanoun, Olfa

    2017-11-01

    MWCNTs/epoxy nanocomposite thin films are coated on the polyimide (PI) flexible substrate, to be used as a strain sensor. Previous studies showed that the adhesion between polyimide and other materials are very poor. In this work, two approaches, oxygen plasma cleaning and simple solvent cleaning are performed for activation of the polyimide surface. In order to understand the impact of both cleaning techniques, the physicochemical properties of PI are measured and characterized using contact angle measurements (CAMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the adhesion properties of PI/[MWCNTs/epoxy] systems by varying surface treatment time are investigated and evaluated using force-distance measurements by AFM. The results illustrate that the activated surface exhibits higher surface energy for oxygen plasma cleaning in comparison with the solvent cleaning method. The improvement can be related to the increase of oxygen concentration, which is accompanied by the enhancement of the polar component to 53.79 mN/m due to the formation of functional groups on the surface and the change of the substrate surface roughness from 1.72 nm to 15.5 nm. As a result, improved adhesion was observed from force-distance measurement between PI/[MWCNTs/epoxy] systems due to oxygen plasma effects.

  12. Modification of (DGEBA epoxy resin with maleated depolymerised natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA type epoxy resin has been modified with maleated depolymerised natural rubber (MDPR. MDPR was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride onto depolymerised natural rubber. MDPR has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. MDPR was blended with epoxy resin at three different ratios (97/3, 98/2 and 99/1, by keeping the epoxy resin component as the major phase and maleated depolymerised natural rubber component as the minor phase. The reaction between the two blend components took place between the acid/anhydride group in the MDPR and the epoxide group of the epoxy resin. The proposed reaction schemes were supported by the FT-IR spectrum of the uncured Epoxy/MDPR blends. The neat epoxy resin and Epoxy/MDPR blends were cured by methylene dianiline (DDM at 100°C for three hours. Thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy and the blends were investigated. Free volume studies of the cured, neat epoxy and Epoxy/MDPR blends were correlated with the morphological and mechanical properties of the same systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Studies.

  13. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  14. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  15. Design and characterization of non-toxic nano-hybrid coatings for corrosion and fouling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin modified with nano scale fillers offers excellent combination of properties such as enhanced dimensional stability, mechanical and electrical properties, which make them ideally suitable for a wide range of applications. However, the studies about functionalized nano-hybrid for coating applications still require better insight. In the present work we have developed silane treated nanoparticles and to reinforce it with diglycidyl epoxy resin to fabricate surface functionalized nano-hybrid epoxy coatings. The effect of inorganic nano particles on the corrosion and fouling resistance properties was studied by various (1, 3, 5 and 7 wt% filler loading concentrations. Diglycidyl epoxy resin (DGEBA commonly was used for coating. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES was used as a coupling agent to surface treats the TiO2 nanoparticles. The corrosion and fouling resistant properties of these coatings were evaluated by electrochemical impedance and static immersion tests, respectively. Nano-hybrid coating (3 wt% of APTES–TiO2 showed corrosion resistance up to 108 Ω cm2 after 30 days immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution indicating an excellent corrosion resistance. Static immersion test was carried out in Bay of Bengal (Muttukadu which has reflected good antifouling efficiency of the 3 wt% APTES–TiO2 loaded nano-hybrid coating up to 6 months.

  16. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  17. SYNTHESIS AND CORROSION PROTECTION BEHAVIOR OF EPOXYTiO2-MICACEOUS IRON OXIDE NANO - COMPOSITE COATING ON St-37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khorram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The micro layers micaceous iron oxide and nano-TiO 2 were incorporated into the epoxy resin by mechanical mixing and sonication process. Optical micrographs showed that the number and diameter size of nanoparticle agglomerates were decreased by sonication. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite was determined using transmission electron microscopy which showed the presence of dispersed nano-TiO 2 in the polymer matrix. The anticorrosive properties of the synthesized nano-composites coating were investigated using salt spray, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurement. The EIS results showed that coating resistance increased by addition of micaceous iron oxide micro layers and nano-TiO 2 particles to the epoxy coatings. It was observed that higher corrosion protection of nanocomposite coatings obtained by the addition of 3 %wt micaceous iron oxide and 4%wt nano-TiO 2 into epoxy resin.

  18. A novel fabrication of a high performance SiO(2)-graphene oxide (GO) nanohybrids: Characterization of thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposites filled with SiO(2)-GO nanohybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, S Z; Ramezanzadeh, B; Asghari, M

    2017-05-01

    In this study it has been aimed to enhance the thermal resistance of epoxy coating through incorporation of SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids. SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were synthesized through one-step sol-gel route using a mixture of Tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) and 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) silanes. The SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were prepared at various hydrolysis times of 24, 48 and 72h. Then 0.2wt.% of GO and SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were separately incorporated into the epoxy coating. Results revealed that amino functionalized SiO 2 nanoparticles with particle size around 20-30nm successfully synthesized on the basal plane of GO. Results showed significant improvement of dispersion and interfacial interactions between nanohybrids and epoxy composite arising from covalent bonding between the SiO 2 -GO and the epoxy matrix. It was found that the thermal resistance of SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids and SiO 2 -GO/Epoxy nanocomposite was noticeably higher than GO and epoxy matrix, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft applications. III - Plasma-deposited ceramic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribar, V. F.; Bauer, J. L.; O'Donnell, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    Five black, electrically-conductive thermal control coatings have been formulated and tested for application on the Galileo spacecraft. The coatings consist of both organic and inorganic systems applied on titanium, aluminum, and glass/epoxy composite surfaces. The coatings were tested under simulated space environment conditions. Coated specimens were subjected to thermal radiation, convective and combustive heating, and cryogenic conditions over a temperature range between -196 C and 538 C. Mechanical, physical, thermal, electrical, and thermooptical properties are presented for one of these coatings. This paper describes the preparation, characteristics, and spraying of iron titanate on titanium and aluminum, and presents performance results.

  20. Epoxy polyurethane nanocomposites filled with fullerite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhnova, R.A.; Galatenko, N.A.; Lukashevich, S.A.; Shirokov, O.D.; Levenets', Je.G.

    2015-01-01

    New nanocomposite materials based on epoxy polyurethane (EPU) containing nanoscale fullerite in its composition are produced. The influence of small impurities of fullerite on physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites is established. The effect of a nanofiller and its concentration on the structure and properties of the composite and the ability to biodegradation in vitro is studied. The developed nanocomposites exhibit the biodegradability, and the presence of nanofillers in the EPU facilitates the course of the process

  1. Influence of Electrolytical Oxidising of Silumine Surfaces on the Quality of Bonding with Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preparation process of AC-AlSi12 aluminum alloy surface by application of anodic oxidation method. The method enables the formation of a porous oxide layer (Al2O3 which generates the substrate of durable adhesive bond with an epoxy resin. It also presents the influence of the form of silicon precipitates in the modified alloy upon anodizing process, uniform structure and thickness of the oxide layer as well as the topography of its surface which is expected to improve adhesion of the resin and silumin. The paper describes how the position of oxidized surface against the negative electrode influences the coating structure. The studied silumins are intended to form the material for casting of 3 dimensional objects whose parts will change the distribution of electric field strength that may cause non-uniform structure of the coating.

  2. Self-constructed tree-shape high thermal conductivity nanosilver networks in epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayi, Kamyar; Fard, Hafez Raeisi; Lai, Fengyuan; Iruvanti, Sushumna; Plawsky, Joel; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2014-04-21

    We report the formation of high aspect ratio nanoscale tree-shape silver networks in epoxy, at low temperatures (thermal conductivity (κ) of the nanocomposite compared to the polymer matrix. The networks form through a three-step process comprising of self-assembly by diffusion limited aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated nanoparticles, removal of PVP coating from the surface, and sintering of silver nanoparticles in high aspect ratio networked structures. Controlling self-assembly and sintering by carefully designed multistep temperature and time processing leads to κ of our silver nanocomposites that are up to 300% of the present state of the art polymer nanocomposites at similar volume fractions. Our investigation of the κ enhancements enabled by tree-shaped network nanocomposites provides a basis for the development of new polymer nanocomposites for thermal transport and storage applications.

  3. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  4. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for anticorrosive coatings subjected to a physical damage and immersed in seawater. The cause of cathodic delamination has been reported to be the result of a chemical attack at the coating-steel interface by free radicals and peroxides...... formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination...... of epoxy coatings on cold rolled steel. The addition of free radical scavengers to epoxy coatings improved the resistance toward cathodic delamination by up to 50% during seawater immersion, while peroxide decomposers had a limited effect. Testing using substrates prepared from stainless steel...

  5. Influence of Silane modified nano silica on the corrosion protection of zinc rich coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong; To Thi Xuan Hang; Trinh Anh Truc; Pham Gia Vu; Bui Van Truoc; Thai Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc rich coatings are the best effective primers for corrosion protection of carbon steel in aggressive conditions. For traditional zinc rich primer the zinc content is very high, more than 90 wt.%. The coating adhesion is decreased with the increase of zinc content, so that it is necessary to decrease the zinc content by using additives. In this study the nano silica modified by N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared and incorporated in zinc rich epoxy coatings containing 85 wt.% zinc powder. The corrosion protection performance of coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the presence of nano silica improved corrosion protection of zinc rich epoxy coating and the best protection was obtained with 3 wt.% nano silica. (author)

  6. Prediction of brittle fracture of epoxy-aluminum flanging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbel J.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fracture mechanical approach for estimation of critical bending load of different types of aluminum-epoxy flanging and comparison with experimental measurements. For this purpose, several designs of the flanges were investigated. The flanges were glued to the epoxy bars and adhesive-epoxy interface was considered as a bi-material notch. Prediction of the failure is based on generalized stress intensity factor and generalized fracture toughness.

  7. Rapid microwave processing of epoxy nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Luhyna, Nataliia; Inam, Fawad; Winnington, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Microwave processing is one of the rapid processing techniques for manufacturing nanocomposites. There is very little work focussing on the addition of CNTs for shortening the curing time of epoxy nanocomposites. Using microwave energy, the effect of CNT addition on the curing of epoxy nanocomposites was researched in this work. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the degree of cure for epoxy and nanocomposite samples. CNT addition significantly reduced the duration ...

  8. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments. (paper)

  9. Accelerated thermal aging of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A program is outlined to enable prediction of physical properties of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants over the life time of the extended life neutron generators. Preliminary results show that the chief aging phenomenon occurring is increased crosslink density of the epoxy matrix. No changes in the rubber phase have been detected. The effect of increased epoxy crosslink density has been higher volume resistivity at 66 0 C, increased tensile strength, and decreased ultimate elongation

  10. Positron lifetime study of electron-irradiated epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; Wojnarovits, L.; Foeldiak, G.; Liszkai, L.; Kajcsos, Zs.

    1990-01-01

    Two bisphenol-A type epoxy resins were irradiated by electron beam and studied afterwards by positron lifetime spectroscopy. An interesting result is that despite of the considerable amount of free-radicals, no inhibition of positronium formation was observed in the two epoxies. Nevertheless, several serious differences were detected between the studied polymers. The results suggest that the radiation-resistant properties of epoxies depend strongly on the amount of the curing agent. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  12. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  13. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  14. Mechanical Reinforcement of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fibers and HDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Chang, Q.; Huang, X.; Li, J.

    2018-01-01

    Silanized carbon fibers (CFs) and a high-density polyethylene with amino terminal groups (HDPE) were introduced into epoxy resins to fabricate high-performance composites. A. mechanical characterization of the composites was performed to investigate the effect of CFs in cured epoxy/HDPE systems. The composites revealed a noticeable improvement in the tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength in comparison with those of neat epoxy and cured epoxy/HDPE systems. SEM micrographs showed that the toughening effect could be explained by yield deformations, phase separation, and microcracking.

  15. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, Subhra; Sarkar, Niladri; Rout, Dibyaranjan; Swain, Sarat K.

    2017-01-01

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  16. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  17. Design of carbon nanofiber embedded conducting epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantayat, Subhra [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Sarkar, Niladri [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India); Rout, Dibyaranjan [School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Swain, Sarat K., E-mail: swainsk2@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, Sambalpur 768018, Odisha (India)

    2017-01-15

    Acid treated carbon nanofiber (t-CNF) reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up method with various wt % of t-CNF loadings. Pristine or unmodified carbon nano fibers (u-CNFs) were made compatible with epoxy matrix by means of mixed acid treatment. Fabricated nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were measured as a function of t-CNF content. Effect of acid treated CNFs on to the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites was justified by comparing the mechanical properties of epoxy/t-CNF and epoxy/u-CNF nanocomposites with same loading level. The electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy resin with a threshold at 1 wt % of t-CNF. Substantial improvement in thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the synthesized epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites may be suitable for fabricating electronic devices. - Highlights: • Epoxy/t-CNF nanocomposites are characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM and TEM. • Electrical conductivity was achieved by epoxy with a threshold at 1 wt% of t-CNF. • Tensile strength is enhanced by 40% due to dispersion of t-CNF. • Synthesized nanocomposites are suitable for fabricating electronic devises.

  18. Effect of the hardener to epoxy monomer ratio on the water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton Alef Castanheira Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system was evaluated as a function of the epoxy monomer to amine hardener ratio. Weight gain versus immersion time curves were obtained and the experimental points were fitted using Fickian and Non-Fickian diffusion models. The results obtained showed that for all epoxy monomer to hardener ratios analyzed water diffusion followed non-Fickian behavior. It was possible to correlate the water absorption behavior to the macromolecular structure developed when the epoxy/ hardener ratio was varied. All epoxy/hardener ratios present a two-phase macromolecular structure, composed of regions with high crosslink density and regions with lower crosslinking. Epoxy rich systems have a more open macromolecular structure with a lower fraction of the dense phase than the amine rich systems, which present a more compact two-phase structure.

  19. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; T. Vo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  20. Atomistic Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2016-05-01

    The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for epoxy/single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) nanocomposites. An epoxy network of DGEBA-DDS was built using the `dendrimer' growth approach, and conductivity was computed by taking into account long-range Coulombic forces via a k-space approach. Thermal conductivity was calculated in the direction perpendicular to, and along the SWNT axis for functionalized and pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. The thermal conductivity of the long, pristine SWNT/epoxy system is equivalent to that of an isolated SWNT along its axis, but there was a 27% reduction perpendicular to the nanotube axis. The functionalized, long SWNT/epoxy system had a very large increase in thermal conductivity along the nanotube axis (~700%), as well as the directions perpendicular to the nanotube (64%). The discontinuous nanotubes displayed an increased thermal conductivity along the SWNT axis compared to neat epoxy (103-115% for the pristine SWNT/epoxy, and 91-103% for functionalized SWNT/epoxy system). The functionalized system also showed a 42% improvement perpendicular to the nanotube, while the pristine SWNT/epoxy system had no improvement over epoxy. The thermal conductivity tensor is averaged over all possible orientations to see the effects of randomly orientated nanotubes, and allow for experimental comparison. Excellent agreement is seen for the discontinuous, pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. These simulations demonstrate there exists a threshold of the SWNT length where the best improvement for a composite system with randomly oriented nanotubes would transition from pristine SWNTs to functionalized SWNTs.

  1. Analysis of ultraviolet exposure effects on the surface properties of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite films on Mylar substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Marialaura; Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Schirone, Luigi; Laurenzi, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the effects generated by exposure to UV-C radiation on nanocomposite films made of graphene nanoplatelets dispersed in an epoxy matrix. The nanocomposite films, at different nanoparticle size and concentration, were fabricated on Mylar substrate using the spin coating process. The effects of UV-C irradiation on the surface hydrophobicity and on the electrical properties of the epoxy/graphene films were investigated using contact angle measurements and electrical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. According to our results, the UV-C irradiation selectively degrades the polymer matrix of the nanocomposite films, giving rise to more conductive and hydrophobic layers due to exposure of the graphene component of the composite material. The results presented here have important implications in the design of spacecraft components and structures destined for long-term space missions.

  2. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  4. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...

  5. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  6. Epoxy modified bitumen : Chemical hardening and its interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Pipintakos, G.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Liu, X.; Erkens, Sandra; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy modified bitumen (EMB) is a promising technology for long lasting paving materials ensuring higher resistance to rutting, oxygen- and moisture-induced damage. In this paper, an analysis of the chemical reactions that take place during the chemical hardening process (curing) of epoxy modified

  7. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  8. Design and analysis of MEMS MWCNT / epoxy strain sensor using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Sapra

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... In this paper, highly sensitive MEMS-based multi- walled (MWCNT)/epoxy strain sensor has been designed using ... This paper also discusses the process flow for fabricating MWCNT/epoxy thin film ... stone bridge, i.e., connected to the gold metal pad of the sensor. The change in resistance with respect to.

  9. Wettability of nano-epoxies to UHMWPE fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, S; Salehi-Khojin, A; Zhamu, A; Zhong, W H; Jana, S; Gan, Y X

    2006-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers have a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. However, as reinforcements for manufacturing high performance composite materials, UHMWPE fibers have poor wettability with most polymers. As a result, the interfacial bonding strength between the fibers and polymer matrices is very low. Recently, developing so-called nano-matrices containing reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) has been proposed to promote the wetting of such matrices to certain types of fiber reinforcements. In this work, the wettability of UHMWPE fibers with different epoxy matrices including a nano-epoxy, and a pure epoxy was investigated. Systematic experimental work was conducted to determine the viscosity of the epoxies, the contact angle between the epoxies and the fibers. Also obtained are the surface energy of the fibers and the epoxies. The experimental results show that the wettability of the UHMWPE fibers with the nano-epoxy is much better than that of the UHMWPE fibers with the pure epoxy.

  10. Mechanical properties of graphene oxide (GO/epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivan Ismael Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of graphene oxide (GO on composites based on epoxy resin were analyzed. Different contents of GO (1.5–6 vol.% were added to epoxy resin. The GO/epoxy composite was prepared using the casting method and was prepared under room temperature. Mechanical tests’ results such as tensile test, impact test and hardness test show enhancements of the mechanical properties of the GO/epoxy composite. The experimental results clearly show an improvement in the Young’s modulus, tensile strength and hardness. The impact strength was seen to decrease, pointing to brittleness increase of the GO/epoxy composite. A microstructure analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis was also performed, which showed how GO impeded the propagation of cracks in the composite. From the SEM images we observed the interface between the GO and the epoxy composite. As can be seen from this research, the GO/epoxy composites can be used for a large number of applications. The results of this research are a strong evidence for GO/epoxy composites being a potential candidate for use in a variety of industrial applications, especially for automobile parts, aircraft components, and electronic parts such as supercapacitors, transistors, etc.

  11. Chemical changes and tensile and electrical properties of epoxy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of epoxy rsesin can be improved by the use of nanofiller such as carbon black (CB), The nanocomposite was synthesized by dispersion via sonication and shear mixing. The morphology, surface chemistry and the structure of CB and the epoxy/CB nanocomposites were investigated using XPS, FTIR, FESEM, ...

  12. Environmental Degradation and Durability of Epoxy-Clay Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Zunjarrao, S.C.; Pandey, G.; Khait, M.; Korach, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental investigation reports on the durability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites upon exposure to multiple environments. Nanocomposites are fabricated by mixing the clay particles using various combinations of mechanical mixing, high-shear dispersion, and ultrasonication. Clay morphology is characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens of both neat epoxy and the epoxy-clay nanocomposite are subjected to two environmental conditions: combined UV radiation and condensation on 3-hour repeat cycle and constant temperature-humidity, for a total exposure duration of 4770 hours. The presence of nanoscale clay inhibits moisture uptake, as demonstrated by exposure to constant temperature-humidity. Nonetheless, both materials lose mass under exposure to combined UV radiation and condensation due to the erosion of epoxy by a synergistic process. Surprisingly, the epoxy-clay specimens exhibit greater mass loss, as compared to neat epoxy. Mechanical testing shows that either environment does not significant affect the flexure modulus of either material. On the other hand, both materials undergo degradation in flexural strength when exposed to either environment. However, the epoxy-clay nanocomposite retains 37% more flexure strength than the neat epoxy after 4072 hours of exposure.

  13. Coating degradation at tank bottomdue to settled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, U.; Rizvi, M.A.; Khan, I.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, coating degradation as a result of settled water on fuel storage tank bottoms has been reported with the help of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), blister analysis and gravimetric analysis (water uptake). Blistering occurs underneath the coating at the tank bottom due to direct contact with settled water. Degradation behavior of polyamide epoxy coatings on mild steel has been reported in term of coating resistance at the start of the experiments, after 96 hours and at the end of EIS experiments. Coating degradation in terms of shift in phase angle (theta) at high frequency as a function of exposure time has also been reported. The blister formation and gravimetric analysis data has also been reported in support of EIS result. (author)

  14. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  15. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating

  16. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  17. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  18. Extremely low temperature properties of epoxy GFRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo; Nagai, Matao; Aki, Fumitake.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of fiber-reinforced plastics, that is, plastics such as epoxy, polyester and polyimide reinforced with high strength fibers such as glass, carbon, boron and steel, for extremely low temperature use began from the fuel tanks of rockets. Therafter, the trial manufacture of superconducting generators and extremely low temperature transformers and the manufacture of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion experimental setups became active, and high performance FRPs have been adopted, of which the extremely low temperature properties have been sufficiently grasped. Recently, the cryostats made of FRPs have been developed, fully utilizing such features of FRPs as high strength, high rigidity, non-magnetic material, insulation, low heat conductivity, light weight and the freedom of molding. In this paper, the mechanical properties at extremely low temperature of the plastic composite materials used as insulators and structural materials for extremely low temperature superconducting equipment is outlined, and in particular, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates are described somewhat in detail. The fracture strain of GFRP at extremely low temperature is about 1.3 times as large as that at room temperature, but at extremely low temperature, clear cracking occurred at 40% of the fracture strain. The linear thermal contraction of GFRP showed remarkable anisotropy. (Kako, I.)

  19. Corrosion resistance of rigid bonded magnet MQP-0 (NdFeB compound) pre and post surface coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, Setyo; Ihsan, M.; Mujamilah; Mashadi

    2002-01-01

    Rigid Bonded Magnet (RBM) MQP-0 (NdFeB magnetics material compound) has been created and done some treatment. It has been known that corrosion resistance of RBM with epoxy resin binder is higher than RBM with polyester binder (PE). Corrosion rate in variety solutions like water. Na CI, H 2 SO 4 , has proved the earlier statement. For corrosion testing of RBM in Na CI solution with concentrations 0.05 M and 0.10 M shows corrosion rate 0.18 milli inches/year (mpy) and 2.93 mpy for epoxy binder, and 4.10 mpy and 24.87 mpy for polyester binder. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance, coating of RBM with epoxy resin has been done. And it has been known that coating of RBM with epoxy resin decrease of corrosion rate almost 50%. Corrosion rate of RBM with epoxy coating in 0.15 M Na CI is 9.38 mpy, compared without coating 15.11 mpy

  20. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Inam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by indentation. For comprehensive comparison, fracture toughness and percolation threshold were analysed as well. Because of the systematically induced indentation damage, a sharp decrease of 89% was observed in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CNT nanocomposite as compared to 25% in the electrical conductivity of epoxy – CB nanocomposite. CNTs impart superior damage sensing capability in brittle nanocomposite structures, in comparison to CB, due to their high aspect ratio (fibrous nature and high electrical conductivity.

  1. Magnetic properties of permalloy-coated organic tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Lubitz, P.; Harford, M. Z.; Baral, S.; Shashidar, R.; Ho, Y. S.; Chow, G. M.; Qadri, S.

    1991-11-01

    An initial investigation is presented of the ferromagnetic properties of a novel type of magnetic composite, viz., permalloy-coated submicron diameter hollow cylinders or tubules. The tubules form spontaneously from an organic material, a diacetylenic phosopholipid, and were used as templates on which the ferromagnetic material was deposited by electroless deposition. The permalloy-coated tubules were dispersed in an epoxy matrix to measure the magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) properties of individual tubules. The nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the FMR spectra observed confirmed that the tubules are well aligned by a magnetic field during the epoxy curing. The FMR spectra are interpreted in terms of a powder pattern distribution of thin-film spectra consistent with the large diameter-to-thickness ratio.

  2. Interlaminar improvement of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via depositing mixture of carbon nanotubes and sizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cuiqin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Julin, E-mail: julinwang@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Ancient Architecture, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • COOH-CNTs can react with sizing agent, and the optimum reaction ratio was 1:20. • Carbon fibers were dipped into the mixture bath of CNTs and sizing agent. • SEM results indicate that fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. • ILSS was increased by 67.01% for the composites after the mixture coating process. • Single fibers tensile strength was maintained after the deposited process. - Abstract: The effects of deposition to carbon fibers surfaces with mixture of functionalized multi-walled carbon fibers (MWCNTs) and sizing agent were investigated. Relationships between CNTs and sizing agent were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ubbelohde viscometer. The results revealed that CNTs could react with sizing agent at 120 °C, and optimal reaction occurs when mass ratio was about 1:20. Then, carbon fibers were immersed in mixed aqueous suspension of CNTs and sizing agent with the above ratio dispersed by ultrasonication. According to scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, fibers surfaces were coated with CNTs and sizing agent. The static contact angle tests indicated wetting performance between fibers and epoxy resin were improved after deposited procedures. Interlaminar shear strength was increased by 67.01% for fibers/epoxy resin composites after mixture deposited process. Moreover, the tensile strength of single fibers after depositing showed a slightly increase compared with that of fibers without depositing layer.

  3. Electron beam curing of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Mai, H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern low-energy electron beam processors offer the possibility for high-speed curing of coatings on paper, plastics, wood and metal. Today the electron beam curing gets more importance due to the increasing environmental problems and the rising cost of energy. For an effective curing process low-energy electron beam processors as well as very reactive binders are necessary. Generally such binders consist of acrylic-modified unsaturated polyester resins, polyacrylates, urethane acrylates or epoxy acrylates and vinyl monomers, mostly multifunctional acrylates. First results on the production of EBC binders on the base of polyester resins and vinyl monomers are presented. The aim of our investigations is to obtain binders with curing doses ≤ 50 kGy. In order to reduce the curing dose we studied mixtures of resins and acrylates. (author)

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon-Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    4, -4 3 2.0 17-21 15 18 21 :9." -: 4:tes: 1, Cll •easureren’. ;rown ire in Ill e::ceoI ".-ic.-ie: "-.- : .. - are hown in •iai:’l4m raw court form...scatter in the samples rather than the additional formation of cristo - balite. This was supported by later diffraction scans of material after extended...could not be avoided due to the brittle nature of the coating. , b. Coupons were then mounted in epoxy using a vacuum-oimpregnation technique. This

  5. lnvestigation of Patch Coatings lnfluence on the Stress lntensity Factor for Surface Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is investigated how a surface layer of epoxy glue will affect the crack propagation of a surface crack. The intension is to reduce or even stop the crack propagation by means of patch layer coating. When adding a patch layer to the surface with small cracks, the layer will attem...

  6. The failure mode of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshkour, R A; Ariffin, A K; Zulkifli, R; Sulong, A B; Azhari, C H

    2012-01-01

    In this study the quasi static compression test over natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been carried out, the natural silk epoxy composite tubes consist of 24 layer of woven natural silk as reinforcement and thermoset epoxy resin as matrix which both of them i e natural silk and epoxy have excellent mechanical properties More over the natural silk have better moisture resistance in comparison with other natural reinforcements, the length of tubes are 50, 80 and 120 mm The natural silk epoxy composite tubes are associated with an external trigger which includes 4 steel pieces welded on downside flat plate fixture The hand lay up fabrication method has been used to make the natural silk epoxy composite tubes Instron universal testing machine with 250 KN load capacity has been employed to accomplish this investigation The failure modes of natural silk epoxy triggered composite tubes has been investigated by representative photographs which has been taken by a high resolution camera(12 2 Mp) during the quasi static compression test, from the photographs is observed the failure modes is progressive local buckling

  7. Enhancement of mechanical properties of epoxy/graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Karim, M. A. A.; Manshoor, B.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.; Meng, Q.

    2017-10-01

    Graphene is a novel class of nanofillers possessing outstanding characteristics including most compatible with most polymers, high absolute strength, high aspect ratio and cost effectiveness. In this study, graphene was used to reinforce epoxy as a matrix, to enhance its mechanical properties. Two types of epoxy composite were developed which are epoxy/graphene nanocomposite and epoxy/modified graphene nanocomposite. The fabrication of graphene was going through thermal expansion and sonication process. Chemical modification was only done for modified graphene where 4,4’-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is used. The mechanical properties of both nanocomposite, such as Young’s modulus and maximum stress were investigated. Three weight percentage were used for this study which are 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt%. At 0.5 wt%, modified and unmodified shows the highest value compared to neat epoxy, where the value were 8 GPa, 6 GPa and 0.675 GPa, respectively. For maximum stress, neat epoxy showed the best result compared to both nanocomposite due to the changes of material properties when adding the filler into the matrix. Therefore, both nanocomposite increase the mechanical properties of the epoxy, however modification surface of graphene gives better improvement.

  8. Study of AC Magnetic Properties and Core Losses of Fe/Fe3O4-epoxy Resin Soft Magnetic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayana, T. A.; Manna, Subhendu Kumar; Fernandes, B. G.; Venkataramani, N.

    Soft Magnetic Composites (SMC) were prepared by coating of nanocrystalline Fe3O4 particles, synthesized by co-precipitation method, on atomized iron powder of particle size less than 53 μm in size using epoxy resin as a binder between iron and Fe3O4. Fe3O4 was chosen, for its high electric resistivity and suitable magnetic properties, to keep the coating layer magnetic and seek improvement to the magnetic properties of SMC. SEM images and XRD patterns were recorded in order to investigate the coatings on the surface of iron powder. A toroid was prepared by cold compaction of coated iron powder at 1050 MPa and subsequently cured at 150˚C for 1 hr in argon atmosphere. For comparison of properties, a toroid of uncoated iron powder was also compacted at 1050 MPa and annealed at 600˚C for 2 hr in argon atmosphere. The coated iron powder composite has a resistivity of greater than 200 μΩm, measured by four probe method. A comparison of Magnetic Hysteresis loops and core losses using B-H Loop tracer in the frequency range 0 to 1500 Hz on the coated and uncoated iron powder is reported.

  9. Predicting the mechanical behaviour of Kevlar/epoxy and carbon/epoxy filament-wound tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeneuve, C.; Joguet, P.; Maile, J. C.; Oytana, C.

    1992-11-01

    The axial, hoop and shear moduli and failure conditions of carbon/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy filament-wound tubes have been determined through respective applications of internal pressure, tension and torsion. The introduction in the laminated plate theory of a gradual reduction in individual moduli makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the theory and enables accurate predictions to be made of the linear and non-linear stress/strain curves of 90 deg +/- 0/90 deg tubes. The existence of a dominant layer in the failure of the multilayered tubes has been shown experimentally. When associated with a failure criterion applied to the dominant layer, the new model permits the prediction of tube failure. Agreement between calculated and experimental data is better than 5 percent.

  10. Assessment of the effects of surface preparation and coatings on the susceptibility of line pipe to stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate susceptibility of pipeline steel to SCC when coated with coal-tar enamel, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE), and polyethylene tape coatings. The tests included standard cathodic disbondment tests, potential gradients beneath disbonded coatings, electrochemical measurements, and SCC tests. It was concluded that factors affecting relative SCC susceptibility of pipelines with different coatings are the disbonding resistance of the coating and the ability of the coating to pass cathodic protection (CP) current. FBE coated pipelines would be expected to exhibit good SCC resistance, since the FBE coating had high cathodic disbonding resistance and could pass CP current. Grit blasting at levels used at coating mills may be beneficial or detrimental to SCC susceptibility. Excellent correlation was found between th Almen strip deflection and change in SCC threshold stress. It appears to be beneficial to remove as much mill scale as possible, and a white surface finish probably should also be specified. 50 figs, 10 tabs

  11. Thermomechanical Behavior of High Performance Epoxy/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Soares Cavalcanti Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of epoxy resin containing bentonite clay were fabricated to evaluate the thermomechanical behavior during heating. The epoxy resin system studied was prepared using bifunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, crosslinking agent diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS, and diethylenetriamine (DETA. The purified bentonite organoclay (APOC was used in all experiments. The formation of nanocomposite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Specimens of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. According to the DMA results a significant increase in glass transition temperature and storage modulus was evidenced when 1 phr of clay is added to epoxy resin.

  12. Hansen solubility parameters for a carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Launay, Helene; Hansen, Charles M.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the physical affinity between an epoxy matrix and oxidized, unsized carbon fibers has been evaluated using Hansen solubility (cohesion) parameters (HSP). A strong physical compatibility has been shown, since their respective HSP are close. The use of a glassy carbon substrate...... as a model for unsized carbon fiber has been demonstrated as appropriate for the study of interactions between the materials in composite carbon fiber-epoxy systems. The HSP of glassy carbon are similar to those of carbon fibers and epoxy matrix. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Plant Oil-Derived Epoxy Polymers toward Sustainable Biobased Thermosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Yuan, Liang; Ganewatta, Mitra S; Lamm, Meghan E; Rahman, Md Anisur; Wang, Jifu; Liu, Shengquan; Tang, Chuanbing

    2017-06-01

    Epoxy polymers (EPs) derived from soybean oil with varied chemical structures are synthesized. These polymers are then cured with anhydrides to yield soybean-oil-derived epoxy thermosets. The curing kinetic, thermal, and mechanical properties are well characterized. Due to the high epoxide functionality per epoxy polymer chain, these thermosets exhibit tensile strength over an order of magnitude higher than a control formulation with epoxidized soybean oil. More importantly, thermosetting materials ranging from soft elastomers to tough thermosets can be obtained simply by using different EPs and/or by controlling feed ratios of EPs to anhydrides. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Measurements of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Jeunnette, Timothy T.; Anzic, Judith M.

    1989-01-01

    High-reflectance accurate-contour mirrors are needed for solar dynamic space power systems. Graphite fiber epoxy composites are attractive candidates for such applications owing to their high modulus, near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, and low mass. However, mirrors prepared from graphite fiber epoxy composite substrates often exhibit print-through, a distortion of the surface, which causes a loss in solar specular reflectance. Efforts to develop mirror substrates without print-through distortion require a means of quantifying print-through. Methods have been developed to quantify the degree of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens using surface profilometry.

  15. Generalized morphea/eosinophilic fasciitis overlap after epoxy exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren H. Chan, MS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalized morphea is associated with epoxy resin vapors and is characterized by the development of lesions shortly after exposure. Morphea presenting along with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, or morphea/EF overlap, is rare and an indicator of poor prognosis and resistance to treatment. Here we present a case of generalized morphea/EF overlap linked to epoxy exposure. Our patient received multiple therapies—ultraviolet A1 phototherapy, prednisone, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and rituximab—none of which led to a significant response. The refractory nature of this disease warrants vigilance in its association with epoxy exposure.

  16. Synthesis of hydrazone functionalized epoxy polymers for non-linear optical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra K.

    A series of twelve, thermally crosslinkable, epoxy polymers bearing covalently attached NLO-active hydrazone chromophores were synthesized. The primary focus was on the synthesis of two series of NLO-active hydroxy functionalized hydrazone chromophores. The first series, called the monohydroxy series (Hydrazones I--VI) comprised of six monohydroxy functionalized hydrazones and the second series consisted of six dihydroxy functionalized hydrazones (Hydrazones VII--XII). These hydrazone chromophores were then grafted, via the hydroxy functionality, on to a commercial epoxy polymer to obtain twelve NLO-active soluble prepolymers. The grafting reaction yields multiple secondary hydroxyl sites due to opening of the epoxide rings and these hydroxyl groups were used for further crosslinking by formulating the prepolymers with a blocked polyisocyanate commercial crosslinker. This formulation was spin coated on glass slides to form 2--2.5 m m thick uniform, defect free, transparent films. The films were corona poled, above their Tg, to align the chromophores in a noncentrosymmetric fashion and simultaneously complete the thermal cure that results in a highly crosslinked network. Finally the thermal characteristics of the second order nonlinearity of the twelve polymers are compared to illustrate the key structure-property relationships underlying the performance of the films.

  17. Thermal conductivity of bulk boron nitride nanotube sheets and their epoxy-impregnated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubinek, Michael B.; Kim, Keun Su; Simard, Benoit; Niven, John F.; Johnson, Michel B.; Ashrafi, Behnam; White, Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of bulk, self-supporting boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) sheets composed of nominally 100% BNNTs oriented randomly in-plane was measured by a steady-state, parallel thermal conductance method. The sheets were either collected directly during synthesis or produced by dispersion and filtration. Differences between the effective thermal conductivities of filtration-produced BNNT buckypaper (∝1.5 W m -1 K -1 ) and lower-density as-synthesized sheets (∝0.75 W m -1 K -1 ), which are both porous materials, were primarily due to their density. The measured results indicate similar thermal conductivity, in the range of 7-12 W m -1 K -1 , for the BNNT network in these sheets. High BNNT-content composites (∝30 wt.% BNNTs) produced by epoxy impregnation of the porous BNNT network gave 2-3 W m -1 K -1 , more than 10 x the baseline epoxy. The combination of manufacturability, thermal conductivity, and electrical insulation offers exciting potential for electrically insulating, thermally conductive coatings and packaging. Thermal conductivity of free-standing BNNT buckypaper, buckypaper composites, and related materials at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Thermal conductivity of bulk boron nitride nanotube sheets and their epoxy-impregnated composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubinek, Michael B.; Kim, Keun Su; Simard, Benoit [Security and Disruptive Technologies, Division of Emerging Technologies, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Niven, John F. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Johnson, Michel B. [Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Ashrafi, Behnam [Aerospace, Division of Engineering, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, QC (Canada); White, Mary Anne [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    The thermal conductivity of bulk, self-supporting boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) sheets composed of nominally 100% BNNTs oriented randomly in-plane was measured by a steady-state, parallel thermal conductance method. The sheets were either collected directly during synthesis or produced by dispersion and filtration. Differences between the effective thermal conductivities of filtration-produced BNNT buckypaper (∝1.5 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and lower-density as-synthesized sheets (∝0.75 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}), which are both porous materials, were primarily due to their density. The measured results indicate similar thermal conductivity, in the range of 7-12 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, for the BNNT network in these sheets. High BNNT-content composites (∝30 wt.% BNNTs) produced by epoxy impregnation of the porous BNNT network gave 2-3 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, more than 10 x the baseline epoxy. The combination of manufacturability, thermal conductivity, and electrical insulation offers exciting potential for electrically insulating, thermally conductive coatings and packaging. Thermal conductivity of free-standing BNNT buckypaper, buckypaper composites, and related materials at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  20. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers.

  1. Coating for the fixation of superficial contamination of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Monari, D.; Pellicano, G.

    1984-01-01

    Low cost, commercially available and easy to apply coatings are examined to prevent metal corrosion and to limit cement dust formation during power reactor dismantling. Epoxy compounds are selected because of anticorrosive properties, ease of application on any support, even without preparation and they are efficient for 1 to 5 years. Containment and radiation resistance up to 600 Mrads are studied on samples coated with one or two layers. For application the airless system is the more appropriate. An equipment is concerned and for highly radioactive environment automation and remote operation with a modified commercial robot is studied

  2. Stress Analysis in Polymeric Coating Layer Deposited on Rigid Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Soon Lee [Korea University of Technology and Education, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents an analysis of thermal stress induced along the interface between a polymeric coating layer and a steel substrate as a result of uniform temperature change. The epoxy layer is assumed to be a linear viscoelastic material and to be theromorheologically simple. The viscoelastic boundary element method is employed to investigate the behavior of interface stresses. The numerical results exhibit relaxation of interface stresses and large stress gradients, which are observed in the vicinity of the free surface. Since the exceedingly large stresses cannot be borne by the polymeric coating layer, local cracking or delamination can occur at the interface corner.

  3. In Situ Exfoliation of Graphene in Epoxy Resins: A Facile Strategy to Efficient and Large Scale Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Crespo, Maria; Porwal, Harshit; Picot, Olivier; Santagiuliana, Giovanni; Huang, Zhaohui; Barbieri, Ettore; Pugno, Nicola M; Peijs, Ton; Bilotti, Emiliano

    2016-09-14

    Any industrial application aiming at exploiting the exceptional properties of graphene in composites or coatings is currently limited by finding viable production methods for large volumes of good quality and high aspect ratio graphene, few layer graphene (FLG) or graphite nanoplatelets (GNP). Final properties of the resulting composites are inherently related to those of the initial graphitic nanoparticles, which typically depend on time-consuming, resource-demanding and/or low yield liquid exfoliation processes. In addition, efficient dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrices, and their interaction, is of paramount importance. Here we show that it is possible to produce graphene/epoxy nanocomposites in situ and with high conversion of graphite to FLG/GNP through the process of three-roll milling (TRM), without the need of any additives, solvents, compatibilisers or chemical treatments. This readily scalable production method allows for more than 5 wt % of natural graphite (NG) to be directly exfoliated into FLG/GNP and dispersed in an epoxy resin. The in situ exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets, with average aspect ratios of 300-1000 and thicknesses of 5-17 nm, were demonstrated to conferee exceptional enhancements in mechanical and electrical properties to the epoxy resin. The above conclusions are discussed and interpreted in terms of simple analytical models.

  4. The control mechanism of surface traps on surface charge behavior in alumina-filled epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role surface traps play in the charge injection and transfer behavior of alumina-filled epoxy composites, surface traps with different trap levels are introduced by different surface modification methods which include dielectric barrier discharges plasma, direct fluorination, and Cr 2 O 3 coating. The resulting surface physicochemical characteristics of experimental samples were observed using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface potential under dc voltage was detected and the trap level distribution was measured. The results suggest that the surface morphology of the experimental samples differs dramatically after treatment with different surface modification methods. Different surface trap distributions directly determine the charge injection and transfer property along the surface. Shallow traps with trap level of 1.03–1.11 eV and 1.06–1.13 eV introduced by plasma and fluorination modifications are conducive for charge transport along the insulating surface, and the surface potential can be modified, producing a smoother potential curve. The Cr 2 O 3 coating can introduce a large number of deep traps with energy levels ranging from 1.09 to 1.15 eV. These can prevent charge injection through the reversed electric field formed by intensive trapped charges in the Cr 2 O 3 coatings. (paper)

  5. Advantages, disadvantages and PQT results of FBE (Fusion Bonded Epoxy) 2L and FBE 3L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Cunha, Bruno Rocha Marques da; Nunes, Erik Barbosa; Haverroth, Guilherme Eller [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, Paulo Herinque [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    The pipeline operating companies' requirements has divided the anti corrosive coating industry in two big groups. Europe, Asia and South America had decided to use tree layers polyethylene (3LPE). In the other hand North America and England are users of Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE). The coating characteristics guided this division. The 3LPE presents a better mechanical resistance, a small demand of cathodic protection current but the application costs involved are greater. The FBE has a small mechanic resistance, greater demand of cathodic protection current but its application cost is lower. In the effort for finding better mechanic performance of the FBE product the industry developed the 2L-FBE. This new product show better requirements as better mechanical resistance, smaller cathodic protection current required and medium application costs when compared to the traditional FBE. This paper intends to describe this new technology's PQT results that were carried out by PETROBRAS and Bredero Shaw - Brazil to be used on produced water injection pipelines. It'll show also a table with vantages and disadvantages about each coating. (author)

  6. Electrical properties of thin epoxy-based polymer layers filled with n-carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta; Hauptman, Nina; Maček, Marijan

    2008-02-01

    The change of resistivity of the epoxy-based nanocomposite was studied in dependence on concentration of dispersed nanoparticles. The SU8 negative-tone photoresist was applied for the polymer matrix and the conductive carbon black powder for the fillings. The largest decrease of resistivity was obtained at 2-3 wt% of fillings whereas at loadings higher that 8 wt% it does not decreases further appreciably. The resistivity of the prepared nanocomposites becomes smaller after the UV-exposure. The applied nanofillings change the viscosity of the material but the spin-coating application still remains reliable and was approved to work well for concentrations of at least up to 3 wt%. The addition of nanofillings up to 2 wt% does not destroy the resolution of photolithography as seen on the standard test pattern with line widths from 2 to 10 μm.

  7. Influence of epoxy resin as encapsulation material of silicon photovoltaic cells on maximum current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Gómez David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis about how the performance of silicon photovoltaic cells is influenced by the use of epoxy resin as encapsulation material with flat roughness. The effect of encapsulation on current at maximum power of mono-crystalline cell was tested indoor in a solar simulator bench at 1000 w/m² and AM1.5G. The results show that implementation of flat roughness layer onto cell surface reduces the maximum current inducing on average 2.7% less power with respect to a cell before any encapsulation. The losses of power and, in consequence, the less production of energy are explained by resin light absorption, reflection and partially neutralization of non-reflective coating.

  8. Behaviour of Epoxy Silica Nanocomposites Under Static and Creep Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Picu, Radu Catalin; Sandu, Marin; Apostol, Dragos Alexandru; Sandu, Adriana; Baciu, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Specific manufacturing technologies were applied for the fabrication of epoxy-based nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles. For dispersing the fillers in the epoxy resin special equipment such as a shear mixer and a high energy sonicator with temperature control were used. Both functionalized and unfunctionalized silica nanoparticles were added in three epoxy resins. The considered filling fraction was in most cases 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt%.. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to monotonic uniaxial and creep loading at room temperature. The static mechanical properties were not significantly improved regardless the filler percentage and type of epoxy resin. Under creep loading, by increasing the stress level, the nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% silica creeps less than all other materials. Also the creep rate is reduced by adding silica nanofillers.

  9. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwook, E-mail: dongwookleedl324@gmail.com [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Seo, Jiwon, E-mail: jiwonseo@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin [Division of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local density approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which are generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  10. Epoxy blanket protects milled part during explosive forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Epoxy blanket protects chemically milled or machined sections of large, complex structural parts during explosive forming. The blanket uniformly covers all exposed surfaces and fills any voids to support and protect the entire part.

  11. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Improving Mechanical Properties of Thermoset Biocomposites by Fiber Coating or Organic Oil Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc T. Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different thermoset biocomposite systems are experimented in this study with the hope to improve their mechanical properties. Fiberglass and hemp, in form of fabrics, are used to reinforce the thermoset polymer matrix, which includes a traditional epoxy resin and a linseed oil-based bioresin (UVL. The fiber/polymer matrix interface is modified using two different approaches: adding a plant-based oil (pine or linseed to the polymer matrix or coating the fibers with 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES prior to integrating them into the polymer matrix. Epoxy resin is cured using an amine-based initiator, whereas UVL resin is cured under ultraviolet light. Results show that hemp fibers with APTES prime coat used in either epoxy or UVL matrix exhibit some potential improvements in the composite’s mechanical properties including tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ductility. It is also found that adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with fiberglass mostly improves the material’s modulus of elasticity while maintaining its tensile strength and ductility. However, adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with hemp doubles the material’s ductility while slightly reducing its tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

  13. Exit Presentation: Infrared Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the internship project that was accomplished during the summer of 2010. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Simulate Flash Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy Flat Bottom hole Specimen and thin void specimens, (2) Obtain Flash Thermography data on Graphite/Epoxy flat bottom hole specimens, (3) Compare experimental results with simulation results, Compare Flat Bottom Hole Simulation with Thin Void Simulation to create a graph to determine size of IR Thermography detected defects

  14. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  15. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  16. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  17. Epoxy encapsulant as serendipitous dosimeters during radiological/nuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkyoumb, J.H. [Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 9500 MacArthur Blvd., West Bethesda, MD 20817-5700 (United States)], E-mail: jhbarky@earthlink.net; Mathur, V.K. [Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 9500 MacArthur Blvd., West Bethesda, MD 20817-5700 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The radiation response of a smart chip (embedded integrated circuit) module has been reported earlier using the technique of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). It was found that a smart chip module could be used to evaluate the personnel exposure in the accident dosimetry range. Through subsequent experiments, the radiation sensitivity of the chip module was traced to the epoxy encapsulant provided to protect the chip from the environment and physical damage and that the radiation sensitivity of the epoxy is due to the silica used as the 'filler' for controlling the thixotropic properties of the epoxy used for 'glob top' or 'dam-and-fill' encapsulation. It is desirable to retain the ability to use the smart chip as an accident dosimeter without requiring a modification of standard manufacturing process for which an infrastructure already exists to avoid additional costs. For this reason, we have investigated commercially available filled and unfilled epoxies both as received from the manufacturer and compared their response with epoxies to which commercial fillers are added. In this work we investigate the OSL response of various epoxies commonly used for potting of electronic circuits with and without various filler materials for their potential to be used as a casualty dosimeter in the exposure range of 0.5-10 Gy.

  18. Optical emission behavior and radiation resistance of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Udagawa, Akira; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-11-01

    To make clear a mechanism of radiation resistance of epoxy resin systems, a role of energy trapping site induced in bisphenol A type epoxy resins cured with 4 kinds of aromatic amines (Φ N ) was studied in comparison with the case of aliphatic amine curing system through a measurement of optical emission. In the system of the epoxy resin cured with DETA, the optical emission from an excited state of bisphenol A unit of epoxy resin and a charge transfer complex was observed. On the other hand, the optical emission from Φ N was observed in the aromatic amine curing system. Their excitation spectrum consists of peaks of absorption spectrum of BA and those of Φ N , showing that the excited state of Φ N is formed through the excitation of both BA and Φ N . Therefore, the excited energy of BA transfers to the excited state of Φ N . Emission intensity of Φ N band was 20 ∼ 100 times as large as that of BA. These results indicate that the radiation energy is effectively released as an optical emission from excited state of Φ N in the epoxy resin when cured with aromatic amine. It can be concluded from the above results that aromatic amine hardeners contribute to enhancement of the radiation resistance of epoxy resin by acting as an energy transfer agent. (author)

  19. Thermo-curable epoxy systems for nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have used solvent-free thermo-curable epoxy systems for low-pressure and moderate-temperature nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The curing kinetic parameters and conversion of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin with different ambient-cure 930 and 954 hardeners were studied by the isothermal DSC technique. They are useful for the study of epoxy resins in the imprinting application. The DGEBA/930 and DGEBA/954 epoxy resists can be imprinted to obtain high-density nano- and micro-scale patterns on a flexible indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (ITO/PET) substrate. The DGEBA/930 epoxy resin is not only suitable for resist material, but also for plastic mold material. Highly dense nanometer patterns can be successfully imprinted using a UV-curable resist from the DGEBA/930 epoxy mold. Using the replicated DGEBA/930 epoxy mold instead of the expensive master can prevent brittle failure of the silicon molds in the NIL

  20. Radiation processing of carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composites, specifically carbon fiber reinforced epoxies, are being used for a variety of demanding structural applications, primarily because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance characteristics. For these composites the key advantages of using electron beam (EB), rather than thermal curing, are curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing times for individual components, improved resin stability, fewer volatiles, and better control of the profile of energy absorption. Epoxy compounds do, however, have to be modified to make them EB curable. The electron beam penetration limit, a function of beam energy, product density, and the thickness of any container required, must also be examined when considering EB processing. Research is being conducted to develop EB-curable carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy composites. The tensile properties of these laminates are comparable to those of thermally cured epoxy laminates. Research is continuing to develop suitable resin formulations and coupling agents to optimize the mechanical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber laminates. In this chapter the EB curing of epoxies, processing considerations, and typical properties of EB-cured carbon fiber-acrylated epoxy laminates are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Performance of epoxy-nanocomposite under corrosive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials consisting of polymeric matrix materials and natural or synthetic layered minerals like clay are currently an expanding field of study because these new materials often exhibit a wide range of improved properties over their unmodified starting polymers. Epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites have been prepared by intercalating epoxy into the organoclay via direct mixing process. The clay exfoliation was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Water diffusion and sulfuric acid corrosion resistance of epoxy-based nanocomposites were evaluated. Diffusion was studied through epoxy samples containing up to 6 phr (parts per hundred resin of an organically treated montmorillonite. The diffusion of the environmental solution was measured by noting the increase in weight of the samples as a function of immersion time in these solutions at 80°C. The effect of the degree of exfoliation of the organoclay on water barrier and corrosion resistance was specifically studied. The data have been compared to those obtained from the neat epoxy resin to evaluate the diffusion properties of the nanocomposites. The flexural strength of the epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites samples made was examined to compare their mechanical performance under corrosive conditions as a function of immersion time and temperature. It was found, that the organoclay was mainly intercalated with some exfoliation and that addition of the organoclay yields better flexural strength retention under immersion into sulfuric acid.

  2. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  3. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  4. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Nanofillers on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistivity of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Joo, Jin

    2015-06-01

    MWCNTs was synthesized using Ni-Cr/MgO by CVD method and were purified. The purified MWCNT was used as a filler material for the fabrication of epoxy nanocomposites. The epoxy nanocomposites with different amount (wt% = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) of nanofillers (CB, SiO2 and MWCNTs) were prepared by casting method. The effects of nanofillers on the properties of neat epoxy matrix were well studied. The thermal properties of nanocomposites were studied using DSC, TGA and flame retardant, and also the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, determination of hardness and chemical resistance were studied extensively. Based on the experiment's results, 2 wt% MWCNTs loading in epoxy resin showed the highest improvement in tensile strength, as compared to neat epoxy and to other epoxy systems (CB/epoxy, SiO2/epoxy). Improvements in tensile strength, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were observed by the addition of MWCNTs. The mechanical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were improved due to the interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and epoxy resin. Strain hardening behavior was higher for MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites compared with CB/epoxy and SiO2/epoxy nanocomposites. The investigation of thermal and mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the epoxy nanocomposites increases its thermal stability to a great extent. Discrete increase of glass transition temperature of nanocomposites is linearly dependent on MWCNTs content. Due to strong interfacial bonding between MWCNTs and epoxy resin, the chemical resistivity of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites is superior to neat epoxy and other epoxy systems.

  6. Fatigue life extension of epoxy materials using ultrafast epoxy-SbF5 healing system introduced by manual infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Ye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to the verification of the capability of epoxy-SbF5 system as a healing chemistry for rapidly retarding and/or arresting fatigue cracks in epoxy materials at room temperature. Owing to the very fast curing speed of epoxy catalyzed by SbF5, epoxy monomer and the hardener (ethanol solution of SbF5–ethanol complex are successively infiltrated into the fracture plane under cyclic loading during the tension-tension fatigue test. As a result, the mechanisms including hydrodynamic pressure crack tip shielding, polymeric wedge and adhesive bonding of the healing agent are revealed. It is found that the healing agent forms solidified wedge at the crack tip within 20 s after start of polymerization of the epoxy monomer, so that the highest healing effect is offered at the moment. The epoxy-SbF5 system proves to be effective in rapidly obstructing fatigue crack propagation (despite that its cured version has lower fracture toughness than the matrix, and satisfies the requirement of constructing fast self-healing polymeric materials.

  7. Design and Analysis of Drive Shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Gobinath, R.; Kumar, L. Ajith; Jenish, D. Xavier

    2017-05-01

    In automobile industry drive shaft is one of the most important components to transmit power form the engine to rear wheel through the differential gear. Generally steel drive shaft is used in automobile industry, nowadays they are more interested to replace steel drive shaft with that of composite drive shaft. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the composite drive shaft using to find out the best replacement for conventional steel drive shaft. The uses of advanced composite materials such as Kevlar, Graphite, Carbon and Glass with proper resins ware resulted in remarkable achievements in automobile industry because of its greater specific strength and specific modulus, improved fatigue and corrosion resistances and reduction in energy requirements due to reduction in weight as compared to steel shaft. This paper is to presents, the modeling and analysis of drive shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a composite material and to find best replacement for conventional steel drive shafts with an Kevlar/epoxy or Glass/Epoxy resin composite drive shaft. Modeling is done using CATIA software and Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS 10.0 software for easy understanding. The composite drive shaft reduces the weight by 81.67 % for Kevlar/Epoxy and 72.66% for Glass/Epoxy when compared with conventional steel drive shaft.

  8. Thermoset coatings from epoxidized sucrose soyate and blocked, bio-based dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovash, Curtiss S; Pavlacky, Erin; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Sibi, Mukund P; Webster, Dean C

    2014-08-01

    A new 100% bio-based thermosetting coating system was developed from epoxidized sucrose soyate crosslinked with blocked bio-based dicarboxylic acids. A solvent-free, green method was used to block the carboxylic acid groups and render the acids miscible with the epoxy resin. The thermal reversibility of this blocking allowed for the formulation of epoxy-acid thermoset coatings that are 100% bio-based. This was possible due to the volatility of the vinyl ethers under curing conditions. These systems have good adhesion to metal substrates and perform well under chemical and physical stress. Additionally, the hardness of the coating system is dependent on the chain length of the diacid used, making it tunable. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preparation of epoxy-based macroporous monolithic columns for the fast and efficient immunofiltration of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Sonja; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Macroporous epoxy-based monolithic columns were used for immunofiltration of bacteria. The prepared monolithic polymer support is hydrophilic and has large pore sizes of 21 μm without mesopores. A surface chemistry usually applied for immobilization of antibodies on glass slides is successfully transferred to monolithic columns. Step-by-step, the surface of the epoxy-based monolith is hydrolyzed, silanized, coated with poly(ethylene glycol diamine) and activated with the homobifunctional crosslinker di(N-succinimidyl)carbonate for immobilization of antibodies on the monolithic columns. The functionalization steps are characterized to ensure the coating of each monolayer. The prepared antibody-immobilized monolithic column is optimized for immunofiltration to enrich Staphylococcus aureus as an important food contaminant. Different kinds of geometries of monolithic columns, flow rates and elution buffers are tested with the goal to get high recoveries in the shortest enrichment time as possible. An effective capture of S. aureus was achieved at a flow rate of 7.0 mL/min with low backpressures of 20.1±5.4 mbar enabling a volumetric enrichment of 1000 within 145 min. The bacteria were quantified by flow cytometry using a double-labeling approach. After immunofiltration the sensitivity was significantly increased and a detection limit of the total system of 42 S. aureus/mL was reached. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature

  11. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  12. Experimental design applied optimization of a state in epoxy clay dispersion; Planejamento de experimentos aplicado a otimizacao do estado de dispersao de argilas em epoxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Juliana D' Avila; Bertholdi, Jonas; Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Pezin, Sergio Henrique; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira, E-mail: julianadpaz@yahoo.com.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents some analysis showed that the exfoliation / intercalation of a montmorillonite clay in epoxy resin such as viscosity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Increasing the viscosity of epoxy resin diglycidyl ether bisphenol A with the addition of clay associated with the sonification system at the time of dispersion is a good indication of exfoliation. The X-ray diffraction already cured composite shows a decrease of crystallinity of clay and EDS microanalysis of SEM, non-uniform dispersion of clay in epoxy resin. Thermal analysis TG composite clay / epoxy shows an increase in thermal stability relative to pure epoxy. (author)

  13. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  14. Coated Glass Slides TACAS Are Applicable to Heat-Assisted Immunostaining and In Situ Hybridization at the Electron Microscopy Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takahiro; Onouchi, Takanori; Shiogama, Kazuya; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Inada, Ken-ichi; Yu, Fuxun; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Koichi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Mahara, Fumihiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We performed pre-embedding electron microscopic study for visualizing the antigen and genome of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus in the cytoplasm of macrophages of the human splenic red pulp, both requesting preheating treatment of sections. To pursue this, coated glass slides with unique characteristics are needed. Namely, during staining they must prevent detaching off sections, but after staining the sections must be transferred to epoxy resin. Aminopropyltriexoxysilane-coated glass slides, widely used for immunostaining, were resistant to transfer to epoxy resin. In contrast, coated glass slides designated as Thinlayer Advanced Cytology Assay System (TACAS) were suitable for this purpose. The technique is also applicable to the coated glass slide-requiring cytology practice, in which immunocytochemical evaluation is needed after cell transfer to another glass slide

  15. Graphite epoxy composite degradation by space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, M.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Bennion, J.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation environment in space is a critical consideration for successful operation in space. All manned space missions with a duration of more than a few days are subjected to elevated ionizing radiation exposures, which are a threat to both personnel and structures in space. The increasing demands for high-performance materials as structural components in the aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries have led to the development of materials such as graphite fiber-reinforced, epoxy resin matrix composites (Gr/Ep). These materials provide important advantages over conventional structural materials, such as ultrahigh specific strength, enhanced specific moduli, and better fatigue resistance. The fact that most advanced composite materials under cyclic fatigue loading evidence little or no observable crack growth prior to rapid fracture suggests that for fail-safe considerations of parts subject to catastrophic failure, a detailed evaluation of radiation damage from very energetic particle is crucial. The Gr/Ep components are believed to suffer severe degradation in space due to highly penetrating secondary radiation, mainly from neutrons and protons. Investigation into the performance and stability of Gr/Ep materials are planned

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel with bulk coating holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With epoxy coal tar as the coating material, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Q235 with different kinds of bulk coating holidays has been investigated with EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) in a 3.5vol% NaCl aqueous solution.The area ratio of bulk coating holiday to total coating area of steel is 4.91%. The experimental results showed that at free corrosionpotential, the corrosion of carbon steel with disbonded coating holiday is heavier than that with broken holiday and disbonded & broken holiday with time; Moreover, the effectiveness of Cathodic Protection (CP) of carbon steel with broken holiday is better than that with disbonded holiday and disbonded & broken holiday on CP potential -850 mV (vs CSE). Further analysis indicated that the two main reasons for corrosion are electrolyte solution slowly penetrating the coating, and crevice corrosion at steel/coating interface near holidays. The ratio of impedance amplitude (Z) of different frequency to minimum frequency is defined as K value. The change rate of K with frequency is related to the type of coating holiday.

  17. Shape memory polymers from benzoxazine-modified epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimdusit, Sarawut; Lohwerathama, Montha; Dueramae, Isala; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Kasemsiri, Pornnapa

    2013-01-01

    Novel shape memory polymers (SMPs) were prepared from benzoxazine-modified epoxy resin. Specimens consisting of aromatic epoxy (E), aliphatic epoxy (N), Jeffamine D230 (D) and BA-a benzoxazine monomer (B) were evaluated. The mole ratio of D/B was used as a mixed curing agent for an epoxy system with a fixed E/N. The effects of BA-a content on the thermal, mechanical and shape memory properties of epoxy-based shape memory polymers (SMPs) were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), flexural test and shape recovery test. The results revealed that the obtained SMPs exhibited a higher flexural strength and flexural modulus than those of the unmodified epoxy-based SMP at room temperature and at 20 ° C above glass transition temperature (T g ). The presence of 1 mol BA-a as a curing agent provided the specimen with the highest T g , i.e. about 72 ° C higher than that of epoxy-based SMP cured by Jeffamine D230. All SMP samples needed only a few minutes to fully recover to their original shape. The samples exhibited high shape fixity (98–99%) and shape recovery ratio (90–100%). In addition, the recovery stress values increased with increasing BA-a mole ratio from 20 to 38 kPa, when BA-a up to 1 mol ratio was added. All of the SMP samples exhibited only minimum change in their flexural strength at the end of a 100 recovery cycles test. (paper)

  18. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  19. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar

    2005-07-01

    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  20. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Raji; Hasan Shojaei; Parinaz Saeidi Ghorani; Elahe Rafiei

    2014-01-01

    Background: The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, U...

  1. Synthesis of durable microcapsules for self-healing anticorrosive coatings: A comparison of selected methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    -based anticorrosive coatings, based on incorporation of microcapsules, filled with reactive agents, into the coating matrix, is investigated. Upon small damages to the coating, the reagents are released from the capsules and react, thereby forming a cross-linked network, which heals the crack. However......Self-healing materials have the ability to ‘repair’ themselves upon exposure to an external stimulus. In the field of coatings, extensive laboratory research has been conducted on these so-called smart materials in the last decade. In the present work, a self-healing concept for epoxy......, for the concept to work, microcapsules have to be strong enough to remain intact during storage and coating formulation and application. Furthermore, the capsules must remain stable for many years in the dry coating. Laboratory experiments, using four out of several encapsulation methods available...

  2. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  3. Corrosion Performance of Nano-ZrO₂ Modified Coatings in Hot Mixed Acid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Zhenyu; Han, En-Hou; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Qian

    2018-06-01

    A nano-ZrO₂ modified coating system was prepared by incorporation of nano-ZrO₂ concentrates into phenolic-epoxy resin. The corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated in hot mixed acid solution, using electrochemical methods combined with surface characterization, and the effects of nano-ZrO₂ content were specially focused on. The results showed that 1% and 3% nano-ZrO₂ addition enhanced the corrosion resistance of the coatings, while 5% nano-ZrO₂ addition declined it. The coating with 3% nano-ZrO₂ presented the minimum amount of species diffusion, the lowest average roughness (5.94 nm), and the highest C/O ratio (4.55) and coating resistance, and it demonstrated the best corrosion performance among the coating specimens.

  4. Surface coating of jeungjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN) with acrylate resins by using radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariyono, Gatot

    1998-01-01

    An experiment on surface coating with acrylate resins has been done by using radiation technique to improve the quality and added value of jeunjing wood (Paraserianthes Falcataria (L) NIELSEN). Doses used in Electron Beam (BE) radiation were 20, 40, and 60 kGy. Epoxy acrylate and ester acrylate resins were used as coating materials after added with tripropylene glycol diacylate (TPGDA) monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-2hidroxy acetophenone (Darocur 1173) photoinitiator and talc as base coat. Top coat consists of este acrylate Setacure AM 548, after added with titanium dioxide OK 412 as additive respectively. Titanium dioxides in the mixture were varied at the concentration level of 0, 2, 4 and 6 % by weight. Conventional coating as comparison was carried out by using varnish as coating material. The results showed that the properties of film on jeunjing wood by EB curing are better than that of conventional one. (authors)

  5. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  6. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  7. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  8. High-performance fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, T. T.; Hamstad, M. A.; Jessop, E. S.; Toland, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Activities described include: (1) determining the applicability of an ultrahigh-strength graphite fiber to composite pressure vessels; (2) defining the fatigue performance of thin-titanium-lined, high-strength graphite/epoxy pressure vessel; (3) selecting epoxy resin systems suitable for filament winding; (4) studying the fatigue life potential of Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels; and (5) developing polymer liners for composite pressure vessels. Kevlar 49/epoxy and graphite fiber/epoxy pressure vessels, 10.2 cm in diameter, some with aluminum liners and some with alternation layers of rubber and polymer were fabricated. To determine liner performance, vessels were subjected to gas permeation tests, fatigue cycling, and burst tests, measuring composite performance, fatigue life, and leak rates. Both the metal and the rubber/polymer liner performed well. Proportionately larger pressure vessels (20.3 and 38 cm in diameter) were made and subjected to the same tests. In these larger vessels, line leakage problems with both liners developed the causes of the leaks were identified and some solutions to such liner problems are recommended.

  9. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yun-Yuan; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Su, Wei-Fang; Chen, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Novel liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced polymerization shrinkage and effectively bond to tooth structures, can be applied in esthetic dentistry, including core and post systems, direct and indirect restorations, and dental brackets. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites including biocompatibility, microhardness, and frictional forces of bracket-like blocks with different filler contents for further clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials that exhibited various filler contents, by assessing their cell activity performance using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and their microhardness with or without thermocycling. We also evaluated the frictional force between bracket-like duplicates and commercially available esthetic bracket systems using Instron 5566. The liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials showed good biocompatibility. The materials having high filler content demonstrated greater microhardness compared with commercially available bracket materials, before and after the thermocycling treatment. Thus, manufacturing processes are important to reduce frictional force experienced by orthodontic brackets. The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2-epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Islam, Muhammad S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the matrix properties by introducing nanosize TiO 2 (5-40 nm, 0.5-2% by weight) fillers into an epoxy resin. Ultrasonic mixing process, via sonic cavitations, was employed to disperse the particles into the resin system. The thermal, mechanical, morphology and the viscoelastic properties of the nanocomposite and the neat resin were measured with TGA, DMA, TEM and Instron. The nano-particles are dispersed evenly throughout the entire volume of the resin. The nanofiller infusion improves the thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the epoxy resin. The nanocomposite shows increase in storage modulus, glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, flexural modulus and short beam shear strength from neat epoxy resin. The mechanical performance and thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites are depending on with the dispersion state of the TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix and are correlated with loading (0.0015-0.006% by volume). In addition, the nanocomposite shows enhanced flexural strength. Several reasons to explain these effects in terms of reinforcing mechanisms were discussed

  11. Flexural properties of treated and untreated kenaf/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, B.F.; Shalwan, A.; Chin, C.W.; Ming, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Untreated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Treated kenaf fibre/epoxy composites. Highlights: ► Treatment of kenaf fibres with 6% NaOH has improved the flexural properties of epoxy composites. ► Interfacial adhesion of the natural fibres is controlled by the microstructure of the fibres. ► Kenaf fibres have a potential to replace glass fibres for flexural applications. -- Abstract: In the current work, flexural properties of unidirectional long kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composites are studied. The kenaf fibres were prepared into two types as untreated and treated (with 6% NaOH). The failure mechanism and damage features of the materials were categorized with the surface observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results revealed that reinforcement of epoxy with treated kenaf fibres increased the flexural strength of the composite by about 36%, while, untreated fibres introduced 20% improvement. This was mainly due to the high improvement of the chemical treatment (NaOH) on the interfacial adhesion of the fibres and the porosity of the composites which prevented the debonding, detachments or pull out of fibres. For untreated KFRE, the fracture mechanisms were debonding, tearing, detachments and pull out of fibres. The developed composite exhibited superior properties compared to the previous composites based on natural and synthetic fibres.

  12. Void-free epoxy castings for cryogenic insulators and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Westinghouse Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Large Coil Program (LCP) incorporates a main lead bushing which transmits heat-leak loads by conduction to the supercritical helium stream. The bushing, which consists of epoxy resin cast about a copper conductor, must be electrically insulated, vacuum tight and be capable of withstanding the stresses encountered in cryognic service. The seal design of the bushing is especially important; leakage from either the helium system or the external environment into the vacuum will cause the magnet to quench. Additionally, the epoxy-resin casting must resist mechanical loads caused by the weight of leads attached to the bushing and thermal stresses transmitted to the epoxy via the conductor. The epoxy resin is cast about the conductor in such a way as to provide the required vacuum tight seal. The technique by which this is accomplished is reviewed. Equally important is the elimination of voids in the epoxy which will act as stress-concentrating discontinuities during cooling to or warming from 4K. The types of voids that could be expected and their causes are described. The paper reviews techniques employed to eliminate voids within the cast-resin portion of the bushing

  13. Characterization of epoxy hybrid composites filled with cellulose fibers and nano-SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.; Low, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Three different approaches have been applied and investigated to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Epoxy system reinforced with either recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) or nanosilicon carbide (n-SiC) particles as well

  14. Evaluation of Carbon Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels Fabricated Using Ionic Liquid Epoxies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In terms of "Innovation" this is a unique epoxy with unique properties, and NASA co-holds the patent. This epoxy is being exclusively formulated for cryogenic use....

  15. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  16. E-Beam-Cured Layered-Silicate and Spherical Silica Epoxy Nanocomposites (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chenggang; Anderson, David P

    2007-01-01

    .... The nanofillers can be two dimensional (layered-silicate) and zero dimensional (spherical silica). Both the spherical silica epoxy nanocomposite and the layered-silicate epoxy nanocomposite can be cured to a high degree of curing...

  17. ADHESION OF BIOCOMPATIBLE TiNb COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kolegar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of a coating with a high quality requires good adhesion of the film to the substrate. The paper deals with the adhesion of biocompatible TiNb coating with different base materials. Several materials such as titanium CP grade 2, titanium alloys Ti6Al4V and stainless steel AISI 316L were measured. Testing samples were made in the shape of small discs. Those samples were coated with a TiNb layer by using the PVD method (magnetron sputtering. Onto the measured layer of TiNb an assistant cylinder was stuck using a high strength epoxy adhesive E1100S. The sample with the assistant cylinder was fixed into a special fixture and the whole assembly underwent pull-off testing for adhesion. The main result of this experiment was determining the strength needed to peel the layer and morphology and size of the breakaway. As a result, we will be able to determine the best base material and conditions where the coating will be remain intact with the base material.

  18. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC

  19. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki [‘Materials - Technologies’ Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, Universidad País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pza Europa 1, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, Centro, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos (Brazil); Oyanguren, Patricia [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Galante, María J., E-mail: galant@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC.

  20. Effect of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide on Mechanical Properties of Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Nitai Chandra Adak; Suman Chhetri; Naresh Chandra Murmu; Pranab Samanta; Tapas Kuila

    2018-01-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) was incorporated as a reinforcing filler in the epoxy resin to investigate the effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy composites. At first, the epoxy matrix was modified by adding different wt % of TRGO from 0.05 to 0.4 wt % followed by the preparation of TRGO/CF/epoxy composites througha vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. The prepared TRGO was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman Spe...

  1. Epoxy – the hub for the most versatile polymer with exceptional combination of superlative features

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy resins and epoxy based materials have experienced significant advancement since their beginning in 1936, when Dr. Castan of Switzerland and Dr. Greenlee of USA succeeded in synthesizing the very first bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins. Whether it is the new carbon fiber composite of Boeing’s Dreamliner or the thin set terrazzo flooring, epoxy has always been the ideal choice because of its superlative properties and unique chemical composition. Belonging to thermoset family, it is certainl...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of rubbery epoxy/organoclay hectorite nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the morphology, the mechanical, and the viscoelastic properties of rubbery epoxy/clay nanocomposites synthesized by in situ polymerisation of a prepolymer diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A crosslinked with an aliphatic diamine based on a polyoxypropylene backbone. The inorganic phase was hectorite, exchanged with octadecylammonium ions in order to give organophilic properties to the phyllosilicate. An ultrasonicator was used to disperse the silicate clay layer into epoxy-amine matrix. The morphology of epoxy-hectorite nanocomposites examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that mixed delamination or intercalation or microdispersion could occur depending on type of organoclay. Moreover, the mechanical and viscoelastic properties were found to be improved with only the treated hectorite.

  3. Epoxy-silicate nanocomposites: Cure monitoring and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Farzana; Chen, Jihua; Hojjati, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were prepared with organically modified layered clay with varying clay contents (1-8 wt.%). Neat resin and nanocomposite were characterized using different techniques. At first, the effect of nanoclay concentration on the cure behaviour was investigated using an on-line dielectric cure monitoring technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to verify the dielectric measurement results. Furthermore, mechanical and thermal properties were studied using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), respectively. Experimental results showed that properties of the epoxy were changed evidently because of the nanoclay loading. The tensile modulus of the nanocomposites increased by 47%, however, no improvement in tensile strength and glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed. Fracture surface of the tensile samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The nanocomposites structures were characterized with Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction (WAXD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which revealed the intercalated morphology of clay layers in the epoxy resin systems

  4. Physical and chemical durability of cement impregnated epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of simulation radioactive waste contains Cs and Sr with cement impregnated epoxy resin has been done. Low level liquid waste in 30% weight mixed cement homogeneously and then set in its curing time about 28 days. Waste from was impregnated with epoxy resin (Bisphenol-A-diglycidylether) and use Triethylenteramin as catalyst. the sample of cement impregnated epoxy resin 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm in diameter and length was tested by Paul Weber. The compressive strength was obtained of 4.08 kN.cm - 2. The sochxlet apparatus was run on flow rate of 300 ml/hour at 100 o C and during 24 hours. The leaching rate of Cs was round on 5.5 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 and Sr was 6.1 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 (author)

  5. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  6. Characterization and analysis of epoxy/clay nanotubes composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Tarcisio S.; Kock, Thyago; Coelho, Luiz A.F.; Becker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    An DGEBA epoxy matrix was used aiming to achieve a nanocomposite material, through the dispersion of (CNT) via mechanical stirring followed by sonication. In this work the following characterization were performed: mechanical characterization, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of CNT and modified clays promoted the increase of modulus of the epoxy matrix, and a synergistic effect between CNT and both clays could be presumed. SEM images of the fracture surface show the difference between the fracture surface area and the presence of clusters among the samples, allowing a correlation with the modulus of elasticity. X-ray diffractograms from 2Θ = 5 deg showed no peaks for modified clay samples, however it is possible to affirm that modified clay platelets are forming a less organized structure compared to the structure of the clay as natural in epoxy. (author)

  7. DEGRADATION OF MAGNET EPOXY AT NSLS X-RAY RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU,J.P.; ZHONG,Z.; HAAS,E.; HULBERT,S.; HUBBARD,R.

    2004-05-24

    Epoxy resin degradation was analyzed for NSLS X-ring magnets after two decades of 2.58-2.8 GeV continuous electron-beam operation, based on results obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeters irradiated along the NSLS ring and epoxy samples irradiated at the beamline target location. A Monte Carlo-based particle transport code, MCNP, was utilized to verify the dose from synchrotron radiation distributed along the axial- and transverse-direction in a ring model, which simulates the geometry of a ring quadrupole magnet and its central vacuum chamber downstream of the bending-magnet photon ports. The actual life expectancy of thoroughly vacuum baked-and-cured epoxy resin was estimated from radiation tests on similar polymeric materials using a radiation source developed for electrical insulation and mechanical structure studies.

  8. Modification of epoxy resin, silicon and glass surfaces with alkyl- or fluoroalkylsilanes for hydrophobic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczak, Jacek; Kargol, Marta; Psarski, Maciej; Celichowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chemical structure of alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes can affect the hydrophobic and surface performance of the modified samples. • Wet chemical hydrophobization is relatively simple and inexpensive method to obtain hydrophobic/superhydrophobic coatings. • The samples degradation is not observed and hydrophobic coatings seem to be stable in UV light. - Abstract: Preparation of superhydrophobic materials inspired by nature has attracted a great scientific interest in recent decades. Some of these materials have hierarchical lotus-like structures, i.e. micro- and nano-objects coated by hydrophobic compounds. A major challenge of applying the superhydrophobic surfaces for the self-cleaning coatings preparation is their improved efficiency in varying atmospheric conditions, e.g. UV light. The objective of this research work was to investigate the effect of the different chemical structure and the surface free energy on the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the alkylsilanes and fluoroalkylsilanes deposited on silicon wafers, glass slides and epoxy resin. Tribological and hydrophobic properties of the modified surfaces were correlated with their chemical structures. Chemical structures of the deposited materials were examined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and hydrophobic properties were investigated by water contact angle (WCA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. The modified surfaces exhibited water contact angles of above 100° for the selected modifiers. It was noticed that the replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms in alkyl chain caused an increase in the water contact angle values and a decrease in friction coefficients. The obtained results showed that the carbon chain length of a modifier and its chemical structure can strongly affect the hydrophobic and tribological properties of the modified surfaces. The highest values of WCA, lowest values of SFE and coefficient

  9. Thermoset Blends of an Epoxy Resin and Polydicyclopentadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Brian J.; Le, Kim Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan L.

    2016-12-13

    The mechanical properties of two chemically distinct and complementary thermoset polymers were manipulated through development of thermoset blends. The thermoset blend system was composed of an anhydride-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin, contributing high tensile strength and modulus, and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD), which has a higher toughness and impact strength as compared to other thermoset polymers. Ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis explored the morphology of concurrently cured thermoset blends, revealing a macroscopically phase separated system with a surface fractal structure across blended systems of varying composition. The epoxy resin rich and PDCPD rich phases exhibited distinct glass transitions (Tg’s): the Tg observed at higher temperature was associated with the epoxy resin rich phase and was largely unaffected by the presence of PDCPD, whereas the PDCPD rich phase Tg systematically decreased with increasing epoxy resin content due to inhibition of dicyclopentadiene ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The mechanical properties of these phase-separated blends were in reasonable agreement with predictions by the rule of mixtures for the blend tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the tensile and fracture specimen fracture surfaces showed an increase in energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crazing, shear banding, and surface roughness, as the fraction of the more ductile component, PDPCD, increased. These results present a facile method to tune the mechanical properties of a toughened thermoset network, in which the high modulus and tensile strength of the epoxy resin can be largely retained at high epoxy resin content in the blend, while increasing the fracture toughness.

  10. Los cambios de temperatura en los revestimientos epoxi II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second part of a previous paper published by the author in no. 189 of this magazine. It describes the tests carried out to check the theoretical results published in the earlier article. The tests have consisted in submitting concrete slabs covered with a layer of epoxi mortar to certain thermal conditions, to check the behaviour of the covering in the face of thermal changes. In all the tests, described in detail in the article, the epoxi layer has behaved extremely well, and no bonding failure has been observed, nor failures in the concrete base or in the epoxi layer.Este artículo es la segunda parte de un trabajo publicado por el autor en el número 189 de esta revista, y en él se realiza una descripción de los ensayos prácticos llevados a cabo para complementar el estudio teórico publicado en aquella primera parte. Los ensayos han consistido en someter a placas de hormigón revestidas de una Kipa de mor tero epoxi a determinadas condiciones térmicas, con el fin de poder comprobar el comportamiento del revestimiento frente a los cambios de temperatura. En todos los ensayos realizados y que, con detalle, están descritos en este artículo, el comportamiento de los revestimientos de mortero epoxi ha sido excelente, no habiéndose notado ningún fallo de adherencia, ni roturas en la base de hormigón, ni en la capa de mortero epoxi.

  11. Education and Public Outreach for NASA's EPOXI Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Crow, C. A.; Behne, J.; Brown, R. N.; Counley, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Ristvey, J. D.; Warner, E. M.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission is reusing the Deep Impact (DI) flyby spacecraft to study comets and extra-solar planets around other stars. During the Extrasolar Planetary Observations and Characterization (EPOCh) phase of the mission extrasolar planets transiting their parent stars were observed to gain further knowledge and understanding of planetary systems. Observations of Earth also allowed for characterization of Earth as an extrasolar planet. A movie of a lunar transit of the Earth created from EPOCh images and links to existing planet finding activities from other NASA missions are available on the EPOXI website. The Deep Impact Extended Investigation (DIXI) continues the Deep Impact theme of investigating comet properties and formation by observing comet Hartley 2 in November 2010. The EPOXI Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program is both creating new materials and updating and modifying existing Deep Impact materials based on DI mission results. Comparing Comets is a new educational activity under development that will guide students in conducting analyses of comet surface features similar to those the DIXI scientists will perform after observing comet Hartley 2. A new story designed to stimulate student creativity was developed in alignment with national educational standards. EPOXI E/PO also funded Family Science Night (FSN), a program bringing together students, families, and educators for an evening at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. FSN events include time for families to explore the museum, a presentation by a space scientist, and an astronomy themed IMAX film. Nine events were held during the 2008-2009 school year with a total attendance of 3,145 (attendance since inception reached 44,732). Half of attendance is reserved for schools with high percentages of underrepresented minorities. EPOXI additionally offers a bi-monthly newsletter to keep the public, teachers, and space enthusiasts updated on current mission activities. For more

  12. Energy absorption and failure response of silk/epoxy composite square tubes: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Taher, Siavash Talebi; A. Eshkoor, Rahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epoxy...

  13. Interlaminar fracture in woven carbon/epoxy laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N.B. Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study developed to characterize the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy woven composites, using DCB and ENF tests, respectively. The laminates were manufactured using an epoxy resin and twelve woven balanced bi-directional layers of carbon fibres, all of them with the same orientation (0/90º. Significant instantaneous delaminations were observed particularly for the DCB specimen, which were responsible for an oscillatory behaviour of GI versus crack length. The maximum values obtained for GIC and GIIC were 281 and 1800 J/m2, respectively.

  14. Thermal contraction effects in epoxy resin composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Morgan, J.T.

    1979-10-01

    Because of their electrical and thermal insulation characteristics, high strength fibreglass/epoxy composites are widely used in the construction of bubble chamber and other cryogenic equipment. Thermal contraction effects on cooling to operating temperature present problems which need to be taken into account at the design stage. This paper gives results of thermal contraction tests carried out on fibreglass/epoxy composites including the somewhat anomalous results obtained with rings and tubes. Also considered are some of the problems associated with the use of these materials at temperatures in the region of 20K. (author)

  15. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  16. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  17. Simultaneous acid exposure and erosive particle wear of thermoset coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria

    2018-01-01

    , similar to the erosion/corrosion-type phenomena found in metals. A vinyl ester-based coating was the most resistant to the simultaneous erosive/acidic exposure, with a maximum polishing rate of 3.24±0.61 μm/week, while novolac epoxy and polyurethane coatings showed high polishing rates of 11.7±1.50 and 13.4±0......Handling acidic chemicals is a challenge in the chemical industry, requiring a careful choice of contact material. Certain thermoset organic coatings are applicable in low pH environments, but when particulate erosion is also present the performance demand is increased. This is the case in, e...

  18. Assessment of Automotive Coatings Used on Different Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bensalah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four epoxy primers commonly used in the automotive industry were applied by gravity pneumatic spray gun over metallic substrates, specifically, steel, electrogalvanized steel, hot-dip galvanized steel, and aluminum. A two-component polyurethane resin was used as topcoat. To evaluate the performance of the different coating systems, the treated panels were submitted to mechanical testing using Persoz hardness, impact resistance, cupping, lattice method, and bending. Tribological properties of different coating systems were conducted using pin on disc machine. Immersion tests were carried out in 5% NaCl and immersion tests in 3% NaOH solutions. Results showed which of the coating systems is more suitable for each substrate in terms of mechanical, tribological, and anticorrosive performance.

  19. Silica coating of nanoparticles by the sonogel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Boothroyd, Chris; Tan, Gim Hong; Sutanto, Nelvi; Soutar, Andrew McIntosh; Zeng, Xian Ting

    2008-02-05

    A modified aqueous sol-gel route was developed using ultrasonic power for the silica coating of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. In this approach, organosilane with an amino functional group was first used to cover the surface of as-received nanoparticles. Subsequent silica coating was initiated and sustained under power ultrasound irradiation in an aqueous mixture of surface-treated particles and epoxy silane. This process resulted in a thin but homogeneous coverage of silica on the particle surface. Particles coated with a layer of silica show better dispersability in aqueous and organic media compared with the untreated powder. Samples were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the zeta potential.

  20. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by mixing thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy grafted graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO sheets were chemically grafted with thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy (TLCP. Then we fabricated composites using TLCP-g-GO as reinforcing filler. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of composites were systematically investigated. It is found that the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites are enhanced effectively by the addition of fillers. For instance, the composites containing 1.0 wt% of TLCP-g-GO present impact strength of 51.43 kJ/m2, the tensile strength of composites increase from 55.43 to 80.85 MPa, the flexural modulus of the composites increase by more than 48%. Furthermore, the incorporation of fillers is effective to improve the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Therefore, the presence of the TLCP-g-GO in the epoxy matrix could make epoxy not only stronger but also tougher.

  1. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo

  2. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  3. Experimental design applied optimization of a state in epoxy clay dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Juliana D'Avila; Bertholdi, Jonas; Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Pezin, Sergio Henrique; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some analysis showed that the exfoliation / intercalation of a montmorillonite clay in epoxy resin such as viscosity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Increasing the viscosity of epoxy resin diglycidyl ether bisphenol A with the addition of clay associated with the sonification system at the time of dispersion is a good indication of exfoliation. The X-ray diffraction already cured composite shows a decrease of crystallinity of clay and EDS microanalysis of SEM, non-uniform dispersion of clay in epoxy resin. Thermal analysis TG composite clay / epoxy shows an increase in thermal stability relative to pure epoxy. (author)

  4. Static vs dynamic settlement and adhesion of diatoms to ship hull coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments utilize static immersion tests to evaluate the performance of ship hull coatings. These provide valuable data; however, they do not accurately represent the conditions both the hull and fouling organisms encounter while a ship is underway. This study investigated the effect of static and dynamic immersion on the adhesion and settlement of diatoms to one antifouling coating (BRA 640), four fouling-release coatings (Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, Hempasil X3, and Dow Corning 3140) and one standard surface (Intergard(®) 240 Epoxy). Differences in community composition were observed between the static and dynamic treatments. Achnanthes longipes was present on all coatings under static immersion, but was not present under dynamic immersion. This was also found for diatoms in the genera Bacillaria and Gyrosigma. Melosira moniformis was the only diatom present under dynamic conditions, but not static conditions. Several common fouling diatom genera were present on panels regardless of treatment: Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis Cylindrotheca, Licmophora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Plagiotropis, and Synedra. Biofilm adhesion, diatom abundance and diatom diversity were found to be significantly different between static and dynamic treatments; however, the difference was dependent on coating and sampling date. Several coatings (Epoxy, DC 3140 and IS 700) had significantly higher biofilm adhesion on dynamically treated panels on at least one of the four sampling dates, while all coatings had significantly higher diatom abundance on at least one sampling date. Diversity was significantly greater on static panels than dynamic panels for Epoxy, IS 700 and HX3 at least once during the sampling period. The results demonstrate how hydrodynamic stress will significantly influence the microfouling community. Dynamic immersion testing is required to fully understand how antifouling surfaces will respond to biofilm formation when subjected to the stresses experienced

  5. Enhanced microwave absorption property of epoxy nanocomposites based on PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles with three-phase heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingfeng; Cai, Haopeng; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Siqi; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-01

    Novel electromagnetic functionalized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized by coating with Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles and conducting polymers polyaniline (PANI) on CNFs through a layer by layer assembly. The Fe3O4@CNFs were first prepared by coating nano-Fe3O4 particles on CNFs via co-precipitation method; Then the PANI was coated on Fe3O4@CNFs using an in situ polymerization process to obtain PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles. The prepared PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles were dispersed in the epoxy matrix to fabricate microwave absorbing nanocomposites. Compared with the Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, the PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit better microwave absorbing properties. The composite containing 15 wt% of PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs with the thickness of 2 mm showed a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -23.7 dB with an effective absorption bandwidth which is about 3.7 GHz (11.9-15.6 GHz) in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz, indicating that it is an attractive candidate for efficient microwave absorber. A potential absorption mechanism was proposed for enhancement of the impedance-matching condition and electromagnetic wave-attenuation characteristic of materials. Specifically, the impedance-matching condition was improved by the combination of conductive polymers and magnetic nanoparticles with CNFs. The electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic was enhanced by multiple reflections, due to the increased propagation paths.

  6. Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel.

  7. Crosslinking of epoxy-polysiloxane system by reactive blending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzales, M.; Kadlec, Petr; Štěpánek, Petr; Strachota, Adam; Matějka, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 16 (2004), s. 5533-5541 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050008 Keywords : reactive blending * siloxane network * epoxy network Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.433, year: 2004

  8. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  9. Aliphatic amine cured PDMS–epoxy interpenetrating network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tg, heat-distortion temperature and reduced the percentage weight loss with ... The siliconized epoxy IPN, with better impact and thermal resistance, ... However, these materials also deteriorate ... the method of compounding remains the state of the art. ... geneity and to ascertain any chemical change during storage.

  10. The catalystic asymmetric synthesis of optically active epoxy ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Bertha Gerda

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the use of catalytic asymmetric synthesis to prepare optically active epoxy ketones is described. This means that the auxiliary chirality, necessary to obtain an optically active product, is added in a catalytic quantity . In principle this is a very efficient way to make opticlly

  11. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Ende, D.A. van den; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  12. Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy M. M. Elnashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel’s mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme’s –SH, –NH, and –OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme’s –NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, Km and Vmax, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel.

  13. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  14. Evaluation of epoxy for use on NuSTAR optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, H.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Doll, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) mission which employs two focusing optics. The optics are composed of stacks of thin mirror shells and spacers. Epoxy is used to bond the mirror shells to the spacers and is a crucial component in determining...

  15. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  16. On the epoxy moulding compound aging effect on package reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noijen, S.P.M.; Engelen, R.A.B.; Martens, J.; Opran, A.; Sluis, van der O.

    2009-01-01

    Most semi-conductor devices are encapsulated by epoxy moulding compound (EMC) material. Even after curing at the prescribed temperature and time in accordance with the supplier's curing specifications often the product is not yet 100% fully cured. As a consequence, the curing process of a product

  17. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT–epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; Van den Ende, D.; Lafont, U.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)–epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyimide-epoxy hybrid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.S.; Akhter, Z.; Siddiqi, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Composites from polyimide and epoxy-amine were prepared aiming for enhancing its thermal and mechanical properties. Polyimide-epoxy-amine hybrid films were prepared by blending of polyimide and epoxy-amine in different ratios whereas, polyimide was prepared by reacting 1,2-di(p-aminophenyloxy)ethylene with 3,3/sub '/4,4/sub '/-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride. The blend systems with Araldite LY564 (1,4-butanediolediglycidyl ether) (BDDE) and Hardener HY2954 (3,3/sub '/-dimethyl-4,4/sub '/-diamino dicyclohexyl)methane (MACM) were investigated in term of thermal, mechanical and viscoelastic measurements. Thermal stability was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the polyimide content on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability was observed. Viscoelastic measurements showed that the glass transition temperature shifted with the increase of polyimide content. The composites showed higher thermal stability in comparison with neat epoxy-amine matrix for higher polyimide concentration. The effect of polyimide content on the mechanical properties was also investigated. The tensile measurements of the films showed that with the increase of polyimide content the tensile modulus of the films was increased. (author)

  19. A room temperature cured low dielectric hyperbranched epoxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon chain in its structure.2 In the present study, a .... The degree of branching, epoxy equivalent and hydroxyl value ... The physical properties and swelling value of the hardener were ... samples were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. (TGA) in ..... Nalwa H S 1999 Handbook of low and high dielectric constant ...

  20. Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal aging

    KAUST Repository

    Quispe, Gustavo Q.

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of fracture toughness of epoxy resin after hygrothermal ageing Gustavo Quino Quispe The aim of this work is to characterize the e ects of hygrothermal aging in the plain strain fracture toughness of the epoxy system composed by cycloaliphatic epoxy resin and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). For this, after having been under hygrothermal aging in a climatic chamber, epoxy samples were studied using ASTM D5045 fracture toughness test, and micrography and roughness measurements of the fracture surface. It is reported a rapid decrease of GIc and KIc during the rst 2 days. Moreover, a numerical model [13] was used to simulate and see with more detail the water absorption in the aged samples. From that, it was observed the heterogeneous distribution of water. Accordingly, it was proposed that the results should be correlated with the water content at the vicinity of the crack tip. Consequently, it was possible to obtain, by quasi-static simulations, the ideal load-displacement curves of crack propagation in the heterogeneous samples. Finally, another contribution of this work is the study of the fracture surface, that gives a clue of the relationship among the fracture energy, the appearance of microcracks in the fracture surface, and the roughness (Ra).

  1. Electrical and thermomechanical properties of epoxy-POSS nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, J.; Matějka, Libor; Mentlík, V.; Trnka, P.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 861-872 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : POSS * epoxy nanocomposite * electrical/dielectrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  2. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane X. Peng; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were...

  3. Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling of Carbon Nanofiber/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Hui Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of systematic investigations on both mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber (CNF-reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites. In this paper, an in-depth study of both static and dynamic mechanical behaviors and electrical properties of CNF/epoxy nanocomposites with various contents of CNFs is provided. A modified Halpin-Tsai equation is used to evaluate the Young's modulus and storage modulus of the nanocomposites. The values of Young's modulus predicted using this method account for the effect of the CNF agglomeration and fit well with those obtained experimentally. The results show that the highest tensile strength is found in the epoxy nanocomposite with a 1.0 wt% CNFs. The alternate-current (AC electrical properties of the CNF/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit a typical insulator-conductor transition. The conductivity increases by four orders of magnitude with the addition of 0.1 wt% (0.058 vol% CNFs and by ten orders of magnitude for nanocomposites with CNF volume fractions higher than 1.0 wt% (0.578 vol%. The percolation threshold (i.e., the critical CNF volume fraction is found to be at 0.057 vol%.

  4. Tailored SWCNT functionalization optimized for compatibility with epoxy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Rubi, Y; Kingston, C T; Daroszewska, M; Barnes, M; Simard, B; Gonzalez-Dominguez, J M; Ansón-Casaos, A; Martinez, M T; Hubert, P; Cattin, C

    2012-01-01

    We have modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with well defined matrix-based architectures to improve interface interaction in SWCNT/epoxy composites. The hardener and two pre-synthesized oligomers containing epoxy and hardener moieties were covalently attached to the SWCNT walls by in situ diazonium or carboxylic coupling reactions. In this way, SWCNTs bearing amine or epoxide-terminated fragments of different molecular weights, which resemble the chemical structure of the cured resin, were synthesized. A combination of characterization techniques such as Raman and infrared absorption (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis and coupled thermogravimetry-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify both the functional groups and degree of functionalization of SWCNTs synthesized by the laser ablation and arc-discharge methods. Depending on the type of reaction employed for the chemical functionalization and the molecular weight of the attached fragment, it was possible to control the degree of functionalization and the electronic properties of the functionalized SWCNTs. Improved dispersion of SWCNTs in the epoxy matrix was achieved by direct integration without using solvents, as observed from optical microscopy and rheology measurements of the SWCNT/epoxy mixtures. Composite materials using these fillers are expected to exhibit improved properties while preserving the thermosetting architecture. (paper)

  5. Evaluation of bond strength of isothermally aged plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Koo, Jae Mean; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mun Young [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    In this study, disk type of thermal barrier coating system for gas turbine blade was isothermally aged in the furnace changing exposure time and temperature. For each aging condition, bond tests for three samples were conducted for evaluating degradation of adhesive or cohesive strength of thermal barrier coating system. For as-sprayed condition, the location of fracture in the bond test was in the middle of epoxy which have bond strength of 57 MPa. As specimens are degraded by thermal aging, bond strength gradually decreased and the location of failure was also changed from within top coat at the earlier stage of thermal aging to the interface between top coat and TGO at the later stage due to the delamination in the coating.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.

    Epoxy-composites are widely used in the aerospace industry. In order to improve upon stiffness and thermal conductivity; carbon nanotube additives to epoxies are being explored. This dissertation presents multiscale modeling techniques to study the engineering properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-epoxy nanocomposites, consisting of pristine and covalently functionalized systems. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD), thermomechanical properties were calculated for a representative polymer unit cell. Finite Element (FE) and orientation distribution function (ODF) based methods were used in a multiscale framework to obtain macroscale properties. An epoxy network was built using the dendrimer growth approach. The epoxy model was verified by matching the experimental glass transition temperature, density, and dilatation. MD, via the constant valence force field (CVFF), was used to explore the mechanical and dilatometric effects of adding pristine and functionalized SWNTs to epoxy. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors were obtained. The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for the various nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. To obtain continuum-scale elastic properties from the MD data, multiscale modeling was considered to give better control over the volume fraction of nanotubes, and investigate the effects of nanotube alignment. Two methods were considered; an FE based method, and an ODF based method. The FE method probabilistically assigned elastic properties of elements from the MD lattice results based on the desired volume fraction and alignment of the nanotubes. For the ODF method, a distribution function was generated based on the desired amount of nanotube alignment

  7. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cleavage strength for YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. The remarkable weakness is due to cracks on the slit edge of the conductor. The cleavage stress appears on YBCO double pancake coils impregnated with epoxy. The cleavage stress should be avoided in the coil winding. Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  8. A facile dip-coating process for preparing highly durable superhydrophobic surface with multi-scale structures on paint films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Yin, Long; Wang, Qingjun; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin

    2009-09-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with multi-scale nano/microstructures have been prepared on epoxy paint surfaces using a feasible dip-coating process. The microstructures with 5-10 microm protuberances were first prepared on epoxy paint surface by sandblast. Then the nanostructures were introduced on the microstructure surface by anchoring 50-100 nm SiO(2) particles (nano-SiO(2)) onto the sandblasted paint surface, which was completed by dip-coating with a nano-SiO(2)/epoxy adhesive solution (M1). At last the surface was further modified for enhancing hydrophobicity by another dip-coating with a solution of a low surface energy polymer, aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) modified epoxy adhesive (M2). The water contact angle of the as-prepared samples reached as high as 167.8 degrees and the sliding angle was 7 degrees. The prepared superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent durability to the high speed scouring test and high stability in neutral and basic aqueous solutions and some common organic solvents. In addition, this method can be adopted to fabricate large scale samples with a good homogeneity of the whole surface at very low cost.

  9. In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile Structures: Final Report on Project F08-AR06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    shrink cement grout or epoxy resin in the gap between old and new steel , shown in Figure 19. This was the reason why the perforated piles needed to...be made liquid-tight with cement grout or epoxy. Other- wise, the material injected between the old and new steel would be lost be- hind the old steel ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 17 -3 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program In-Situ Subsurface Coating of Corroded Steel Sheet Pile

  10. In-situ phosphatizing coatings for aerospace, OEM and coil coating applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuder, Heather Aurelia

    The current metal coating process is a multi-step process. The surface is cleaned, primered, dried and then painted. The process is labor intensive and time consuming. The wash primer is a conversion coating, which prepares metal surface for better paint adhesion. The wash primers currently used often contain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), which seals the pores in the conversion coating. The presence of hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) make waste disposal expensive and pose dangers to workers. The novel technique of in-situ phosphatizing coating (ISPC) is a single-step, chrome-free alternative to the present coating practice. Formulation of an ISPC involves predispersal of an in-situ phosphatizing reagent (ISPR) into the paint system to form a stable formulation. The ISPR reacts with the metal surface and bonds with the paint film simultaneously, which eliminates the need for a conversion coating. In acid catalyzed paint systems, such as polyester-melamine paints, the ISPR also catalyzes cross-linking reactions between the melamine and the polyester polyols. ISPCs are formulated using commercially available coating systems including: polyester-melamine, two-component epoxy, polyurethane and high-hydroxy content polyester-melamine coil coating. The ISPCs are applied to metal substrates and their performances are evaluated using electrochemical, thermal and standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) testing methods. In addition, ISPCs were designed and formulated based on: (1) phosphate chemistry, (2) polymer chemistry, (3) sol-gel chemistry, and (4) the ion-exchange principle. Organo-functionalized silanes, which serve as excellent coupling and dispersion agents, are incorporated into the optimized ISPC formula and evaluated using standard ASTM testing methods and electrochemical spectroscopy. Also, an ion-exchange pigment, which leads to better adhesion by forming a mixed metal silicate surface, is

  11. Mitigating Localized Corrosion Using Thermally Sprayed Aluminum (TSA) Coatings on Welded 25% Cr Superduplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Lu, Q.; Harvey, M. D. F.

    2015-04-01

    Thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA) coating has been increasingly used for the protection of carbon steel offshore structures, topside equipment, and flowlines/pipelines exposed to both marine atmospheres and seawater immersion conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of TSA coatings in preventing localized corrosion, such as pitting and crevice corrosion of 25% Cr superduplex stainless steel (SDSS) in subsea applications, has been investigated. Welded 25% Cr SDSS (coated and uncoated) with and without defects, and surfaces coated with epoxy paint were also examined. Pitting and crevice corrosion tests, on welded 25% Cr SDSS specimens with and without TSA/epoxy coatings, were conducted in recirculated, aerated, and synthetic seawater at 90 °C for 90 days. The tests were carried out at both the free corrosion potentials and an applied cathodic potential of -1100 mV saturated calomel electrode. The acidity (pH) of the test solution was monitored daily and adjusted to between pH 7.5 and 8.1, using dilute HCl solution or dilute NaOH, depending on the pH of the solution measured during the test. The test results demonstrated that TSA prevented pitting and crevice corrosion of 25% Cr SDSS in artificial seawater at 90 °C, even when 10-mm-diameter coating defect exposing the underlying steel was present.

  12. Annealing effects on magnetic properties of silicone-coated iron-based soft magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shen; Sun Aizhi; Zhai Fuqiang; Wang Jin; Zhang Qian; Xu Wenhuan; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on novel iron-based soft magnetic composites synthesis utilizing high thermal stability silicone resin to coat iron powder. The effect of an annealing treatment on the magnetic properties of synthesized magnets was investigated. The coated silicone insulating layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Silicone uniformly coated the powder surface, resulting in a reduction of the imaginary part of the permeability, thereby increasing the electrical resistivity and the operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. The annealing treatment increased the initial permeability, the maximum permeability, and the magnetic induction, and decreased the coercivity. Annealing at 580 °C increased the maximum permeability by 72.5%. The result of annealing at 580 °C shows that the ferromagnetic resonance frequency increased from 2 kHz for conventional epoxy resin coated samples to 80 kHz for the silicone resin insulated composites. - Highlights: ► Silicone uniformly coated the powder, increased the operating frequency of SMCs. ► The annealing treatment increased the DC properties of SMCs. ► Annealing at 580 °C increased the maximum permeability by 72.5%. ► Compared with epoxy coated, the SMCs had higher resistivity annealing at 580 °C.

  13. Bacterial colonization on coated and uncoated orthodontic wires: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Shojaei, Hasan; Ghorani, Parinaz Saeidi; Rafiei, Elahe

    2014-11-01

    The advantages of coated orthodontic wires such as esthetic and their effects on reduced friction, corrosion and allergic reaction and the significant consequences of plaque accumulation on oral health encouraged us to assess bacterial colonization on these wires. A total of 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) epoxy resin coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Spectra, GAC, USA) and 18 (9 upper and 9 lower) non-coated 16 × 22 nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC, USA) with isolated packages were selected and sterilized before application. The samples were divided randomly between upper and lower arches in 18 patients and hence that every patient received one coated and one uncoated wire at the same time. Samples were removed and cut in equal lengths after 3 weeks and placed in phosphate buffered saline buffer. After separation of bacteria in trypsin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, the diluted solution was cultured in blood agar and bacterial colony forming units were counted. Finally, the data was analyzed using the paired t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Mean of bacterial colonization on uncoated wires was more than that of coated wires (P < 0.001). Bacterial plaque accumulation on epoxy resin coated nickel-titanium orthodontic wires is significantly lower than uncoated nickel-titanium wires.

  14. Preparation and Various Characteristics of Epoxy/Alumina Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozako, Masahiro; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    Epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites were newly prepared by dispersing 3, 5, 7, and 10 weight (wt) % boehmite alumina nanofillers in a bisphenol-A epoxy resin using a special two-stage direct mixing method. It was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging that the nanofillers were homogeneously dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties were investigated. It was elucidated that nanofillers affects various characteristics of epoxy resins, when they are nanostructrued. Such nano-effects we obtained are summarized as follows. Partial discharge resistance increases as the filler content increases; e.g. 7 wt% nanofiller content creates a 60 % decrease in depth of PD-caused erosion. Weibull analysis shows that short-time electrical treeing breakdown time is prolonged to 265 % by 5 wt% addition of nanofillers. But there was more data scatter in nanocomposites than in pure epoxy. Permittivity tends to increase from 3.7 to 4.0 by 5 wt% nanofiller addition as opposed to what was newly found in the recent past. Glass transition temperature remains unchanged as 109 °C. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength and flexural modulus increase; e.g. flexural strength and flexural modulus are improved by 5 % and 8 % with 5 wt% content, respectively. Excess addition causes a reverse effect. It is concluded from permittivity and glass transition temperature characteristics that interfacial bonding seems to be more or less weak in the nanocomposite specimens prepared this time, even though mechanical strengths increase. There is a possibility that the nanocomposites specimens will be improved in interfacial quality.

  15. Improving Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Akherati Sany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin was modified by silica nanoparticles and cured with an anhydride. The particles with different batches of 12, 20, and 40 nm sizes were each distributed into the epoxy resin ultrasonically. Electron microscopy images showed that the silica particles were well dispersed throughout the resin. Tensile test results showed that Young’s modulus and tensile strength increased with the volume fraction and surface area of the silica particles. The simultaneous use of two average sizes of 20 and 40 nm diameter silica particles still increased these mechanical properties but other combinations of silica particles were unsuccessful. A three-point bending test on each pre-cracked specimen was performed to measure the mode I fracture toughness energy. The fracture energy increased from 283 J/m2 for the unmodified epoxy to about 740 J/m2 for the epoxy with 4.5 wt% of 12 nm diameter silica nanoparticles. The fracture energy of smaller particles was greater because of their higher surface to volume ratio. The fracture energy results showed also that the combined nanoparticles has a synergic effect on the fracture toughness of nanocomposites. Simultaneous use of 10 and 20 nm particles increased the fracture energy to about 770 J/m2. Finally, crack-opening displacement was calculated and found to be in the range of several micrometers which was much larger than the sizes of particles studied. Thus, the toughening mechanisms of crack pinning and crack deflection have a negligible effect on improvement of toughness, nevertheless, the plastic deformation and plastic void growth are dominant mechanisms in epoxy toughening by nanoparticles.

  16. Improved HgCdTe detectors with novel antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sachi R.; Hu, Kelley; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Kotecki, C. A.; Peters, F. A.; Burgess, A. S.; Krebs, Danny J.; Mott, David B.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Miles, A.; Nguyen, Trang L.; Shu, Peter K.

    1996-10-01

    The composite infrared spctrometer (CIRS) is an important instrument for the upcoming Cassini mission for sensing infrared (IR) radiation from the Saturanian planetary system. We have delivered a linear, ten element, mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) photoconductive detector array for use on focal plane 3 (FP3), which is responsible for detecting radiation from the 9.1 micrometer to 16.6 micrometer wavelength range. Reliable HgCdTe detectors require robust passivation, a low-stress zinc sulfide (ZnS) anti-reflection (AR) coating with good adhesion, and a proper optical cavity design to smooth out the resonance in the detector spectral response. During the development of CIRS flight array, we have demonstrated the potential of using an in-situ interfacial layer, such as SiN(subscript x), between ZnS and the anodic oxide. Such an interfacial layer drastically improves the adhesion between the ZnS and oxide, without degrading the minority carrier lifetime. We have also demonstrated the feasibility of applying a SiN(subscript x) 'rain coat' layer over the ZnS to prevent moisture and other chemicals from attacking the AR coating, thus improving the long term reliability. This also enables device operation in a hazardous environment. The alumina/epoxy/HgCdTe/oxide/ZnS structure is a complicated multi-cavity optical system. We have developed an extensive device simulation, which enables us to make the optimal choice of individual cavity thickness for minimizing the resonance and maximizing the quantum efficiency. We have also used 0.05 micrometer alumina powder loaded epoxy to minimize the reflections at the epoxy/HgCdTe interface, thus minimizing the resonance.

  17. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  18. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  19. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  20. Fabrication and assessment of a thin flexible surface coating made of pristine graphene for lightning strike protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Soltani, S.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Le, L.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Asmatulu, R., E-mail: ramazan.asmatulu@wichita.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A thin flexible coating made of pristine graphene was fabricated and applied on the surface of a commercial carbon fiber epoxy prepreg laminate to protect it against the lightning strike. To assess the coating’s effectiveness, the coated laminate was subjected to the simulated lightning strike as well as the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) testing. It was observed that the damaged area and volume in the coated laminate were reduced by 94% and 96%, respectively, as compared to the laminate without the coating. Moreover, the coated laminate had an average EMI SE of 51 dB over 100–2000 MHz range, 55 dB over 8–12 GHz range, and 60 dB over 12–18 GHz range marking 22%, 44%, and 49% improvement in EMI SE for each frequency range, respectively. The results indicate a great potential for the developed coating to protect the commercially available prepreg composites against the lightning strike.