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Sample records for epoxide hydrolase activity

  1. Proton shuttles and phosphatase activity in soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Marco; Ensing, Bernd; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Gomez, German A; Christianson, David W; Klein, Michael L

    2007-01-17

    Recently, a novel metal Mg2+-dependent phosphatase activity has been discovered in the N-terminal domain of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), opening a new branch of fatty acid metabolism and providing an additional site for drug targeting. Importantly, the sEH N-terminal fold belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, which comprises a vast majority of phosphotransferases. Herein, we present the results of a computational study of the sEH phosphatase activity, which includes classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. On the basis of experimental results, a two-step mechanism has been proposed and herein investigated: (1) phosphoenzyme intermediate formation and (2) phosphoenzyme intermediate hydrolysis. Building on our earlier work, we now provide a detailed description of the reaction mechanism for the whole catalytic cycle along with its free energy profile. The present computations suggest metaphosphate-like transition states for these phosphoryl transfers. They also reveal that the enzyme promotes water deprotonation and facilitates shuttling of protons via a metal-ligand connecting water bridge (WB). These WB-mediated proton shuttles are crucial for the activation of the solvent nucleophile and for the stabilization of the leaving group. Moreover, due to the conservation of structural features in the N-terminal catalytic site of sEH and other members of the HAD superfamily, we suggest a generalization of our findings to these other metal-dependent phosphatases.

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity of anthraquinone components from Aloe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Jang Hoon; Li, Wei; Jo, A Reum; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-15

    Aloe is a short-stemmed succulent herb widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases and as raw material in cosmetics and heath foods. In this study, we isolated and identified two new anthraquinone derivatives, aloinoside C (6) and aloinoside D (7), together with six known compounds from an aqueous dissolved Aloe exudate. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were evaluated. Compounds 1-8 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 4.1±0.6 to 41.1±4.2 μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-8 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 6 and 8 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2-5 and 7 were the mixed-type. Molecular docking increases our understanding of receptor-ligand binding of all compounds. These results demonstrate that compounds 1-8 from Aloe are potential sEH inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetically lowered microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity and tobacco-related cancer in 47,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Two functional polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) gene (EPHX1), Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922), have variably been found to influence susceptibility to various cancer forms. We tested whether genetically lowered mEH activity affects risk of developing cancer...

  4. Signature Motifs Identify an Acinetobacter Cif Virulence Factor with Epoxide Hydrolase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Ballok, Alicia E.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Cady, Kyle C.; O'Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii (“aCif”). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog (“aCifR”) and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections. PMID:24474692

  5. Signature motifs identify an Acinetobacter Cif virulence factor with epoxide hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bridges, Andrew A; Ballok, Alicia E; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Cady, Kyle C; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2014-03-14

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii ("aCif"). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog ("aCifR") and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections.

  6. Chemical constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum and their soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Wei; Kim, Jang Hoon; Yan, Xi Tao; Kim, Ji Eun; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-06-01

    Fourteen compounds were isolated from a methanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum roots, and their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data to published spectra. The inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were then evaluated. Compounds 1-7 inhibited sEH activity potently, with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 ± 0.5 to 48.6 ± 3.1 μM. Moreover, a kinetic analysis of compounds 1-7 revealed that the inhibitory actions of compounds 1, 3 and 4 were non-competitive, whereas those of compounds 2 and 5-7 were mixed-type.

  7. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian [UCD; (LSU); (Columbia)

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  8. Soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and pharmacologic inhibition in horses with chronic severe laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Galuppo, L; Hood, D; Hwang, S H; Morisseau, C; Hammock, B D

    2017-05-01

    The roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipid mediators in inflammatory and neuropathic pain could be relevant in laminitis pain management. To determine soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity in the digital laminae, sEH inhibitor potency in vitro, and efficacy of a sEH inhibitor as an adjunct analgesic therapy in chronic laminitic horses. In vitro experiments and clinical case series. sEH activity was measured in digital laminae from euthanised healthy and laminitic horses (n = 5-6/group). Potency of 7 synthetic sEH inhibitors was determined in vitro using equine liver cytosol. One of them (t-TUCB; 0.1 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 24 h) was selected based on potency and stability, and used as adjunct therapy in 10 horses with severe chronic laminitis (Obel grades 2, one horse; 3-4, nine horses). Daily assessments of forelimb lifts, pain scores, physiologic and laboratory examinations were performed before (baseline) and during t-TUCB treatment. Data are presented as mean ± s.d. and 95% confidence intervals (CI). sEH activity in the digital laminae from laminitic horses (0.9±0.6 nmol/min/mg; 95% CI 0.16-1.55 nmol/min/mg) was significantly greater (P = 0.01) than in healthy horses (0.17±0.09 nmol/min/mg; CI 0.07-0.26 nmol/min/mg). t-TUCB as an adjunct analgesic up to 10 days (4.3±3 days) in laminitic horses was associated with significant reduction in forelimb lifts (36±22%; 95% CI 9-64%) and in pain scores (18±23%; 95% CI 2-35%) compared with baseline (P = 0.04). One horse developed gas colic and another corneal vascularisation in a blind eye during treatment. No other significant changes were observed. Absence of control group and evaluator blinding in case series. sEH activity is significantly higher in the digital laminae of actively laminitic compared with healthy horses, and use of a potent inhibitor of equine sEH as adjunct analgesic therapy appears to decrease signs of pathologic pain in laminitic horses. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Genetically reduced soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and risk of stroke and other cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of stroke has been linked to lowered levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cerebral microvasculature. These substances are metabolized by the enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by the EPHX2 gene. We tested whether genetically reduced soluble epox......, or ischemic heart disease in the Danish population. This suggests that the relationship between the EPHX2 gene and risk of ischemic stroke and other cardiovascular disease does not exist or its effect size is likely to be quite small....

  10. Soluble epoxide hydrolase activity determines the severity of ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Pyo Lee

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH in endothelial cells determines the plasma concentrations of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, which may act as vasoactive agents to control vascular tone. We hypothesized that the regulation of sEH activity may have a therapeutic value in preventing acute kidney injury by controlling the concentration of EETs. In this study, we therefore induced ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI in C57BL/6 mice and controlled sEH activity by intraperitoneal administration of the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido-dodecanoic acid (AUDA. The deterioration of kidney function induced by IRI was partially moderated and prevented by AUDA treatment. In addition, AUDA treatment significantly attenuated tubular necrosis induced by IRI. Ischemic injury induced the down-regulation of sEH, and AUDA administration had no effect on the expression pattern of sEH induced by IRI. In vivo sEH activity was assessed by measuring the substrate epoxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOME and its metabolite dihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid (DHOME. Ischemic injury had no effects on the plasma concentrations of EpOME and DHOME, but inhibition of sEH by AUDA significantly increased plasma EpOME and the EpOME/DHOME ratio. The protective effect of the sEH inhibitor was achieved by suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of regulatory cytokines. AUDA treatment prevented the intrarenal infiltration of inflammatory cells, but promoted endothelial cell migration and neovascularization. The results of this study suggest that treatment with sEH inhibitors can reduce acute kidney injury.

  11. Prediction of drug-drug interactions with carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide using a new in vitro assay for epoxide hydrolase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria; Bonnaillie, Pierre; Chanteux, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    1. Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug which is metabolized by CYP3A4 into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. This metabolite is then detoxified by epoxide hydrolase. As carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide has been associated with neurotoxicity, it is critical to identify whether a new antiepileptic drug has the potential to inhibit epoxide hydrolase and therefore increase carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide plasma levels. 2. In this study, an in vitro assay was developed to evaluate epoxide hydrolase activity by using carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide as probe substrate. The ability of this assay to predict drug-drug interactions (DDI) at the epoxide hydrolase level was also investigated. 3. To this aim, known inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase for which in vivo data are available were used. Firstly, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide hydrolase activity was determined in liver microsomes, cytosol and hepatocytes. Thereafter, the IC50 of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (progabide, valproic acid, valpromide and valnoctamide) was determined in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Finally, prediction of AUC increase was performed using the in vitro data generated. 4. Interestingly, epoxide hydrolase activity was found to be much higher in human hepatocytes compared to liver microsomes/cytosol. Even though assessed on a limited number of compounds, this study demonstrated that the use of hepatocytes seems to be a more relevant model to assess and predict DDI at the epoxide hydrolase level.

  12. Improved enantioselective conversion of styrene epoxides and meso-epoxides through epoxide hydrolases with a mutated nucleophile-flanking residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Bert; Kingma, Jaap; Heyman, Gertjan; Wittenaar, Alex; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    In epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (EchA), phenylalanine 108 flanks the nucleophilic aspartate and forms part of the substrate-binding pocket. The influence of mutations at this position on the activity and enantioselectivity of the enzyme was investigated. Screening for improved

  13. Construction and characterisation of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain for the epoxide hydrolase-catalysed kinetic resolution of epoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Oliveira Vil Filho, de M.; Liese, A.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Verdoes, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhodotorula glutinis epoxide hydrolase, Eph1, was produced in the heterologous host Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in order to develop a highly effective epoxide hydrolysis system. A 138-fold increase in Eph1 activity was found in cell extracts of the recombinant E. coli when compared to cell

  14. Enantioselectivity of a recombinant epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Rink, Rick; Kellogg, Richard M.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    The recombinant epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 was used to obtain enantiomerically pure epoxides by means of a kinetic resolution. Epoxides such as styrene oxide and various derivatives thereof and phenyl glycidyl ether were obtained in high enantiomeric excess and in

  15. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O& apos; Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  16. Crystal structure of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitory factor Cif reveals novel active-site features of an epoxide hydrolase virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; Morisseau, Christophe; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2010-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other alpha/beta hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of alpha/beta hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Morisseau, Christophe; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Bruce A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; O'Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other α/β hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of α/β hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate. PMID:20118260

  18. Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Kyu; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D; Nishi, Kosuke

    2015-11-15

    Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were investigated. First, a series of alkyl or aryl groups were substituted on the carbon alpha to the phosphonate function in amide compounds to see whether substituted phosphonates can act as a secondary pharmacophore. A tert-butyl group (16) on the alpha carbon was found to yield most potent inhibition on the target enzyme. A 4-50-fold drop in inhibition was induced by other substituents such as aryls, substituted aryls, cycloalkyls, and alkyls. Then, the modification of the O-substituents on the phosphonate function revealed that diethyl groups (16 and 23) were preferable for inhibition to other longer alkyls or substituted alkyls. In amide compounds with the optimized diethylphosphonate moiety and an alkyl substitution such as adamantane (16), tetrahydronaphthalene (31), or adamantanemethane (36), highly potent inhibitions were gained. In addition, the resulting potent amide-phosphonate compounds had reasonable water solubility, suggesting that substituted phosphonates in amide inhibitors are effective for both inhibition potency on the human sEH and water solubility as a secondary pharmacophore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkylphloroglucinol derivatives and triterpenoids with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity from Callistemon citrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Son, Ninh The; Ha, Vu Thi; Van, Doan Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Ji Eun; Jo, Ah Reum; Kim, Young Ho; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2016-03-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves and stems of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels led to the isolation of two new alkylphloroglucinols, gallomyrtucommulone E and F (1 and 2), along with four other known alkylphloroglucinol derivatives, gallomyrtucommulone A (3), endoperoxide G3 (4), myrtucommulone B (5), callistenone B (6) and five known triterpenoids, including betulinic acid (7), 3β-acetylmorolic acid (8), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9), diospyrolide (10) and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the natural compounds were determined from the spectroscopic evidences including 1D-/2D-NMR and HR-MS spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were assessed for the effects on the sEH inhibitory activity. The acylphloroglucinols myrtucommulone B (5)/callistenone B (6) (in mixture), and two triterpenoids, ursolic acid (11) and 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13(28)-olide (9) displayed strong inhibition of sEH activity, with IC50 values of 0.7, 11.2 and 24.8 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. X‐ray structure of potato epoxide hydrolase sheds light on substrate specificity in plant enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowbray, Sherry L; Elfström, Lisa T; Ahlgren, Kerstin M; Andersson, C. Evalena; Widersten, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    .... In plants, epoxide hydrolases are thought to participate in general defense systems. In the present study, we report the first structure of a plant epoxide hydrolase, one of the four homologous enzymes found in potato...

  1. Exported Epoxide Hydrolases Modulate Erythrocyte Vasoactive Lipids during Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Spillman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are reservoirs of important epoxide-containing lipid signaling molecules, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs. EETs function as vasodilators and anti-inflammatory modulators in the bloodstream. Bioactive EETs are hydrolyzed to less active diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by epoxide hydrolases (EHs. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects host red blood cells (RBCs and exports hundreds of proteins into the RBC compartment. In this study, we show that two parasite epoxide hydrolases, P. falciparum epoxide hydrolases 1 (PfEH1 and 2 (PfEH2, both with noncanonical serine nucleophiles, are exported to the periphery of infected RBCs. PfEH1 and PfEH2 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and they hydrolyzed physiologically relevant erythrocyte EETs. Mutations in active site residues of PfEH1 ablated the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze an epoxide substrate. Overexpression of PfEH1 or PfEH2 in parasite-infected RBCs resulted in a significant alteration in the epoxide fatty acids stored in RBC phospholipids. We hypothesize that the parasite disruption of epoxide-containing signaling lipids leads to perturbed vascular function, creating favorable conditions for binding and sequestration of infected RBCs to the microvascular endothelium.

  2. A smart library of epoxide hydrolase variants and the top hits for synthesis of (S)-β-blocker precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Ma, Qian; Zhou, Jiahai; Zeng, Bu-Bing; Xu, Jian-He

    2014-06-23

    Microtuning of the enzyme active pocket has led to a smart library of epoxide hydrolase variants with an expanded substrate spectrum covering a series of typical β-blocker precursors. Improved activities of 6- to 430-fold were achieved by redesigning the active site at two predicted hot spots. This study represents a breakthrough in protein engineering of epoxide hydrolases and resulted in enhanced activity toward bulky substrates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Soluble epoxide hydrolase: sex differences and role in endothelial cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nandita C; Davis, Catherine M; Nelson, Jonathan W; Young, Jennifer M; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in cerebral ischemic injury are, in part, attributable to the differences in cerebrovascular perfusion. We determined whether the brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from the female brain are more resistant to ischemic injury compared with male ECs, and whether the difference is attributable to lower expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase and higher levels of vasoprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We also determined whether protection by EETs is linked to the inhibition of rho-kinase (ROCK). EC ischemic damage was measured after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) using propidium iodide (PI) and cleaved caspase-3 labeling. Expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, EETs levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and ROCK activity by ELISA. EC damage was higher in males compared with females, which correlated with higher soluble epoxide hydrolase mRNA, stronger immunoreactivity, and lower EETs compared with female ECs. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase abolished the sex difference in EC damage. ROCK activity was higher in male versus female ECs after OGD, and sex differences in EC damage and ROCK activity were abolished by 14,15-EET and ROCK inhibition. Sex differences in ischemic brain injury are, in part, attributable to differences in EET-mediated inhibition of EC ROCK activation after ischemia.

  4. Generation and characterization of epoxide hydrolase 3 (EPHX3-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Hoopes

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, which play an important role in blood pressure regulation, protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Epoxide hydrolases metabolize EETs to their corresponding diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids; DHETs which are biologically less active. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1, mEH and soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2, sEH were identified >30 years ago and are capable of hydrolyzing EETs to DHETs. A novel epoxide hydrolase, EPHX3, was recently identified by sequence homology and also exhibits epoxide hydrolase activity in vitro with a substrate preference for 9,10-epoxyoctadecamonoenoic acid (EpOME and 11,12-EET. EPHX3 is highly expressed in the skin, lung, stomach, esophagus, and tongue; however, its endogenous function is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the impact of genetic disruption of Ephx3 on fatty acid epoxide hydrolysis and EET-related physiology in mice. Ephx3-/- mice were generated by excising the promoter and first four exons of the Ephx3 gene using Cre-LoxP methodology. LC-MS/MS analysis of Ephx3-/- heart, lung, and skin lysates revealed no differences in endogenous epoxide:diol ratios compared to wild type (WT. Ephx3-/- mice also exhibited no change in plasma levels of fatty acid epoxides and diols relative to WT. Incubations of cytosolic and microsomal fractions prepared from Ephx3-/- and WT stomach, lung, and skin with synthetic 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 9,10-EpOME revealed no significant differences in rates of fatty acid diol formation between the genotypes. Ephx3-/- hearts had similar functional recovery compared to WT hearts following ischemia/reperfusion injury. Following intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure, Ephx3-/- mice were not different from WT in terms of lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts, or fatty acid epoxide and diol levels. We conclude that genetic

  5. Potent natural soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors from Pentadiplandra brazzeana baillon: synthesis, quantification, and measurement of biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Kitamura

    Full Text Available We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH inhibitors from the root of the plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana. The concentration of these ureas in the root was quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing that 1, 3-bis (4-methoxybenzyl urea (MMU is the most abundant (42.3 μg/g dry root weight. All of the ureas were chemically synthesized, and their inhibitory activity toward recombinant human and recombinant rat sEH was measured. The most potent compound, MMU, showed an IC50 of 92 nM via fluorescent assay and a Ki of 54 nM via radioactivity-based assay on human sEH. MMU effectively reduced inflammatory pain in a rat nociceptive pain assay. These compounds are among the most potent sEH inhibitors derived from natural sources. Moreover, inhibition of sEH by these compounds may mechanistically explain some of the therapeutic effects of P. brazzeana.

  6. Cloning of an epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene from Aspergillus niger M200, overexpression in E. coli, and modification of activity and enantioselectivity of the enzyme by protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, Michael; Stepánek, Václav; Kyslík, Pavel; Maresová, Helena

    2007-10-15

    The gene encoding an epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been cloned and its sequence determined. The gene is interrupted by seven introns, one exon being only nine nucleotides long. The non-coding 5'- and 3'-regions of the mRNA are composed of 47 and 76 nucleotides, respectively. Overexpression of the fungal epoxide hydrolase in E. coli TOP10 has led to a 15-fold increase in specific activity (compared to the wild-type strain). Saturation mutagenesis at codon 217 resulted in the discovery of nine enzyme variants showing in several cases profound differences in activity and enantioselectivity towards various epoxides when compared to the data of the wild-type enzyme. The site 217 is located at the entrance of the tunnel that provides the substrate with access to the active site. The exchange of Ala at this position for Cys has led to a doubled enantioselectivity (E-value of 5.0) towards benzyl glycidyl ether. The same substitution resulted in a threefold-enhanced activity of the enzyme towards allyl glycidyl ether and styrene oxide without affecting enantioselectivity. The variant A217L showed an enhanced enantioselectivity towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether reaching an E-value of 100 (from 60 for the wild-type enzyme). Replacement of A217 by Val has led to higher activity towards allyl glycidyl ether by a factor of six. The substitutions Ala-->Glu and Ala-->Gln increased the enantioselectivity towards allyl glycidyl ether and styrene oxide by over 50% to E-values of 10 and 16, respectively. The study underlines that single amino acid exchanges in the substrate tunnel region can lead to significant improvements in enantioselectivity and activity of the epoxide hydrolase from A. niger M200.

  7. Engineering of an epoxide hydrolase for efficient bioresolution of bulky pharmaco substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Shuguang; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Jiahai

    2014-11-04

    Optically pure epoxides are essential chiral precursors for the production of (S)-propranolol, (S)-alprenolol, and other β-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs. Although the enzymatic production of these bulky epoxides has proven difficult, here we report a method to effectively improve the activity of BmEH, an epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus megaterium ECU1001 toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether, the precursor of (S)-propranolol, by eliminating the steric hindrance near the potential product-release site. Using X-ray crystallography, mass spectrum, and molecular dynamics calculations, we have identified an active tunnel for substrate access and product release of this enzyme. The crystal structures revealed that there is an independent product-release site in BmEH that was not included in other reported epoxide hydrolase structures. By alanine scanning, two mutants, F128A and M145A, targeted to expand the potential product-release site displayed 42 and 25 times higher activities toward α-naphthyl glycidyl ether than the wild-type enzyme, respectively. These results show great promise for structure-based rational design in improving the catalytic efficiency of industrial enzymes for bulky substrates.

  8. Cavities create a potential back door in epoxide hydrolase Rv1938 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, Anitha; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative organism of tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistant strains and latency have posed formidable challenges in the treatment of tuberculosis. The current study addresses an alpha/beta hydrolase fold bearing enzyme, epoxide hydrolase Rv1938 from Mtb. Epoxide hydrolases are involved in detoxification processes, catabolism and regulation of signaling molecules. Using GROMACS, a 100ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation was performed for Rv1938. Cavities were identified within the protein at various time frames of the simulation and their volumes were computed. During MD simulation, in addition to the substrate binding cavity, opening of two new cavities located behind the active site was observed. These cavities may be similar to the backdoor proposed for acetylcholinesterase. Structural superimposition of epoxide hydrolase from Mtb with the epoxide hydrolase of Agrobacterium radiobacter1 AD1 (Ephy) indicates that cavity1 in Mtb lies at an identical position to that of the water tunnel in Ephy. Further, docking of the substrate and an inhibitor with protein structures obtained from MD simulation at various time frames was also performed. The potential role of these cavities is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Epoxyeicosanoids on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in tissues and their metabolism by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to 1,2-diols were first reported 30 years ago. However, appreciation of their importance in cell biology and physiology has greatly accelerated over the past decade with the discovery of metabolically stable inhibitors of sEH, the commercial availability of EETs, and the development of analytical methods for the quantification of EETs and their diols. Numerous roles of EETs in regulatory biology now are clear, and the value of sEH inhibition in various animal models of disease has been demonstrated. Here, we review these results and discuss how the pharmacological stabilization of EETs and other natural epoxy-fatty acids could lead to possible disease therapies. PMID:23020295

  10. Dysregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipidomic profiles in anorexia nervosa

    KAUST Repository

    Shih, P. B.

    2015-03-31

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict eating and become emaciated. They tend to have an aversion to foods rich in fat. Because epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) was identified as a novel AN susceptibility gene, and because its protein product, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), converts bioactive epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to the corresponding diols, lipidomic and metabolomic targets of EPHX2 were assessed to evaluate the biological functions of EPHX2 and their role in AN. Epoxide substrates of sEH and associated oxylipins were measured in ill AN, recovered AN and gender- and race-matched controls. PUFA and oxylipin markers were tested as potential biomarkers for AN. Oxylipin ratios were calculated as proxy markers of in vivo sEH activity. Several free- and total PUFAs were associated with AN diagnosis and with AN recovery. AN displayed elevated n-3 PUFAs and may differ from controls in PUFA elongation and desaturation processes. Cytochrome P450 pathway oxylipins from arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid PUFAs are associated with AN diagnosis. The diol:epoxide ratios suggest the sEH activity is higher in AN compared with controls. Multivariate analysis illustrates normalization of lipidomic profiles in recovered ANs. EPHX2 influences AN risk through in vivo interaction with dietary PUFAs. PUFA composition and concentrations as well as sEH activity may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AN. Our data support the involvement of EPHX2-associated lipidomic and oxylipin dysregulations in AN, and reveal their potential as biomarkers to assess responsiveness to future intervention or treatment.

  11. Glycoside hydrolases having multiple hydrolase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Friedland, Gregory D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Chivian, Dylan C.; Simmons, Blake A

    2017-08-08

    Glycoside hydrolases having at least two different hydrolytic activities are provided. In one embodiment, an isolated recombinant hydrolase having at least two activities selected from a group including asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided. Further, a method of generating free sugars from a mixture comprising asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided.

  12. Primary structure and catalytic mechanism of the epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, R; Fennema, M; Smids, M; Dehmel, U; Janssen, DB

    1997-01-01

    The epoxide hydrolase gene from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, a bacterium that is able to grow on epichlorohydrin as the sole carbon source, was cloned by means of the polymerase chain reaction with two degenerate primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of the enzyme, The epoxide

  13. Discovery and characterization of thermophilic limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolases from hot spring metagenomic libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.

    2015-01-01

    The epoxide hydrolases (EHs) represent an attractive option for the synthesis of chiral epoxides and 1,2-diols which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical compounds. A metagenomic approach has been used to identify two new members of the atypical EH limonene-1...

  14. Cloning and application of epoxide hydrolases from yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Epoxides are cyclic ethers that readily react with various nucleophilic compounds. Consequently, epoxides can be used in many chemical synthesis reactions. Two enantiomeric forms of an epoxide are possible if one of the carbon atoms is chiral. This means that the epoxide is actually a

  15. Studies on whole cell fluorescence-based screening for epoxide hydrolases and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Chen, Lu S.; Marsaioli, Anita J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: anita@iqm.unicamp.br; Grognux, Johann; Reymond, Jean-Louis [University of Berne (Switzerland). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2004-12-01

    Biocatalysis reactions were performed on microtiter plates (200 {mu}L) aiming at the utilization of fluorogenic substrates (100 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) for rapid whole cell screening for epoxide hydrolases (EHs) and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs). A final protocol was achieved for EHs, with 3 new enzymatic sources being detected (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pichia stipitis, Trichosporom cutaneum). The fluorogenic assay for BVMO did not work as expected. However, an approach to possible variables involved (aeration; pH) provided the first detection of a BVMO activity in T. cutaneum. (author)

  16. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Nelson

    Full Text Available The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS. Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  17. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Das, Anjali J; Barnes, Anthony P; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  18. Determinants of reactivity and selectivity in soluble epoxide hydrolase from quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Richard; Hoyle, Simon; Grey, Daniel T; Ridder, Lars; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2012-02-28

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in drug metabolism that catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxides to form their corresponding diols. sEH has a broad substrate range and shows high regio- and enantioselectivity for nucleophilic ring opening by Asp333. Epoxide hydrolases therefore have potential synthetic applications. We have used combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at the AM1/CHARMM22 level) and high-level ab initio (SCS-MP2) QM/MM calculations to analyze the reactions, and determinants of selectivity, for two substrates: trans-stilbene oxide (t-SO) and trans-diphenylpropene oxide (t-DPPO). The calculated free energy barriers from the QM/MM (AM1/CHARMM22) umbrella sampling MD simulations show a lower barrier for phenyl attack in t-DPPO, compared with that for benzylic attack, in agreement with experiment. Activation barriers in agreement with experimental rate constants are obtained only with the highest level of QM theory (SCS-MP2) used. Our results show that the selectivity of the ring-opening reaction is influenced by several factors, including proximity to the nucleophile, electronic stabilization of the transition state, and hydrogen bonding to two active site tyrosine residues. The protonation state of His523 during nucleophilic attack has also been investigated, and our results show that the protonated form is most consistent with experimental findings. The work presented here illustrates how determinants of selectivity can be identified from QM/MM simulations. These insights may also provide useful information for the design of novel catalysts for use in the synthesis of enantiopure compounds.

  19. The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B From And Its Complex With Urea-Based Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, B.K.; Morisseau, C.; Garen, G.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.; Niu, C.; Hammock, B.D.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes at least six epoxide hydrolases (EHs A to F). EHs convert epoxides to trans-dihydrodiols and have roles in drug metabolism as well as in the processing of signaling molecules. Herein, we report the crystal structures of unbound Mtb EHB and Mtb EHB bound to a potent, low-nanomolar (IC(50) approximately 19 nM) urea-based inhibitor at 2.1 and 2.4 A resolution, respectively. The enzyme is a homodimer; each monomer adopts the classical alpha/beta hydrolase fold that composes the catalytic domain; there is a cap domain that regulates access to the active site. The catalytic triad, comprising Asp104, His333 and Asp302, protrudes from the catalytic domain into the substrate binding cavity between the two domains. The urea portion of the inhibitor is bound in the catalytic cavity, mimicking, in part, the substrate binding; the two urea nitrogen atoms donate hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic carboxylate of Asp104, and the carbonyl oxygen of the urea moiety receives hydrogen bonds from the phenolic oxygen atoms of Tyr164 and Tyr272. The phenolic oxygen groups of these two residues provide electrophilic assistance during the epoxide hydrolytic cleavage. Upon inhibitor binding, the binding-site residues undergo subtle structural rearrangement. In particular, the side chain of Ile137 exhibits a rotation of around 120 degrees about its C(alpha)-C(beta) bond in order to accommodate the inhibitor. These findings have not only shed light on the enzyme mechanism but also have opened a path for the development of potent inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles against all Mtb EHs of the alpha/beta type.

  20. Improvement of enantioselectivity by immobilized imprinting of epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenburg, N.A.E.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Fischer, L.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Rhodotorula glutinis contains an enantioselective, membrane-associated epoxide hydrolase (EH). Partially purified EH was immobilized in a two-step procedure. In the first step, the proteins were derivatized with itaconic anhydride. In the second step, the derivatized proteins were

  1. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  2. The role of epoxide hydrolase Y113H gene variant in pancreatic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockenga, J.; Strunck, S.; Post, C.; Schulz, H.U.; Halangk, J.; Pfutzer, R.H.; Lohr, M.; Oettle, H.; Kage, A.; Rosendahl, J.; Keim, V.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Lochs, H.; Witt, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (pCA) are associated with risk factors such as alcohol intake and tobacco smoking. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme capable of tobacco-borne toxicant inactivation. We studied the role of the

  3. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes and the risk for head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacko, M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Voogd, A.C.; Ophuis, MB Oude; Peters, W.H.M.; Manni, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of (pre)carcinogens in tobacco smoke. We investigated whether functional genetic polymorphisms in mEH may have a risk-modifying effect on head and neck carcinogenesis. METHODS: Blood from 429 patients with oral,

  4. Characterization of the epoxide hydrolase from an epichlorohydrin-degrading Pseudomonas sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Mariken H.J.; van den Wijngaard, Abraham; Pentenga, Marjan; Janssen, Dick B.

    1991-01-01

    An epoxide hydrolase was purified to homogeneity from the epichlorohydrin-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain AD1. The enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 35 kDa. With epichlorohydrin as the substrate, the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km

  5. The effect of alcoholic cirrhosis on the activities of microsomal aldrin epoxidase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase and epoxide hydrolase, and on the concentrations of reduced glutathione in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, K W; Williams, F M; Mutch, E; Wright, P; James, O F; Rawlins, M D

    1983-01-01

    Activities of the microsomal mono-oxygenases 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase (EOC) and aldrin epoxidase (AE), together with microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) have been measured in liver from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and in normals. Activities of both mono-oxygenases were significantly reduced in alcoholic cirrhosis. EOC activity (pmol 7-OH coumarin formed/mg microsomal protein/min) was 108.0 +/- 10.6 (n = 8) in normals and 60.9 +/- 11.6 (n = 8) in alcoholic cirrhosis (P less than 0.01). AE activity (pmol dieldrin formed/mg microsomal protein/min) was 58.9 +/- 9.5 (n = 11) in normal liver biopsies and 29.9 +/- 8.6 (n = 9) in alcoholic cirrhosis (P less than 0.05). Microsomal EH activity (nmol styrene glycol formed/mg microsomal protein/min) was similar in normals (39.2 +/- 4.4, n = 11) and alcoholic cirrhosis (40.5 +/- 9.1, n = 6). GSH concentrations (microgram GSH/g liver tissue) were lower (P less than 0.01) in alcoholic cirrhosis (792 +/- 73, n = 10) compared to normals (1182 +/- 76, n = 6). PMID:6603231

  6. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin B.; Thompson, David A.; Howard, Laura L.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Weiss, Robert H.

    2002-02-01

    Atherosclerosis, in its myriad incarnations the foremost killer disease in the industrialized world, is characterized by aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells in part as a result of the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the blood vessel wall. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are synthesized from arachidonic acid in a reaction catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 system and are vasoactive substances. Metabolism of these compounds by epoxide hydrolases results in the formation of compounds that affect the vasculature in a pleiotropic manner. As an outgrowth of our observations that urea inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats as well as the findings of other investigators that these compounds possess antiinflammatory actions, we have examined the effect of sEH inhibitors on VSM cell proliferation. We now show that the sEH inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecyl urea (CDU) inhibits human VSM cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and is associated with a decrease in the level of cyclin D1. In addition, cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid mimics the growth-suppressive activity of CDU; there is no evidence of cellular toxicity or apoptosis in CDU-treated cells when incubated with 20 μM CDU for up to 48 h. These results, in light of the antiinflammatory and antihypertensive properties of these compounds that have been demonstrated already, suggest that the urea class of sEH inhibitors may be useful for therapy for diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis characterized by exuberant VSM cell proliferation and vascular inflammation.

  7. Discovery of a Novel Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase-Catalyzed Hydration of a Spiro Oxetane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Qing; Hayes, Martin A; Grönberg, Gunnar; Berggren, Kristina; Castagnoli, Neal; Weidolf, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Oxetane moieties are increasingly being used by the pharmaceutical industry as building blocks in drug candidates because of their pronounced ability to improve physicochemical parameters and metabolic stability of drug candidates. The enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of the oxetane moiety are, however, not well studied. The in vitro metabolism of a spiro oxetane-containing compound AZD1979 [(3-(4-(2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-ylmethyl)phenoxy)azetidin-1-yl)(5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methanone] was studied and one of its metabolites, M1, attracted our interest because its formation was NAD(P)H independent. The focus of this work was to elucidate the structure of M1 and to understand the mechanism(s) of its formation. We established that M1 was formed via hydration and ring opening of the oxetanyl moiety of AZD1979. Incubations of AZD1979 using various human liver subcellular fractions revealed that the hydration reaction leading to M1 occurred mainly in the microsomal fraction. The underlying mechanism as a hydration, rather than an oxidation reaction, was supported by the incorporation of (18)O from H2 (18)O into M1. Enzyme kinetics were performed probing the formation of M1 in human liver microsomes. The formation of M1 was substantially inhibited by progabide, a microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, but not by trans-4-[4-(1-adamantylcarbamoylamino)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid, a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor. On the basis of these results, we propose that microsomal epoxide hydrolase catalyzes the formation of M1. The substrate specificity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase should therefore be expanded to include not only epoxides but also the oxetanyl ring system present in AZD1979. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Correlation between the physicochemical properties of organic solvents and their biocompatibility toward epoxide hydrolase activity in whole-cells of a yeast, Rhodotorulasp

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotter, J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available by using a beta-DEX 225TM chiral fused silica cyclodextrin capillary column (30 m ? 0.25 mm, 0.25 ?m film) (supplied by Supelco) at oven temperatures of 110 openbulletC and 150 openbulletC, respectively. Calibration curves for epoxide and diol...

  9. Occurrence of urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors from the plants in the order Brassicales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Seiya; Morisseau, Christophe; Harris, Todd R; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2017-01-01

    Recently, dibenzylurea-based potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors were identified in Pentadiplandra brazzeana, a plant in the order Brassicales. In an effort to generalize the concept, we hypothesized that plants that produce benzyl glucosinolates and corresponding isothiocyanates also produce these dibenzylurea derivatives. Our overall aim here was to examine the occurrence of urea derivatives in Brassicales, hoping to find biologically active urea derivatives from plants. First, plants in the order Brassicales were analyzed for the presence of 1, 3-dibenzylurea (compound 1), showing that three additional plants in the order Brassicales produce the urea derivatives. Based on the hypothesis, three dibenzylurea derivatives with sEH inhibitory activity were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) roots. Topical application of one of the identified compounds (compound 3, human sEH IC50 = 222 nM) effectively reduced pain in rat inflammatory pain model, and this compound was bioavailable after oral administration in mice. The biosynthetic pathway of these urea derivatives was investigated using papaya (Carica papaya) seed as a model system. Finally, a small collection of plants from the Brassicales order was grown, collected, extracted and screened for sEH inhibitory activity. Results show that several plants of the Brassicales order could be potential sources of urea-based sEH inhibitors.

  10. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes and the risk for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Martin; Roelofs, Hennie M J; Te Morsche, Rene H M; Voogd, Adri C; Oude Ophuis, Michael B; Peters, Wilbert H M; Manni, Johannes J

    2008-07-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of (pre)carcinogens in tobacco smoke. We investigated whether functional genetic polymorphisms in mEH may have a risk-modifying effect on head and neck carcinogenesis. Blood from 429 patients with oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal carcinoma and 419 healthy subjects was investigated for mEH polymorphisms. Logistic regression analysis did not show differences in mEH genotype distributions between patients and controls, when categorized according to predicted mEH enzyme activity. Also no differences were found when evaluated according to tumor localization, sex, or tobacco consumption. A significantly higher incidence of the 139Arg/Arg variant was found in patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma compared with controls (OR = 4.39, 95% CI = 1.45 to 13.35). In contrast to earlier reports, we could not demonstrate a risk-modifying effect of genetic polymorphisms in mEH on head and neck carcinogenesis, except for the predicted high activity variant in patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

  11. Effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency on acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bettaieb

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity, and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored.To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized Ephx2 knockout (KO mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as enzymatic activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated Ephx2 KO mice compared with controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1B and IL-6 were lower in cerulein-treated Ephx2 KO mice compared with controls. Further, Ephx2 KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-κB inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. Conclusions -These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP.

  12. Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Ameliorates Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abishek Iyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB, a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  13. Genetic variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase is associated with outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ross P; Ward, Jonathan; Siler, Dominic; Eastman, Jamie M; Nelson, Jonathan; Borkar, Rohan; Alkayed, Nabil; Dogan, Aclan; Cetas, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Object Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are at high risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and stroke. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) play an important role in cerebral blood flow regulation and neuroprotection after brain injury. Polymorphisms in the gene for the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which inactivates EETs, are associated with ischemic stroke risk and neuronal survival after ischemia. In this prospective observational study of patients with SAH we compare vital and neurologic outcomes based on functional polymorphisms of sEH. Methods Allelic discrimination based on quantitative real-time PCR was used to differentiate wild type (WT) sEH from K55R heterozygotes (predictive of increased sEH activity and reduced EETs) and R287Q heterozygotes (predictive of decreased sEH activity and increased EETs). The primary outcome was new stroke after SAH. Secondary outcomes were mortality, Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score and neurologic deterioration attributable to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Results Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for admission age and Glasgow coma scale revealed an increase in the odds of new stroke (OR 5.48 (1.51–19.91) and mortality (OR 7.62 (1.19–48.7) in the K55R group, but no change in the odds of new stroke 0.56 (0.16–1.96) or death 3.09 (0.51–18.52) in patients with R287Q genotype, compared to wild-type sEH. R287Q genotype was associated with reduced odds of having a GOS ≤ 3 (0.23 (0.06–0.82)). There were no significant differences in the odds of neurologic deterioration due to DCI. Conclusions Genetic polymorphisms of sEH are associated with neurologic and vital outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25216066

  14. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces food intake and increases metabolic rate in obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Morgan, Jarrett; Wang, Yi-Xin (Jim); Munusamy, Shankar; Hall, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims This study evaluated the responses to soluble epoxide hydrolase (s-EH) inhibition, an essential enzyme in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, on food intake, body weight and metabolic parameters in mice fed a high fat-high fructose diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. Methods and Results After 5 weeks of HFD, mice were divided into two groups: 1) s-EH inhibitor (AR9281, 200 mg/kg/day by gavage twice daily), and 2) vehicle (0.3 ml per gavage). Food intake, body weight, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ), and motor activity were measured weekly for more 5 weeks. HFD increased body weight (37±1 vs 26±1 g), and plasma of glucose (316±8 vs 188±27 mg/dl), insulin (62.1±8.1 vs 15.5±5.0 µU/ml), and leptin levels (39.4±3.6 vs 7.5±0.1 ng/ml) while reducing VO2, VCO2 and motor activity. s-EH inhibition for 5 weeks decreased caloric intake by ~32% and increased VO2 by ~17% (42.8±1.4 vs. 50.2±1.5 ml/kg/min) leading to significant weight loss. Inhibition of s-EHi also caused significant reductions in plasma leptin levels and visceral fat content. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue was also elevated by ~50% during s-EH inhibition compared to vehicle treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that s-EH inhibition with AR9281 promotes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing metabolic rate, and that increased UCP1 content may contribute to the increase in energy expenditure. PMID:21190818

  16. Opposite effects of gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase on cardiac fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Li

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs are important regulators of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH to form the corresponding diols, thus altering and reducing the activity of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic impact of sEH disruption, we compared the effect of EPHX2 gene knockout (EPHX2-/- and sEH inhibition in mouse models. Measurement of plasma oxylipin profiles confirmed that the ratio of EETs/DHETs was increased in EPHX2-/- and sEH-inhibited mice. However, plasma concentrations of 9, 11, 15, 19-HETE were elevated in EPHX2-/- but not sEH-inhibited mice. Next, we investigated the role of this difference in cardiac dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II (AngII. Both EPHX2 gene deletion and inhibition protected against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, cardiac dysfunction was attenuated by sEH inhibition rather than gene deletion. Histochemical staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated AngII-induced myocardial fibrosis; the mRNA levels of fibrotic-related genes were increased. Furthermore, cardiac inflammatory response was greater in EPHX2-/- than sEH-inhibited mice with AngII treatment, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. In vitro, AngII-upregulated MCP-1 and IL-6 expression was significantly attenuated by sEH inhibition but promoted by EPHX2 deletion in cardiofibroblasts. Thus, compared with pharmacological inhibition of sEH, EPHX2 deletion caused the shift in arachidonic acid metabolism, which may led to pathological cardiac remodeling, especially cardiac fibrosis.

  17. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Peng, Ran; Fan, Qingsong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan; Morisseau, Christophe; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of on-line liquid chromatography-biochemical detection for soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in mixtures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falck, D.; Schebb, N.H.; Prinatiningtyas, S; Zhang, Jiawen; Heus, F.A.H.; Morisseau, C; Kool, J.; Hammock, B.D.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an end-point-based fluorescence assay for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was transformed into an on-line continuous-flow format. The on-line biochemical detection system (BCD) was coupled on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) to allow mixture analysis. The on-line BCD was based on a

  19. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  20. Epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed enantioselective conversion of trans-stilbene oxide: Insights into the reaction mechanism from steady-state and pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Archelas, A.; Zhao, W.; Faure, B.; Iacazio, G.; Kotík, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, FEB 2016 (2016), s. 66-75 ISSN 0003-9861 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Catalytic mechanism * Epoxide hydrolase * Electrophilic catalysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.165, year: 2016

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cif defines a distinct class of α/β epoxide hydrolases utilizing a His/Tyr ring-opening pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; Madden, Dean R

    2012-02-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that secretes a multitude of virulence factors during the course of infection. Among these is Cif, an epoxide hydrolase (EH) that reduces the functional localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in epithelial cells. In addition to being the first reported EH virulence factor, Cif possesses unique sequence deviations from canonical EH motifs. Foremost among these is the substitution of a histidine for the first epoxide ring-opening tyrosine in the active site. To test the functional equivalence of Tyr and His side chains at this position, we have generated the mutant Cif-H177Y. Structural analysis confirms that both the WT His and mutant Tyr side chains can be accommodated without large-scale conformational changes. However, the Tyr mutant is functionally inactive. Based on a detailed analysis of the structure of the Tyr mutant, it appears that Cif's main-chain conformation imposes a functional requirement for a His at this position. Comparison with canonical EH structures reveals additional conformational differences, which are coupled to divergent sequence characteristics. When used to probe the genomes of other opportunistic pathogens, these sequence-structure criteria uncover candidate sequences that appear to form a distinct subfamily of Cif-like epoxide hydrolases characterized by a conserved His/Tyr ring-opening pair.

  2. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D.; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001–0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU’s efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P ulcers. PMID:26989141

  3. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase limits niacin-induced vasodilation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceoglu, A. B.; Clifton, H.L.; Yang, J.; Hegedus, C.; Hammock, B. D.; Schaefer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemias is limited by the common side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. Flushing is thought to be due to release of the vasodilatory prostanoids PGD2 and PGE2 from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Arachidonic acid is also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system which is regulated, in part, by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Methods: These experiments used an established murine model in which ear tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler to test the hypothesis that inhibition of sEH would limit niacin-induced flushing. Results: Niacin-induced flushing was reduced from 506 ± 126 to 213 ± 39 % in sEH knockout animals. Pharmacologic treatment with 3 structurally distinct sEH inhibitors similarly reduced flushing in a dose dependent manner, with maximal reduction to 143±15% of baseline flow using a concentration of 1 mg/kg TPAU (1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl) urea). Systemically administered PGD2 caused ear vasodilation which was not changed by either pharmacologic sEH inhibition or by sEH gene deletion. Conclusions: Inhibition of sEH markedly reduces niacin-induced flushing in this model without an apparent effect on the response to PGD2. sEH inhibition may be a new therapeutic approach to limit flushing in humans. PMID:22526297

  4. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU's efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P ulcers. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Enhancement of epoxide hydrolase production by (60) Co gamma and UV irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huo-Xi; OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Hu, Zhong-Ce

    2017-05-01

    An effective epoxide hydrolase (EH) production strain was mutagenized using (60) Co gamma and UV irradiation. Among positive mutant strains, the EH activity of C2-44 reached 33.7 U/g, which was 267% as much as that of the original Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103. Compared with the wild type, there were significant changes in morphology for C2-44, including the color of mycelia on the slants and the shape of conidial head. In addition, glucose and soybean cake were the optimal carbon and nitrogen source in terms of EH activity for the mutant C2-44 instead of soluble starch and peptone for the wild-type strain. The reaction time required to reach 99% enantiomeric excesses of (S)-epichlorohydrin from racemic substrate was shortened significantly by the mutant C2-44. This phenomenon was probably explained by the higher Vmax for hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin by C2-44 compared with Aspergillus niger ZJB-09103. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Yan; Qiu, Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of the anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. PMID:21741984

  7. Gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase confers resilience to repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Ishima, Tamaki; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wagner, Karen M; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Yang, Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Han, Mei; Hammock, Bruce D; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-03-29

    Depression is a severe and chronic psychiatric disease, affecting 350 million subjects worldwide. Although multiple antidepressants have been used in the treatment of depressive symptoms, their beneficial effects are limited. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the inflammation that is involved in depression. Thus, we examined here the role of sEH in depression. In both inflammation and social defeat stress models of depression, a potent sEH inhibitor, TPPU, displayed rapid antidepressant effects. Expression of sEH protein in the brain from chronically stressed (susceptible) mice was higher than of control mice. Furthermore, expression of sEH protein in postmortem brain samples of patients with psychiatric diseases, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, was higher than controls. This finding suggests that increased sEH levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with TPPU prevented the onset of depression-like behaviors after inflammation or repeated social defeat stress. Moreover, sEH KO mice did not show depression-like behavior after repeated social defeat stress, suggesting stress resilience. The sEH KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, but not nucleus accumbens, suggesting that increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus confer stress resilience. All of these findings suggest that sEH plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, and that epoxy fatty acids, their mimics, as well as sEH inhibitors could be potential therapeutic or prophylactic drugs for depression.

  8. Inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes albuminuria in mice with progressive renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Jung

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF. We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5/6-nephrectomy model (5/6-Nx in mice. 5/6-Nx mice were treated with a placebo, an ACE-inhibitor (Ramipril, 40 mg/kg, the sEH-inhibitor cAUCB or the CYP-inhibitor fenbendazole for 8 weeks. 5/6-Nx induced hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial damage and these effects were attenuated by Ramipril. In contrast, cAUCB failed to lower the blood pressure and albuminuria was more severe as compared to placebo. Plasma EET-levels were doubled in 5/6 Nx-mice as compared to sham mice receiving placebo. Renal sEH expression was attenuated in 5/6-Nx mice but cAUCB in these animals still further increased the EET-level. cAUCB also increased 5-HETE and 15-HETE, which derive from peroxidation or lipoxygenases. Similar to cAUCB, CYP450 inhibition increased HETEs and promoted albuminuria. Thus, sEH-inhibition failed to elicit protective effects in the 5/6-Nx model and showed a tendency to aggravate the disease. These effects might be consequence of a shift of arachidonic acid metabolism into the lipoxygenase pathway.

  9. The anti-inflammatory effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors are independent of leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin B; Liu, Jun-Yan; Tancredi, Daniel J; Wang, Lei; Simon, Scott I; Hammock, Bruce D; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2011-07-08

    Excess leukocyte recruitment to the lung plays a central role in the development or exacerbation of several lung inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid reported to have multiple biological functions, including blocking of leukocyte recruitment to inflamed endothelium in cell culture through reduction of adhesion molecule expression. Inhibition of the EET regulatory enzyme, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in vivo including reduced leukocyte recruitment to the lung. We tested the hypothesis that the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of sEH inhibitors act through the same mechanisms as the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of EETs in a rat model of acute inflammation following exposure to tobacco smoke. Contrary to previously published data, we found that sEH inhibition did not reduce tobacco smoke-induced leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Furthermore, sEH inhibition did not reduce tobacco smoke-induced adhesion molecule expression in the lung vasculature. Similarly, concentrations of EETs greater than or equal to their reported effective dose did not reduce TNFα induced expression of the adhesion molecules. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of sEH inhibitors are independent of leukocyte recruitment and EETs do not reduce the adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte recruitment in vitro. This demonstrates that the widely held belief that sEH inhibition prevents leukocyte recruitment via EET prevention of adhesion molecule expression is not consistently reproducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor as adjunctive analgesic in a laminitic horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Alonso G. P.; Morisseau, Christophe; Sole, Albert; Soares, Joao H. N.; Ulu, Arzu; Dong, Hua; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year old, 500 kg Thoroughbred female horse diagnosed with bilateral forelimb laminitis and cellulitis on the left forelimb became severely painful and refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy (flunixin meglumine on days 1, 2, 3 and 4; and phenylbutazone on days 5, 6 and 7) alone or in combination with gabapentin (days 6 and 7). Pain scores assessed independently by three individuals with a visual analog scale (VAS; 0= no pain and 10=worst possible pain) were 8.5 on day 6, and it increased to 9.5 on day 7. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring revealed severe hypertension. As euthanasia was being considered for humane reasons as well as technical and financial constraints, a decision was made to add an experimental new drug, trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), which is an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), to the treatment protocol. Dose and frequency of administration were selected to produce plasma concentrations within the range of 2.5 μM and 30 nM based on the drug potency against equine sEH. Pain scores decreased sharply and remarkably following t-TUCB administration and blood pressure progressively decreased to physiologic normal values. Plasma concentrations of t-TUCB, measured daily, were within the expected range, whereas phenylbutazone and gabapentin plasma levels were below the suggested efficacious concentrations. No adverse effects were detected on clinical and laboratory examinations during and after t-TUCB administration. The mare did not get any episode of laminitis in the three months following the treatment. PMID:23463912

  11. Enantioselective resolution of racemic styrene oxide at high concentration using recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing epoxide hydrolase of Rhodotorula glutinis in the presence of surfactant and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Sik; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2008-10-01

    The reaction medium was optimized to accomplish epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed, batch enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic styrene oxide at high initial substrate concentrations. The recombinant Pichia pastoris containing the epoxide hydrolase gene of Rhodotorula glutinis was used as the biocatalyst. Enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide with 98% ee was obtained with 41% yield (maximum yield = 50%) from 1.8 M racemic styrene oxide at pH 8.0, 4 degrees C in the presence of 40% (v/v) Tween 20 and 5% (v/v) glycerol.

  12. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Todd R. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bettaieb, Ahmed [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan [Department of Internal Medicine: Cardiovascular, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Haj, Fawaz G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  13. Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Faulkner, Jessica; Pye, Chelsey; Rouch, Katelyn; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Baban, Babak

    2013-10-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) increased EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of HO (haem oxygenase)-1. The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the renoprotective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). After 6 weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB {trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid}, treated with the HO inhibitor SnMP (stannous mesoporphyrin), and treated with both inhibitors for 4 more weeks; non-diabetic SHR served as a control group. Induction of diabetes significantly increased renal sEH expression and decreased the renal EETs/DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid) ratio without affecting HO-1 activity or expression in SHR. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB increased the renal EETs/DHETEs ratio and HO-1 activity in diabetic SHR; however, it did not significantly alter systolic blood pressure. Treatment of diabetic SHR with t-AUCB significantly reduced the elevation in urinary albumin and nephrin excretion, whereas co-administration of the HO inhibitor SnMP with t-AUCB prevented these changes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevations in renal fibrosis as indicated by increased renal TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) levels and fibronectin expression in diabetic SHR and these changes were reduced with sEH inhibition. Co-administration of SnMP with t-AUCB prevented its ability to reduce renal fibrosis in diabetic SHR. In addition, SnMP treatment also prevented t-AUCB-induced decreases in renal macrophage infiltration, IL-17 expression and MCP-1 levels in diabetic SHR. These findings suggest that HO-1 induction is involved in the protective effect of sEH inhibition against diabetic renal injury.

  14. Epoxy fatty acids and inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase selectively modulate GABA mediated neurotransmission to delay onset of seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Inceoglu

    Full Text Available In the brain, seizures lead to release of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (ARA. ARA is a substrate for three major enzymatic routes of metabolism by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 enzymes. These enzymes convert ARA to potent lipid mediators including prostanoids, leukotrienes and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs. The prostanoids and leukotrienes are largely pro-inflammatory molecules that sensitize neurons whereas EETs are anti-inflammatory and reduce the excitability of neurons. Recent evidence suggests a GABA-related mode of action potentially mediated by neurosteroids. Here we tested this hypothesis using models of chemically induced seizures. The level of EETs in the brain was modulated by inhibiting the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, the major enzyme that metabolizes EETs to inactive molecules, by genetic deletion of sEH and by direct administration of EETs into the brain. All three approaches delayed onset of seizures instigated by GABA antagonists but not seizures through other mechanisms. Inhibition of neurosteroid synthesis by finasteride partially blocked the anticonvulsant effects of sEH inhibitors while the efficacy of an inactive dose of neurosteroid allopregnanolone was enhanced by sEH inhibition. Consistent with earlier findings, levels of prostanoids in the brain were elevated. In contrast, levels of bioactive EpFAs were decreased following seizures. Overall these results demonstrate that EETs are natural molecules which suppress the tonic component of seizure related excitability through modulating the GABA activity and that exploration of the EET mediated signaling in the brain could yield alternative approaches to treat convulsive disorders.

  15. Covalent immobilization of Agrobacterium radiobacter epoxide hydrolase on ethylenediamine functionalised epoxy supports for biocatalytical synthesis of (R)-epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shu-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Cai; Qin, Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-09-01

    To improve the operational stability and reusability of an epoxide hydrolase (EH) for the biosynthesis of optically active epoxides. A covalently immobilization strategy was employed to improve the stability of Agrobacterium radiobacter EH by using ethylenediamine (EDA)-functionalised epoxy resin LX-1000EP as carrier. Under the optimal conditions, the activity recovery of immobilized enzyme was 72 % and the specific activity was 634 U/g. Immobilized EH exhibited significantly enhanced thermal stability with a half-life of more than 6.8-fold at 50 °C than that of the free enzyme. A gram-scale kinetic resolution of (R,S)-epichlorohydrin using immobilized preparation as biocatalyst was performed and (R)-epichlorohydrin was obtained with 35 % yield and 99 % enantiomeric excess. The immobilized EH showed good operational stability and even after six reactions, it retained >85 % of the initial activity. The operational stability and recyclability of immobilized EH on an EDA-functionalized epoxy supports demonstrated its potential for producing (R)-epichlorohydrin.

  16. Stereoselectivity and substrate specificity in the kinetic resolution of methyl-substituted 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octanes by Rhodotorula glutinis epoxide hydrolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Meeuwse, P.; Herpers, R.L.J.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    [GRAPHICS] The kinetic resolution of a range of methyl-substituted 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octanes by yeast epoxide hydrolase (YEH) from Rhodotorula glutinis has been investigated. The structural determinants of substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of YEH toward these substrates appeared to be the

  17. Cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of epoxide hydrolase-encoding cDNA sequences from yeasts belonging to the genera Rhodotorula and Rhodosporidium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Verdoes, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolase-encoding cDNA sequences were isolated from the basidiomycetous yeast species Rhodosporidium toruloides CBS 349, Rhodosporidium toruloides CBS 14 and Rhodotorula araucariae CBS 6031 in order to evaluate the molecular data and potential application of this type of enzymes. The

  18. Nanobody based immunoassay for human soluble epoxide hydrolase detection using polyHRP for signal enhancement—the rediscovery of polyHRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, cancer, pain and multiple cardiovascular related diseases. A variable domain of a heavy chain only antibody (termed sdAb, nanobody or VHH) possesses advantages of small size, high ...

  19. Investigation of the Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase and Primary Brain Tumor Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available mEH is a critical biotransformation enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of xenobiotic epoxide substrates into more polar diol metabolites: it is also capable of inactivating a large number of structurally different molecules. Two polymorphisms affecting enzyme activity have been described in the exon 3 and 4 of the mEH gene. The hypothesis of this study is that inherent genetic susceptibility to a primary brain tumor is associated with mEH gene polymorphisms. The polymorphisms of the mEH gene were determined with PCR-RFLP techniques and 255 Turkish individuals. Our results indicate that the frequency of the mEH exon 4 polymorphism (in controls is significantly higher than that of primary brain tumor patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0–3.4. This report, however, failed to demonstrate a significant association between mEH exon 3 polymorphism and primary brain tumor susceptibility in this population. Analysis of patients by both histological types of primary brain tumor and gene variants showed no association, although analysis of family history of cancer between cases and controls showed a statistically significant association (χ2=7.0, P=0.01. Our results marginally support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to brain tumors may be associated with mEPHX gene polymorphisms.

  20. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the soluble epoxide hydrolase are determinants of pulmonary artery pressure and the acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, Benjamin; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Popp, Rüdiger; Fisslthaler, Beate; Dietrich, Alexander; Gudermann, Thomas; Hammock, Bruce D.; Falck, John R.; Weissmann, Norbert; Busse, Rudi; Fleming, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings have indicated a role for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Given that the intracellular concentration of EETs is determined by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), we assessed the influence of the sEH and 11,12-EET on pulmonary artery pressure and HPV in the isolated mouse lung. In lungs from wild-type mice, HPV was significantly increased by sEH inhibition, an effect abolished by pretreatment with CYP epoxygenase inhibitors and the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. HPV and EET production were greater in lungs from sEH−/− mice than from wild-type mice and sEH inhibition had no further effect on HPV, while MSPPOH and 14,15-EEZE decreased the response. 11,12-EET increased pulmonary artery pressure in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced HPV via a Rho-dependent mechanism. Both 11,12-EET and hypoxia elicited the membrane translocation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) C6-V5 fusion protein, the latter effect was sensitive to 14,15-EEZE. Moreover, while acute hypoxia and 11,12-EET increased pulmonary pressure in lungs from TRPC6+/− mice, lungs from TRPC6−/− mice did not respond to either stimuli. These data demonstrate that CYP-derived EETs are involved in HPV and that EET-induced pulmonary contraction under normoxic and hypoxic conditions involves a TRPC6-dependent pathway.—Keserü, B., Barbosa-Sicard, E., Popp, R., Fisslthaler, B., Dietrich, A., Gudermann, T., Hammock, B. D., Falck, J. R., Weissmann, N., Busse, R., Fleming, I. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the soluble epoxide hydrolase are determinants of pulmonary artery pressure and the acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response. PMID:18725458

  1. Stereoselectivity and substrate specificity in the kinetic resolution of methyl-substituted 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octanes by Rhodotorula glutinis epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Carel A G M; Meeuwse, Petra; Herpers, Robert L J M; Franssen, Maurice C R; Sudhölter, Ernst J R

    2005-08-19

    The kinetic resolution of a range of methyl-substituted 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octanes by yeast epoxide hydrolase (YEH) from Rhodotorula glutinis has been investigated. The structural determinants of substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of YEH toward these substrates appeared to be the configuration of the epoxide ring and the substitution pattern of the cyclohexane ring. For all compounds tested, O-axial epoxides were hydrolyzed faster than the corresponding O-equatorial compounds. In concern of the ring substituents, YEH preferred methyl groups on the Re side of the ring. Placement of substituents close to the spiroepoxide carbon decreased the reaction rate but increased enantioselectivity. YEH-catalyzed kinetic resolutions of 4-methyl 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octane epimers were most enantioselective (E > 100).

  2. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  3. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Zuloaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (15-18 month old and young (3-4 month old female sEH knockout (sEHKO mice and wild type (WT mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24hrs thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography. Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice.

  4. Discovering Drugs with DNA-Encoded Library Technology: From Concept to Clinic with an Inhibitor of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Ding, Yun; Callahan, James F; Lazaar, Aili L; Israel, David I

    2017-05-04

    DNA-encoded chemical library technology was developed with the vision of its becoming a transformational platform for drug discovery. The hope was that a new paradigm for the discovery of low-molecular-weight drugs would be enabled by combining the vast molecular diversity achievable with combinatorial chemistry, the information-encoding attributes of DNA, the power of molecular biology, and a streamlined selection-based discovery process. Here, we describe the discovery and early clinical development of GSK2256294, an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EPHX2), by using encoded-library technology (ELT). GSK2256294 is an orally bioavailable, potent and selective inhibitor of sEH that has a long half life and produced no serious adverse events in a first-time-in-human clinical study. To our knowledge, GSK2256294 is the first molecule discovered from this technology to enter human clinical testing and represents a realization of the vision that DNA-encoded chemical library technology can efficiently yield molecules with favorable properties that can be readily progressed into high-quality drugs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3- (1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yang, Jun; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Tian; Duan, Jia-Xi; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Lee, Kin Sing; Hammock, Bruce D; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory fibrosis. We test the effects of a selected sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice. A mouse model of PF was established by intratracheal injection of bleomycin and TPPU was administered for 21 days after bleomycin injection. We found TPPU treatment improved the body weight loss and survival rate of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Histological examination showed that TPPU treatment alleviated bleomycin-induced inflammation and maintained the alveolar structure of the pulmonary tissues. TPPU also decreased the bleomycin-induced deposition of collagen and the expression of procollagen I mRNA in lung tissues of mice. TPPU decreased the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels in the serum of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Furthermore, TPPU inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis of mouse fibroblasts and partially reversed TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin expression. Our results indicate that the inhibition of sEH attenuates bleomycin-induced inflammation and collagen deposition and therefore prevents bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model.

  7. Effects of AS2586114, a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, on hyperlocomotion and prepulse inhibition deficits in mice after administration of phencyclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min; Ren, Qian; Fujita, Yuko; Ishima, Tamaki; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in controlling levels of lipid signaling molecules, and that the potent sEH inhibitors may be potential therapeutic drugs for a number of diseases associated with metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). This study was undertaken to examine whether the potent sEH inhibitor AS2586114 could attenuate behavioral abnormalities (e.g., hyperlocomotion and prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits) in male ddY mice after a single administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). A single oral administration of AS2586114 (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) attenuated the hyperlocomotion in mice after the administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.), in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, a single oral administration of AS2586114 (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) improved the PPI deficits in mice after the administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.), in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated hyperlocomotion and PPI deficits after the administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.). In conclusion, this study suggests that AS2586114 may have antipsychotic activity in PCP models of schizophrenia. Therefore, it is likely that the sEH inhibitors may be potential therapeutic drugs for neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase augments astrocyte release of vascular endothelial growth factor and neuronal recovery after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Hong, Gina; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Harder, David R; Koehler, Raymond C; Sapirstein, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized in astrocytes, and inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which hydrolyzes EETs, reduce infarct volume in ischemic stroke. Astrocytes can release protective neurotrophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that addition of sEH inhibitors to rat cultured astrocytes immediately after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) markedly increased VEGF concentration in the medium 48 h later and the effect was blocked by an EET antagonist. The sEH inhibitors increased EET concentrations to levels capable of increasing VEGF. When the sEH inhibitors were removed from the medium at 48 h, the increase in VEGF persisted for an additional 48 h. Neurons exposed to OGD and subsequently to astrocyte medium previously conditioned with OGD plus sEH inhibitors showed increased phosphorylation of their VEGF receptor-2, less TUNEL staining, and increased phosphorylation of Akt, which was blocked by a VEGF receptor-2 antagonist. Our findings indicate that sEH inhibitors, applied to cultured astrocytes after an ischemia-like insult, can increase VEGF secretion. The released VEGF then enhances Akt-enabled cell survival signaling in neurons through activation of VEGF receptor-2 leading to less neuronal cell death. These results suggest a new strategy by which astrocytes can be leveraged to support neuroprotection. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of “preneoplastic antigen”-like molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hongying [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Yoshimura, Kazunori [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro [Division of Biochemistry and Immunochemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8584 (United States); Akatsuka, Toshitaka, E-mail: akatsuka@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. -- Highlights: ► Monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH were developed. ► They discriminate between the membrane-bound and the linearized forms of mEH. ► We analyze the antigenic structure of the altered form of mEH in tumor cells. ► Preneoplastic antigen is a multimolecular complex of mEH with

  10. Hydrolase activity in Jerusalem artichoke and chicory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaushofer, H.; Abraham, B.; Leichtfried, G.

    1988-03-01

    Post-harvest storage of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke and overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke in the soil cause a more or less pronounced shortening of the fructan chain, depending on the variety. The proportion of fructose in the total fructan thus shifts towards glucose. This reduction on the fructose/glucose ratio is undesirable if the intention is to obtain a sweetener of high fructose content. In this work an attempt was made, via the quantity of fructose formed after a 4(3)-hour reaction of a tuber (root) extract with inulin, to assign a characteristic value to the depolymerization tendency of the material in question. However, since the plant extract not only contains enzymes (hydrolase A and B) that shorten the fructan chains but the activity of fructosyltransferase (SST, FFT) and enzymes of microbial origin (inulinase II, invertase) must also be considered, the concept of 'hydrolase activity' used by the authors is essentially an expression of 'total activity'. The activity unit (EU) is defined as the ability to split of 1 ..mu..mol of fructose from (chicory) inulin per minute under experimental conditions. Values of 0.25 to 0.77 EU/g dry solids were found in Jerusalem artichoke. Considerable differences may occur between varieties from the same cultivated area and the same harvest period. With one and the same variety, the activity appears to be subject to marked yearly fluctuations, so that at present, because of hydrolase activity, nothing certain can be said about the depolymerization tendency of a variety.

  11. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis by reduced systemic inflammatory status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and considered an inflammatory disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a major enzyme hydrolyzing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and attenuates their cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether sEH inhibition can protect against high-fat (HF-diet-induced fatty liver in mice and the underlying mechanism. Compared with wild-type littermates, sEH-null mice showed lower diet-induced lipid accumulation in liver, as seen by Oil-red O staining and triglycerides levels. We studied the effect of sEH inhibition on diet-induced fatty liver by feeding C57BL/6 mice an HF diet for 8 weeks (short-term or 16 weeks (long-term and administering t-AUCB, a selective sEH inhibitor. sEH inhibition had no effect on the HF-diet-increased body and adipose tissue weight or impaired glucose tolerance but alleviated the diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH in liver increased the level of triglycerides in liver and the hepatic inflammatory response. Surprisingly, the induced expression of sEH in liver occurred only with the long-term but not short-term HF diet, which suggests a secondary effect of HF diet on regulating sEH expression. Furthermore, sEH inhibition attenuated the HF-diet-induced increase in plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their mRNA upregulation in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration. Therefore, sEH inhibition could alleviate HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis, which might involve its anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and direct inhibition in liver. sEH may be a therapeutic target for HF-diet-induced hepatic steatosis in inhibiting systemic inflammation.

  12. [Expression and role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in renal tissue of two kidneys one clip hypertension rats model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-juan; Tao, Zhong-fei; Wang, Qian; Lu, Min; Guan, You-fei; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Yue

    2011-12-18

    To investigate renal expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in 2-kidney-1-clip rats and explore the role of sEH in renal arterial stenosis hypertensive development. Hypertensive models were established in Sprague-Dawly rats by chronic partial occlusion of left renal artery. In the study,16 male Sprague-Dawly rats were randomized into sham operation group and 2-kidney-1-lip (2K1C) group (n=8, each group), and were observed for 40 days. Before operation and every ten days after operation, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and twenty-four-hour urine was collected. At the end of the observation, the blood and kidneys were harvested. The serum Na,24-hour urine protein excretion were measured. Renin activity and angiotensin II concentrition in plasm and renal tissue were evaluated by radioimmunoassay (RIA).The expression of sEH, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in kidneys were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Histology was analysed after kidney sections were stained by Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver nitrate. After surgery, the systolic blood pressure in 2K1C group gradually became higher than that in sham group. Urine protein excretion was statistically increased in 2K1C group on the 30 th and 40 th days, while serum sodium was of no significant difference from those of the two groups. Renin-angiotensin system in both clipped and nonclipped kidneys were also invoked by the 2K1C surgery. Both sEH and PPARγ were upregulated in renocortex and renomedulla in 2K1C group. The two groups were compared: in SBP,on the 10 th day, (106.70±7.71) vs.(124.04±6.79) mmHg, P150.40±11.76) mmHg, PUrine protein excretion,on the 30 th day,(206.81±37.61)vs.(292.33±20.53)mg/d, P=0.005; Serum sodium, (179.76±29.20) vs. (157.72±51.00)mmol/L, P=0.44; Renin activity[plasm(50.00±13.66) vs.(132.90± 31.22)ng/(L×h),P=0.03; clipped kidney(128.40±36.88)vs.(324.90±56.66)ng/(g×h), P=0.01; nonclipped kidney(103.00±19.87)vs.(345

  13. Dynamic hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse in tomato seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sueldo, D.; Ali, A.; Misas-Villamil, J.; Colby, T.; Tameling, W.I.L.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Hoorn, van der R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolases such as subtilases, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) and the proteasome play important roles during plant programmed cell death (PCD). We investigated hydrolase activities during PCD using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which displays the active proteome using probes that

  14. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, Stephen T; Austin, Adam T; Banks, Christopher N; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J; Rogawski, Michael A; Hammock, Bruce D; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABAAR positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABAAR antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1mg/kg, ip, starting 1h after diazepam and repeated every 24h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute arsenic toxicity alters cytochrome P450 and soluble epoxide hydrolase and their associated arachidonic acid metabolism in C57Bl/6 mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; Kim, Seok H; Althurwi, Hassan N; Zordoky, Beshay N M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2012-12-01

    Acute arsenic (As(III)) exposure has been reported to cause cardiac toxicity, however this toxicity was never linked to the disturbance in cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute As(III) toxicity on the expression of P450 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and their associated arachidonic acid metabolism in mice hearts. As(III) toxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 12.5 mg/kg of As(III). Our results showed that As(III) treatment caused a significant induction of the cardiac hypertrophic markers in addition to Cyp1b1, Cyp2b, Cyp2c, Cyp4f, and sEH gene expression in mice hearts. Furthermore, As(III) increased sEH protein expression and activity in hearts with a consequent decrease in 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) formation. Whereas the formation of 8,9-, 11,12-, 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) was significantly increased. As(III) also increased sEH mRNA and protein expression levels in addition to the hypertrophic markers which was reversed by knockdown of sEH in H9c2 cells. In conclusion, acute As(III) toxicity alters the expression of several P450s and sEH enzymes with a consequent decrease in the cardioprotective EETs which may represent a novel mechanism by which As(III) causes progressive cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, inhibiting sEH might represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent As(III)-induced hypertrophy.

  16. Microbiological transformations. Part 48 : Enantioselective biohydrolysis of 2-, 3- and 4-pyridyloxirane at high substrate concentration using the Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 epoxide hydrolase and its Tyr215Phe mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, Y; Archelas, A; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Janssen, DB; Furstoss, R

    2001-01-01

    The epoxide hydrolase (EH) from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 wild type (ArWT) and its Tyr215Phe mutant were compared for the biocatalyzed hydrolytic kinetic resolution (BHKR) of 2-, 3- and 4-pyridyloxirane. The radioselectivity of the oxirane ring opening as well as the substrate concentration

  17. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes : Prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Dini Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered

  18. Effect of fungal mycelia on the HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcet, Marta M; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2016-06-25

    The use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. However, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. Firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. We prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (PPD) in the pure solvent and in the presence of mycelia (spiked before or after extraction) from five fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus terreus). The quantification of PPD was carried out by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The manuscript shows that the last method is as accurate as the HPLC method. However, the colorimetric method led to a higher data throughput, which allowed the study of more samples in a shorter time. Matrix effects were evaluated visually from the plotted calibration data and statistically by simultaneously comparing the intercept and slope of calibration curves performed with solvent, post-extraction spiked standards and pre-extraction spiked standards. Significant differences were found between the post- and pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions. Pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions based on A. tubingensis mycelia, selected as the reference, were validated and used to compensate for low recoveries. These validated functions were successfully applied to the quantification of PPD achieved during the hydrolysis of glycidyl phenyl ether by mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases and equivalent hydrolysis yields were determined by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. This study may serve as starting point to implement matrix effects evaluation when mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases are studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterization of 9-lipoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase 2 genes: Insight into lactone biosynthesis in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashish B; Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2017-06-01

    Uniqueness and diversity of mango flavour across various cultivars are well known. Among various flavour metabolites lactones form an important class of aroma volatiles in certain mango varieties due to their ripening specific appearance and lower odour detection threshold. In spite of their biological and biochemical importance, lactone biosynthetic pathway in plants remains elusive. Present study encompasses quantitative real-time analysis of 9-lipoxygenase (Mi9LOX), epoxide hydrolase 2 (MiEH2), peroxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase and acyl-CoA-oxidase genes during various developmental and ripening stages in fruit of Alphonso, Pairi and Kent cultivars with high, low and no lactone content and explains their variable lactone content. Study also covers isolation, recombinant protein characterization and transient over-expression of Mi9LOX and MiEH2 genes in mango fruits. Recombinant Mi9LOX utilized linoleic and linolenic acids, while MiEH2 utilized aromatic and fatty acid epoxides as their respective substrates depicting their role in fatty acid metabolism. Significant increase in concentration of δ-valerolactone and δ-decalactone upon Mi9LOX over-expression and that of δ-valerolactone, γ-hexalactone and δ-hexalactone upon MiEH2 over-expression further suggested probable involvement of these genes in lactone biosynthesis in mango. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interspecies differences in the enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolases in Cryptococcus laurentii (Kufferath) C.E. Skinner and Cryptococcus podzolicus (Bab'jeva & Reshetova) Golubev

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botes, AL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available laurentii preferentially hydrolysed the (S)-epoxides while all C podzolicus isolates preferentially hydrolysed the (R)-epoxides of (+/-)-2, 2-disubstituted epoxides. These findings indicate that the stereochemistry of the products formed from 2, 2...

  1. Dynamic hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse in tomato seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueldo, Daniela; Ahmed, Ali; Misas-Villamil, Johana; Colby, Tom; Tameling, Wladimir; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2014-08-01

    Hydrolases such as subtilases, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) and the proteasome play important roles during plant programmed cell death (PCD). We investigated hydrolase activities during PCD using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which displays the active proteome using probes that react covalently with the active site of proteins. We employed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings undergoing synchronized hypersensitive cell death by co-expressing the avirulence protein Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum and the tomato resistance protein Cf-4. Cell death is blocked in seedlings grown at high temperature and humidity, and is synchronously induced by decreasing temperature and humidity. ABPP revealed that VPEs and the proteasome are not differentially active, but that activities of papain-like cysteine proteases and serine hydrolases, including Hsr203 and P69B, increase before hypersensitive tissue collapse, whereas the activity of a carboxypeptidase-like enzyme is reduced. Similar dynamics were observed for these enzymes in the apoplast of tomato challenged with C. fulvum. Unexpectedly, these challenged plants also displayed novel isoforms of secreted putative VPEs. In the absence of tissue collapse at high humidity, the hydrolase activity profile is already altered completely, demonstrating that changes in hydrolase activities precede hypersensitive tissue collapse. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  3. Bioresolution Production of (2R,3S)-Ethyl-3-phenylglycidate for Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the Taxol C-13 Side Chain by Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200, a New Epoxide-Hydrolase-Producing Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Wei; Jinlong Ling; Honglei Shen; Qing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    A newly isolated Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 strain containing an epoxide hydrolase was used to resolve racemic ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (rac-EPG) for producing (2R,3S)-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate ((2R,3S)-EPG). G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 was verified to be able to afford high enantioselectivity in whole cell catalyzed synthesis of this chiral phenylglycidate synthon. After the optimization of the enzymatic production and bioresolution conditions, (2R,3S)-EPG was afforded with high enantioselec...

  4. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2017-12-26

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA decreases bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in mice by inhibiting the p38/Smad3 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin-Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Ge, Ling-Tian; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Shen, Jian; Jin, Ya-Chao; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-08-15

    Bleomycin (BLM) has potent tumor cell-killing properties that have given it an important place in cancer chemotherapy, but pulmonary toxicity is its major adverse effect. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to have protective effects in fibrosis models, but the effects of AUDA, an sEH inhibitor of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis, remain to be researched. In this study, we assessed the effects of AUDA on the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 -induced epithelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro by monitoring changes in pulmonary function, inflammatory response, fibrotic remodeling, and signaling pathways. AUDA was administered by intragastric administration (i.g) daily for three weeks, starting at seven days after intratracheal instillation of BLM. All examinations were performed 24h after the last i.g. In vivo, AUDA significantly improved BLM-induced decline in lung function and body weight, and inhibited inflammatory cell accumulation and the mRNA and protein expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, TGF-β 1 , and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in lung tissue. Moreover, AUDA attenuated BLM-induced deposition of collagen fibers, destruction of alveolar structures, and pulmonary parenchyma. Additionally, AUDA regulated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin by inhibiting the Smad3/p38 signaling pathway. In vitro, AUDA significantly inhibited TGF-β 1 -induced epithelial cells and fibroblast proliferation, reduced sEH expression and α-SMA expression, and increased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) levels and E-cadherin expression in epithelial cells. These effects were blocked by AUDA by downregulating the Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways. Taken together, these data indicate that treatment with sEH inhibitors may improve BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Over-Expression of Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (Tie2-sEH Tr) Attenuates Coronary Reactive Hyperemia in Mice: Role of Oxylipins and ω-Hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Morisseau, Christophe; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2017-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) into two vasoactive oxylipins with opposing biologic effects: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and omega-(ω)-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs have numerous beneficial physiological effects, including vasodilation and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas ω-terminal HETEs induce vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of these oxylipins on post-ischemic vasodilation known as coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH). CRH prevents the potential harm associated with transient ischemia. The beneficial effects of EETs are reduced after their hydrolysis to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). ω-terminal HETEs are formed by ω-hydroxylase family members. The relationship among endothelial over-expression of sEH (Tie2-sEH Tr), the changes in oxylipins it may produce, the pharmacologic inhibition of ω-hydroxylases, activation of PPARγ, and CRH response to a brief ischemia is not known. We hypothesized that CRH is attenuated in isolated mouse hearts with endothelial sEH over-expression through modulation of oxylipin profiles, whereas both inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance CRH. Compared to WT mice, Tie2-sEH Tr mice had decreased CRH, including repayment volume, repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (P Tr mice. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB reversed the decreased CRH in Tie2-sEH Tr mice. Endothelial over-expression of sEH significantly changed oxylipin profiles, including decreases in DHETs, mid-chain HETEs, and prostaglandins (P Tr and wild type (WT) mice. These data demonstrate that endothelial over-expression of sEH (through changing the oxylipin profiles) attenuates CRH, whereas inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance it.

  7. Meloxicam fails to augment the reno-protective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats via increased 20-HETE levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katary, Mohamed M; Pye, Chelsey; Elmarakby, Ahmed A

    2017-09-01

    The pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins and the anti-inflammatory cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) play an important role in the regulation of renal injury. The current study examined whether COX inhibition augments the reno-protective effects of increased EETs levels via inhibiting EETs degradation by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50mg/kg, i.v) was used to induce diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were then divided into 5 groups (n=6-8); control non diabetic, diabetic, diabetic treated with the sEH inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), diabetic treated with the COX inhibitor meloxicam and diabetic treated with meloxicam plus t-AUCB for 2 months. Glomerular albumin permeability and urinary albumin and nephrin excretion levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats together with decreased glomerular α3 integrin and nephrin expression levels. Inhibition of sEH reduced glomerular albumin permeability, albumin and nephrin excretion levels and restored the decrease in glomerular α3 integrin and nephrin expression in diabetic rats. Meloxicam failed to reduce renal injury or even to synergize the reno-protective effects of sEH inhibition in diabetic rats. Furthermore, inhibition of sEH reduced the elevation in renal collagen deposition and urinary MCP-1 excretion levels together with a reduction in the number of renal TUNEL positive cells in diabetic vs. control rats (PMeloxicam did not reduce renal inflammation or apoptosis in diabetic rats or even exacerbate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of sEH inhibition. Renal 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid (20-HETE) levels were elevated in diabetic rats and meloxicam further exacerbated this elevation. In conclusion, our study suggests that inhibition of COX failed to provide renal protection or to augment the reno-protective effects of sEH inhibition in

  8. Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ∼3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries.

  9. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  10. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function: IMPLICATION OF AN EPOXIDE HYDROLASE IN THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF LINOLEATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P; Calcutt, M Wade; Boeglin, William E; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Brash, Alan R

    2016-07-08

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. In vitro biotransformation of 2-methylpropene (isobutene): epoxide formation in mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, M; Sonck, W; Callaerts, A; Csanády, G; Vercruysse, A; Laib, R J; Rogiers, V

    1991-01-01

    Until now, no data are available concerning the biotransformation and toxicity of 2-methylpropene (or isobutene), a gaseous alkene widely used in industry (rubber, fuel additives, plastic polymers, adhesives, antioxidants). In this work, the biotransformation of 2-methylpropene (MP) has been studied, using total liver homogenates of mice, supplemented with a NADPH-generating system. In analogy to other olefins, 2-methylpropene is metabolized to its epoxide 2-methyl-1,2-epoxypropane (MEP), as proved by the identification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The epoxidation is cytochrome P-450 dependent, as shown by experiments in the absence of the NADPH-generating system and in the presence of various concentrations of metyrapone and SKF 525-A, two known inhibitors of the mono-oxygenases. A simple gas chromatographic headspace method has been developed for the quantitative determination of the epoxide formed. The formation of MEP is never linear in function of time and it reaches a maximum after 20 min. Thereafter is decreases continuously to undetectable levels. This observation can be explained by the immediate action of epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase, converting the epoxide to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and to the glutathione conjugate respectively. The involvement of both enzymes has been demonstrated by the addition of 3,3,3-trichloropropene oxide and indomethacin. These inhibitors of, respectively, epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase increase the epoxide formation in a significant way. The actual concentration of MEP is therefore not only dependent on its formation by cytochrome P-450 dependent mono-oxygenases, but also on its conversion by epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase, both very active in liver tissue.

  12. Effect of the synthetic method on the catalytic activity of alumina: Epoxidation of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderruten, N.E., E-mail: nevalderruten@icesi.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Icesi, Cali (Colombia); Peña, W.F.; Ramírez, A.E. [Departamento de Química, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán (Colombia); Rodríguez-Páez, J.E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán (Colombia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature influence on percent conversion and selectivity in the epoxidation of cyclohexene using commercial alumina as a catalyst. - Highlights: • Aluminum oxide was synthesized using Pechini method. • The alumina obtained showed a mix of boehmite and γ-alumina phases. • We research an economically feasible method to obtain alumina for use as a catalyst. • Alumina obtained by Pechini showed high percent conversion and/or selectivity. • The best results were 78% conversion and 78% selectivity to epoxidation reactions. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared from different inorganic precursors via the Pechini method and compared with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by the sol–gel method. Structural characterization of these materials was carried out by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption at −196 °C and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solids were tested in the epoxidation of cyclohexene and a difference in their catalytic activities was observed. The characterization results indicate that the samples prepared by Pechini have a mixture of γ-alumina and boehmite, a condition favoring catalytic activity, whereas the sol–gel sample is less crystalline due to higher boehmite content. These results indicate that both the nature of the precursor and the method of synthesis strongly affect the catalytic activity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  13. In Vivo Anti-Tumor Activity and Toxicological Evaluations of Perillaldehyde 8,9-Epoxide, a Derivative of Perillyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nalone Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed the high cytotoxicity of p-menthane derivatives against human tumor cells. In this study, the substance perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, a p-menthane class derivative obtained from (S-(−-perillyl alcohol, was selected in order to assess antitumor activity against experimental sarcoma 180 tumors. Toxicological effects related to the liver, spleen, kidneys and hematology were evaluated in mice submitted to treatment. The tumor growth inhibition rate was 38.4%, 58.7%, 35.3%, 45.4% and 68.1% at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide, perillyl alcohol and 25 mg/kg/day for 5-FU intraperitoneal treatments, respectively. No toxicologically significant effect was found in liver and kidney parameters analyzed in Sarcoma 180-inoculated mice treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. Histopathological analyses of the liver, spleen, and kidneys were free from any morphological changes in the organs of the animals treated with perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide. In conclusion, the data suggest that perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide possesses significant antitumor activity without systemic toxicity for the tested parameters. By comparison, there was no statistical difference for the antitumor activity between perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide and perillyl alcohol.

  14. Bioresolution Production of (2R,3S-Ethyl-3-phenylglycidate for Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the Taxol C-13 Side Chain by Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200, a New Epoxide-Hydrolase-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 strain containing an epoxide hydrolase was used to resolve racemic ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (rac-EPG for producing (2R,3S-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate ((2R,3S-EPG. G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 was verified to be able to afford high enantioselectivity in whole cell catalyzed synthesis of this chiral phenylglycidate synthon. After the optimization of the enzymatic production and bioresolution conditions, (2R,3S-EPG was afforded with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 99%, E > 49 after a 8 h reaction. The co-solvents, pH buffer solutions and substrate/cell ratio were found to have significant influences on the bioresolution properties of G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200. Based on the bioresolution product (2R,3S-EPG, taxol’s side chain ethyl (2R,3S-3-benzoylamino-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate was successfully synthesized by a chemoenzymatic route with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 95%.

  15. Bioresolution production of (2R,3S)-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate for chemoenzymatic synthesis of the taxol C-13 side chain by Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200, a new epoxide-hydrolase-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chun; Ling, Jinlong; Shen, Honglei; Zhu, Qing

    2014-06-16

    A newly isolated Galactomyces geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 strain containing an epoxide hydrolase was used to resolve racemic ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (rac-EPG) for producing (2R,3S)-ethyl-3-phenylglycidate ((2R,3S)-EPG). G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200 was verified to be able to afford high enantioselectivity in whole cell catalyzed synthesis of this chiral phenylglycidate synthon. After the optimization of the enzymatic production and bioresolution conditions, (2R,3S)-EPG was afforded with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 99%, E > 49) after a 8 h reaction. The co-solvents, pH buffer solutions and substrate/cell ratio were found to have significant influences on the bioresolution properties of G. geotrichum ZJUTZQ200. Based on the bioresolution product (2R,3S)-EPG, taxol's side chain ethyl (2R,3S)-3-benzoylamino-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate was successfully synthesized by a chemoenzymatic route with high enantioselectivity (e.e.S > 95%).

  16. Transcription of the Human Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Gene (EPHX1 Is Regulated by PARP-1 and Histone H1.2. Association with Sodium-Dependent Bile Acid Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    Full Text Available Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH is a bifunctional protein that plays a central role in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics as well as mediating the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes. These compounds are involved in cholesterol homeostasis, lipid digestion, excretion of xenobiotics and the regulation of several nuclear receptors and signaling transduction pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated the critical role of GATA-4, a C/EBPα-NF/Y complex and an HNF-4α/CAR/RXR/PSF complex in the transcriptional regulation of the mEH gene (EPHX1. Studies also identified heterozygous mutations in human EPHX1 that resulted in a 95% decrease in mEH expression levels which was associated with a decrease in bile acid transport and severe hypercholanemia. In the present investigation we demonstrate that EPHX1 transcription is significantly inhibited by two heterozygous mutations observed in the Old Order Amish population that present numerous hypercholanemic subjects in the absence of liver damage suggesting a defect in bile acid transport into the hepatocyte. The identity of the regulatory proteins binding to these sites, established using biotinylated oligonucleotides in conjunction with mass spectrometry was shown to be poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase-1 (PARP-1 bound to the EPHX1 proximal promoter and a linker histone complex, H1.2/Aly, bound to a regulatory intron 1 site. These sites exhibited 71% homology and may represent potential nucleosome positioning domains. The high frequency of the H1.2 site polymorphism in the Amish population results in a potential genetic predisposition to hypercholanemia and in conjunction with our previous studies, further supports the critical role of mEH in mediating bile acid transport into hepatocytes.

  17. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.

    2011-07-26

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Fighting Fenton Chemistry: A Highly Active Iron(III) Tetracarbene Complex in Epoxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Jens W; Anneser, Markus R; Hofmann, Benjamin; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Kühn, Fritz E

    2015-12-07

    Organometallic Fe complexes with exceptionally high activities in homogeneous epoxidation catalysis are reported. The compounds display Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states and bear a tetracarbene ligand. The more active catalyst exhibits activities up to 183 000 turnovers per hour at room temperature and turnover numbers of up to 4300 at -30 °C. For the Fe(III) complex, a decreased Fenton-type reactivity is observed compared with Fe(II) catalysts reported previously as indicated by a substantially lower H2 O2 decomposition and higher (initial) turnover frequencies. The dependence of the catalyst performance on the catalyst loading, substrate, water addition, and the oxidant is investigated. Under all applied conditions, the advantageous nature of the use of the Fe(III) complex is evident. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Membrane composition influences the activity of in vitro refolded human vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenecke, Frank; Friedrich-Epler, Beatrice; Parthier, Christoph; Stubbs, Milton T

    2015-10-27

    Human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the maintenance of reduced vitamin K pools, a prerequisite for the action of γ-glutamyl carboxylase and hence for hemostasis. Here we describe the recombinant expression of hVKOR as an insoluble fusion protein in Escherichia coli, followed by purification and chemical cleavage under denaturing conditions. In vitro renaturation and reconstitution of purified solubilized hVKOR in phospholipids could be established to yield active protein. Crucially, the renatured enzyme is inhibited by the powerful coumarin anticoagulant warfarin, and we demonstrate that enzyme activity depends on lipid composition. The completely synthetic system for protein production allows a rational investigation of the multiple variables in membrane protein folding and paves the way for the provision of pure, active membrane protein for structural studies.

  20. Stereochemical preference of yeast epoxide hydrolase for the O-axial C3 epimers of 1-oxaspiro[2.5] octanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Koenst, P.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The 1-oxaspiro[2.5]octane moiety is a common motif in many biologically active spiroepoxide compounds. Stereochemistry plays an important role in the action of these spiroepoxides, since the O-axial C3 epimers are predominantly responsible for biological activity. In view of this, the reactivity of

  1. Influence of heavy metal salts on the activity of trypsin-like hydrolases from Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Ryzhko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of salts of heavy metals on trypsin-like peptide hydrolase of drosophila larvae partly refined by methods of salting-out, gel chromatography and electrophoresis has been researched. It is established that cadmium chloride is characterized by the greatest inhibitory effect, while zinc chloride by the lowest one. Since metal chlorides were used in all cases, it is the differentiated effect of metal ions on manifestations of amidase activity of trypsin-like peptide hydrolase of drosophila larvae, which rather may be considered as proved than the effect of chlorine ions. This, as a whole, agrees with the effect of these ions on proteolytic digestion system at the level of live organisms.

  2. A novel plant enzyme with dual activity: an atypical Nudix hydrolase and a dipeptidyl peptidase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karačić, Zrinka; Vukelić, Bojana; Ho, Gabrielle H; Jozić, Iva; Sučec, Iva; Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Kozlović, Marija; Brenner, Steven E; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Abramić, Marija

    2017-01-01

    In a search for plant homologues of dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) family, we found a predicted protein from the moss Physcomitrella patens (UniProt entry: A9TLP4), which shared 61% sequence identity with the Arabidopsis thaliana uncharacterized protein, designated Nudix hydrolase 3. Both proteins contained all conserved regions of the DPP III family, but instead of the characteristic hexapeptide HEXXGH zinc-binding motif, they possessed a pentapeptide HEXXH, and at the N-terminus, a Nudix box, a hallmark of Nudix hydrolases, known to act upon a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. To investigate their biochemical properties, we expressed heterologously and purified Physcomitrella (PpND) and Arabidopsis (AtND) protein. Both hydrolyzed, with comparable catalytic efficiency, the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a universal precursor for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds. In addition, PpND dephosphorylated four purine nucleotides (ADP, dGDP, dGTP, and 8-oxo-dATP) with strong preference for oxidized dATP. Furthermore, PpND and AtND showed DPP III activity against dipeptidyl-2-arylamide substrates, which they cleaved with different specificity. This is the first report of a dual activity enzyme, highly conserved in land plants, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of a peptide bond and of a phosphate bond, acting both as a dipeptidyl peptidase III and an atypical Nudix hydrolase.

  3. Screening and evaluation of the glucoside hydrolase activity in Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, L; Saison, D; Sterckx, F; Delvaux, F R; Verachtert, H; Derdelinckx, G

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to select and examine Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts for hydrolase activity towards glycosidically bound volatile compounds. A screening for glucoside hydrolase activity of 58 brewing yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces was performed. The studied Saccharomyces brewing yeasts did not show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity, but a strain dependent beta-glucanase activity was observed. Some Brettanomyces species did show 1,4-beta-glucosidase activity. The highest constitutive activity was found in Brettanomyces custersii. For the most interesting strains the substrate specificity was studied and their activity was evaluated in fermentation experiments with added hop glycosides. Fermentations with Br. custersii led to the highest release of aglycones. Pronounced exo-beta-glucanase activity in Saccharomyces brewing yeasts leads to a higher release of certain aglycones. Certain Brettanomyces brewing yeasts, however, are more interesting for hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatiles of hops. The release of flavour active compounds from hop glycosides opens perspectives for the bioflavouring and product diversification of beverages like beer. The release can be enhanced by using Saccharomyces strains with high exo-beta-glucanase activity. Higher activities can be found in Brettanomyces species with beta-glucosidase activity.

  4. Switching off H2O2 Decomposition during TS-1 Catalysed Epoxidation via Post-Synthetic Active Site Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Hammond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its widespread use, the Lewis acidic zeolite, TS-1, still exhibits several unfavourable properties, such as excessive H2O2 decomposition, which decrease its overall performance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that post-synthetic modification of TS-1 with aqueous NH4HF2 leads to modifications in epoxidation catalysis, which both improves the levels of epoxide selectivity obtained, and drastically minimises undesirable H2O2 decomposition. Through in situ spectroscopic study with UV-resonance enhanced Raman spectroscopy, we also observe a change in Ti site speciation, which occurs via the extraction of mononuclear [Ti(OSi4] atoms, and which may be responsible for the changes in observed activity.

  5. Change of hydrolase activity in germinating seeds of trxS transgenic barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Kong, Weiwei; Yin, Jun

    2008-09-01

    Genetic modification of barley variety can be an efficient way to improve beer quality. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of trxS gene on hydrolases activities in transgenic and non-transgenic barley seeds. The results showed that alpha-amylase, free beta-amylase and limit dextrinase activity were increased in transgenic seeds in comparison with non-transgenic seeds. Sulfhydryl content of protein in transgenic seeds was also higher than that in non-transgenic seeds, suggesting that trxS gene could express in barley seeds, which opens a new way for breeding new barley varieties to improve beer quality.

  6. Metal-Free Alternating Copolymerization of CO2with Epoxides: Fulfilling “Green” Synthesis and Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongyue

    2016-08-16

    Polycarbonates were successfully synthesized for the first time through the anionic copolymerization of epoxides with CO2, under metal-free conditions. Using an approach based on the activation of epoxides by Lewis acids and of CO, by appropriate cations, well-defined alternating copolymers made of CO, and propylene oxide (PO) or cyclohexene oxide (CHO) were indeed obtained. Triethyl borane was the Lewis acid chosen to activate the epoxides, and onium halides or onium alkoxides involving either ammonium, phosphonium, or phosphazenium cations were selected to initiate the copolymerization. In the case of PO, the carbonate content of the poly(propylene carbonate) formed was in the range of 92-99% and turnover numbers (TON) were close to 500; in the case of CHO perfectly alternating poly(cyclohexene carbonate) were obtained and TON values were close to 4000. The advantages of such a copolymerization system are manifold: (i) no need for multistep catalyst/ligand synthesis as in previous works; (ii) no transition metal involved in the copolymer synthesis and therefore no coloration of the samples isolated; and (iii) no necessity for postsynthesis purification.

  7. Systematic Survey of Serine Hydrolase Activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Defines Changes Associated with Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Frando, Andrew; Sadler, Natalie C.; Brown, Robert W.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The transition between replication and non-replication underlies much of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenicity, as non- or slowly replicating Mtb are responsible for persistence and poor treatment outcomes. Therapeutic targeting of non-replicating, persistent populations is a priority for tuberculosis treatment, but only few drug targets in non-replicating Mtb are currently known. Here, we directly measure the activity of the highly diverse and druggable serine hydrolases (SHs) during active replication and non-replication by activity-based proteomics. We predict serine hydrolase activity for 78 proteins, including 27 proteins with previously unknown function, and identify 37 SHs that remain active even in the absence of replication, providing a set of candidate persistence targets. Non-replication was associated with large shifts in the activity of the majority of SHs. These activity changes were largely independent of SH abundance, indicating extensive post-translational regulation. By probing a large cross-section of druggable Mtb enzyme space during replication and non-replication, we identify new SHs and suggest new persistence targets.

  8. Heterogenization of alkene epoxidation catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffon Regina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This account describes our efforts to heterogenize epoxidation catalysts. Anchored and sol-gel entrapped molybdenum were shown to be very selective, but had a strongly reduced activity. On the other hand, molybdenum silicates were very active and stable as long as no diols were present in the reaction mixture. Heterogenized rhenium catalysts were less active but allowed the use of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. However, the high cost and difficult regeneration prevents the industrial use of these catalysts. During these investigations, we found that alumina alone is active in the epoxidation with anhydrous hydrogen peroxide, giving good conversions to epoxides with high selectivity. More research is needed in order to clarify the nature of the hydroxyl groups responsible for its catalytic activity and thus to produce an appropriate material which would allow the obtention of epoxides with high selectivity under industrial conditions.

  9. Epoxide-mediated differential packaging of Cif and other virulence factors into outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballok, Alicia E; Filkins, Laura M; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Natural Optical Activity of Chiral Epoxides: the Influence of Structure and Environment on the Intrinsic Chiroptical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemler, Paul M.; Craft, Clayton L.; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Chiral epoxides built upon nominally rigid frameworks that incorporate aryl substituents have been shown to provide versatile backbones for asymmetric syntheses designed to generate novel pharmaceutical and catalytic agents. The ubiquity of these species has motivated the present studies of their intrinsic (solvent-free) circular birefringence (CB), the measurement of which serves as a benchmark for quantum-chemical predictions of non-resonant chiroptical behavior and as a beachhead for understanding the often-pronounced mediation of such properties by environmental perturbations (e.g., solvation). The optical rotatory dispersion (or wavelength-resolved CB) of (R)-styrene oxide (R-SO) and (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide (S-PPO) have been interrogated under ambient solvated and isolated conditions, where the latter efforts exploited the ultrasensitive techniques of cavity ring-down polarimetry. Both of the targeted systems display marked solvation effects as evinced by changes the magnitude and (in the case of R-SO) the sign of the extracted specific optical rotation, with the anomalously large response evoked from S-PPO distinguishing it from other members of the epoxide family. Linear-response calculations of dispersive optical activity have been performed at both density-functional and coupled-cluster levels of theory to unravel the structural and electronic origins of experimental findings, thereby suggesting the possible involvement of hindered torsional motion along dihedral coordinates adjoining phenyl and epoxide moieties.

  11. Organophosphate and pyrethroid hydrolase activities of mutant Esterases from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Farnsworth, Claire A; Coppin, Chris W; Teese, Mark G; Liu, Jian-Wei; Scott, Colin; Zhang, Xing; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2013-01-01

    Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran) which each confer organophosphate (OP) hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case) of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.

  12. Organophosphate and pyrethroid hydrolase activities of mutant Esterases from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Li

    Full Text Available Two mutations have been found in five closely related insect esterases (from four higher Diptera and a hymenopteran which each confer organophosphate (OP hydrolase activity on the enzyme and OP resistance on the insect. One mutation converts a Glycine to an Aspartate, and the other converts a Tryptophan to a Leucine in the enzymes' active site. One of the dipteran enzymes with the Leucine mutation also shows enhanced activity against pyrethroids. Introduction of the two mutations in vitro into eight esterases from six other widely separated insect groups has also been reported to increase substantially the OP hydrolase activity of most of them. These data suggest that the two mutations could contribute to OP, and possibly pyrethroid, resistance in a variety of insects. We therefore introduced them in vitro into eight Helicoverpa armigera esterases from a clade that has already been implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance. We found that they do not generally enhance either OP or pyrethroid hydrolysis in these esterases but the Aspartate mutation did increase OP hydrolysis in one enzyme by about 14 fold and the Leucine mutation caused a 4-6 fold increase in activity (more in one case of another three against some of the most insecticidal isomers of fenvalerate and cypermethrin. The Aspartate enzyme and one of the Leucine enzymes occur in regions of the H. armigera esterase isozyme profile that have been previously implicated in OP and pyrethroid resistance, respectively.

  13. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  14. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibition Enhances Memory Acquisition through Activation of PPAR-alpha Nuclear Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB[subscript 1]-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain.…

  15. A glycoside hydrolase family 31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity from Flavobacterium johnsoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozu, Yoshifumi; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Hosoyama, Yuhei; Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 31 enzymes exhibit various substrate specificities, although the majority of members are α-glucosidases. Here, we constructed a heterologous expression system of a GH31 enzyme, Fjoh_4430, from Flavobacterium johnsoniae NBRC 14942, using Escherichia coli, and characterized its enzymatic properties. The enzyme hydrolyzed dextran and pullulan to produce isomaltooligosaccharides and isopanose, respectively. When isomaltose was used as a substrate, the enzyme catalyzed disproportionation to form isomaltooligosaccharides. The enzyme also acted, albeit inefficiently, on p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl α-isomaltoside was the main product of the reaction. In contrast, Fjoh_4430 did not act on trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, maltose, maltotriose, or soluble starch. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Our results indicate that Fjoh_4430 is a novel GH31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity.

  16. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofford, David M; Adams, Spencer T; Reddy, G S Kiran Kumar; Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Miller, Stephen C

    2015-07-15

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain.

  17. A modified expression of the major hydrolase activator in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) changes enzymatic catalysis of biopolymer degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Marion E; Steiger, Matthias G; Mach, Robert L; Mach-Aigner, Astrid R

    2011-06-10

    Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is a saprophytic fungus that produces hydrolases, which are applied in different types of industries and used for the production of biofuel. A recombinant Hypocrea strain, which constantly expresses the main transcription activator of hydrolases (Xylanase regulator 1), was found to grow faster on xylan and its monomeric backbone molecule d-xylose. This strain also showed improved ability of clearing xylan medium on plates. Furthermore, this strain has a changed transcription profile concerning genes encoding for hydrolases and enzymes associated with degradation of (hemi)celluloses. We demonstrated that enzymes of this strain from a xylan cultivation favoured break down of hemicelluloses to the monomer d-xylose compared to the parental strain, while the enzymes of the latter one formed more xylobiose. Applying supernatants from cultivation on carboxymethylcellulose in enzymatic conversion of hemicelluloses, the enzymes of the recombinant strain were clearly producing more of both, d-xylose and xylobiose, compared to the parental strain. Altogether, these results point to a changed hydrolase expression profile, an enhanced capability to form the xylan-monomer d-xylose and the assumption that there is a disordered induction pattern if the Xylanase regulator 1 is de-regulated in Hypocrea.

  18. Glycoside Hydrolases from a targeted Compost Metagenome, activity-screening and functional characterization

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    Dougherty Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomics approaches provide access to environmental genetic diversity for biotechnology applications, enabling the discovery of new enzymes and pathways for numerous catalytic processes. Discovery of new glycoside hydrolases with improved biocatalytic properties for the efficient conversion of lignocellulosic material to biofuels is a critical challenge in the development of economically viable routes from biomass to fuels and chemicals. Results Twenty-two putative ORFs (open reading frames were identified from a switchgrass-adapted compost community based on sequence homology to related gene families. These ORFs were expressed in E. coli and assayed for predicted activities. Seven of the ORFs were demonstrated to encode active enzymes, encompassing five classes of hemicellulases. Four enzymes were over expressed in vivo, purified to homogeneity and subjected to detailed biochemical characterization. Their pH optima ranged between 5.5 - 7.5 and they exhibit moderate thermostability up to ~60-70°C. Conclusions Seven active enzymes were identified from this set of ORFs comprising five different hemicellulose activities. These enzymes have been shown to have useful properties, such as moderate thermal stability and broad pH optima, and may serve as the starting points for future protein engineering towards the goal of developing efficient enzyme cocktails for biomass degradation under diverse process conditions.

  19. The Structural Basis of Exopolygalacturonase Activity in a Family 28 Glycoside Hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott,D.; Boraston, A.

    2007-01-01

    Family 28 glycoside hydrolases (polygalacturonases) are found in organisms across the plant, fungal and bacterial kingdoms, where they are central to diverse biological functions such as fruit ripening, biomass recycling and plant pathogenesis. The structures of several polygalacturonases have been reported; however, all of these enzymes utilize an endo-mode of digestion, which generates a spectrum of oligosaccharide products with varying degrees of polymerization. The structure of a complementary exo-acting polygalacturonase and an accompanying explanation of the molecular determinants for its specialized activity have been noticeably lacking. We present the structure of an exopolygalacturonase from Yersinia enterocolitica, YeGH28 in a native form (solved to 2.19 {angstrom} resolution) and a digalacturonic acid product complex (solved to 2.10 {angstrom} resolution). The activity of YeGH28 is due to inserted stretches of amino acid residues that transform the active site from the open-ended channel observed in the endopolygalacturonases to a closed pocket that restricts the enzyme to the exclusive attack of the non-reducing end of oligogalacturonide substrates. In addition, YeGH28 possesses a fused FN3 domain with unknown function, the first such structure described in pectin active enzymes.

  20. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  1. An appraisal of eighteen commonly consumed edible plants as functional food based on their antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yian Hoon; Choo, Candy; Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2015-11-01

    Eighteen edible plants were assessed for their antioxidant potential based on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, vitamin C content and various lipophilic antioxidants. The inhibitory activities of the plant extracts against the enzymatic activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were also evaluated. The antioxidant and starch hydrolase activities of the plants varied widely across a single batch of analysis. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging EC50 values varied between 298 and 1984 Trolox equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 91 and 533 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, respectively. The total phenolics and vitamin C contents varied between 32 and 125 mg gallic acid equivalents g(-1) fresh weight and between 96 and 285 µg g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. All the plants contained neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and α- and β-carotene in varying amounts. Coccinia grandis, Asparagus racemosus, Costus speciosus, Amaranthus viridis and Annona muricata displayed the highest inhibitory activities against starch hydrolases. They were the most efficient against the breakdown of seven starches exposed to the two enzymes as well. Overall, the edible plants were observed to display a high antioxidant potential with starch hydrolase inhibitory properties, which were beneficial in their being recognized as functional food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Removal of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide using activated carbon and/or Pseudomonas fluorescens free cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandala, Erick R; Andres-Octaviano, Juan; Pastrana, Paulino; Torres, Luis G

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5-8-dimethanonaphthalene), heptachlor (1H-1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano indene), dieldrin (1aalpha,2beta,2aalpha,3beta,6beta,6aalpha,7beta,7aalpha)-3,4,5,6,9,9-Hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-d-methanonaphtha[2,3-b]oxirene, and heptachlor epoxide (1aalpha, 1bbeta,2alpha,5alpha,5alphabeta,6beta,6aalpha-2,3,4,5,6,7,7-Heptachloro-1a,1b,5,5a,6,6a-hexahydro-2,5-methano-2H-inden[1,2-b]-oxirene) was tested using free cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens under controlled conditions. Pesticide concentrations were monitored by gas chromatography during 120 h. Percentages of degradation and biodegradation rates (BDR) were calculated. Data showed a trend suggesting a relation between chemical structure and degradability. Degradation kinetics for each pesticide tested showed that the highest degradation rates were found in the first 24 h. Kinetics data were adjusted to an empirical equation in order to predict their behavior, and the correlation coefficients obtained were satisfactory. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the final extracts allowed the identification of chlordene and monodechlorodieldrin, which have been reported as final metabolite produced in the biodegradation of this kind of compounds. Regarding adsorption of pesticides on activated vegetal carbon, we concluded that removal efficiencies between 95.45 and 97.18% can be reached, depending on the pesticide and the carbon dose applied. The values for K from the Freundlich equation were quite similar for the four pesticides (between 1.0001 and 1.04), whereas the n values were quite different for each pesticide in the following order of affinity: dieldrin > aldrin > heptachlor epoxide > heptachlor. Equilibrium times, very important for scaling up the process, were between 43 min and 1 h, for the heptachlor epoxide and the heptachlor, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme activity in creams and investigation of its stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariye Rajaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is investigation of the organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH enzyme activity in water in oil (w/o and oil in water (o/w creams and investigation of the OPH enzyme stability in formulated creams. OPH enzyme was extracted and purified from strain flavobacterium. The w/o and o/w creams were prepared using different formulations. In order to achieve an emulsion with maximum stability, appropriate percentage of the cream components was selected by studying different formulations and the physical and chemical stability of the produced cream were considered. 5Uenzyme/90gcream enzyme was used for each formulation. To measure the enzyme activity in creams, extraction method was used and enzyme activity was determined based on parathion hydrolysis. The thermal stability of OPH in both types of w/o and o/w creams was studied at 4 and 30  °C for various time periods. The average enzyme activity was about 0.0065 U/gcream and 0.018 U/gcream for w/o and o/w creams respectivly. According to the results, the relative activity at 4 °C was reduced to 50% after 26 and 45 days in w/o and o/w creams, respectivly. The results showed that the OPH enzyme activity in o/w cream was 2.6 times more than that of w/o cream, because of the higher hydrophobicity of o/w cream compared to w/o. The OPH enzyme stability in o/w cream was greater in comparison to w/o cream. The OPH enzyme was active for nearly 2 months on o/w creams at 4 °C .

  4. Identification of Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Constructs with Synergistic Staphylolytic Activity in Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbree, Carolin T; Dätwyler, Steven M; Meile, Susanne; Eichenseher, Fritz; Donovan, David M; Loessner, Martin J; Schmelcher, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    Peptidoglycan hydrolases (PGHs) have been suggested as novel therapeutics for the treatment of bovine mastitis. However, activity in the presence of cow's milk is an important requirement for drugs administered into the bovine udder. We have screened a library of >170 recombinant PGHs, including engineered bacteriophage endolysins, for enzymes with activity against Staphylococcus aureus in milk, using a microtiter plate-based protocol. Nine suitable PGH constructs were identified by this approach and further compared in time-kill assays for their efficacy against S. aureus in heat-treated milk. The three most active enzymes (lysostaphin, Ami2638A, and CHAPK_CWT-LST) reduced S. aureus in milk to undetectable numbers within minutes at nanomolar concentrations. Due to their different peptidoglycan cleavage sites, these PGH constructs revealed synergistic activity in most combinations, as demonstrated by checkerboard assays, spot assays, and time-kill experiments. Furthermore, they proved active against a selection of staphylococcal mastitis isolates from different geographical regions when applied individually or in synergistic combination. The most effective PGH combination completely eradicated S. aureus from milk, with no more bacteria being detected within 24 h after addition of the enzymes, corresponding to a reduction of >9 log units compared to the control. Efficacy was also retained at different inoculum levels (3 versus 6 log CFU/ml) and when S. aureus was grown in milk as opposed to broth prior to the experiments. In raw cow's milk, CHAPK_CWT-LST showed reduced efficacy, whereas both Ami2638A and lysostaphin retained their activity, reducing bacterial numbers by >3.5 log units within 3 h.IMPORTANCE Staphylococci and S. aureus in particular are a major cause of bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland in cows associated with high costs and risks for consumers of milk products. S. aureus-induced mastitis, commonly treated by intramammary infusion

  5. First glycoside hydrolase family 2 enzymes from Thermus antranikianii and Thermus brockianus with β-glucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eSchröder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genes tagh2 and tbgh2 coding for enzymes with hydrolytic activity towards esculin were identified from the extreme thermophilic, aerobic bacteria Thermus antranikianii (Ta and T. brockianus (Tb. Shortened conserved domains predicted a membership of the enzymes of glycoside hydrolase (GH family 2. At present, β-galactosidase activity is found frequently in GH family 2 but β-glucosidase activity has not been reported in this family before. The enzymes TaGH2 and TbGH2 preferred hydrolysis of nitrophenol-linked β-D-glucopyranosides with specific activities of 3,966 U/mg and 660 U/mg, respectively. Residual activities of 40 % (TaGH2 and 51 % (TbGH2 towards 4-NP-β-D-galactopyranoside were observed. Furthermore, TaGH2 hydrolyzed cellobiose. TbGH2, however, showed no activity on cellobiose or lactose. The enzymes exhibited highest activity at 95 °C (TaGH2 and 90 °C (TbGH2 at pH 6.5. Both enzymes were extremely thermostable and thermal activation up to 250 % was observed at temperatures between 50 and 60 °C. Accordingly, the first thermoactive glycoside hydrolase family 2 enzymes with β glucosidase activity have been identified and characterized. The hydrolysis of cellobiose is a unique property of TaGH2 when compared to the enzymes of GH family 2.

  6. The activity of platelet activating factor-acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) in the salivary glands of Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte-Real, Rozana; Gomes, Raquel N; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Eloi S

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigated the activity of the platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase (PAF-AH) in the salivary gland homogenates and saliva of Rhodnius prolixus. PAF-AH activity in the salivary gland homogenates was lower than in the saliva. Preliminary characterization of the enzyme demonstrated that it hydrolyzed the substrate 2-thio-PAF, was detectable just in 1 pair of salivary gland homogenates in 0.5 ml buffer, and was stable under different conditions. PMSF, TPCK, TLCK, pepstatin A and p-BPB all inhibited the PAF-AH activity. Enzyme specific activity in salivary gland homogenates diminished immediately after feeding of 5th-instar larvae, and increased before feeding by adult insects. 2-Thio-PAF induced platelet-aggregation that was inhibited by previous incubation of the substrate with salivary gland homogenates or saliva. The relevance of PAF-AH for providing Rhodnius with a feeding mechanism for facilitating the sucking of a high volume of blood meal in a short period is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are required for folding hydrolase B into a catalytically active conformation but not for maintaining it during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiulong; Gragen, Sarah; Li, Yuxin; Ma, Yuzhong; Liu, Jirong; Yang, Dongfang; Matoney, Lynn; Yan, Bingfang

    2004-07-09

    Carboxylesterases represent a large class of hydrolytic enzymes that are involved in lipid metabolism, pharmacological determination, and detoxication of organophosphorus pesticides. These enzymes have several notable structural features including two intramolecular disulfide bonds. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the disulfide bonds are required during catalysis by stabilizing the catalytically active conformation. Hydrolase B, a rat liver microsomal carboxylesterase, was reduced by dithiothreitol, electrophoretically separated and assayed for hydrolysis. Contrary to the hypothesis, reduced hydrolase B was as active as the native enzyme on the hydrolysis of 1-naphthylacetate, and sulfhydryl alkylation following reduction caused no changes in the hydrolytic activity. Interestingly, substitution of a disulfide bond-forming cysteine with an alanine caused marked reduction or complete loss of the catalytic activity, suggesting that disulfide bond formation plays a role in the biosynthetic process of hydrolase B. In support of this notion, refolding experiments restored a significant amount of hydrolytic activity when hydrolase B was unfolded with urea alone. In contrast, little activity was restored when unfolding was performed in the presence of reducing agent dithiothreitol. These results suggest that formation of the disulfide bonds plays a critical role in folding hydrolase B into the catalytically active conformation, and that the disulfide bonds play little role or function redundantly in maintaining this conformation during catalysis.

  8. Probing the hydrophobic pocket of the active site in the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by variable stereoselective alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Yaoh; Tu, Li-Chun; Wang, Yane-Shih; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2008-05-05

    pMMO from M. capsulatus (Bath) oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides. According to experiments performed with cryptically chiral ethane and D,L-[2-(2)H(1),3-(2)H(1)]butane, the reactions proceed through the concerted O-atom insertion mechanism. However, when propene and but-1-ene are used as epoxidation substrates, the enantiomeric excesses (ees) of the enzymatic products are only 18 and 37 %, respectively. This relatively poor stereoselectivity in the enzymatic epoxidation presumably reflects low stereochemical differentiation between the re and si faces in the hydrophobic pocket of the active site. Further insights into the reaction mechanism are now provided by studies on trans-but-2-ene, which reveal only the D,L-2,3-dimethyloxirane products, and on cis-but-2-ene, which yield only the meso product. These observations indicate that the enzymatic epoxidation indeed proceeds through electrophilic syn addition. To achieve better facial selectivity, we have also used 3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene as the substrate. The products obtained are 90 % (2S)-oxirane. When 1,1,1-trifluoropropane is the substrate, the hydroxylation at the 2-carbon exhibits an inverse chiral selectivity relative to that seen with normal butane, if we consider the size of the CF(3) group in the fluorinated propane to be comparable to one of the ethyl groups in butane. These experiments are beginning to delineate the factors that influence the orientations of various substrates in the hydrophobic cavity of the active site in the enzyme.

  9. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  10. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of FD-891: importance of the side chain and C8-C9 epoxide for cytotoxic activity against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Tomohiro; Kawamata, Ayano; Takeuchi, Miho; Hamada, Keisuke; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Eguchi, Tadashi; Kudo, Fumitaka; Usui, Takeo; Kanoh, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Unified synthesis of FD-891 analogs and their structure-activity relationship are described. By using stereoselective allylation/crotylation and Evans aldol chemistry, six side-chain fragments having different length and terminus were synthesized. These fragments were coupled with a macrolactone fragment, improved synthesis of which was also developed here, to generate FD-891 and five truncated analogs. These synthetic compounds as well as three analogs obtained from fermentation of gene-disrupted Streptomyces graminofaciens mutants were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. As a result, coexistence of the C8-C9 epoxide and side-chain terminus was found to be critical for the cytotoxic activity.

  11. Silica Gel for Enhanced Activity and Hypochlorite Protection of Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase in Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Adi; Aukema, Kelly G; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-11-03

    Chlorinated isocyanuric acids are widely used water disinfectants that generate hypochlorite, but with repeated application, they build up cyanuric acid (CYA) that must be removed to maintain disinfection. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-treated Escherichia coli cells expressing cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) from Moorella thermoacetica exhibited significantly high CYA degradation rates and provided protection against enzyme inactivation by hypochlorite (chlorine). APTES coating or encapsulation of cells had two benefits: (i) overcoming diffusion limitations imposed by the cell wall and (ii) protecting against hypochlorite inactivation of CAH activity. Cells encapsulated in APTES gels degraded CYA three times faster than nonfunctionalized tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) gels, and cells coated with APTES degraded CYA at a rate of 29 µmol/min per mg of CAH protein, similar to the rate with purified enzyme. UV spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the higher rates were due to APTES increasing membrane permeability and enhancing cyanuric acid diffusion into the cytoplasm to reach the CAH enzyme. Purified CAH enzyme was shown to be rapidly inactivated by hypochlorite. APTES aggregates surrounding cells protected via the amine groups reacting with hypochlorite as shown by pH changes, zeta potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. APTES-encapsulated E. coli cells expressing CAH degraded cyanuric acid at high rates in the presence of 1 to 10 ppm hypochlorite, showing effectiveness under swimming pool conditions. In contrast, CAH activity in TEOS gels or free cells was completely inactivated by hypochlorite. These studies show that commercially available silica materials can selectively enhance, protect, and immobilize whole-cell biocatalysts for specialized applications. Hypochlorite is used in vast quantities for water disinfection, killing bacteria on surfaces, and washing and whitening. In pools, spas, and other

  12. Conserved loop cysteines of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1-like 1 (VKORC1L1) are involved in its active site regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Jian-Ke; Jin, Da-Yun; Stafford, Darrel W

    2014-03-28

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) reduces vitamin K epoxide in the vitamin K cycle for post-translational modification of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological functions. However, the physiological function of VKORC1-like 1 (VKORC1L1), a paralogous enzyme sharing about 50% protein identity with VKORC1, is unknown. Here we determined the structural and functional differences of these two enzymes using fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay and an in vivo cell-based activity assay. We show that in vivo VKORC1L1 reduces vitamin K epoxide to support vitamin K-dependent carboxylation as efficiently as does VKORC1. However, FPP assays show that unlike VKORC1, VKORC1L1 is a four-transmembrane domain protein with both its termini located in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the conserved loop cysteines, which are not required for VKORC1 activity, are essential for VKORC1L1's active site regeneration. Results from domain exchanges between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that it is VKORC1L1's overall structure that uniquely allows for active site regeneration by the conserved loop cysteines. Intermediate disulfide trapping results confirmed an intra-molecular electron transfer pathway for VKORC1L1's active site reduction. Our results allow us to propose a concerted action of the four conserved cysteines of VKORC1L1 for active site regeneration; the second loop cysteine, Cys-58, attacks the active site disulfide, forming an intermediate disulfide with Cys-139; the first loop cysteine, Cys-50, attacks the intermediate disulfide resulting in active site reduction. The different membrane topologies and reaction mechanisms between VKORC1L1 and VKORC1 suggest that these two proteins might have different physiological functions.

  13. How water molecules affect the catalytic activity of hydrolases - A XANES study of the local structures of peptide deformylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peixin; Wang, Yu; Chu, Wangsheng; Guo, Xiaoyun; Yang, Feifei; Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Yuhui; Xie, Yaning; Gong, Weimin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-12-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a prokaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deformylation of nascent peptides generated during protein synthesis and water molecules play a key role in these hydrolases. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and ab initio calculations we accurately probe the local atomic environment of the metal ion binding in the active site of PDF at different pH values and with different metal ions. This new approach is an effective way to monitor existing correlations among functions and structural changes. We show for the first time that the enzymatic activity depends on pH values and metal ions via the bond length of the nearest coordinating water (Wat1) to the metal ion. Combining experimental and theoretical data we may claim that PDF exhibits an enhanced enzymatic activity only when the distance of the Wat1 molecule with the metal ion falls in the limited range from 2.15 to 2.55 Å.

  14. Catalytic Epoxidation of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Herrero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoxidation of limonene with hidrogen peroxide was studied over zeolite Tibeta (a large pore material and heteropoly acids on carbono and alumina supported. PW11/C was catalyst the best tested.

  15. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  16. The epoxidation of propene over gold nanoparticle catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, T.A.; Sacaliuc, E.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Different gold nanoparticle catalysts on titania, silica, and titanosilicate supports are compared in the hydro-epoxidation of propene. All catalysts tested were active in the propene epoxidation, with Au/TiO2 showing the highest activity at low temperature, but also a high rate of deactivation. It

  17. Epoxide Activated Anionic Polymerization: Application to the Synthesis of (Co)Polyethers with Controlled Structure and Tuned Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Amelie; Rejsek, Virginie; Carlotti, Stephane; Deffieux, Alain

    A ring opening polymerization process allowing the fast and controlled anionic polymerization of epoxide monomers is described and applied to the synthesis of (co)polyethers with novel structure and composition. The approach is based on the simultaneous formation of complexes between an organometallic Lewis acid additive with both the anionic initiator and the monomer. In conjunction with the use of tetraalkylammonium or phosphonium salts as initiators, the addition of such additive allows the synthesis of polyethers and block copolyethers with controlled molar masses and narrow polydispersities, in hydrocarbon media, at low temperature, and in short reaction times. The low nucleophilic character of the propagating species involved in the polymerization avoids transfer to monomer, a side reaction which is often predominant in conventional anionic polymerizations. This also allows the controlled polymerization of functional epoxides such as glycidyl methacrylate and epichlorohydrin. Properties and potential applications of these new polyethers and copolyethers are also reported.

  18. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2017-07-11

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  19. 4-alkyl-L-(Dehydro)proline biosynthesis in actinobacteria involves N-terminal nucleophile-hydrolase activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase homolog for C-C bond cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guannan; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Wen

    2017-07-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs), ubiquitous in glutathione metabolism for γ-glutamyl transfer/hydrolysis, are N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase fold proteins that share an autoproteolytic process for self-activation. γ-GT homologues are widely present in Gram-positive actinobacteria where their Ntn-hydrolase activities, however, are not involved in glutathione metabolism. Herein, we demonstrate that the formation of 4-Alkyl-L-(dehydro)proline (ALDP) residues, the non-proteinogenic α-amino acids that serve as vital components of many bioactive metabolites found in actinobacteria, involves unprecedented Ntn-hydrolase activity of γ-GT homologue for C-C bond cleavage. The related enzymes share a key Thr residue, which acts as an internal nucleophile for protein hydrolysis and then as a newly released N-terminal nucleophile for carboxylate side-chain processing likely through the generation of an oxalyl-Thr enzyme intermediate. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the biosynthesis of various ALDP residues/associated natural products, highlight the versatile functions of Ntn-hydrolase fold proteins, and particularly generate interest in thus far less-appreciated γ-GT homologues in actinobacteria.

  20. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and Functional Analyses of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 5 Enzyme with an Unexpected [beta]-Fucosidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Park, David S.; Bae, Brian; Mackie, Roderick; Cann, Isaac K.O.; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC)

    2012-02-15

    We present characterization of PbFucA, a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5) from Prevotella bryantii B{sub 1}4. While GH5 members typically are xylanases, PbFucA shows no activity toward xylan polysaccharides. A screen against a panel of p-nitrophenol coupled sugars identifies PbFucA as a {beta}-D-fucosidase. We also present the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution structure of PbFucA and use structure-based mutational analysis to confirm the role of catalytically essential residues. A comparison of the active sites of PbFucA with those of family 5 and 51 glycosidases reveals that while the essential catalytic framework is identical between these enzymes, the steric contours of the respective active site clefts are distinct and likely account for substrate discrimination. Our results show that members of this cluster of orthologous group (COG) 5520 have {beta}-D-fucosidase activities, despite showing an overall sequence and structural similarity to GH-5 xylanases.

  2. The fabrication of porous 4A-zeolite-supported Ag nanoparticles catalysts and its catalytic activity for styrene epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youkui Wu

    Full Text Available Binderless hierarchically porous 4A-zeolite has been successful produced through hydrothermal crystallization, in which silicon-aluminum sol binded to the carbon nanofibers (CNFs, that is to say, where the CNFs powder was coated during the crystallization 4A-zeolite. The mixing of silica-alumina sol and CNFs was only a simple physical mixing process. The samples of micropores-macroporous hierarchical 4A-zeolite (P-4A-zeolite was analyzed by a series of characterization techniques, such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA and CO2 adsorption-desorption (BET and BJH, and so on. In addition, the adsorption test of silver nanoparticles was carried out. The characterization results indicated the presence of micropores and the formation of macroporous. At the same time, silver adsorption test proved that the prepared P-4A-zeolite had good adsorption performance and the catalytic performance of Ag/P-4A-zeolite was further investigated through the epoxidation of styrene. Keywords: Carbon nanofibers, Porous 4A-zeolite, Silver nanoparticles, Styrene epoxidation

  3. Evaluation of the Stability of the Total Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Contents, and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activities of Kombucha Teas Using an In Vitro Model of Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindani I. Watawana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activity of three different types of Kombucha beverages prepared by three pellicles with different microbial compositions. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days and the assessments of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities as well as tea phenolic compounds were carried out. These parameters were also evaluated after subjecting the final fermented samples to gastric and duodenal digestion in an in vitro digestion model. The pH had a statistically significant decrease during the period of fermentation. The total phenolics content and antioxidant activities had increased during the fermentation process as well as when subjected to digestion. The starch hydrolase inhibitory activities also increased in a similar manner during the different phases. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities showed statistically significant increases (P<0.05 as the fermentation progressed, while an increase was observed after being subjected to pancreatic and duodenal digestion as well. All three types of tea showed a higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

  4. The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjan Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalose, maltotriose, fructose, and glucose were estimated. The correlations between sugar content and the activity of the main hydrolases of carbohydrate metabolism - α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, maltase, and sucrase - were determined. The addition of vitamin C to the diet of wintering bees did not impair their sugar metabolism. Vitamin C supplements exerted a positive effect by significantly increasing glycogen and trehalose concentrations in the initial phase of development and in newly emerged workers. Vitamin C did not induce significant changes in the developmental profile of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, except for the earliest stage of larval development when enzyme activity levels were below those noted in the control group.

  5. Isolation, Identification and Partial Characterization of a Lactobacillus casei Strain with Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity from Pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vázquez, R; Azaola-Espinosa, A; Mayorga-Reyes, L; Reyes-Nava, L A; Shah, N P; Rivera-Espinoza, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, from pulque, Lactobacillus spp. capable of survival in simulated gastrointestinal stress conditions. Nine Gram-positive rods were isolated; however, only one strain (J57) shared identity with Lactobacillus and was registered as Lactobacillus casei J57 (GenBank accession: JN182264). The other strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The most significant observation during the test of tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions (acidity, gastric juice and bile salts) was that L. casei J57 showed a rapid decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in the viable population at 0 h. Bile salts were the stress condition that most affected its survival, from which deoxycholic acid and the mix of bile salts (oxgall) were the most toxic. L. casei J57 showed bile salt hydrolase activity over primary and secondary bile salts as follows: 44.91, 671.72, 45.27 and 61.57 U/mg to glycocholate, taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, the control strain (L. casei Shirota) only showed activity over tauroconjugates. These results suggest that L. casei J57 shows potential for probiotic applications.

  6. Differences in the substrate specificities and active-site structures of two α-L-fucosidases (glycoside hydrolase family 29) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurama, Haruko; Tsutsumi, Erika; Ashida, Hisashi; Katayama, Takane; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that α-L-fucosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 29 can be divided into two subfamilies based on substrate specificity and phylogenetic clustering. To explore the validity of this classification, we enzymatically characterized two structure-solved α-L-fucosidases representing the respective subfamilies. Differences in substrate specificities are discussed in relation to differences in active-site structures between the two enzymes.

  7. Design of Selective Substrates and Activity-Based Probes for Hydrolase Important for Pathogenesis 1 (HIP1) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Christian S; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; La Greca, Florencia; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Schulze, Christopher J; Powers, James C; Craik, Charles S; Drag, Marcin; Jain, Sanjay K; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-11-11

    Although serine proteases are important mediators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence, there are currently no tools to selectively block or visualize members of this family of enzymes. Selective reporter substrates or activity-based probes (ABPs) could provide a means to monitor infection and response to therapy using imaging methods. Here, we use a combination of substrate selectivity profiling and focused screening to identify optimized reporter substrates and ABPs for the Mtb "Hydrolase important for pathogenesis 1" (Hip1) serine protease. Hip1 is a cell-envelope-associated enzyme with minimal homology to host proteases, making it an ideal target for probe development. We identified substituted 7-amino-4-chloro-3-(2-bromoethoxy)isocoumarins as irreversible inhibitor scaffolds. Furthermore, we used specificity data to generate selective reporter substrates and to further optimize a selective chloroisocoumarin inhibitor. These new reagents are potentially useful in delineating the roles of Hip1 during pathogenesis or as diagnostic imaging tools for specifically monitoring Mtb infections.

  8. Anaerobic accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from algae enhanced by damaging cell structure and promoting hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Xutao; Duan, Xu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Yinguang

    2017-12-06

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) produced from harvested algae by anaerobic fermentation with uncontrolled pH was limited due to the solid cell structure of algae. This study, therefore, was undertaken to enhance the generation of SCFAs from algae by controlling the fermentation pH. pH influenced not only the total SCFAs production, but the percentage of individual SCFA. The maximal yield of SCFAs occurred at pH 10.0 and fermentation time of 6 d (3161 mg COD/L), which mainly contained acetic and iso-valeric acids and was nearly eight times that at uncontrolled pH (392 mg COD/L). Mechanism exploration revealed at alkaline pH, especially at pH 10.0, not only the cell structure of algae was damaged effectively, but also activities and relative quantification of hydrolases as well as the abundance of microorganisms responsible for organics hydrolysis and SCFAs production were improved. Also, the released microcystins from algae were removed efficiently during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation is not accompanied by a release of anandamide into the lavage fluid or a down-regulation of the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, S.; J. Fowler, C.; Rocksén, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide inhalation upon lung anandamide levels, anandamide synthetic enzymes and fatty acid amide hydrolase has been investigated. Lipopolysaccharide exposure produced a dramatic extravasation of neutrophils and release of tumour necrosis factor a into the bronchoalveolar......-acyltransferase and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase in lung membrane fractions did not change significantly following the exposure to lipopolysaccharide. The non-selective fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride was a less potent...... inhibitor of lung fatty acid amide hydrolase than expected from the literature, and a dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. of this compound, which produced a complete inhibition of brain anandamide metabolism, only partially inhibited the lung metabolic activity....

  10. Characterisation of the antibacterial properties of a bacterial derived peptidoglycan hydrolase (LysCs4), active against C. sakazakii and other Gram-negative food-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersen, Lorraine; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Hill, Colin; O'Mahony, Jim

    2015-12-23

    Illness caused by the consumption of contaminated food products continues to represent one of the main challenges facing food manufacturers worldwide. Even with current intervention technologies and increased hygiene measures, foodborne illness remains a significant threat to public health. This coupled with the increasing emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has increased the need for the development of novel technologies for pathogen control. Bacterial derived peptidoglycan hydrolases represent a vast and highly diverse group of enzymes with potential for biocontrol of a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogens. In this study, we describe the identification, cloning, expression and purification of a peptidoglycan hydrolase (LysCs4) derived from Cronobacter sakazakii for biocontrol of the aforementioned infant formula pathogen itself. In silico analysis of LysCs4 revealed the gene to display greatest sequence similarity to a putative lysozyme encoded by the lytic Cronobacter phage ES2. Conserved domain analysis of LysCs4 revealed the presence of a single catalytic domain predicted to display O-Glycosyl hydrolase activity and to be a member of the GH24 family. The ability of this enzyme to hydrolyse the peptidoglycan of 25 Gram-negative strains, across 4 different genera, highlights its potential as a novel candidate for biocontrol of C. sakazakii and other Gram-negative food related pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Daniel R; Watson, Josephine E; Abdeen, Amr A; Adili, Reheman; Caputo, Megan P; Krapf, John E; Johnson, Rodney W; Kilian, Kristopher A; Holinstat, Michael; Das, Aditi

    2017-07-25

    Clinical studies suggest that diets rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provide beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, in part through their conversion to bioactive metabolites. Here we report on the endogenous production of a previously unknown class of ω-3 PUFA-derived lipid metabolites that originate from the crosstalk between endocannabinoid and cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase metabolic pathways. The ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to form epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-ethanolamide (EEQ-EA) and epoxydocosapentaenoic acid-ethanolamide (EDP-EA), respectively. Both EEQ-EAs and EDP-EAs are endogenously present in rat brain and peripheral organs as determined via targeted lipidomics methods. These metabolites were directly produced by direct epoxygenation of the ω-3 endocannabinoids, docosahexanoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) by activated BV-2 microglial cells, and by human CYP2J2. Neuroinflammation studies revealed that the terminal epoxides 17,18-EEQ-EA and 19,20-EDP-EA dose-dependently abated proinflammatory IL-6 cytokines while increasing anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokines, in part through cannabinoid receptor-2 activation. Furthermore the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides 17,18-EEQ-EA and 19,20-EDP-EA exerted antiangiogenic effects in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and vasodilatory actions on bovine coronary arteries and reciprocally regulated platelet aggregation in washed human platelets. Taken together, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides' physiological effects are mediated through both endocannabinoid and epoxyeicosanoid signaling pathways. In summary, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides are found at concentrations comparable to those of other endocannabinoids and are expected to play critical roles during inflammation in vivo; thus their identification may aid in the development of therapeutics for neuroinflammatory and

  12. Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in

  13. Effect of a heat-stable factor in human placenta on glucosylceramidase, glucosylsphingosine glucosyl hydrolase, and acid beta-glucosidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, A M; Muscillo, M; Tatti, M; Salvioli, R; Gallozzi, E; Suzuki, K

    1987-12-01

    A new protein activator of glucosylceramidase has recently been found in human placenta. In the present work, it has been compared with a previously reported glucosylceramidase activator, the Gaucher factor. The two activators showed different properties. The Gaucher factor stimulated 100% the 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside hydrolysis while the placental factor inhibited it 50%. Furthermore, the placental factor neither decreased the Michaelis constant, Km, nor increased the degree of inactivation by conduritol-beta-epoxide as the Gaucher factor does. From these results it has been concluded that the two activators are different substances. The activating effect of the placental factor is specific for the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide; neither the hydrolysis of glucosylsphingosine nor that of the 4-methylumbelliferyl derivative are enhanced by this protein. Owing to its specificity and high level in a human tissue, the placental factor is likely to have a physiological role in the catabolism of glucosylceramide.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Mikhailov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunina, Irina; Nedashkovskaya, Olga; Balabanova, Larissa; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana; Rasskasov, Valery; Mikhailov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH) families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases. PMID:23752354

  16. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  17. The Structure and Function of an Arabinan-specific [alpha]-1,2-Arabinofuranosidase Identified from Screening the Activities of Bacterial GH43 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartmell, Alan; McKee, Lauren S.; Pena, Maria J.; Larsbrink, Johan; Brumer, Harry; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Hitomi; Lewis, Richard J.; Vikso-Nielsen, Anders; Gilbert, Harry; Marles-Wright, Jon (Newcastle); (National Food Research Institute); (Novozymes A/S); (RITS); (Georgia)

    2012-03-26

    Reflecting the diverse chemistry of plant cell walls, microorganisms that degrade these composite structures synthesize an array of glycoside hydrolases. These enzymes are organized into sequence-, mechanism-, and structure-based families. Genomic data have shown that several organisms that degrade the plant cell wall contain a large number of genes encoding family 43 (GH43) glycoside hydrolases. Here we report the biochemical properties of the GH43 enzymes of a saprophytic soil bacterium, Cellvibrio japonicus, and a human colonic symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The data show that C. japonicus uses predominantly exo-acting enzymes to degrade arabinan into arabinose, whereas B. thetaiotaomicron deploys a combination of endo- and side chain-cleaving glycoside hydrolases. Both organisms, however, utilize an arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase in the degradative process, an activity that has not previously been reported. The enzyme can cleave {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranose decorations in single or double substitutions, the latter being recalcitrant to the action of other arabinofuranosidases. The crystal structure of the C. japonicus arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase, CjAbf43A, displays a five-bladed {beta}-propeller fold. The specificity of the enzyme for arabinan is conferred by a surface cleft that is complementary to the helical backbone of the polysaccharide. The specificity of CjAbf43A for {alpha}-1,2-L-arabinofuranose side chains is conferred by a polar residue that orientates the arabinan backbone such that O2 arabinose decorations are directed into the active site pocket. A shelflike structure adjacent to the active site pocket accommodates O3 arabinose side chains, explaining how the enzyme can target O2 linkages that are components of single or double substitutions.

  18. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity is abolished in HSL macrophages but unchanged in macrophages lacking KIAA1363[S

    OpenAIRE

    Buchebner, Marlene; Pfeifer, Thomas; Rathke, Nora; Chandak, Prakash G.; Lass, Achim; Schreiber, Renate; Kratzer, Adelheid; Zimmermann, Robert; Sattler, Wolfgang; Koefeler, Harald; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kostner, Gerhard M.; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Chiang, Kyle P.; Haemmerle, Guenter

    2010-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in macrophages represents a crucial event during foam cell formation, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Here we investigated the role of two previously described CE hydrolases, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and KIAA1363, in macrophage CE hydrolysis. HSL and KIAA1363 exhibited marked differences in their abilities to hydrolyze CE, triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG), and 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE), a precursor for biosynthesis of platelet-ac...

  19. Enantioselective epoxide polymerization using a bimetallic cobalt catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Widger, Peter C B; Ahmed, Syud M; Jeske, Ryan C; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (k(fast)/k(slow)) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T(m) values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides.

  20. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  2. A novel intestinal trans-factor (NF-LPH1) interacts with the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter and co-varies with the enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1992-01-01

    The promoter of the pig lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was cloned and showed to be functional in the human intestinal cell line Caco2. The proximal promoter was analyzed for binding of nuclear proteins from small intestine and liver. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays show...... not contain lactase activity, and NF-LPH1 is not present in liver nuclear extracts in detectable amounts. This indicates that NF-LPH1 is involved in the decline of lactase at weaning and may be of importance for the molecular explanation of hypolactasia in humans. It was demonstrated by transfection of two...

  3. Direct epoxidation of propylene over stabilized Cu(+) surface sites on titanium-modified Cu2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Kattel, Shyam; Xiong, Ke; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Rykov, Sergei; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Rodriguez, José A; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J; Chen, Jingguang G

    2015-10-05

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate that by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu(+) active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide the epoxidation selectivity can be tuned. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, an oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of anti-inflammatory steroids on the activity of selected lysosomal hydrolases in serum of rats with experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drózdz, M; Olczyk, K; Kucharz, E

    1983-07-01

    Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by subcutaneous injections of carbon tetrachloride. The effect of anti-inflammatory steroids (hydrocortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone) on the activity of serum lysosomal hydrolases (beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase and alpha-mannosidase) was investigated in healthy and CCl4 poisoned rats. The marked increase of enzymatic activity in blood serum was observed in animals with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Quite opposite results were found in normal rats treated with glucocorticosteroids. In rats which were given both carbon tetrachloride and corticosteroids the obtained values of serum enzymatic activity did not have a uniform character as compared to controls or CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presumable mechanisms of the results obtained are discussed.

  5. Epoxide-Mediated CifR Repression of cif Gene Expression Utilizes Two Binding Sites in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Ballok, Alicia E.; Bahl, Christopher D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Lindsay, Allia K.; St. Laurent, Jessica D.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Madden, Dean R.; O'Toole, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an epoxide hydrolase virulence factor that reduces the apical membrane expression of ABC transporters such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This virulence factor, named CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), is regulated by a TetR-family, epoxide-responsive repressor known as CifR via direct binding and repression. We identified two sites of CifR binding in the intergenic space between cifR and morB, the first gene in the operon contain...

  6. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan David M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a food-borne pathogen and the most common cause of infections in hospitalized patients. The increase in the resistance of this pathogen to antibacterials has made necessary the development of new anti-staphylococcal agents. In this context, bacteriophage lytic enzymes such as endolysins and structural peptidoglycan (PG hydrolases have received considerable attention as possible antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria. Results S. aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (phiIPLA88 contains a virion-associated muralytic enzyme (HydH5 encoded by orf58, which is located in the morphogenetic module. Comparative bioinformatic analysis revealed that HydH5 significantly resembled other peptidoglycan hydrolases encoded by staphylococcal phages. The protein consists of 634 amino acid residues. Two putative lytic domains were identified: an N-terminal CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase domain (135 amino acid residues, and a C-terminal LYZ2 (lysozyme subfamily 2 domain (147 amino acid residues. These domains were also found when a predicted three-dimensional structure of HydH5 was made which provided the basis for deletion analysis. The complete HydH5 protein and truncated proteins containing only each catalytic domain were overproduced in E. coli and purified from inclusion bodies by subsequent refolding. Truncated and full-length HydH5 proteins were all able to bind and lyse S. aureus Sa9 cells as shown by binding assays, zymogram analyses and CFU reduction analysis. HydH5 demonstrated high antibiotic activity against early exponential cells, at 45°C and in the absence of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+. Thermostability assays showed that HydH5 retained 72% of its activity after 5 min at 100°C. Conclusions The virion-associated PG hydrolase HydH5 has lytic activity against S. aureus, which makes it attractive as antimicrobial for food biopreservation and anti

  8. Evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity, polyphenol contents and starch hydrolase inhibitory activity of ten edible plants in an in vitro model of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Watawana, Mindani I; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2015-03-01

    The total phenolics contents, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and starch hydrolase inhibitory activity of the aqueous extracts of 10 edible plants and the stability of these parameters after the gastric and duodenal digestion in an in vitro model was investigated. The TAC was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2, 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging assays. Characterization and quantification of five polyphenol compounds which were previously identified to be present in all the selected plants were carried out. None of the extracts showed a decrease in the total phenolics content or the ORAC and FRAP values following digestion. None of the quantified phenolic compounds had decreased during any of the digestion phases - an observation which was deemed as beneficial in terms of therapeutic properties. Overall, the parameters analyzed were relatively stable throughout the digestive process in all the extracts.

  9. Thermal stability and kinetic constants for 129 variants of a family 1 glycoside hydrolase reveal that enzyme activity and stability can be separately designed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Alexander Carlin

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of enzyme activity and stability is an important goal of the protein engineering community. However, studies seeking to evaluate current progress are limited by small data sets of quantitative kinetic constants and thermal stability measurements. Here, we report quantitative measurements of soluble protein expression in E. coli, thermal stability, and Michaelis-Menten constants (kcat, KM, and kcat/KM for 129 designed mutants of a glycoside hydrolase. Statistical analyses reveal that functional Tm is independent of kcat, KM, and kcat/KM in this system, illustrating that an individual mutation can modulate these functional parameters independently. In addition, this data set is used to evaluate computational predictions of protein stability using the established Rosetta and FoldX algorithms. Predictions for both are found to correlate only weakly with experimental measurements, suggesting improvements are needed in the underlying algorithms.

  10. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Synthesis and Tribological Studies of Branched Alcohol Derived Epoxidized Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggong Ren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization and kinetics of the ring-opening reaction of an epoxidized biodiesel (epoxidized rapeseed oil methyl ester (EBD with 2-ethyl hexanol (2-EH were studied. The determined optimum conditions were 4:1 2-EH/oil molar ratio, 90 °C, 18 h, and 7 wt % of Amberlyst D001 (dry catalyst; the product’s oxirane oxygen content was 0.081% with 38.32 mm2/s viscosity at 40 °C. The catalyst retained its high catalytic power after recycling five times. Furthermore, the determined non-catalyzed activation energy was 76 kJ·mol−1 and 54 kJ·mol−1 with the D001 resin catalyst. The product’s chemical structure was investigated through FT-IR and 1H NMR. The viscosity, flash point, pour point, and anti-wear properties of the product were improved compared with those of epoxidized biodiesel.

  12. Chromium Salen Mediated Alkene Epoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Norrby, Per-Ola; Daly, Adrian M.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of alkene epoxidation by chromium(v) oxo salen complexes has been studied by DFT and experimental methods. The reaction is compared to the closely related Mn-catalyzed process in an attempt to understand the dramatic difference in selectivity between the two systems. Overall, the st...

  13. Short communication: Improving the activity of bile salt hydrolases in Lactobacillus casei based on in silico molecular docking and heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Qiao-Hui; Kong, Ling-Hui; Song, Xin; Wang, Guang-Qiang; Xia, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yong; Ai, Lian-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) plays an essential role in the cholesterol-removing effect of lactic acid bacteria, which hydrolyze conjugated bile salts to amino acid and deconjugated bile salts. However, Lactobacillus casei lacks the bsh gene, which may make it highly sensitive to bile salt stress. We wanted to improve the BSH activity of L. casei for various food-industry applications (e.g., milk fermentation). Plate assay testing indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum AR113 has the highest BSH activity. We cloned and sequenced 4 bsh genes from the genome of L. plantarum AR113. Structure modeling and molecular docking of BSH indicated that BSH1 and BSH3 could react efficiently with bile salts, so we selected BSH1 and BSH3 for heterologous expression in L. casei. Compared with single expression of BSH1 or BSH3, co-expression of both protein sequences showed the highest hydrolysis activity by HPLC analysis. Our results suggested that heterologous expression of BSH in L. casei can significantly improve host activity against bile salts, and in silico molecular docking could be an efficient method of rapid screening for BSH with high activity. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase and inulin hydrolase activities relating to inulin and soluble sugars in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linn.) tubers during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicaurkaew, Sukanya; Jogloy, Sanun; Hamaker, Bruce R; Ningsanond, Suwayd

    2017-03-01

    Influences of harvest time and storage conditions on activities of fructan:fructan1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and inulin hydrolase (InH) in relation to inulin and soluble sugars of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers were investigated. Maturity affected 1-FFT-activity, inulin contents, and inulin profiles of the tubers harvested between 30 and 70 days after flowering (DAF). Decreases in 1-FFT activity, high molecular weight inulin, and inulin content were observed in late-harvested tubers. The tubers harvested at 50 DAF had the highest inulin content (734.9 ± 20.5 g kg-1 DW) with a high degree of polymerization (28% of DP >30). During storage of the tubers, increases in InH activity (reached its peak at 15 days of storage) and gradual decreases in 1-FFT activity took placed. These changes were associated with inulin depolymerization, causing decreases in inulin content and increases in soluble sugars. As well, decreasing storage temperatures would retain high inulin content and keep low soluble sugars; and freezing at -18 °C would best retard 1-FFT, InH, and inulin changes.

  15. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of New Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains with Both Cellular Antioxidant and Bile Salt Hydrolase Activities In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Liu, Taigang; Radji, Chiraz Akorede Ibinke; Yang, Jing; Chen, Lanming

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed Chinese traditional fermented food to isolate and identify new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with novel functional properties and to evaluate their cellular antioxidant and bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activities in vitro. A sequential screening strategy was developed to efficiently isolate and obtain 261 LAB strains tolerant of bile salt, acid, and H2O2 from nine Chinese traditional fermented foods. Among these strains, 70 were identified as having 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and/or BSH activity. These strains belonged to eight species: Enterococcus faecium (33% of the strains), Lactobacillus plantarum (26%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14%), Pediococcus pentosaceus (6%), Enterococcus durans (9%), Lactobacillus brevis (9%), Pediococcus ethanolidurans (3%), and Lactobacillus casei (1%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genome fingerprinting profiles of these strains revealed 38 distinct pulsotypes, indicating a high level of genomic diversity among the tested strains. Twenty strains were further evaluated for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating activity exerted by both viable intact cells and/or intracellular cell-free extracts. Some strains, such as L. plantarum D28 and E. faecium B28, had high levels of both cellular antioxidant and BSH activities in vitro. These strains are promising probiotic components for health-promoting functional foods.

  16. Two enzymes catalyze vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase activity in mouse: VKORC1 is highly expressed in exocrine tissues while VKORC1L1 is highly expressed in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Michael; Czogalla, Katrin J; Liphardt, Kerstin; Müller, Jens; Westhofen, Philipp; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 are enzymes that both catalyze the reduction of vitamin K2,3-epoxide via vitamin K quinone to vitamin K hydroquinone. VKORC1 is the key enzyme of the classical vitamin K cycle by which vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins are γ-carboxylated by the hepatic γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX). In contrast, the VKORC1 paralog enzyme, VKORC1L1, is chiefly responsible for antioxidative function by reduction of vitamin K to prevent damage by intracellular reactive oxygen species. To investigate tissue-specific vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) function of both enzymes, we quantified mRNA levels for VKORC1, VKORC1L1, GGCX, and NQO1 and measured VKOR enzymatic activities in 29 different mouse tissues. VKORC1 and GGCX are highly expressed in liver, lung and exocrine tissues including mammary gland, salivary gland and prostate suggesting important extrahepatic roles for the vitamin K cycle. Interestingly, VKORC1L1 showed highest transcription levels in brain. Due to the absence of detectable NQO1 transcription in liver, we assume this enzyme has no bypass function with respect to activation of VKD coagulation proteins. Our data strongly suggest diverse functions for the vitamin K cycle in extrahepatic biological pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Novel Three Domains Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Exhibits β-Glucosidase and Exoglucanase Activities: Molecular, Biochemical, and Transglycosylation Potential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Haifa; Ezzine, Aymen; Mlouka, Mohamed Amine Ben; Rihouey, Christophe; Hardouin, Julie; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2015-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces a complete set of cellulolytic enzymes. We report here the purification and the biochemical characterization of a new β-glucosidase from S. sclerotiorum which belongs to the family 3 of glycoside hydrolases and that was named as SsBgl3. After two size-exclusion chromatography steps, purified protein bands of 80 and 90 kDa from SDS-PAGE were subjected to a mass spectrometry analysis. The results displayed four peptides from the upper band belonging to a polypeptide of 777 amino acids having a calculated molecular weight of 83.7 kDa. Biochemical analysis has been carried out to determine some properties. We showed that this SsBgl3 protein displayed both β-glucosidase and exoglucanase activities with optimal activity at 55 °C and at pH 5. The transglycosylation activity was investigated using gluco-oligosaccharides TLC analysis. The molecular modeling and comparison with different crystal structures of β-glucosidases showed that SsBgl3 putative protein present three domains. They correspond to an (α/β)8 domain TIM barrel, a five-stranded α/β sandwich domain (both of which are important for active-site organization), and a C-terminal fibronectin type III domain. Enzyme engineering will be soon investigated to identify the key residues for the catalytic reactions.

  18. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tang, Dong-Qi [Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0275 (United States); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: dsli@yymc.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai He Hospital, Yunyang Medical College, 32 S. Renmin Rd., Shiyan, Hubei 442000 (China); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNF{alpha}-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNF{alpha} hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  19. The conserved N-terminal helix of acylpeptide hydrolase from archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 is important for its hyperthermophilic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuoming; Zheng, Baisong; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Yiqian; Manco, Giuseppe; Feng, Yan

    2008-09-01

    The acylpeptide hydrolases from hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 has a short conserved N-terminal helix in its family. The role of this N-terminal helix in the function of the hyperthermophilic enzyme, however, is unknown. Here, we investigated this question by protein engineering and biophysical methods. We found that a mutant (DeltaN21) with the N-terminal helix deleted is no longer functional at the optimum temperature for WT enzyme (95 degrees C), required for the survival of Aeropyrum pernix K1. Instead, DeltaN21 has the optimum activity at approximately 77 degrees C, with higher activities than the WT enzyme below this temperature. DeltaN21 is less stable than the WT enzyme and started unfolding at approximately 77 degrees C, indicating that the loss of the enzymatic activity of DeltaN21 at higher temperature is due to its low thermodynamic stability. In addition, we found that the salt bridges formed between the N-terminal helix and the catalytic domain of the enzyme play only a minor role in stabilizing the enzyme, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions mainly contribute to the stabilization. Since the N-terminal helix is conserved in this family of enzymes, our results suggest that the N-terminal helix is likely to play an important role for stabilizing all other enzymes in this family.

  20. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG and apolipoprotein B (apo B secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  2. The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stephen PH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a ubiquitously expressed signalling system, with involvement in lipid metabolism and obesity. There are reported changes in obesity of blood concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglcyerol (2-AG, and of adipose tissue expression levels of the two key catabolic enzymes of the ECS, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL. Surprisingly, however, the activities of these enzymes have not been assayed in conditions of increasing adiposity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether FAAH and MGL activities in human subcutaneous adipocytes are affected by body mass index (BMI, or other markers of adiposity and metabolism. Methods Subcutaneous abdominal mature adipocytes, fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained from 28 metabolically healthy subjects representing a range of BMIs. FAAH and MGL activities were assayed in mature adipocytes using radiolabelled substrates. Serum glucose, insulin and adipokines were determined using ELISAs. Results MGL activity showed no relationship with BMI or other adiposity indices, metabolic markers (fasting serum insulin or glucose or serum adipokine levels (adiponectin, leptin or resistin. In contrast, FAAH activity in subcutaneous adipocytes correlated positively with BMI and waist circumference, but not with skinfold thickness, metabolic markers or serum adipokine levels. Conclusions In this study, novel evidence is provided that FAAH activity in subcutaneous mature adipocytes increases with BMI, whereas MGL activity does not. These findings support the hypothesis that some components of the ECS are upregulated with increasing adiposity in humans, and that AEA and 2-AG may be regulated differently.

  3. Organocatalytic stereoselective epoxidation of trisubstituted acrylonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fusco, Claudia; Tedesco, Consiglia; Lattanzi, Alessandra

    2011-01-21

    The first diastereospecific and enantioselective epoxidation of trans-2-aroyl-3-arylacrylonitriles by means of the commercially available diaryl L-prolinol/tert-butyl hydroperoxide system has been developed. These diversely functionalized epoxides were obtained in excellent yield (up to 99%), complete diastereoselectivity for the trans-isomer, and good enantioselectivity (up to 84% ee). Highly enantioenriched epoxides can be easily obtained after a single crystallization (ee > 90%).

  4. Mechanistic insights in the olefin epoxidation with cyclohexyl hydroperoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hereijgers, B.P.C.; Parton, R.F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Olefin epoxidation with cyclohexyl hydroperoxide offers great perspective in increasing the yield from industrial cyclohexane oxidation and the production of epoxides in an apolar medium. Two competing hydroperoxide conversion routes, namely direct epoxidation and thermal decomposition, were

  5. Bile-Salt-Hydrolases from the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Mediate Anti-giardial Activity in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Allain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis is the protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, the most common and widely spread intestinal parasitic disease worldwide, affecting both humans and animals. After cysts ingestion (through either contaminated food or water, Giardia excysts in the upper intestinal tract to release replicating trophozoites that are responsible for the production of symptoms. In the gut, Giardia cohabits with the host's microbiota, and several studies have revealed the importance of this gut ecosystem and/or some probiotic bacteria in providing protection against G. duodenalis infection through mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Recent findings suggest that Bile-Salt-Hydrolase (BSH-like activities from the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may contribute to the anti-giardial activity displayed by this strain. Here, we cloned and expressed each of the three bsh genes present in the L. johnsonii La1 genome to study their enzymatic and biological properties. While BSH47 and BSH56 were expressed as recombinant active enzymes, no significant enzymatic activity was detected with BSH12. In vitro assays allowed determining the substrate specificities of both BSH47 and BSH56, which were different. Modeling of these BSHs indicated a strong conservation of their 3-D structures despite low conservation of their primary structures. Both recombinant enzymes were able to mediate anti-giardial biological activity against Giardia trophozoites in vitro. Moreover, BSH47 exerted significant anti-giardial effects when tested in a murine model of giardiasis. These results shed new light on the mechanism, whereby active BSH derived from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may yield anti-giardial effects in vitro and in vivo. These findings pave the way toward novel approaches for the treatment of this widely spread but neglected infectious disease, both in human and in veterinary medicine.

  6. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-activity is involved in sperm acrosomal function and anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Li, Rongfeng; Jonáková, Vera; Oko, Richard; Park, Chang-Sik; Prather, Randall S; Sutovsky, Peter

    2007-11-01

    The 26S proteasome, which is a multi-subunit protease with specificity for substrate proteins that are postranslationally modified by ubiquitination, has been implicated in acrosomal function and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration during mammalian fertilization. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) are responsible for the removal of polyubiquitin chains during substrate priming for proteasomal proteolysis. The inhibition of deubiquitination increases the rate of proteasomal proteolysis. Consequently, we have hypothesized that inhibition of sperm acrosome-borne UCHs increases the rate of sperm-ZP penetration and polyspermy during porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). Ubiquitin aldehyde (UA), which is a specific nonpermeating UCH inhibitor, significantly (P polyspermy during porcine IVF and reduced (P polyspermy during IVF, consistent with the UA-induced polyspermy surge. In the oocyte, UCHL3 was primarily associated with the meiotic spindle. Sperm-borne UCHL3 was localized to the acrosomal surface and coimmunoprecipitated with a peripheral acrosomal membrane protein, spermadhesin AQN1. Recombinant UCHs, UCHL3, and isopeptidase T reduced polyspermy when added to the fertilization medium. UCHL1 was detected in the oocyte cortex but not on the sperm surface, and was partially degraded 6-8 h after fertilization. Enucleated oocyte-somatic cell electrofusion caused polarized redistribution of cortical UCHL1. We conclude that sperm-acrosomal UCHs are involved in sperm-ZP interactions and antipolyspermy defense. Modulation of UCH activity could facilitate the management of polyspermy during IVF and provide insights into male infertility.

  7. [Correlation between blood-stasis tongue figure and platelet activating factor (PAF) and acetyl hydrolase of PAF (PAF-AH) in patients with primary dysmenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-ping; Chen, Qun

    2011-03-01

    To explore the pathologic mechanism of blood-stasis tongue figure (BSTF) formation in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Blood levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and acetyl hydrolase of PAF (PAF-AH) in 41 patients with primary dysmenorrhea and 20 healthy subjects were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of PAF in the 22 patients with BSTF was 252. 214 +/- 37. 568 ng/L, which was higher than that in patients without BSTF (19 patients, 212.348 +/- 22.794 ng/L) and healthy subjects (182.126 +/- 18.306 ng/L) respectively, while level of PAF-AH showed an opposite sequence in them, i.e., 3.090 +/- 1.483, 5.382 +/- 1.873, and 5.607 +/- 2.073 ng/L, respectively (P PAF when compared with that in healthy subjects (P PAF or PAF-AH levels was shown among patients with BDTF of different Chinese medical syndrome types (P > 0.05). PAF level obviously increased and PAF-AH level obviously decreased in primary dysmenorrhea patients of BSTF, suggesting that the imbalance of PAF and PAF-AH was correlated with the pathologic mechanism of the BSTF formation in primary dysmenorrhea patients.

  8. Visualizing the Mechanism of Epoxide Hydrolysis by the Bacterial Virulence Enzyme Cif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Morisseau, Christophe; Gerber, Scott A; Madden, Dean R

    2016-02-09

    The CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif) is an epoxide hydrolase (EH) virulence factor secreted by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sequence alignments reveal a pattern of Cif-like substitutions that proved to be characteristic of a new subfamily of bacterial EHs. At the same time, crystallographic and mutagenetic data suggest that EH activity is required for virulence and that Cif's active site remains generally compatible with a canonical two-step EH mechanism. A hallmark of this mechanism is the formation of a covalent hydroxyalkyl-enzyme intermediate by nucleophilic attack. In several well-studied EHs, this intermediate has been captured at near stoichiometric levels, presumably reflecting rate-limiting hydrolysis. Here we show by mass spectrometry that only minimal levels of the expected intermediate can be trapped with WT Cif. In contrast, substantial amounts of intermediate are recovered from an active-site mutant (Cif-E153Q) that selectively targets the second, hydrolytic release step. Utilizing Cif-E153Q and a previously reported nucleophile mutant (Cif-D129S), we then captured Cif in the substrate-bound, hydroxyalkyl-intermediate, and product-bound states for 1,2-epoxyhexane, yielding the first crystallographic snapshots of an EH at these key stages along the reaction coordinate. Taken together, our data illuminate the proposed two-step hydrolytic mechanism of a new class of bacterial virulence factor. They also suggest that the failure of WT Cif to accumulate a covalent hydroxyalkyl-enzyme intermediate reflects an active-site chemistry in which hydrolysis is no longer the rate-limiting step, a noncanonical kinetic regime that may explain similar observations with a number of other EHs.

  9. Ethylmethyldioxirane epoxidation of Plukenetia cononophora oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epoxidation of Plukenetia conophora oil by ethylmethyldioxirane has been studied. The epoxidation reaction was best accomplished using the Curci's biphasic method employing 2-butanone as the solvent. Spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR) indicated complete conversion of double bonds to epoxy ...

  10. Synthesis, docking, cytotoxicity, and LTA4H inhibitory activity of new gingerol derivatives as potential colorectal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mai H; Mira, Amira; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Amer, Mohamed M; Badria, Farid A

    2017-02-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene which may play an important role in chronic inflammation associated carcinogenesis. [6]-gingerol, the major bioactive compound of Zingiber officinale, is a potential inhibitor of LTA4H, a highly expressed enzyme in colorectal carcinoma. Eighteen compounds; seven of natural origin (including [4]-, [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerol), five new and six known semi-synthesized [6]-gingerol derivatives were examined using docking, in vitro cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells (HCT-116) and LTA4H aminopeptidase and epoxide hydrolase inhibitory studies. Methyl shogoal (D8) showed to be the most potent compound against HCT-116 cells (IC50; 1.54μM). Remarkably, D8 proved to be non-cytotoxic to normal cells; (TIG-1) and (HF-19) with high selective index (SI; 52.3). Furthermore [6]-gingerol derivatives showed potent LTA4H inhibitory activities in comparison to the universal positive controls (bestatin and 4BSA). Among the natural gingerols, [10]-gingerol (N3) exhibited the highest LTA4H aminopeptidase and epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activities with IC50; 21.59 and 15.24μM, respectively. Meanwhile, methyl shogoal (D8) and 4'-O-prenyl-[6]-gingerol (D10) retained the highest inhibition with IC50; 4.92 and 3.01μM, for aminopeptidase, and 11.27 and 7.25μM for epoxide hydrolase activities, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Unexpected epoxide formation in the gas-phase photooxidation of isoprene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulot, Fabien; Crounse, John D; Kjaergaard, Henrik G

    2009-01-01

      Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds to the atmosphere from the biosphere exceed those from anthropogenic activity. Isoprene, a five-carbon diene, contributes more than 40% of these emissions. Once emitted to the atmosphere, isoprene is rapidly oxidized by the hydroxyl radical OH. We...... per year-of these epoxides to the atmosphere. The discovery of these highly soluble epoxides provides a missing link tying the gas-phase degradation of isoprene to the observed formation of organic aerosols....

  13. [Effect of polyamines on Mg(2+)-dependent ATP-hydrolase activity in plasmatic membrane of myometrium cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Kosterin, S O

    2007-01-01

    Influence of aliphatic polyamines of spermine and spermidine on the enzymatic activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the ouabain-resistant basal Mg(2+)-ATPase (specific activity--10.6 +/- 0.9 and 18.1 +/- 1.2 microM P(i)/hour on 1 mg of protein accordingly, n = 7) has been studied in the experiments carried out with the suspension of the myometrium cell plasmatic membranes treated with 0.1% digitonin solution. It was found, that the polyamine spermine in concentration of 1 and 10 mM activated the Na+,K(+)-ATPase by 54 and 64% on the average relative to control value. Spermidine also stimulated the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, however it did it less efficiently than spermine: by 8 and 20% on the average at concentration of 1 and 10 mM, accordingly. Similarly, polyamines had affect on the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase: spermine in concentration of 1 and 10 mM activated it by 26 and 39% relative to control value; spermidine in concentration of 1 and 10 mM activated it by 10 and 32% relative to control. The magnitudes of the apparent activation constant K(a) of spermine were 0.35 +/- 0.07 and 0.10 +/- 0.02 mM for Na+,K(+)-ATPase and basal Mg(2+)-ATPase, accordingly (M +/- m, n = 5). It is supposed, that the obtained experimental data can be useful in the further research of the membrane mechanisms underlying of the cationic exchange in the smooth muscles, in particular, when investigating the role of the plasmatic membrane in providing electromechanical coupling in them, and also in regulation of ionic homeostasis in the smooth muscle cells.

  14. Hydrolase and glycosynthase activity of endo-1,3-β-glucanase from the thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Lieshout

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrococcus furiosus laminarinase (LamA, PF0076 is an endo-glycosidase that hydrolyzes β-1,3-gluco-oligosaccharides, but not β-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. We studied the specificity of LamA towards small saccharides by using 4-methylumbelliferyl β-glucosides with different linkages. Besides endo-activity, wild-type LamA has some exo-activity, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of mixed-linked oligosaccharides (Glcβ4Glcβ3Glcβ-MU (Glc = glucosyl, MU = 4-methylumbelliferyl with both β-1,4 and β-1,3 specificities. The LamA mutant E170A had severely reduced hydrolytic activity, which is consistent with Glu170 being the catalytic nucleophile. The E170A mutant was active as a glycosynthase, catalyzing the condensation of α-laminaribiosyl fluoride to different acceptors. The best condensation yields were found at pH 6.5 and 50 °C, but did not exceed 30%. Depending on the acceptor, the synthase generated either a β-1,3 or a β-1,4 linkage.

  15. Analysis of surface binding sites (SBSs) in carbohydrate active enzymes with focus on glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Ruzanski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surface binding sites (SBSs) interact with carbohydrates outside of the enzyme active site. They are frequently situated on catalytic domains and are distinct from carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). SBSs are found in a variety of enzymes and often seen in crystal structures. Notably about half ...

  16. A flexible loop controlling the enzymatic activity and specificity in a glycosyl hydrolase family 19 endochitinase from barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukamizo, Tamo; Miyake, Ryoh; Tamura, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the loop structure consisting of residues 70-82 (70-82 loop) localized to + 3/4 subsite of the substrate binding cleft of a family GH-19 endochitinase from barley seeds, Trp72 and Trp82 were mutated, and the mutated enzymes (W72A, W82A, and W72A/W82A) were characterized....... Thermal stability and specific activities toward glycol chitin and chitin hexasaccharide were significantly affected by the individual mutations. When N-acetylglucosamine hexamer was hydrolyzed by the wild type, the ß-anomer of the substrate was preferentially hydrolyzed, producing the trimer...

  17. Conformational changes in a hyperthermostable glycoside hydrolase: enzymatic activity is a consequence of the loop dynamics and protonation balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Endo-β-1, 4-mannanase from Thermotoga petrophila (TpMan is a modular hyperthermostable enzyme involved in the degradation of mannan-containing polysaccharides. The degradation of these polysaccharides represents a key step for several industrial applications. Here, as part of a continuing investigation of TpMan, the region corresponding to the GH5 domain (TpManGH5 was characterized as a function of pH and temperature. The results indicated that the enzymatic activity of the TpManGH5 is pH-dependent, with its optimum activity occurring at pH 6. At pH 8, the studies demonstrated that TpManGH5 is a molecule with a nearly spherical tightly packed core displaying negligible flexibility in solution, and with size and shape very similar to crystal structure. However, TpManGH5 experiences an increase in radius of gyration in acidic conditions suggesting expansion of the molecule. Furthermore, at acidic pH values, TpManGH5 showed a less globular shape, probably due to a loop region slightly more expanded and flexible in solution (residues Y88 to A105. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations indicated that conformational changes caused by pH variation did not change the core of the TpManGH5, which means that only the above mentioned loop region presents high degree of fluctuations. The results also suggested that conformational changes of the loop region may facilitate polysaccharide and enzyme interaction. Finally, at pH 6 the results indicated that TpManGH5 is slightly more flexible at 65°C when compared to the same enzyme at 20°C. The biophysical characterization presented here is well correlated with the enzymatic activity and provide new insight into the structural basis for the temperature and pH-dependent activity of the TpManGH5. Also, the data suggest a loop region that provides a starting point for a rational design of biotechnological desired features.

  18. A simple and effective catalytic system for epoxidation of aliphatic terminal alkenes with manganese(II) as the catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kam-Piu; Wong, Wing-Leung; Lam, Kin-Ming; Lai, Cheuk-Piu; Chan, Tak Hang; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2008-01-01

    A simple catalytic system that uses commercially available manganese(II) perchlorate as the catalyst and peracetic acid as the oxidant is found to be very effective in the epoxidation of aliphatic terminal alkenes with high product selectivity at ambient temperature. Many terminal alkenes are epoxidised efficiently on a gram scale in less than an hour to give excellent yields of isolated product (>90 %) of epoxides in high purity. Kinetic studies with some C9-alkenes show that the catalytic system is more efficient in epoxidising terminal alkenes than internal alkenes, which is contrary to most commonly known epoxidation systems. The reaction rate for epoxidation decreases in the order: 1-nonene>cis-3-nonene>trans-3-nonene. ESI-MS and EPR spectroscopic studies suggest that the active form of the catalyst is a high-valent oligonuclear manganese species, which probably functions as the oxygen atom-transfer agent in the epoxidation reaction.

  19. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  20. The Nudix Hydrolase CDP-Chase, a CDP-Choline Pyrophosphatase, Is an Asymmetric Dimer with Two Distinct Enzymatic Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Xu, WenLian; Dunn, Christopher A.; Schoeffield, Andrew J.; Bessman, Maurice J.; Amzel, L. Mario (Loyola); (JHU)

    2011-09-06

    A Nudix enzyme from Bacillus cereus catalyzes the hydrolysis of CDP-choline to produce CMP and phosphocholine. Here, we show that in addition, the enzyme has a 3{prime} {yields} 5{prime} RNA exonuclease activity. The structure of the free enzyme, determined to a 1.8-{angstrom} resolution, shows that the enzyme is an asymmetric dimer. Each monomer consists of two domains, an N-terminal helical domain and a C-terminal Nudix domain. The N-terminal domain is placed relative to the C-terminal domain such as to result in an overall asymmetric arrangement with two distinct catalytic sites: one with an 'enclosed' Nudix pyrophosphatase site and the other with a more open, less-defined cavity. Residues that may be important for determining the asymmetry are conserved among a group of uncharacterized Nudix enzymes from Gram-positive bacteria. Our data support a model where CDP-choline hydrolysis is catalyzed by the enclosed Nudix site and RNA exonuclease activity is catalyzed by the open site. CDP-Chase is the first identified member of a novel Nudix family in which structural asymmetry has a profound effect on the recognition of substrates.

  1. Deinococcus radiodurans DR2231 is a two-metal-ion mechanism hydrolase with exclusive activity on dUTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Cristiano S; Gonçalves, Ana Maria D; de Sanctis, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    DR2231 from Deinococcus radiodurans was previously functionally and structurally characterized as an all-α NTP pyrophosphohydrolase with specific dUTPase activity. dUTPases have a central role in the regulation of dUTP intracellular levels and dTTP nucleotide metabolism. DR2231 presents a conserved dimetal catalytic site, similar to all-α dimeric dUTPases, but contrary to these enzymes, it is unable to process dUDP. In this article, we present functional and structural evidence of single-point mutations that affect directly or indirectly the enzyme catalysis and provide a complete description of the all-α NTP pyrophosphohydrolase mechanism. Activity assays, isothermal titration calorimetry and the crystal structures of these mutants obtained in complex with dUMP or a dUTP analogue aid in probing the reaction mechanism. Our results demonstrate that the two metals are necessary for enzyme processing and also important to modulate the substrate binding affinity. Single-point mutations located in a structurally mobile lid-like loop show that the interactions with the nucleoside monophosphate are essential for induction of the closed conformation and ultimately for substrate processing. β- and γ-phosphates are held in place through coordination with the second metal, which is responsible for the substrate 'gauche' orientation in the catalytic position. The lack of sufficient contacts to orient the dUDP β-phosphate for hydrolysis explains DR2231 preference towards dUTP. Sequence and structural similarities with MazG proteins suggest that a similar mechanism might be conserved within the protein family. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5HVA, 5HWU, 5HX1, 5HYL, 5I0J, 5HZZ, 5I0M. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photo-epoxidation performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalytic activity of these photo- catalysts was ascertained by gas phase photo-epoxidation of propylene-to-propylene oxide in the presence of ... Then, 200-W mercury-arc lamp (filter: 320–500 nm, intensity: 0.1 W.cm. −2. ) was ... placed on a hot plate in case heating was required. The reaction was carried out with a ...

  3. Effect of One Year of Cryopreservation on the Activity of Lysosomal Hydrolases from EBV-Transformed Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV was used as an agent of B lymphocyte proliferation for subsequent diagnosis of lysosomal storage disease. Due to the constant handling of long-preserved samples in our cell bank, we decided to observe the behavior and then compare cultured and frozen samples for at least one year's cryopreservation. Methods. Twenty-five samples from healthy individuals were used to assess the possible changes in activity of enzymes β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, α-iduronidase, α-galactosidase, and α-glucosidase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm cell transformation of B lymphocytes into EBV-infected cells, generating lymphoblastoid cell lines. Results. Transmission electron microscopy findings confirmed previous reports in the literature that is, significant and evident morphological changes in the nucleus occur after day 12 and the consequent cell transformation into EBV-infected cells. After thawing and subsequent treatment with the five enzymes utilized, we observed no significant changes in samples cryopreserved for more than one year, as compared to samples cultured for 12 days.

  4. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrent, Jeri Lynn; James, Timothy Y; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew Fs

    2009-06-30

    Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32) into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0-12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi exhibit a wide range of ability to access plant

  5. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Timothy Y

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32 into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi

  6. Ethylmethyldioxirane epoxidation of Plukenetia cononophora oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Akintayo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Epoxidation of Plukenetia conophora oil by ethylmethyldioxirane has been studied. The epoxidation reaction was best accomplished using the Curci’s biphasic method employing 2-butanone as the solvent. Spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR indicated complete conversion of double bonds to epoxy groups. Overall, OxoneTM can be said to be an inexpensive oxidant that is easily handled and with demonstrated utility in preparing epoxidised oils from natural triglycerides.

  7. Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides catalyzed by low loadings of benzyl bromide/DMF at ambient pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lin, Li; Zhang, Guangyou; Kodama, Koichi; Yasutake, Mikio; Hirose, Takuji

    2014-12-07

    An efficient, metal-free catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates under mild conditions with good-to-excellent yields (57-99%) was developed. A possible reaction mechanism involving the electrophilic activation of epoxides by benzyl cations and nucleophilic activation of CO2 by DMF is proposed.

  8. Recognition and cleavage of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn. Polyglycine hydrolases are novel proteins in terms of activity and sequence. The objective of the study is to und...

  9. Alloimperatorin and its epoxide derivative exhibit in vitro antitumor activity in HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cancer cells via inducing apoptosis, cell cycle disruption and inhibition of cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to synthesize epoxide derivative of alloimperatorin and evaluating its antitumor and apoptotic effects in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. The cytotoxic effects were demonstrated by MTT assay. Fluorescence microscopy along with flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the effect of alloimperatorin epoxide on apoptosis and cell cycle. In vitro wound healing assay was performed to study compound’s effect on cancer cell migration. The results indicated that alloimperatorin epoxide (IC50 = 32.1 µM was much more effective in inhibiting HL-60 cancer cell growth as compared to alloimperatorin (IC50 = 128 µM. Further, alloimperatorin epoxide induced apoptosis related morphological alterations in HL-60 cells including blebbing of plasma membrane, DNA fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Alloimperatorin epoxide also led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and suppressed HL-60 cancer cell migration indicating that this compound may be a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  10. Dimethylchrysene diol epoxides: mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium, tumorigenicity in newborn mice, and reactivity with deoxyadenosine in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, B; Amin, S; Hecht, S S

    1992-01-01

    In contrast to 5-methylchrysene and 5,9-dimethylchrysene, 5,6-dimethylchrysene and 5,7-dimethylchrysene are weak tumor initiators on mouse skin. In order to investigate the basis for this, we have evaluated the mutagenic activities toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and reactivity with DNA of (+/-)-anti-1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5,6-dimethyl-ch rys ene (anti-5,6-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide) and anti-5,7- and anti-5,9-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide. The tumorigenic activities of anti-5,6- and anti-5,7-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxides in newborn mice were also investigated. anti-5,9-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide was the most mutagenic of the three diol epoxides. anti-5,6-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide was highly tumorigenic in newborn mouse lung, with activity significantly greater than that of either anti-5-MeC- or anti-5,7-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide. Although the amounts of total binding of the diol epoxides to calf thymus DNA were similar, anti-5,6-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide bound extensively to deoxyadenosine residues. High binding to deoxyadenosine is related to the presence of a sterically hindered bay or fjord region as present in 5,6-diMeC, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benzo-[g]chrysene, and benzo[c]phenanthrene. The conformations of the anti- and syn-diol epoxides of 5,6-diMeC and benzo[c]phenanthrene were similar, with both having pseudodiequatorial hydroxyl groups, in contrast to less sterically crowded diol epoxides. The high tumorigenicity of anti-5,6-diMeC-1,2-diol 3,4-epoxide in newborn mice is of interest with respect to its high deoxyadenosine binding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Patulin biosynthesis: Epoxidation of toluquinol and gentisyl alcohol by particulate preparations from Penicillium patulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, J.W.; Light, R.J. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1989-11-14

    A crude extract that catalyzes the epoxidation of toluquinol and gentisyl alcohol was isolated from cultures of Penicillium patulum. About 60% of the activity sedimented from crude extract upon centrifugation at 105000g for 2 h, and at 30000g for 30 min after precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate and resuspension in buffer. The quinone epoxide phyllostine, a product of gentisyl alcohol epoxidation, has previously been shown to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of patulin and was shown to be further converted to neopatulin by the extract. The epoxide product of toluquinol, desoxyphyllostine (2-methyl-5,6-epoxy-1,4-benzoquinone), has not been reported previously from fungal cultures. Its structure was confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry and proton and {sup 13}C NMR. Its CD spectrum showed the same shape and signs as that of phyllostine, indicating that it too is an enzymatic product with a similar absolute configuration. Whereas chemical epoxidation of toluquinone and gentisly quinone occurs with hydrogen peroxide, the enzymatic epoxidation utilized oxygen and the hydroquinone. The epoxidation was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and {rho}-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonic acid and by degassing with nitrogen, but no inhibition was observed with KCN, catalase, or CO. The apparent K{sub m}'s were similar for the two substrates with both substrates showing inhibition at 1.0 mM. The rate of desoxyphyllostine formation was more than 10 times that of phyllostine formation at equivalent substrate concentrations. Gentisaldehyde was not a substrate for the enzyme. The epoxidase was induced in late fermentor cultures of P. patulum with the same kinetics as m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, another enzyme associated with the induction of patulin biosynthesis.

  12. Zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium as novel heterogeneous catalyst for epoxidation of cyclohexene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sha; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Hongyue; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Fazhi

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidation of olefins to epoxides is widely recognized as an important unit process in the manufacture of fine chemicals and intermediates. Developing an environmentally benign heterogeneous catalytic system for olefin epoxidation with high activity and selectivity is still a challenge in this research field. Herein, we report our attempts to synthesize novel zirconium phenylphosphonate-anchored methyltrioxorhenium (MTO/ZrPP) heterogeneous catalysts by a conventional impregnation method and evaluate their catalytic performance for epoxidation of cyclohexene using urea-hydrogen peroxide adduct (UHP) as oxidant without the addition of base ligands. The MTO/ZrPP catalyst samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and solid-state (1)H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H MAS NMR) techniques. Meanwhile, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation is carried out to further understand the structure feature and interactions of the MTO/ZrPP catalyst. It is revealed that MTO is anchored on support surface by the favored hydrogen-bonding interaction between two oxo ligands of MTO and two H atoms from the adjacent phenyls of ZrPP. MTO/ZrPP catalyst displays excellent catalytic activity for cyclohexene epoxidation. Moreover, only cyclohexene oxide production can be obtained under the employed reaction conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MICROSOMAL EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (EPHX) POLYMORPHISM AND RISK OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION. (R825818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Kayano, Hidekazu [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Koyama, Isamu [Department of Digestive and General Surgery, Saitama International Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8584 (United States); Akatsuka, Toshitaka, E-mail: akatsuka@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell surface has great variation between the cells.

  15. Cloning, multicopy expression and fed-batch production of Rhodotorula araucariae epoxide hydrolase in yarrowia lipolytica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramduth, D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available cloned and functionally expressed in Y. lipolytica, under the control of a growth inducible hp4d promoter. The transformation experiments yielded only two positive multicopy transformants, which were assessed in flask cultures. The selected transformant...

  16. Cloning of an epoxide hydrolase encoding gene from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and functional expresion in Yarrowia lipolytica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Po1h (MATa, ura3-302, xpr2-322, axp-2, XPR2p::SUC2 ; Madzak et al., 2004) and Yl96-Rm (Po1h transformed with pKOV96 containing the EH ORF from R. mucilaginosa) were maintained on YPD medium (20 g/l peptone, 20 g/l glucose, 10 g/l yeast extract... (Amersham Biosciences). All sub- cloning of PCR products was performed using pGEM-T Easy Vector (Promega). Nucleic acids were isolated from R. mucilagi- nosa (CBS 8596) following cultivation in 50 ml YPD media at 30 ◦C for 48 h while shaking. Cells...

  17. POTENT UREA AND CARBAMATE INHIBITORS OF SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Effects of experimental variables on the degree of epoxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature, time, nature of solvent and nature of clay-supported hydrogen peroxide on the degree of epoxidation of orange seed oil (OSO) and linseed oil (LO) were investigated by iodine value measurements. Results show that epoxidation increases with increasing epoxidation time up to a maximum before ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P...

  20. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  1. Green chemistry: Efficient epoxides ring-opening with 1-butanol under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Vidal, Jesus A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain); Duran-Valle, Carlos J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: carlosdv@unex.es; Ferrera-Escudero, Santiago [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    Two activated carbons treated with mineral acids (HNO{sub 3} and sulfonitric mixture) have been tested as acid catalysts in the epoxides (1,2-epoxyhexane and styrene oxide) ring-opening reaction with 1-butanol under microwave (MW) irradiation. The mayor obtained product is that resulting of the alcohol addition to the most substituted carbon in the epoxide ring. The most active catalyst is that treated with sulfonitric mixture. The use of a MW oven allows achieving to the complete conversion of styrene oxide in only 2 min.

  2. Cycloadditions to Epoxides Catalyzed by GroupIII-V Transition-Metal Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2015-05-25

    Complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are gaining increasing importance as Lewis acid catalysts for the cycloaddition of dipolarophiles to epoxides. This review examines the latest reports, including homogeneous and heterogeneous applications. The pivotal step for the cycloaddition reactions is the ring opening of the epoxide following activation by the Lewis acid. Two modes of cleavage (C-C versus C-O) have been identified depending primarily on the substitution pattern of the epoxide, with lesser influence observed from the Lewis acid employed. The widely studied cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to afford cyclic carbonates (C-O bond cleavage) has been scrutinized in terms of catalytic efficiency and reaction mechanism, showing that unsophisticated complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are excellent molecular catalysts. These metals have been incorporated, as well, in highly performing, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Cycloadditions to epoxides with other dipolarophiles (alkynes, imines, indoles) have been conducted with scandium triflate with remarkable performances (C-C bond cleavage). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Phosphotungstate-Based Ionic Silica Nanoparticles Network for Alkenes Epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An inorganic-organic porous silica network catalyst was prepared by linking silica nanoparticles using ionic liquid and followed by anion-exchange with phosphotungstate. Characterization methods of FT-IR, TG, SEM, TEM, BET, etc., were carried out to have a comprehensive insight into the catalyst. The catalyst was used for catalyzing cyclooctene epoxidation with high surface area, high catalytic activity, and convenient recovery. The conversion and selectivity of epoxy-cyclooctene could both reach over 99% at 70 °C for 8 h using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidant, and acetonitrile as a solvent when the catalyst was 10 wt. % of cyclooctene.

  4. Efficient epoxidation of propene using molecular catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovits, Iulius I. E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Kolding, Helene

    2014-01-01

    The epoxidation of propene is performed in homogeneous phase using various molecular catalysts and H2O2 or tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. A comparison between some molybdenum catalysts and methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) shows that the well known Re catalyst is the best among the examined...

  5. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  6. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  7. Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

    2013-01-01

    The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

  8. Defect Stabilized Gold Atoms on Graphene as Potential Catalysts for Ethylene Epoxidation: A First-principles Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2015-11-24

    We performed a first-principles based investigation on the potential role of Au atoms stabilized by defects on graphene in ethylene epoxidation. We showed that the interactions between the Au atoms and vacancies on graphene not only make the Au atomic diffusion a 2.10 eV endothermic process, but also tune the energy level of Au-d states for the activation of O2 and ethylene and promote the formation and dissociation of the peroxametallacycle intermediate. The catalytic cycle of ethylene epoxidation is initiated with the formation of a peroxametallacycle intermediate by the coadsorbed ethylene and O2, through the dissociation of which an ethylene epoxide molecule and an adsorbed O atom are formed. Then, gaseous ethylene reacts with the remnant O atom directly for the formation of another ethylene epoxide molecule. The desorption of ethylene epoxide is facilitated by the subsequent adsorption of O2 or ethylene and a new reaction cycle initiates. The calculated energy barriers for the formation and dissociation of the peroxametallacycle intermediate and the regeneration of Au sites are 0.30, 0.84 and 0.18 eV, respectively, and are significantly lower than those for aldehyde formation. These findings suggest the potential high catalytic performance of these Au atoms for ethylene epoxidation.

  9. Synthesis of Chiral Cyclic Carbonates via Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic synthesis of cyclic carbonates using carbon dioxide as a C1-building block is a highly active area of research. Here, we review the catalytic production of enantiomerically enriched cyclic carbonates via kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides catalysed by metal-containing catalyst systems.

  10. Adaptation of intestinal hydrolases to starvation in rats: effect of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galluser, M; Belkhou, R; Freund, J N

    1991-01-01

    this process. These results indicate that intestinal hydrolases respond non-coordinately to long-term food deprivation. In addition, the thyroid status of the animals has a direct influence on the adaptation of several brush border hydrolases to starvation. This suggests that the drop in plasma thyroid...... hormones during fasting allows a better maintenance of protein content and of hydrolase activities in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. These adaptive processes seemed to be partly controlled at a post-transcriptional level....

  11. Insights into hydrogen bond donor promoted fixation of carbon dioxide with epoxides catalyzed by ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengshuai; Gao, Kunqi; Liang, Lin; Wang, Fangxiao; Shi, Lei; Sheng, Li; Sun, Jianmin

    2015-02-28

    Catalytic coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides to obtain cyclic carbonates is an important reaction that has been receiving renewed interest. In this contribution, the cycloaddition reaction in the presence of various hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) catalyzed by hydroxyl/carboxyl task-specific ionic liquids (ILs) is studied in detail. It was found that the activity of ILs could be significantly enhanced in the presence of ethylene glycol (EG), and EG/HEBimBr were the most efficient catalysts for the CO2 cycloaddition to propylene oxide. Moreover, the binary catalysts were also efficiently versatile for the CO2 cycloaddition to less active epoxides such as styrene oxide and cyclohexene oxide. Besides, the minimum energy paths for this hydrogen bond-promoted catalytic reaction were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The DFT results suggested that the ring-closing reaction was the rate-determining step in the HEBimBr-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction but the EG addition could remarkably reduce its energy barrier as the formation of a hydrogen bond between EG and the oxygen atom of epoxides led this process along the standard SN2 mechanism. As a result, the ring-opening reaction became the rate-determining step in the EG/HEBimBr-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction. The work reported herein helped the understanding and design of catalysts for efficient fixation of CO2 to epoxides via hydrogen bond activation.

  12. Epoxide-mediated CifR repression of cif gene expression utilizes two binding sites in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballok, Alicia E; Bahl, Christopher D; Dolben, Emily L; Lindsay, Allia K; St Laurent, Jessica D; Hogan, Deborah A; Madden, Dean R; O'Toole, George A

    2012-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an epoxide hydrolase virulence factor that reduces the apical membrane expression of ABC transporters such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This virulence factor, named CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), is regulated by a TetR-family, epoxide-responsive repressor known as CifR via direct binding and repression. We identified two sites of CifR binding in the intergenic space between cifR and morB, the first gene in the operon containing the cif gene. We have mapped these binding sites and found they are 27 bp in length, and they overlap the -10 and +1 sites of both the cifR and morB regulatory region and the start of transcription, respectively. In addition, we found that CifR binds to each repression site with differing affinity. Mutagenesis of these binding sites resulted in a loss of DNA binding in vitro, and mutation of one of these sites in vivo resulted in an increase in transcription of both the cif and cifR genes. We characterized cif and cifR gene expression in sputum and found that, whereas cif gene expression varied relative to an in vitro coculture control, cifR gene expression was consistently higher. Analysis of a longitudinal sample of CF isolates from nine patients revealed that Cif protein was expressed over time, although variably, and these changes could not be linked to mutations in the cifR gene or the promoters of these genes. Finally, we tested CifR responsiveness to other epoxides and showed that CifR can respond to multiple epoxides to various degrees.

  13. Ozonides and epoxides from ozonization of pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzo, L.O.; Kimmel, E.C.; Casida, J.E.

    Ozonization of pyrethroids as solutions or thin films yields products proposed to be epoxides from the 2,2-dihalovinyl substituents of deltamethrin and permethrin and transitory ozonides from these compounds and more stable ozonides from the 2-methyl-1-propenyl and 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropenyl substituents of phenothrin and descyanocyhalothrin, respectively. The unstable epoxydeltamethrin from ozonization is identified by /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy and by reversion to deltamethrin on treatment of reaction mixtures with triphenylphosphine. Degradation of the ozonides yields the corresponding caronaldehyde in each case and trifluoroacetyl chloride from the chlorotrifluoropropenyl analogues. The ozonolysis mixtures are direct acting but weak bacterial mutagens presumable due to their epoxide and ozonide components.

  14. Polyglycine hydrolases: fungal b-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochli...

  15. Homogeneous Industrial Catalysis - Hydrosilylation, Epoxidation, Transvinylation

    OpenAIRE

    Meister, Teresa Karina

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of several industrially relevant, catalytic processes, namely hydrosilylation, epoxidation and transvinylation. In particular, the mechanistic aspects of these reactions as well as novel catalyst structural motifs and related complexes are examined. Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation consitutes the main area of research of this dissertation. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Untersuchung verschiedener industriell relevanter katalytischer Prozesse...

  16. Characterization of linseed oil epoxidized at different percentages

    OpenAIRE

    G. López Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Several degree-epoxidized linseed oils (8, 20, 35, 40, 47 and 54%) were prepared for changing different reaction parameters such as temperature, amount of peroxide and enzyme of the well studied chemoenzymatic epoxidation method. The epoxidation reaction following was carried out by Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H1NMR) which are the most usual spectroscopes for this propose. However, microRaman spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) char...

  17. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  18. Modeling of Toxicity-Relevant Electrophilic Reactivity for Guanine with Epoxides: Estimating the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) Parameter as a Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chenchen; Ji, Li; Liu, Weiping

    2016-05-16

    According to the electrophilic theory in toxicology, many chemical carcinogens in the environment and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that exert their effects by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic DNA centers. The theory of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB), which states that a toxic electrophile reacts preferentially with a biological macromolecule that has a similar hardness or softness, clarifies the underlying chemistry involved in this critical event. Epoxides are hard electrophiles that are produced endogenously by the enzymatic oxidation of parent chemicals (e.g., alkenes and PAHs). Epoxide ring opening proceeds through a SN2-type mechanism with hard nucleophile DNA sites as the major facilitators of toxic effects. Thus, the quantitative prediction of chemical reactivity would enable a predictive assessment of the molecular potential to exert electrophile-mediated toxicity. In this study, we calculated the activation energies for reactions between epoxides and the guanine N7 site for a diverse set of epoxides, including aliphatic epoxides, substituted styrene oxides, and PAH epoxides, using a state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) method. It is worth noting that these activation energies for diverse epoxides can be further predicted by quantum chemically calculated nucleophilic indices from HSAB theory, which is a less computationally demanding method than the exacting procedure for locating the transition state. More importantly, the good qualitative/quantitative correlations between the chemical reactivity of epoxides and their bioactivity suggest that the developed model based on HSAB theory may aid in the predictive hazard evaluation of epoxides, enabling the early identification of mutagenicity/carcinogenicity-relevant SN2 reactivity.

  19. Acyl peptide hydrolase degrades monomeric and oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Peter B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The abnormal accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide is believed to cause malfunctioning of neurons in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Amyloid-beta exists in different assembly forms in the aging mammalian brain including monomers, oligomers, and aggregates, and in senile plaques, fibrils. Recent findings suggest that soluble amyloid-beta oligomers may represent the primary pathological species in Alzheimer's disease and the most toxic form that impairs synaptic and thus neuronal function. We previously reported the isolation of a novel amyloid-beta-degrading enzyme, acyl peptide hydrolase, a serine protease that degrades amyloid-beta, and is different in structure and activity from other amyloid-beta-degrading enzymes. Results Here we report the further characterization of acyl peptide hydrolase activity using mass spectrometry. Acyl peptide hydrolase cleaves the amyloid-beta peptide at amino acids 13, 14 and 19. In addition, by real-time PCR we found elevated acyl peptide hydrolase expression in brain areas rich in amyloid plaques suggesting that this enzyme's levels are responsive to increases in amyloid-beta levels. Lastly, tissue culture experiments using transfected CHO cells expressing APP751 bearing the V717F mutation indicate that acyl peptide hydrolase preferentially degrades dimeric and trimeric forms of amyloid-beta. Conclusion These data suggest that acyl peptide hydrolase is involved in the degradation of oligomeric amyloid-beta, an activity that, if induced, might present a new tool for therapy aimed at reducing neurodegeneration in the Alzheimer's brain.

  20. Human valacyclovir hydrolase/biphenyl hydrolase-like protein is a highly efficient homocysteine thiolactonase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Marsillach

    Full Text Available Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL, a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1 and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL. To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 10(4 M(-1s(-1, orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL.

  1. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats: Computational Studies of Mn- and Fe-Catalyzed Epoxidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of epoxides as synthetic intermediates in a number of highly added-value chemicals, as well as the search for novel and more sustainable chemical processes have brought considerable attention to the catalytic activity of manganese and iron complexes towards the epoxidation of alkenes using non-toxic terminal oxidants. Particular attention has been given to Mn(salen and Fe(porphyrin catalysts. While the former attain remarkable enantioselectivity towards the epoxidation of cis-alkenes, the latter also serve as an important model for the behavior of cytochrome P450, thus allowing the exploration of complex biological processes. In this review, a systematic survey of the bibliographical data for the theoretical studies on Mn- and Fe-catalyzed epoxidations is presented. The most interesting patterns and trends are reported and finally analyzed using an evaluation framework similar to the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis performed in enterprise media, with the ultimate aim to provide an overview of current trends and areas for future exploration.

  2. Purified vitamin K epoxide reductase alone is sufficient for conversion of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K and vitamin K to vitamin KH2

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Pei-Hsuan; Huang, Teng-Yi; Williams, Jason; Stafford, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    More than 21 million prescriptions for warfarin are written yearly in the U.S. Despite its importance, warfarin's target, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), has resisted purification since its identification in 1972. Here, we report its purification and reconstitution. HPC4, a calcium-specific antibody that recognizes a 12-aa tag, was used to purify and identify VKOR. Partial reconstitution is achieved on the column by washing with 0.4% dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/0.4% deoxycholate. Activity...

  3. Inhibition of Xenobiotic-Degrading Hydrolases by Organophosphinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    were measured by the biuret method when possible or, for dilute solutions, by a fluorescamine assay. Biuret measurements were made by adding 200 pL...loss of arylester hydrolase activity was overcome by combining this Ca requirement with the presence of 0.02% sodium azide. A method has also been...14 Diphenylphosphinate ................................. 14 2a.i. Introduction ............................ 14 2a.ii. Methods

  4. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-01-01

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  5. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-12-13

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  6. Synthesis of Biolubricant Basestocks from Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Turco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the preparation of biolubricant basestocks through the ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO by alcohols in presence of solid acid catalysts (SAC-13 resin. To this end, different experimental runs were carried out in a lab-scale reactor, analyzing the effect of the alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, catalyst mass loading (from 1 to 10 wt % with respect to the oil mass and operating temperature (60–90 °C. The main focus of investigation was oxirane conversion. The study was complemented by FT-IR, 1H NMR and kinematic viscosity characterization of the different products of the ring-opening reaction. Experimental conversion data were fitted through a suitable kinetic model. Values of the best-fitting parameters in terms of rate constant, activation energy and catalyst reaction order were obtained, and were potentially useful for the design of an industrial process.

  7. Investigation of three doses of oral insulin-like growth factor-I on jejunal lactase phlorizin hydrolase activity and gene expression and enterocyte proliferation and migration in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, V M; Park, Y K; Laswell, S C; Freund, G G; Dudley, M A; Donovan, S M

    2000-10-01

    In a previous study, oral IGF-I at 65 nM increased lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) activity and villus height in piglets, however, the mechanisms were unknown. Herein, the response to a range of doses of IGF-I was investigated and we hypothesized that LPH and villus height would respond to oral IGF-I in a dose-dependent manner. Two 14-d experiments were conducted using cesarean-derived piglets. In experiment 1, piglets (n = 28) were fed formula containing 0, 33, 65, or 131 nmol/L (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) recombinant human IGF-I. In experiment 2, 5'-bromodeoxyuridine was administered to piglets fed formula alone (n = 4) or containing 131 nmol/L IGF-I (n = 4). IGF-I did not affect body weight gain or intestinal weight or length. Jejunal villus height and LPH activity were significantly greater in piglets fed 131 nmol IGF-I/L than control piglets. Villus height and lactase activity in piglets fed the 33 and 65 nmol/L IGF-I doses were similar and intermediate between control and 131 nmol IGF-I/L. Jejunal mRNA expression and LPH polypeptide abundance were investigated in piglets receiving 0 or 131 nmol/L IGF-I. Steady state LPH mRNA abundance was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in IGF-I-treated piglets. The relative abundance of proLPH(h) was not significantly increased (p = 0.06) by IGF-I treatment. Mucosal DNA content and DNA synthesis were greater in piglets receiving 131 nmol IGF-I/L than control, however, enterocyte migration and mucosal protein content were unaffected. Thus, oral IGF-I increased jejunal LPH activity and LPH mRNA abundance and stimulated intestinal cell hyperplasia in normal piglets.

  8. Real-Time Raman Monitoring during Photocatalytic Epoxidation of Cyclohexene over V-Ti/MCM-41 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Yu Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of V- and/or Ti-loading MCM-41 catalysts are successfully synthesized with a hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic and thermal epoxidations of cyclohexene in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH were investigated with real-time monitored by NIR-Raman spectroscopy. It suggests that both V- and Ti-loading can be responsible for the cyclohexene epoxidation. Moreover, the complementary behavior of V- and Ti-loading may be related to a similar role of activation. Interestingly, the progress of the photo-epoxidation on V0.25Ti2/MCM-41 photocatalyst was monitored by changes in intensity of the characteristic Raman bands without interference from the UV-light irradiation. The result, for the first time, reveals that cyclohexene was directly photo-epoxidized to 1,2-epoxycyclohexane by t-BuOOH during the reaction. A possible mechanism of cyclohexene photo-epoxidation is also proposed for this study.

  9. In-Situ Generated Graphene as the Catalytic Site for Visible-Light Mediated Ethylene Epoxidation on AG Nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqiang Alex; Jain, Prashant

    2017-06-01

    Despite the harsh conditions for chemical conversion, ethylene oxide produced from ethylene epoxidation on Ag-based heterogeneous catalyst constitutes one of the largest volume chemicals in chemical industry. Recently, photocatalytic epoxidation of ethylene over plasmonic Ag nanoparticles enables the chemical conversion under significantly decreased temperature and ambient pressure conditions. Yet a detailed understanding of the photocatalytic process at the reactant/catalyst interface is under debate. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique that enables the localized detection of rare and/or transient chemical species with high sensitivity under in situ and ambient conditions. Using SERS, we are able to monitor at individual sites of an Ag nanocatalyst the visible-light-mediated adsorption and epoxidation of ethylene. From detected intermediates, we find that the primary step in the photoepoxidation is the transient formation of graphene catalyzed by the Ag surface. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations that model the observed SERS spectra suggest that the defective edge sites of the graphene formed on Ag constitute the active site for C2H4 adsorption and epoxidation. Further studies with pre-formed graphene/Ag catalyst composites confirm the indispensable role of graphene in visible-light-mediated ethylene epoxidation. Carbon is often thought to be either an innocent support or a poison for metallic catalysts; however our studies reveal a surprising role for crystalline carbon layers as potential co-catalysts.

  10. Aerobic Epoxidation of Olefins Catalyzed by the Cobalt‐Based Metal–Organic Framework STA‐12(Co)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Kleist, Wolfgang; Wharmby, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    , (E)‐stilbene was converted with high selectivities between 80 and 90 %. Leaching of Co was low and the reaction was found to proceed mainly heterogeneously. The catalyst was reusable with only a small loss of activity. The catalytic epoxidation of stilbene with the MOF featured an induction period......, which was, interestingly, considerably reduced by styrene/stilbene co‐epoxidation. This could be traced back to the formation of benzaldehyde promoting the reaction. Detailed parameter and catalytic studies, including in situ EPR and EXAFS spectroscopy, were performed to obtain an initial insight...

  11. Supported sub-nanometer Ta oxide clusters as model catalysts for the selective epoxidation of cyclooctene

    KAUST Repository

    Zwaschka, Gregor

    2018-01-22

    The preparation of organic ligands-free, isolated tantalum oxide atoms (Ta1) and small clusters (Tan>1) on flat silicate supports was accomplished by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) techniques followed by oxidation in air. The resulting surface complexes were thoroughly characterized and tested as supported catalysts for the epoxidation of cycloalkenes. The observed catalytic performance highlights the potential of the applied method for the production of active catalysts and the study of well-defined, ligand-free metal oxide moieties.

  12. Swelling behaviour in n-pentane and mechanical properties of epoxidized natural rubber with different epoxide content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasih, N. A.; Fathurrohman, M. I.; Winarto, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) with different level of epoxidation (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mol% indicated as ENR ENR10, ENR20, ENR30, ENR40 and ENR50, respectively) were prepared. They were then vulcanized by using efficient system vulcanization. The effect of epoxide content on curing characteristic, swelling and mechanical properties in N-pentane was investigated. The Attenuated Resonance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) were used to determine the epoxidation level. Glass transition (Tg) of ENR samples was determined by using Direct Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The result revealed that the resistance of ENR in N-pentane increased with increasing epoxidation level, which indicated by decreasing equilibrium mol uptake and diffusion coefficient. The compression set of ENR and aging resistance increased with increasing epoxide content, except ENR50 was due to ENR 50 have two Tg value. However, the value of hardness and tensile strength were not effected by epoxidation level.

  13. 5-Thio-D-glycopyranosylamines and their amidinium salts as potential transition-state mimics of glycosyl hydrolases: synthesis, enzyme inhibitory activities, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavlekar, Lizie M.; Kuntz, Douglas A.; Wen, Xin

    2005-01-01

    of glucoamylase G2, derived by molecular modeling. Compounds 3 and 4 were found to be inhibitors with K-i values of 0.015 and 0.098 mM, respectively. The results led to conclusions about the nature of the transition state and strategy for the inhibition of glycosyl hydrolases in general. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd...

  14. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  15. The role of outer-sphere surface acidity in alkene epoxidation catalyzed by calixarene-Ti(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notestein, Justin M; Solovyov, Andrew; Andrini, Leandro R; Requejo, Felix G; Katz, Alexander; Iglesia, Enrique

    2007-12-19

    Cooperativity between Brønsted acidic defect sites on oxide surfaces and Lewis acid catalyst sites consisting of grafted calixarene-Ti(IV) complexes is investigated for controlling epoxidation catalysis. Materials are synthesized that, regardless of the surface or calixarene substituent, demonstrate nearly identical UV-visible ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands and Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectral features consistent with site-isolated, coordinatively unsaturated Ti(IV) atoms. Despite similar Ti frontier orbital energies demonstrated by these spectra, replacing a homogeneous triphenylsilanol ligand with a silanol on a SiO2 surface increases cyclohexene epoxidation rates with tert-butyl hydroperoxide 20-fold per Ti site. Supporting calixarene-Ti active sites on fully hydroxylated Al2O3 or TiO2, which possess lower average surface hydroxyl pKa than that of SiO2, reduces catalytic rates 50-fold relative to SiO2. These effects are consistent with SiO2 surfaces balancing two competing factors that control epoxidation rates-equilibrated hydroperoxide binding at Ti, disfavored by stronger surface Brønsted acidity, and rate-limiting oxygen transfer from this intermediate to alkenes, favored by strongly H-bonding intermediates. These observations also imply that Ti-OSi rather than Ti-OCalix bonds are broken upon hydroperoxide binding to Ti in kinetically relevant steps, which is verified by the lack of a calixarene upper-rim substituent effect on epoxidation rate. The pronounced sensitivity of observed epoxidation rates to the support oxide, in the absence of changes to the Ti coordination environment, provides experimental evidence for the importance of outer-sphere H-bonding interactions for the exceptional epoxidation reactivity of titanium silicalite and related catalysts.

  16. Extra carbohydrate binding module contributes to the processivity and catalytic activity of a non-modular hydrolase family 5 endoglucanase from Fomitiporia mediterranea MF3/22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ronghua; Hu, Yimei; Long, Liangkun; Wang, Jing; Ding, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    FmEG from Fomitiporia mediterranea is a non-modular endoglucanase composed of a 24-amino acids extension and 13-amino acids linker-like peptide at the N-terminus and a 312-amino acids GH5 catalytic domain (CD) at the C-terminus. In this study, six FmEG derivatives with deletion of N-terminal fragments or fusion with an extra family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1) was constructed in order to evaluate the contribution of CBM1 to FmEG processivity and catalytic activity. FmEG showed a weak processivity and released cellobiose (G2) and cellotriose (G3) as main end products, and cellotriose (G4) as minor end product from filter paper (FP), but more amount of G4 was released from regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC). All derivatives had similar activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with the same optimal pH (7.0) and temperature (50°C). However, fusing an extra CBM1 to FmEG△24 or FmEG△37 with flexible peptide significantly improved its processivity and catalytic activity to FP and RAC. Overall, 1.79- and 1.84-fold increases in the soluble/insoluble product ratio on FP, and 1.38- and 1.39-fold increases on RAC, compared to FmEG△24, were recorded for CBM1-FmEG△24 and CBM1-linker-FmEG△24, respectively. Meanwhile, they displayed 2.64- and 2.67-fold more activity on RAC, and 1.68- and 1.77-fold on FP, respectively. Similar improvement was also obtained for CBM1-linker-FmEG△37 as compared with FmEG△37. Interestingly, fusion of an extra CBM1 with FmEG also caused an alteration of cleavage pattern on insoluble celluloses. Our results suggest that such improvements in processivity and catalytic activity may arise from CBM1 binding affinity. The N-terminal 24- or 37-amino acids may serve as linker for sufficient spatial separation of the two domains required for processivity and catalytic activity. In addition, deletion of the N-terminal 24- or 37-amino acids led to significant reduction in thermostability but not the enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2016

  17. Heterogenization of Ketone Catalyst for Epoxidation by Low Pressure Plasma Fluorination of Silica Gel Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Accolti, Lucia; De Vietro, Nicoletta; Fanelli, Fiorenza; Fusco, Caterina; Nacci, Angelo; Fracassi, Francesco

    2017-11-30

    Low pressure plasma was used for preparing heterogeneous organocatalysts 2 -( A )-( C ) suitable for dioxirane-mediated epoxidations. Heterogenization was accomplished by adsorption of the methyl perfluoroheptyl ketone ( 2 ) on fluorinated supports ( A )-( C ) deriving from the treatment of commercial C₈-silica gel in low pressure plasma fed with fluorocarbons. Catalyst 2 -( C ) proved to be the most efficient one, promoting epoxidation of an array of alkenes, including unsaturated fatty esters like methyl oleate ( 10 ) and the triglyceride soybean oil ( 11 ), with the cheap potassium peroxymonosulfate KHSO₅ (caroate) as a green oxidant. Notably, the perfluorinated matrix gives rise to the activation of caroate, generating singlet oxygen. Materials were characterized by infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS ) and Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM).

  18. Heterogenization of Ketone Catalyst for Epoxidation by Low Pressure Plasma Fluorination of Silica Gel Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia D’Accolti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low pressure plasma was used for preparing heterogeneous organocatalysts 2-(A-(C suitable for dioxirane-mediated epoxidations. Heterogenization was accomplished by adsorption of the methyl perfluoroheptyl ketone (2 on fluorinated supports (A-(C deriving from the treatment of commercial C8-silica gel in low pressure plasma fed with fluorocarbons. Catalyst 2-(C proved to be the most efficient one, promoting epoxidation of an array of alkenes, including unsaturated fatty esters like methyl oleate (10 and the triglyceride soybean oil (11, with the cheap potassium peroxymonosulfate KHSO5 (caroate as a green oxidant. Notably, the perfluorinated matrix gives rise to the activation of caroate, generating singlet oxygen. Materials were characterized by infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM.

  19. Benign synthesis of indoles from anilines and epoxides: new application for ruthenium pincer catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, Angèle; Peña-López, Miguel; Beller, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, ruthenium pincer complexes such as Ru-MACHO-BH were successfully used as catalysts in the domino-synthesis of indoles from anilines and epoxides. Following previously optimised procedures, a variety of indoles were produced in an atom-efficient manner with water and hydrogen as the only stoichiometric side-products. The β-amino alcohol, resulting from the ring-opening of the epoxide with the aniline derivative, undergoes dehydrogenation, followed by condensation with excess aniline and the final intramolecular cyclisation affords the desired indole. Ru-MACHO-BH showed similar catalytic activity than our previously reported in situ prepared catalyst (Ru3(CO)12/dppf) without further optimisation of the reaction conditions.

  20. Reaction-Controlled Phase-Transfer Catalysis for Propylene Epoxidation to Propylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuwei, Xi; Ning, Zhou; Yu, Sun; Kunlan, Li

    2001-05-01

    The epoxidation of olefins with H2O2 was performed with a tungsten-containing catalyst. This insoluble catalyst forms soluble active species by the action of H2O2, and when the H2O2 is used up, the catalyst precipitates for easy recycling. Thus, the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are combined in one system through reaction-controlled phase transfer of the catalyst. When coupled with the 2-ethylanthraquinone/2-ethylanthrahydroquinone redox process for H2O2 production, O2 can be used for the epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide with 85% yield based on 2-ethylanthrahydroquinone without any co-products. This approach avoids the problematic co-products normally associated with the industrial production of propylene oxide.

  1. Effect of Dimer Dissociation on Activity and Thermostability of the α-Glucuronidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: Dissecting the Different Oligomeric Forms of Family 67 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallom, Dalia; Golan, Gali; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2004-01-01

    The oligomeric organization of enzymes plays an important role in many biological processes, such as allosteric regulation, conformational stability and thermal stability. α-Glucuronidases are family 67 glycosidases that cleave the α-1,2-glycosidic bond between 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and xylose units as part of an array of hemicellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes. Currently, two crystal structures of α-glucuronidases are available, those from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (AguA) and from Cellvibrio japonicus (GlcA67A). Both enzymes are homodimeric, but surprisingly their dimeric organization is different, raising questions regarding the significance of dimerization for the enzymes' activity and stability. Structural comparison of the two enzymes suggests several elements that are responsible for the different dimerization organization. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the α-glucuronidases AguA and GlcA67A can be classified into two distinct subfamilies of bacterial α-glucuronidases, where the dimer-forming residues of each enzyme are conserved only within its own subfamily. It seems that the different dimeric forms of AguA and GlcA67A represent the two alternative dimeric organizations of these subfamilies. To study the biological significance of the dimerization in α-glucuronidases, we have constructed a monomeric form of AguA by mutating three of its interface residues (W328E, R329T, and R665N). The activity of the monomer was significantly lower than the activity of the wild-type dimeric AguA, and the optimal temperature for activity of the monomer was around 35°C, compared to 65°C of the wild-type enzyme. Nevertheless, the melting temperature of the monomeric protein, 72.9°C, was almost identical to that of the wild-type, 73.4°C. It appears that the dimerization of AguA is essential for efficient catalysis and that the dissociation into monomers results in subtle conformational changes in the structure which indirectly influence the active site region

  2. Mechanism of titanocene-mediated epoxide opening through homolytic substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gansäuer, Andreas; Barchuk, Andriy; Keller, Florian

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of titanocene-mediated epoxide opening was studied by a combination of voltammetric, kinetic, computational, and synthetic methods. With the aid of electrochemical investigations the nature of a number of Ti(III) complexes in solution was established. In particular, the distribution...... of monomeric and dimeric Ti(III) species was found to be strongly affected by the exact steric conditions. The overall rate constants of the reductive epoxide opening were determined for the first time. These data were employed as the basis for computational studies of the structure and energies of the epoxide......−titanocene complexes, the transition states of epoxide opening, and the β-titanoxy radicals formed. The results obtained provide a structural basis for the understanding of the factors determining the regioselectivity of ring opening and match the experimentally determined values. By employing substituted titanocenes...

  3. Alternating copolymerization of epoxides with anhydrides initiated by organic bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošťálek, Z.; Trhlíková, Olga; Walterová, Zuzana; Martinez, T.; Peruch, F.; Cramail, H.; Merna, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, March (2017), s. 433-447 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : copolymerization * epoxides * anhydrides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  4. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    are reported. Sucrose hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K(m) of 60.7 mM and a k(cat) of 21.7 s(-1). The structure of the enzyme was solved at a resolution of 1.9 A in the resting state with an empty active site. This represents the first apo structure from subfamily 4...

  5. Epoxidation of cottonseed oil by aqueous hydrogen peroxide catalysed by liquid inorganic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Srikanta; Patwardhan, Anand V; Goud, Vaibhav V; Pradhan, Narayan C

    2008-06-01

    The kinetics of epoxidation of cottonseed oil by peroxyacetic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid in the presence of liquid inorganic acid catalysts were studied. It was possible to obtain up to 78% relative conversion to oxirane with very less oxirane cleavage by in situ technique. The rate constants for sulphuric acid catalysed epoxidation of cottonseed oil were in the range 0.39-5.4 x 10(-6)L mol(-1)s(-1) and the activation energy was found to be 11.7 kcal mol(-1). Some thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of activation were determined to be of 11.0 kcal mol(-1), -51.4 cal mol(-1)K(-1) and 28.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The order of effectiveness of catalysts was found to be sulphuric acid>phosphoric acid>nitric acid>hydrochloric acid. Acetic acid was found to be superior to formic acid for the in situ cottonseed oil epoxidation.

  6. Ethylmethyldioxirane epoxidation of Plukenetia cononophora oil

    OpenAIRE

    E.T. Akintayo

    2007-01-01

    Epoxidation of Plukenetia conophora oil by ethylmethyldioxirane has been studied. The epoxidation reaction was best accomplished using the Curci’s biphasic method employing 2-butanone as the solvent. Spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR) indicated complete conversion of double bonds to epoxy groups. Overall, OxoneTM can be said to be an inexpensive oxidant that is easily handled and with demonstrated utility in preparing epoxidised oils from natural triglycerides.

  7. A New Insight into the Physiological Role of Bile Salt Hydrolase among Intestinal Bacteria from the Genus Bifidobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche. PMID:25470405

  8. CREST - a large and diverse superfamily of putative transmembrane hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Eric N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of membrane-spanning proteins possess enzymatic activity and catalyze important reactions involving proteins, lipids or other substrates located within or near lipid bilayers. Alkaline ceramidases are seven-transmembrane proteins that hydrolyze the amide bond in ceramide to form sphingosine. Recently, a group of putative transmembrane receptors called progestin and adipoQ receptors (PAQRs were found to be distantly related to alkaline ceramidases, raising the possibility that they may also function as membrane enzymes. Results Using sensitive similarity search methods, we identified statistically significant sequence similarities among several transmembrane protein families including alkaline ceramidases and PAQRs. They were unified into a large and diverse superfamily of putative membrane-bound hydrolases called CREST (alkaline ceramidase, PAQR receptor, Per1, SID-1 and TMEM8. The CREST superfamily embraces a plethora of cellular functions and biochemical activities, including putative lipid-modifying enzymes such as ceramidases and the Per1 family of putative phospholipases involved in lipid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins, putative hormone receptors, bacterial hemolysins, the TMEM8 family of putative tumor suppressors, and the SID-1 family of putative double-stranded RNA transporters involved in RNA interference. Extensive similarity searches and clustering analysis also revealed several groups of proteins with unknown function in the CREST superfamily. Members of the CREST superfamily share seven predicted core transmembrane segments with several conserved sequence motifs. Conclusions Universal conservation of a set of histidine and aspartate residues across all groups in the CREST superfamily, coupled with independent discoveries of hydrolase activities in alkaline ceramidases and the Per1 family as well as results from previous mutational studies of Per1, suggests that the majority of CREST members are

  9. A pre-steady state and steady state kinetic analysis of the N-ribosyl hydrolase activity of hCD157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preugschat, Frank; Carter, Luke H; Boros, Eric E; Porter, David J T; Stewart, Eugene L; Shewchuk, Lisa M

    2014-12-15

    hCD157 catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). The release of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid from NR or NAR was confirmed by spectrophotometric, HPLC and NMR analyses. hCD157 is inactivated by a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-nicotinamide arabinoside (fNR). Modification of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle by NR, NAR, or fNR increased the intrinsic protein fluorescence by approximately 50%. Pre-steady state and steady state data were used to derive a minimal kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis of NR. After initial complex formation a reversible step (360 and 30s(-1)) is followed by a slow irreversible step (0.1s(-1)) that defined the rate limiting step, or kcat. The calculated KMapp value for NR in the hydrolytic reaction is 6nM. The values of the kinetic constants suggest that one biological function of cell-surface hCD157 is to bind and slowly hydrolyze NR, possibly converting it to a ligand-activated receptor. Differences in substrate preference between hCD157 and hCD38 were rationalized through a comparison of the crystal structures of the two proteins. This comparison identified several residues in hCD157 (F108 and F173) that can potentially hinder the binding of dinucleotide substrates (NAD+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of PCB's on plasma vitamin A (retinol) and hepatic retinyl palmitate hydrolase (RPH) activity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, R.H.; Gilbert, L.C.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-05-01

    A single i.p. dose of 15, 5 or 1 mg/kg 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) caused a dose-dependent depression of plasma retinol levels 24 hours after treatment of female Sprague-Dawley rats. The loss of plasma retinol appeared to be a function of depressed levels of the retinol-retinol binding protein (RBP)-transthyretin ternary complex. No free retinol-RBP was observed in plasma from treated animals. Hepatic RPH activity was also depressed, and highly and positively correlated to the plasma retinol levels. TCB was determined to be a non-competitive inhibitor of partially purified RPH with a KI of 91 uM. Metabolism of TCB by microsomes in vitro decreased the inhibition of RPH. Equimolar doses of either 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-HCB failed to cause a similar depression of plasma retinol of treated female rats. They conclude that, unlike other PCB congeners, TCB causes a depression of plasma retinol by inhibition of hepatic RPH.

  11. Fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases bind starch and β-cyclodextrin similarly to amylolytic hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nekiunaite, Laura; Isaksen, Trine; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    , the clustering of CBM20s from starch-targeting LPMOs and hydrolases was in accord with taxonomy and did not correlate to appended catalytic activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CBM20-binding scaffold is retained in the evolution of hydrolytic and oxidative starch-degrading activities....

  12. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  13. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  14. Biocidal Compounds from Mentha sp. Essential Oils and Their Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, Maria Fe; Vidali, Veroniki P; Polissiou, Moschos G; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. Mentha spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum). The structure-activity relationships of these compounds have been studied including semi-synthetic endocyclic trans-carvone epoxide, exocyclic carvone epoxide, a new exocyclic piperitenone epoxide and trans-pulegone epoxide. Leptinotarsa decemlineata feeding was affected by piperitenone and piperitone epoxide. Spodoptera littoralis was affected by piperitone epoxide and pulegone. The strongest nematicidal agent was piperitenone epoxide, followed by piperitone epoxide, piperitenone and carvone. Germination of S. lycopersicum and L. perenne was significantly affected by piperitenone epoxide. This compound and carvone epoxide inhibited L. perenne root and leaf growth. Piperitenone epoxide also inhibited the root growth of S. lycopersicum. The presence of a C(1) epoxide resulted in strong antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic compounds regardless of the C(4) substituent. New natural crop protectants could be developed through appropriate structural modifications in the p-menthane skeleton. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Heterogeneous Epoxide Carbonylation by Cooperative Ion-Pair Catalysis in Co(CO)4--Incorporated Cr-MIL-101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hoyoung D; Dincă, Mircea; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2017-05-24

    Despite the commercial desirability of epoxide carbonylation to β-lactones, the reliance of this process on homogeneous catalysts makes its industrial application challenging. Here we report the preparation and use of a Co(CO) 4 - -incorporated Cr-MIL-101 (Co(CO) 4 ⊂Cr-MIL-101, Cr-MIL-101 = Cr 3 O(BDC) 3 F, H 2 BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) heterogeneous catalyst for the ring-expansion carbonylation of epoxides, whose activity, selectivity, and substrate scope are on par with those of the reported homogeneous catalysts. We ascribe the observed performance to the unique cooperativity between the postsynthetically introduced Co(CO) 4 - and the site-isolated Lewis acidic Cr(III) centers in the metal-organic framework (MOF). The heterogeneous nature of Co(CO) 4 ⊂Cr-MIL-101 allows the first demonstration of gas-phase continuous-flow production of β-lactones from epoxides, attesting to the potential applicability of the heterogeneous epoxide carbonylation strategy.

  16. Purification and characterization of TrzF: biuret hydrolysis by allophanate hydrolase supports growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapir, Nir; Cheng, Gang; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2006-04-01

    TrzF, the allophanate hydrolase from Enterobacter cloacae strain 99, was cloned, overexpressed in the presence of a chaperone protein, and purified to homogeneity. Native TrzF had a subunit molecular weight of 65,401 and a subunit stoichiometry of alpha(2) and did not contain significant levels of metals. TrzF showed time-dependent inhibition by phenyl phosphorodiamidate and is a member of the amidase signature protein family. TrzF was highly active in the hydrolysis of allophanate but was not active with urea, despite having been previously considered a urea amidolyase. TrzF showed lower activity with malonamate, malonamide, and biuret. The allophanate hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, AtzF, was also shown to hydrolyze biuret slowly. Since biuret and allophanate are consecutive metabolites in cyanuric acid metabolism, the low level of biuret hydrolase activity can have physiological significance. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain containing atzD, encoding cyanuric acid hydrolase that produces biuret, and atzF grew slowly on cyanuric acid as a source of nitrogen. The amount of growth produced was consistent with the liberation of 3 mol of ammonia from cyanuric acid. In vitro, TrzF was shown to hydrolyze biuret to liberate 3 mol of ammonia. The biuret hydrolyzing activity of TrzF might also be physiologically relevant in native strains. E. cloacae strain 99 grows on cyanuric acid with a significant accumulation of biuret.

  17. Oxidoreductive Cellulose Depolymerization by the Enzymes Cellobiose Dehydrogenase and Glycoside Hydrolase 61▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, James A.; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  18. An epoxide hydrolase secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreases mucociliary transport and hinders bacterial clearance from the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvorecny, Kelli L; Dolben, Emily; Moreau-Marquis, Sophie; Hampton, Thomas H; Shabaneh, Tamer B; Flitter, Becca A; Bahl, Christopher D; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Levy, Bruce D; Stanton, Bruce A; Hogan, Deborah A; Madden, Dean R

    2018-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of susceptible individuals by deploying virulence factors targeting host defenses. The secreted factor Cif (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitory factor) dysregulates the endocytic recycling of CFTR and thus reduces CFTR abundance in host epithelial membranes. We have postulated that the decrease in ion secretion mediated by Cif would slow mucociliary transport and decrease bacterial clearance from the lungs. To test this hypothesis, we explored the effects of Cif in cultured epithelia and in the lungs of mice. We developed a strategy to interpret the "hurricane-like" motions observed in reconstituted cultures and identified a Cif-mediated decrease in the velocity of mucus transport in vitro. Presence of Cif also increased the number of bacteria recovered at two time points in an acute mouse model of pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated an inverse correlation between the airway concentrations of Cif and 15-epi-lipoxin A4, a proresolving lipid mediator important in host defense and the resolution of pathogen-initiated inflammation. Here, we observe elevated levels of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the lungs of mice infected with a strain of P. aeruginosa that expresses only an inactive form of cif compared with those mice infected with wild-type P. aeruginosa. Together these data support the inclusion of Cif on the list of virulence factors that assist P. aeruginosa in colonizing and damaging the airways of compromised patients. Furthermore, this study establishes techniques that enable our groups to explore the underlying mechanisms of Cif effects during respiratory infection.

  19. Synthesis of apio analogues of neplanocin A as potential inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong A; Yoo, Byul Nae; Choi, Won Jun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2003-01-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of apio-neplanocin A and its related purine nucleosides which combined the properties of neplanocin A and apio nucleoside was achieved, starting from D-ribose via regioselective hydroxymethylation and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. However, all synthesized compounds did not show significant inhibitory activity against S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, unlike neplanocin A.

  20. Effects of different epoxidation methods of soybean oil on the characteristics of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil-co-poly(methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tanrattanakul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the type of epoxidation processes of soybean oil on the characteristics of epoxidized soybean oils (ESOs, acrylated epoxidized soybean oils (AESOs, and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil – poly(methyl metacrylate copolymers (AESO-co-PMMA has been investigated. Two epoxidation processes were used: an in situ chemical epoxidation using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid, and a chemo-enzymatic epoxidation using 2 enzymes: Novozyme® 435 (CALB and a homemade lipase/acyltransferase (CpLIP2. ESOs containing different numbers of epoxide groups/molecule were synthesized. A commercial ESO (Vikoflex® 7170 was employed and it had the highest number of epoxide groups. Acrylation of ESOs was carried out using acrylic acid, and copolymerized with a methyl methacrylate monomer. The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation produced high acid value, particularly from the CpLIP2 (~46–48% and indicated the formation of epoxidized free fatty acids. In contrast, the ESO synthesized from the chemical epoxidation showed a very low acid value, < 0.6%. The AESOs synthesized from the CALB-based ESO and the chemical-based ESO showed a similar number of acrylate groups/molecule while that from the CpLIP2-based ESO showed a very low number of acrylate groups because the carboxylic groups from the epoxidized free fatty acids impeded the acrylation reaction. The lower the number of acrylate groups the lower was the crosslink density, the Tg, and the gel content in the AESO-co-PMMA copolymer.

  1. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  2. Catalyst-controlled site-selective asymmetric epoxidation of nerylamine and geranylamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuta, Tomoya; Kawabata, Takeo

    2017-08-17

    Novel catalysts for site- and enantioselective epoxidation of nerylamine and geranylamine derivatives have been developed. Although mCPBA oxidation took place selectively at the more electron-rich double bond to give the 6,7-epoxides, these catalysts provide the 2,3-epoxides in moderate to high enantioselectivity via the oxidation of the relatively electron-deficient double bond.

  3. Characterization of human glucosylsphingosine glucosyl hydrolase and comparison with glucosylceramidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, A M; Muscillo, M; Suzuki, K

    1985-01-15

    Properties of glucosylsphingosine (gluco-psychosine) glucosyl hydrolase were studied in detail in cultured human fibroblasts and placenta and were compared with those of glucosylceramidase. The two activities, that are deficient in tissues of Gaucher patients, showed minor but consistent differences. The pH optima were 4.8 for psychosine hydrolysis and 5.3 for glucosylceramide hydrolysis. In the presence of oleic acid, taurocholate activated glucosylceramidase more than 10-fold, while it activated psychosine hydrolysis only by about 30%. Triton X-100 was stimulatory for glucosylceramidase but was strongly inhibitory for psychosine hydrolysis. Phospholipids, that increase many times glucosylceramidase activity, were moderately inhibitory to enzymatic hydrolysis of psychosine. The psychosine hydrolase activity was slightly more heat-stable than the glucosylceramidase activity. The Km values for the two substrates were similar; 1.7 X 10(-5) M for psychosine and 2.7 X 10(-5) M for glucosylceramide. The V for glucosylceramide was, however, 100-times that for psychosine hydrolysis. Psychosine acted as a potent non-competitive inhibitor (Ki = 1.8 X 10(-5) M), while glucosylceramide was a weak inhibitor against psychosine hydrolysis. Within the limit of glucosylceramide solubility, psychosine hydrolysis could not be inhibited by more than 50%. Furthermore, the Dixon plot of glucosylceramide inhibition showed an anomalous slope. The ratio of the two activities was similar in fibroblasts, in the placenta mitochondria-lysosomal fraction and in a partially purified placental preparation. These findings are best explained by the hypothesis that, although the two substrates are hydrolyzed by a single enzyme, they share an overlapping but not identical catalytic site while binding to hydrophobic sites unique for the respective substrates.

  4. Efficient epoxidation of electron-deficient alkenes with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by [γ-PW10O38V2(μ-OH)2]3-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Keigo; Sugahara, Kosei; Yonehara, Kazuhiro; Ishimoto, Ryo; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2011-06-27

    A divanadium-substituted phosphotungstate, [γ-PW(10)O(38)V(2)(μ-OH)(2)](3-) (I), showed the highest catalytic activity for the H(2)O(2)-based epoxidation of allyl acetate among vanadium and tungsten complexes with a turnover number of 210. In the presence of I, various kinds of electron-deficient alkenes with acetate, ether, carbonyl, and chloro groups at the allylic positions could chemoselectively be oxidized to the corresponding epoxides in high yields with only an equimolar amount of H(2)O(2) with respect to the substrates. Even acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile could be epoxidized without formation of the corresponding amides. In addition, I could rapidly (≤10 min) catalyze epoxidation of various kinds of terminal, internal, and cyclic alkenes with H(2)O(2) under the stoichiometric conditions. The mechanistic, spectroscopic, and kinetic studies showed that the I-catalyzed epoxidation consists of the following three steps: 1) The reaction of I with H(2)O(2) leads to reversible formation of a hydroperoxo species [γ-PW(10)O(38)V(2)(μ-OH)(μ-OOH)](3-) (II), 2) the successive dehydration of II forms an active oxygen species with a peroxo group [γ-PW(10)O(38)V(2)(μ-η(2):η(2)-O(2))](3-) (III), and 3) III reacts with alkene to form the corresponding epoxide. The kinetic studies showed that the present epoxidation proceeds via III. Catalytic activities of divanadium-substituted polyoxotungstates for epoxidation with H(2)O(2) were dependent on the different kinds of the heteroatoms (i.e., Si or P) in the catalyst and I was more active than [γ-SiW(10)O(38)V(2)(μ-OH)(2)](4-). On the basis of the kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational results, including those of [γ-SiW(10)O(38)V(2)(μ-OH)(2)](4-), the acidity of the hydroperoxo species in II would play an important role in the dehydration reactivity (i.e., k(3)). The largest k(3) value of I leads to a significant increase in the catalytic activity of I under the more concentrated conditions. Copyright

  5. Synthesis of Dinaphtho-dioxaphosphocin-8-oxides, Epoxides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Preparation of 8-substituted-16H-dinaphtho [2,1-d:1',2'-g] [1,3,2] dioxaphosphocin 8-oxides (5a–g) with an eight-membered phosphorus heterocyclic system (2) and their epoxides and bisphosphonates was accomplished by reacting 8-bromo-dinaphtho- phosphocin (2) with different mono and bis Grignard reagents (3a–g ...

  6. Highly efficient epoxidation of alkenes with m-chloroperbenzoic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Highly efficient epoxidation of alkenes with m-chloroperbenzoic acid catalyzed by nanomagnetic Co(III)@Fe₃O₄/SiO₂ salen complex ... The heterogeneous nanocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared ...

  7. Bakers yeast-mediated transformations of alpha-keto epoxides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meth-Cohn, O

    1994-06-07

    Full Text Available /hydrolysis sequence involving a syn ring-opening of the epoxide. More than one enzyme is probably involved in both of these transformations which tend to favour S-reduction. The detailed mechanism of product formation in both processes has been undertaken...

  8. Synthesis of Dinaphtho-dioxaphosphocin-8-oxides, Epoxides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    phosphorus heterocyclic system (2) and their epoxides and bisphosphonates was accomplished by reacting 8-bromo-dinaphtho- phosphocin (2) with different mono and bis Grignard reagents (3a–g and 6) followed by oxidation with H2O2. Their structures were confirmed by elemental and spectral (1H, 13C and 31P NMR) ...

  9. Epoxidation of aldrin to exo-dieldrin by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J A; Korte, F

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two strains of soil bacteria, including representatives of the genera Bacillus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Thermoactinomyces, and Pseudomonas and 10 unidentified gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria, were shown to degrade aldrin to its epoxide dieldrin. In every case, the exo-stereoisomer of dieldrin was produced exclusively. PMID:407844

  10. Effects of experimental variables on the degree of epoxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of experimental variables such as temperature, time, type of solvent and nature of the clay-supported hydrogen peroxide on the degree of epoxidation of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and cashew nut oil (CNO) were investigated by iodine value measurements. Results show that the acid treatment of the ...

  11. Effects of experimental variables on the degree of epoxidation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that the acid treatment of the bentonite clay improved its support characteristics by achieving some increase in surface area and optimum treatment condition was found to be 10g bentonite clay treated with 30cm3 sulphuric acid for 6 hours. It was found that higher epoxidation was achieved with treated ...

  12. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin EpoxidationUnnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis EnriquezU.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-773...

  13. Schiff base complex-catalysed enantioselective epoxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Chiral Ru(II) Schiff base complex-catalysed enantioselective epoxidation of styrene derivatives. R I KURESHY, N H KHAN, S H R ABDI, S T PATEL, P IYER and. R V JASRA. Silicates and Catalysis Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals. Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. Ruthenium(II) chiral Schiff base ...

  14. Novel baker's yeast catalysed hydride reduction of an epoxide moiety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, RM

    1995-02-27

    Full Text Available .m.r, and mass spectroscopy and appears to be due to a novel enzyme catalysed hydride transfer from cofactors such as NADH or NADPH. No example of an enzyme catalysed hydride opening of an epoxide has been reported in the literature. The stereochemical...

  15. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1, 4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA) crosslinked polystyrene-supported -butyl hydroperoxide was employed in the epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. The reagent proved to be successful as a recyclable solid phase organic reagent with as much or more efficiency when ...

  16. Enzymatic epoxidation of biodiesel optimized by response surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the enzymatic epoxidation of biodiesel, stearic acid was selected as oxygen carrier. Enzyme screening and the load of stearic acid were investigated. The effects of four main reaction conditions including reaction time, temperature, enzyme load, and mole ratio of H2O2/C=C-bonds on the epoxy oxygen group content ...

  17. Aerobic methylcyclohexane-promoted epoxidation of stilbene over gold nanoparticles supported on Gd-doped titania

    KAUST Repository

    Mendez, Violaine

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic partial oxidations of alkanes and alkenes are important processes of the petrochemical industry. The radical mechanisms involved can be catalyzed by soluble salts of transition metals (Co, Cu, Mn...). We show here that the model methylcyclohexane/stilbene co-oxidation reaction can be efficiently catalyzed at lower temperature by supported gold nanoparticles. The support has little influence on gold intrinsic activity but more on the apparent reaction rates which are a combination of catalytic activity and diffusion limitations. These are here minimized by using gadolinium-doped titania nanocrystallites as support for gold nanoparticles. This material is obtained by mild hydrolysis of a new Gd4TiO(OiPr)14 bimetallic oxoalkoxide. It leads to enhanced wettability of the < 3 nm gold particles in the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-initiated epoxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane; Au/TiO2:Gd3+ is in turn as active as the state-of-the-art hydrophobic Au/SiO2 catalyst. The rate-determining step of this reaction is identified as the gold-catalyzed homolytic decomposition of TBHP generating radicals and initiating the methylcyclohexane-mediated epoxidation of stilbene, yielding a methylcyclohexan-1-ol/trans-stilbene oxide mixture. Methylcyclohexan-1-ol can also be obtained in the absence of the alkene in the gold-catalyzed solvent-free autoxidation of methylcyclohexane, evidencing the catalytic potential of gold nanoparticles for low temperature C-H activation. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Supplementing with non-glycoside hydrolase proteins enhances enzymatic deconstruction of plant biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Su

    Full Text Available The glycoside hydrolases (GH of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii are thermophilic enzymes, and therefore they can hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides at high temperatures. Analyses of two C. bescii glycoside hydrolases, CbCelA-TM1 and CbXyn10A with cellulase and endoxylanase activity, respectively, demonstrated that each enzyme is highly thermostable under static incubation at 70°C. Both enzymes, however, rapidly lost their enzymatic activities when incubated at 70°C with end-over-end shaking. Since crowding conditions, even at low protein concentrations, seem to influence enzymatic properties, three non-glycoside hydrolase proteins were tested for their capacity to stabilize the thermophilic proteins at high temperatures. The three proteins investigated were a small heat shock protein CbHsp18 from C. bescii, a histone MkHistone1 from Methanopyrus kandleri, and bovine RNase A, from a commercial source. Fascinatingly, each of these proteins increased the thermostability of the glycoside hydrolases at 70°C during end-over-end shaking incubation, and this property translated into increases in hydrolysis of several substrates including the bioenergy feedstock Miscanthus. Furthermore, MkHistone1 and RNase A also altered the initial products released from the cello-oligosaccharide cellopentaose during hydrolysis with the cellodextrinase CbCdx1A, which further demonstrated the capacity of the three non-GH proteins to influence hydrolysis of substrates by the thermophilic glycoside hydrolases. The non-GH proteins used in the present report were small proteins derived from each of the three lineages of life, and therefore expand the space from which different polypeptides can be tested for their influence on plant cell wall hydrolysis, a critical step in the emerging biofuel industry.

  19. Effect of epoxidation level on thermal properties and ionic conductivity of epoxidized natural rubber solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Fatin; Chan, Chin Han; Winie, Tan [Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Sim, Lai Har; Zainal, Nurul Fatahah Asyqin [Center of Foundation Studies, PuncakAlam Campus, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40430 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Effect of epoxide content on the thermal and conductivity properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes was investigated. Commercial available epoxidized natural rubber having 25 (ENR25) and 50 mole% (ENR50) epoxide, respectively were incorporated with lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}) salt and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanofiller via solution casting method. The solid polymer nanocomposite electrolytes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) for their thermal properties and conductivity, respectively. It was evident that introduction of LiClO{sub 4} causes a greater increase in glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and ionic conductivity of ENR50 as compared to ENR25. Upon addition of TiO{sub 2} in ENR/LiClO{sub 4} system, a remarkable T{sub g} elevation was observed for both ENRs where ENR50 reveals a more pronounced changes. It is interesting to note that they exhibit different phenomenon in ionic conductivity with TiO{sub 2} loading where ENR25 shows enhancement of conductivity while ENR50 shows declination.

  20. Allenes in Asymmetric Catalysis. Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Meso-Epoxides Catalyzed by Allene-Containing Phosphine Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiaotao; Qi, Xiangbing; Ready, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Unsymmetrically substituted allenes (1,2 dienes) are inherently chiral and can be prepared in optically pure form. Nonetheless, to date the allene framework has not been incorporated into ligands for asymmetric catalysis. Since allenes project functionality differently than either tetrahedral carbon or chiral biaryls, they may create complementary chiral environments. This study demonstrates that optically active C2 symmetric allene-containing bisphosphine oxides can catalyze the addition of SiCl4 to meso epoxides with high enantioselectivity. The epoxide-opening likely involves generation of a Lewis acidic, cationic (bisphosphine oxide)SiCl3 complex. The fact that high asymmetric induction is observed suggests that allenes may represent a new platform for the development of ligands and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:19722613

  1. Cycloaddition Reaction of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides Catalyzed by Polymer-Supported Quaternary Phosphonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-supported quaternary phosphonium salt (PS-QPS was explored as effective catalyst for the coupling reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides. The results indicated that cyclic carbonates with high yields (98.6% and excellent selectivity (100% could be prepared at the conditions of 5 MPa CO2, 150°C, and 6 h without the addition of organic solvents or cocatalysts. The effects of various reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated in detail. The catalyst is applicable to a variety of epoxides, producing the corresponding cyclic carbonates in good yields. Furthermore, the catalyst could be recovered easily and reused for five times without loss of catalytic activity obviously. A proposed mechanism for synthesis of cyclic carbonate in the presence of PS-QPS was discussed. The catalyst was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum. It is believed that PS-QPS is of great potential for CO2 fixation applications due to its unusual advantages, such as easy preparation, high activity and selectivity, stability, low cost, and reusability.

  2. LDRD final report on new homogeneous catalysts for direct olefin epoxidation (LDRD 52591).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Karen (University of Washington); Smythe, Nicole A. (University of Washington); Moore, Joshua T.; Stewart, Constantine A.; Kemp, Richard Alan; Miller, James Edward; Kornienko, Alexander (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology); Denney, Melanie C. (University of Washington); Cetto, Kara L. (University of Washington)

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel homogeneous epoxidation catalyst system that uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant, a ''Holy Grail'' in catalysis. While olefins (alkenes) that do not contain allylic hydrogens can be epoxidized directly using heterogeneous catalysts, most olefins cannot, and so a general, atom-efficient route is desired. While most of the work performed on this LDRD has been on pincer complexes of late transition metals, we also scouted out metal/ligand combinations that were significantly different, and unfortunately, less successful. Most of the work reported here deals with phosphorus-ligated Pd hydrides [(PCP)Pd-H]. We have demonstrated that molecular oxygen gas can insert into the Pd-H bond, giving a structurally characterized Pd-OOH species. This species reacts with oxygen acceptors such as olefins to donate an oxygen atom, although in various levels of selectivity, and to generate a [(PCP)Pd-OH] molecule. We discovered that the active [(PCP)Pd-H] active catalyst can be regenerated by addition of either CO or hydrogen. The demonstration of each step of the catalytic cycle is quite significant. Extensions to the pincer-Pd chemistry by attaching a fluorinated tail to the pincer designed to be used in solvents with higher oxygen solubilities are also presented.

  3. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  4. Epoxidized natural rubber and hydrotalcite compounds: rheological and thermal characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Macedo da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR and synthetic non-modified hydrotalcite (HT compounds were prepared and evaluated. Natural rubber (NR was epoxidized with 20.6% of epoxy groups from a chemical modification of the latex. A sulfur-based curing system formulation with accelerators was used. The amounts of HT in the ENR-HT compositions was varied between 0, 2, 3 and 5 phr. All compositions were evaluated as to cure parameters, rheological properties, thermal resistance and crosslink density. The results showed that the mineral filler does not have a significant influence on the cure parameters. Different methods of crosslink density determination were used (swelling at equilibrium and elastic modulus. The results turn out to be equivalent and rise as the amount of filler is increased. The best results were found for the 5 phr hydrotalcite compound (ENR-HT5.

  5. Lipase immobilization on smectite nanoclays: characterization and application to the epoxidation of alpha-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzialla, Aikaterini A; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Felicissimo, Marcella P; Rudolf, Petra; Gournis, Dimitrios; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2010-03-01

    The immobilization of lipase B from Candida antarctica on smectite group nanoclays (Laponite, SWy-2 and Kunipia), as well as on their organically modified derivatives, was investigated. A combination of techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron and FT-IR spectroscopy, was used for characterization of the novel immobilized biocatalyst. Structural and biochemical characterization have revealed that the hydrophobic microenvironment created by the organo-modified clays induces minor changes on the secondary structure of the enzyme, resulting in enhanced catalytic behaviour in hydrophobic media. The immobilized lipase on such modified nanoclays can be effectively applied for the indirect epoxidation of alpha-pinene using hydrogen peroxide as substrate. The amount of alpha-pinene epoxide produced in a single-step biocatalytic process is up to 3-fold higher than that of free enzyme or enzyme immobilized in non-modified clays. Moreover, lipase immobilized in modified clays retains up to 90% of its initial activity, even after 48h of incubation in the presence of oxidant, and up to 60% after four reaction cycles, while other forms of the enzyme retain less than 10%. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Precursor effect on the property and catalytic behavior of Fe-TS-1 in butadiene epoxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei; Zhao, Huahua; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Song, Huanling; Chou, Lingjun

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron precursor on the property and catalytic behavior of iron modified titanium silicalite molecular sieve (Fe-TS-1) catalysts in butadiene selective epoxidation has been studied. Three Fe-TS-1 catalysts were prepared, using iron nitrate, iron chloride and iron sulfate as precursors, which played an important role in adjusting the textural properties and chemical states of TS-1. Of the prepared Fe-TS-1 catalysts, those modified by iron nitrate (FN-TS-1) exhibited a significant enhanced performance in butadiene selective epoxidation compared to those derived from iron sulfate (FS-TS-1) or iron chloride (FC-TS-1) precursors. To obtain a deep understanding of their structure-performance relationship, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis), Fourier transformed infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to characterize Fe-TS-1 catalysts. Experimental results indicated that textural structures and acid sites of modified catalysts as well as the type of Fe species influenced by the precursors were all responsible for the activity and product distribution.

  7. Aerobic epoxidation catalysed by transition metal substituted polyfluorooxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnola, Marco; Neumann, Ronny

    2016-10-07

    First row transition metal substituted polyfluorooxmetalates with quasi Wells-Dawson structures and a nitro terminal ligand, [NaH2M(NO2)W17F6O55](q-), were used as catalysts for the aerobic epoxidation of cyclic alkenes. The Cu(NO2) analog combined the best traits of conversion and selectivity. Some C-C bond cleavage was also observed and cis isomers reacted preferentially without stereochemical inversion indicating an oxygen atom to double bond concerted reaction.

  8. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Asim K; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P. (UMM)

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  9. Markedly Elevated Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide/Carbamazepine Ratio in a Fatal Carbamazepine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is a widely used anticonvulsant. Its metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, has been found to display similar anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties. While the ratio of parent to metabolite concentration varies significantly, at therapeutic doses the epoxide concentration is generally about 20% of the parent. We report a case of fatal carbamazepine overdose in which the epoxide metabolite concentration was found to be 450% higher than the parent compound, suggesting a potential role for metabolite quantification in severe toxicity.

  10. Chemistry of Fullerene Epoxides: Synthesis, Structure, and Nucleophilic Substitution-Addition Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Tajima; Yasuo Shigemitsu; Kazumasa Takeshi; Youhei Numata

    2012-01-01

    Fullerene epoxides, C60On, having epoxide groups directly attached to the fullerene cage, constitute an interesting class of fullerene derivatives. In particular, the chemical transformations of fullerene epoxides are expected to play an important role in the development of functionalized fullerenes. This is because such transformations can readily afford a variety of mono- or polyfunctionalized fullerene derivatives while conserving the epoxy rin...

  11. Concise epoxide-based synthesis of the C14-C25 bafilomycin A(1) polypropionate chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Elizabeth M; Mulero, Marlenne; Prieto, José A

    2012-04-25

    An efficient non-aldol convergent synthesis of the C14-C25 polyketide fragment of bafilomycin A(1) was completed in 16% overall yield and 8 steps in its longest linear sequence. This synthesis highlights the formation of the key fragments using a three-step sequence of epoxide cleavage, alkyne reduction, and epoxidation developed in our laboratory; starting from suitably protected enantiomeric epoxides of trans-2,3-epoxybutanol. This chemistry represents a quick asymmetric and diastereoselective construction of the polyketide chain of bafilomycin A(1), in which every stereogenic center was constructed using solely epoxide chemistry.

  12. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 glycoside hydrolase family 66 homolog catalyzes dextranolytic and cyclization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kang, Min-Sun; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Saburi, Wataru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Funane, Kazumi; Momma, Mitsuru; Fujimoto, Zui; Kobayashi, Mikihiko; Kim, Doman; Kimura, Atsuo

    2012-09-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 harbors a gene encoding a putative cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase (BT3087) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 66. The goal of the present study was to characterize the catalytic properties of this enzyme. Therefore, we expressed BT3087 (recombinant endo-dextranase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482) in Escherichia coli and determined that recombinant endo-dextranase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 preferentially synthesized isomaltotetraose and isomaltooligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 4) from dextran. The enzyme also generated large cyclic isomaltooligosaccharides early in the reaction. We conclude that members of the glycoside hydrolase 66 family may be classified into three types: (a) endo-dextranases, (b) dextranases possessing weak cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase activity, and (c) cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferases. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid in an olive oil-epoxidized olive oil-acetic acid-hydrogen peroxide-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Milovan R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid in a quinary system olive oil-epoxidized olive oil-acetic acid-hydrogen peroxide-water was experimentally determined for temperatures and component ratios relevant for in situ epoxidation of plant oils. The values has the constant range from 1.52 to 2.73. To predict the equilibrium constant for acetic acid, the experimental data were correlated with UNIQUAC (universal quasi chemical and NRTL (non-random two liquid activity coefficient models. For simplified calculation of the phase equilibrium the insolubility of olive oil and epoxidized olive oil in the water, as well as insolubility of water and hydrogen peroxide in the olive oil and epoxidized olive oil, was assumed. The root mean square deviation (RMSD of the experimental and calculated values of the liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid is 0.1910 for the UNIQUAC model and 0.1815 for the NRTL model. For rigorous flash calculation, when the partitioning of all components between the phases was assumed, the RMSD for the NRTL model is 0.1749. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45022

  14. Discovery of α-L-arabinopyranosidases from human gut microbiome expands the diversity within glycoside hydrolase family 42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Alexander Holm; Katayama, Takane; Arakawa, Takatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) are widespread in bacteria of the human gut microbiome and play fundamental roles in the decomposition of both milk and plant oligosaccharides. All GH42 enzymes characterized so far have β-galactosidase activity. Here, we report the existence...

  15. Lysosomal physiology in Tetrahymena. 3. Pharmacological studies on acid hydrolase release and the ingestion and egestion of dimethylbenzanthracene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, T L; Blum, J J

    1974-09-01

    The ingestion of (14)C-labeled 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene particles, the extracellular release of acid phosphatase, ribonuclease, and alpha-glucosidase, and the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles by Tetrahymena taken from logarithmically growing cultures and resuspended in a dilute salt solution were followed in the presence of several pharmacologic agents. Serotonin, caffeine, and, to a lesser extent, dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased the rate of particle ingestion, but did not alter the rate of release of the three acid hydrolases studied. Added catecholamines did not affect either particle ingestion or acid hydrolase release, but particle ingestion was inhibited by the catecholamine antagonists, dichloroisoproterenol, desmethylimipramine, reserpine, and phenoxybenzamine. These drugs also increased the release of acid phosphatase and ribonuclease in 5-h incubations. Desmethylimipramine acted within 1 h to increase acid hydrolase release, but the effect of dichloroisoproterenol developed more slowly and was secondary to a change in cellular content of the hydrolases. Desmethylimipramine increased the energy of activation for the release of acid phosphatase, while dichloroisoproterenol did not. Both of these drugs enhanced the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles, supporting the view that acid hydrolase release occurs through a cytoproct egestion mechanism. Particle ingestion was also inhibited by colchicine, vinblastine, and cytochalasin B, but these agents had no effect on acid hydrolase release, thus further differentiating the properties of the ingestion mechanism from those of the egestion mechanism. It appears that both microtubules and microfilaments play a role in the ingestion process and that this process may be controlled in part by a cyclic AMP-mediated serotoninergic and adrenergic system.

  16. The influence of ferric (III citrate on ATP-hydrolases of Desulfuromonas acetoxidans ІМV В-7384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maslovska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Desulfuromonas acetoxidans obtains energy for growth by the anaerobic oxidation of organic compounds with the carbon dioxide formation. It was found that ferrum and manganese are used as terminal electron acceptors in the processes of anaerobic respiration, such as dissimilative Fe3+- and Mn4+-reduction, carried out by these bacteria (Lovely, 1991. D. acetoxidans ІМV B-7384 can be used as anode biocatalyst in microbial fuel cell with high electron recovery through acetate oxidation to the electric current as a result of electron transfer to the anode or 3d-type transition metals, such as ferrum and manganese, in the process of their reduction. Investigation of biochemical changes of D. acetoxidans ІМV B-7384 under the influence of Fe (III compounds is important for optimization of the process of bacterial electricity generation. ATP-hydrolase is located in cytoplasmic membrane, and its subunits are exposed to both the cytoplasm and the external environment. Therefore, the changes of that enzyme activity can be used as an indicator of various stress exposure. Presence of ferric iron ions in the bacterial growth medium could catalyze generation of organic reactive oxygen species, such as peroxyl (ROO- and alkoxyl (RO- radicals. Lipid peroxidation is one of the main reasons of cell damage and it’s following death under the influence of reactive oxygen metabolites. It is known that lipid peroxidation and membrane transport processes are somehow interrelated, but mechanisms of such interaction are still unidentified. In our previous researche we have shown the influence of ferric (III citrate on the intensity of lipid peroxidation of D. аcetoxidans ІМV В-7384. Significant increase of the content of lipid peroxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde in bacterial cells has been observed under the addition of ferric (III citrate into the cultural medium. The increase of the concentration of lipid

  17. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  18. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luen-Luen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate. Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  19. A DFT study on catalytic epoxidation of ethylene over Ti-doped graphene nanoflake in the presence of NO molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Saeidi, Nasibeh; Dinparast, Leila

    2017-11-01

    DFT calculations are performed to investigate the catalytic activity of Ti-doped graphene nanoflake (Ti-GNF) in oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide by NO molecules. According to our results, this reaction proceeds in three steps. At first, two NO molecules are adsorbed on Ti-GNF in the dimer form and the reaction starts with the dissociation of (NO)2 into N2O and Oads species. Next, ethylene is oxidized to ethyleneoxy intermediate by Oads. Finally, the cyclization of ethyleneoxy results the ethylene oxide as a desirable product. The activation energies suggest that Ti-GNF is an efficient catalyst for the epoxidation of ethylene by NO.

  20. Diastereodivergent and Enantioselective Access to Spiroepoxides via Organocatalytic Epoxidation of Unsaturated Pyrazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meninno, Sara; Roselli, Angelo; Capobianco, Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    organocatalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidant. The epoxidation appears applicable to highly challenging β,β'-substituted unsaturated pyrazolones, giving access to spiroepoxides bearing two vicinal quaternary stereocenters. The reaction represents a unique example of Weitz-Scheffer epoxidation, where...

  1. Resolution of limonene 1,2-epoxide diastereomers by mercury(II) ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M. van der; Jongejan, H.; Franssen, M.C.R.

    2001-01-01

    When HgCl2 was added to a diastereomeric mixture of cis- and trans-(4S)-limonene 1,2-epoxide, the Hg(II) ions stereoselectively complexed to the cis epoxide, enabling ring opening by water. The resulting mercuric salt could be demetalated by treatment with NaBH4, giving a mixture of diastereomeric

  2. Asymmetric Epoxidation: A Twinned Laboratory and Molecular Modeling Experiment for Upper-Level Organic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S.; Smith, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of a student experiment involving the preparation and use of a catalyst for the asymmetric epoxidation of an alkene with computational simulations of various properties of the resulting epoxide is set out in the form of a software toolbox from which students select appropriate components. At the core of these are the computational…

  3. Enzyme-catalyzed nucleophilic ring opening of Epoxides for the preparation of enantiopure tertiary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeric Elenkov, Maja; Hoeffken, H. Wolfgang; Tang, Lixia; Hauer, Bernhard; Janssen, Dick B.

    2007-01-01

    The halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) catalyzes nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides with cyanide and azide. In the case of 2,2-disubstituted epoxides, this reaction proceeds with excellent enantioselectivity (E values up to > 200), which gives, by kinetic

  4. Enzyme-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides for the Preparation of Enantiopure Tertiary Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeric Elenkov, Maja; Hoeffken, H. Wolfgang; Tang, Lixia; Hauer, Bernhard; Janssen, Dick B.

    2007-01-01

    The halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) catalyzes nucleophilic ring opening of epoxides with cyanide and azide. In the case of 2,2-disubstituted epoxides, this reaction proceeds with excellent enantioselectivity (E values up to >200), which gives, by kinetic resolution,

  5. Inversion of product selectivity in an enzyme-inspired metallosupramolecular tweezer catalyzed epoxidation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmann, Pirmin A; Braunschweig, Adam B; Lee, One-Sun; Wiester, Michael J; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2009-09-14

    This study describes a heteroligated, hemilabile Pt(II)-P,S tweezer coordination complex that combines a chiral Jacobsen-Katsuki Mn(III)-salen epoxidation catalyst with an amidopyridine receptor, which leads to an inversion of the major epoxide product compared to catalysts without a recognition group.

  6. Inversion of product selectivity in an enzyme-inspired metallosupramolecular tweezer catalyzed epoxidation reaction†

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmann, Pirmin A.; Braunschweig, Adam B.; Lee, One-Sun; Wiester, Michael J.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a heteroligated, hemilabile PtII–P,S tweezer coordination complex that combines a chiral Jacobsen–Katsuki MnIII-salen epoxidation catalyst with an amidopyridine receptor, which leads to an inversion of the major epoxide product compared to catalysts without a recognition group.

  7. Investigation of the microheterogeneity and aglycone specificity-conferring residues of black cherry prunasin hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiming; Hartmann, Stefanie; Shepherd, Brianne K; Poulton, Jonathan E

    2002-07-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is degraded to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), and mandelonitrile lyase. Leaves are also highly cyanogenic because they possess (R)-prunasin, PH, and mandelonitrile lyase. Taking both enzymological and molecular approaches, we demonstrate here that black cherry PH is encoded by a putative multigene family of at least five members. Their respective cDNAs (designated Ph1, Ph2, Ph3, Ph4, and Ph5) predict isoforms that share 49% to 92% amino acid identity with members of glycoside hydrolase family 1, including their catalytic asparagine-glutamate-proline and isoleucine-threonine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine motifs. Furthermore, consistent with the vacuolar/protein body location and glycoprotein character of these hydrolases, their open reading frames predict N-terminal signal sequences and multiple potential N-glycosylation sites. Genomic sequences corresponding to the open reading frames of these PHs and of the previously isolated AH1 isoform are interrupted at identical positions by 12 introns. Earlier studies established that native AH and PH display strict specificities toward their respective glucosidic substrates. Such behavior was also shown by recombinant AH1, PH2, and PH4 proteins after expression in Pichia pastoris. Three amino acid moieties that may play a role in conferring such aglycone specificities were predicted by structural modeling and comparative sequence analysis and tested by introducing single and multiple mutations into isoform AH1 by site-directed mutagenesis. The double mutant AH ID (Y200I and G394D) hydrolyzed prunasin at approximately 150% of the rate of amygdalin hydrolysis, whereas the other mutations failed to engender PH activity.

  8. Investigation of the Microheterogeneity and Aglycone Specificity-Conferring Residues of Black Cherry Prunasin Hydrolases1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiming; Hartmann, Stefanie; Shepherd, Brianne K.; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    2002-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is degraded to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), and mandelonitrile lyase. Leaves are also highly cyanogenic because they possess (R)-prunasin, PH, and mandelonitrile lyase. Taking both enzymological and molecular approaches, we demonstrate here that black cherry PH is encoded by a putative multigene family of at least five members. Their respective cDNAs (designated Ph1, Ph2, Ph3, Ph4, and Ph5) predict isoforms that share 49% to 92% amino acid identity with members of glycoside hydrolase family 1, including their catalytic asparagine-glutamate-proline and isoleucine-threonine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine motifs. Furthermore, consistent with the vacuolar/protein body location and glycoprotein character of these hydrolases, their open reading frames predict N-terminal signal sequences and multiple potential N-glycosylation sites. Genomic sequences corresponding to the open reading frames of these PHs and of the previously isolated AH1 isoform are interrupted at identical positions by 12 introns. Earlier studies established that native AH and PH display strict specificities toward their respective glucosidic substrates. Such behavior was also shown by recombinant AH1, PH2, and PH4 proteins after expression in Pichia pastoris. Three amino acid moieties that may play a role in conferring such aglycone specificities were predicted by structural modeling and comparative sequence analysis and tested by introducing single and multiple mutations into isoform AH1 by site-directed mutagenesis. The double mutant AH ID (Y200I and G394D) hydrolyzed prunasin at approximately 150% of the rate of amygdalin hydrolysis, whereas the other mutations failed to engender PH activity. PMID:12114579

  9. Structural and functional analysis of a glycoside hydrolase family 97 enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Momoyo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Mori, Haruhide; Kitago, Yu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Atsuo; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2008-12-26

    SusB, an 84-kDa alpha-glucoside hydrolase involved in the starch utilization system (sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 97. We have determined the enzymatic characteristics and the crystal structures in free and acarbose-bound form at 1.6A resolution. SusB hydrolyzes the alpha-glucosidic linkage, with inversion of anomeric configuration liberating the beta-anomer of glucose as the reaction product. The substrate specificity of SusB, hydrolyzing not only alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages but also alpha-1,6-, alpha-1,3-, and alpha-1,2-glucosidic linkages, is clearly different from other well known glucoamylases belonging to GH15. The structure of SusB was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method with sulfur atoms as anomalous scatterers using an in-house x-ray source. SusB includes three domains as follows: the N-terminal, catalytic, and C-terminal domains. The structure of the SusB-acarbose complex shows a constellation of carboxyl groups at the catalytic center; Glu532 is positioned to provide protonic assistance to leaving group departure, with Glu439 and Glu508 both positioned to provide base-catalyzed assistance for inverting nucleophilic attack by water. A structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed significant similarity between the catalytic domain of SusB and those of alpha-retaining glycoside hydrolases belonging to GH27, -36, and -31 despite the differences in catalytic mechanism. SusB and the other retaining enzymes appear to have diverged from a common ancestor and individually acquired the functional carboxyl groups during the process of evolution. Furthermore, sequence comparison of the active site based on the structure of SusB indicated that GH97 included both retaining and inverting enzymes.

  10. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V.; Vorhaben, Torge; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George K.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2012-05-01

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme-nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme-nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  11. Nonisocyanate polyurethane materials, and their preparation from epoxidized soybean oils and related epoxidized vegetable oils, incorporation of carbon dioxide into soybean oil, and carbonation of vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Novel carbonated vegetable oils (such as carbonated soybean oil) are made by reacting carbon dioxide with an epoxidized vegetable oil. The carbonated vegetable oils advantageously may be used for producing nonisocyanate polyurethane materials.

  12. OBTAINING COTTON SEED OIL EPOXIDIZED USING AN WEAK ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cruz-Aldaco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, parameters which influence the chemical modification under mild conditions using a weak organic acid, fatty acids of unsaturated oil, cottonseed to produce epoxidized oil, which is a useful precursor in obtaining resins epoxy industrial importance, were evaluated. We studied the following reaction parameters: concentration of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, catalyst and solvent, as well as temperature, agitation rate and reaction time. The results showed that the agitation and temperature are the parameters which influence the modification of unsaturated fatty acids. Studied conditions allowed obtaining up to 70% relative conversion of oxygen-oxirane from cottonseed oil.

  13. Structural and dynamical aspects of alkylammonium salts of a silicodecatungstate as heterogeneous epoxidation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sayaka; Kamata, Keigo; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Megumi; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2012-09-07

    The structural and dynamical aspects of alkylammonium salts of a silicodecatungstate [(CH(3))(4)N](4)[γ-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)] [C1], [(n-C(3)H(7))(4)N](4)[γ-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)] [C3], [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)N](4)[γ-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)] [C4], and [(n-C(5)H(11))(4)N](4)[γ-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)] [C5] were investigated. The results of sorption isotherms, XRD analyses, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy show that facile sorption of solvent molecules, flexibility of structures, and high mobility of alkylammonium cations are crucial to the uniform distribution of reactant and oxidant molecules throughout the bulk solid, which are related to the high catalytic activities for epoxidation of alkenes.

  14. Synthetic Applications of Chiral Unsaturated Epoxy Alcohols Prepared by Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the synthesis and applications of chiral 2,3-epoxy alcohols containing unsaturated chains is presented. One of the fundamental synthetic routes to these compounds is Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which is reliable, highly chemoselective and enables easy prediction of the product enantioselectivity. Thus, unsaturated epoxy alcohols are readily obtained by selective oxidation of the allylic double bond in the presence of other carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The wide availability of epoxy alcohols with unsaturated chains, the versatility of the epoxy alcohol functionality (e.g. regio- and stereo-selective ring opening; oxidation; and reduction, and the arsenal of established alkene chemistries, make unsaturated epoxy alcohols powerful starting materials for the synthesis of complex targets such as biologically active molecules. The popularization of ring-closing metathesis has further increased their value, making them excellent precursors to cyclic compounds.

  15. Evidence for lysosomal exocytosis and release of aggrecan-degrading hydrolases from hypertrophic chondrocytes, in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Bastow

    2012-02-01

    The abundant proteoglycan, aggrecan, is resorbed from growth plate cartilage during endochondral bone ossification, yet mice with genetically-ablated aggrecan-degrading activity have no defects in bone formation. To account for this apparent anomaly, we propose that lysosomal hydrolases degrade extracellular, hyaluronan-bound aggrecan aggregates in growth plate cartilage, and that lysosomal hydrolases are released from hypertrophic chondrocytes into growth plate cartilage via Ca2+-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. In this study we confirm that hypertrophic chondrocytes release hydrolases via lysosomal exocytosis in vitro and we show in vivo evidence for lysosomal exocytosis in hypertrophic chondrocytes during skeletal development. We show that lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1 is detected at the cell surface following in vitro treatment of epiphyseal chondrocytes with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Furthermore, we show that in addition to the lysosomal exocytosis markers, cathepsin D and β-hexosaminidase, ionomycin induces release of aggrecan- and hyaluronan-degrading activity from cultured epiphyseal chondrocytes. We identify VAMP-8 and VAMP7 as v-SNARE proteins with potential roles in lysosomal exocytosis in hypertrophic chondrocytes, based on their colocalisation with LAMP1 at the cell surface in secondary ossification centers in mouse tibiae. We propose that resorbing growth plate cartilage involves release of destructive hydrolases from hypertrophic chondrocytes, via lysosomal exocytosis.

  16. Heterologous expression of the methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Tatheer; Cheesman, Matthew J; Williams, Michelle R; Campbell, Peter M; Ahmed, Safia; Russell, Robyn J; Scott, Colin; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-10-26

    The methyl carbamate-degrading hydrolase (MCD) of Achromobacter WM111 has considerable potential as a pesticide bioremediation agent. However this potential has been unrealisable until now because of an inability to express MCD in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli. Herein, we describe the first successful attempt to express appreciable quantities of MCD in active form in E. coli, and the subsequent characterisation of the heterologously expressed material. We find that the properties of this material closely match the previously reported properties of MCD produced from Achromobacter WM111. This includes the presence of two distinct forms of the enzyme that we show are most likely due to the presence of two functional translational start sites. The purified enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of a carbamate (carbaryl), a carboxyl ester (alpha-naphthyl acetate) and a phophotriester (dimethyl umbelliferyl phosphate) and it is relatively resistant to thermal and solvent-mediated denaturation. The robust nature and catalytic promiscuity of MCD suggest that it could be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

  17. Structure and molecular characterization of barley nudix hydrolase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Kihara, Makoto; Sugimoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Putative nudix hydrolase (NUDX) genes, which encode amino acid sequences showing homology with those of Arabidopsis NUDXs and conserve nudix motif, were identified from barley. The 14 deduced barley NUDXs (HvNUDX1-14) were classified into established subfamilies, except for 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) pyrophosphohydrolase and mRNA decapping enzyme subfamilies, and three substrate-unknown subfamilies. Drought and UV-C stresses, respectively, up-regulated 7 and 4 HvNUDX genes, but some homologs of Arabidopsis NUDXs showed different responses to abiotic stress. HvNUDX12 gene, belonging to diadenosine tetraphosphates (Ap₄A) pyrophosphohydrolase subfamily gene and up-regulated by UV-C, was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein showed 8-oxo-dGTP, Ap₄A, and guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) pyrophosphohydrolase activities, and the suppression of the lacZ amber mutation in a mutT-deficient E. coli cells caused by the incorporation of 8-oxo-GTP into mRNA was prevented to a significant degree. These results suggest that barley NUDXs have unique constitution and response of NUDX to abiotic stress.

  18. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hurst-Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5 is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis.

  19. Identification and characterization of a peptidoglycan hydrolase, MurA, of Listeria monocytogenes, a muramidase needed for cell separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shannon A; Hain, Torsten; Technow, Ulrike; Darji, Ayub; Pashalidis, Philippos; Joseph, Sam W; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2003-12-01

    A novel cell wall hydrolase encoded by the murA gene of Listeria monocytogenes is reported here. Mature MurA is a 66-kDa cell surface protein that is recognized by the well-characterized L. monocytogenes-specific monoclonal antibody EM-7G1. MurA displays two characteristic features: (i) an N-terminal domain with homology to muramidases from several gram-positive bacterial species and (ii) four copies of a cell wall-anchoring LysM repeat motif present within its C-terminal domain. Purified recombinant MurA produced in Escherichia coli was confirmed to be an authentic cell wall hydrolase with lytic properties toward cell wall preparations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. An isogenic mutant with a deletion of murA that lacked the 66-kDa cell wall hydrolase grew as long chains during exponential growth. Complementation of the mutant strain by chromosomal reintegration of the wild-type gene restored expression of this murein hydrolase activity and cell separation levels to those of the wild-type strain. Studies reported herein suggest that the MurA protein is involved in generalized autolysis of L. monocytogenes.

  20. Epoxidation of soybean oil with [MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2}]/TBHP Catalytic system in [bmim][PF{sub 6}]; Epoxidacao do oleo de soja com o sistema catalitico [MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2}]/TBHP em [bmim][PF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Maritana [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Sul-rio-grandense, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Martinelli, Marcia, E-mail: maritana@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    2012-07-01

    Epoxidation of soybean oil was investigated using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF{sub 6}] ionic liquid as biphasic medium with molybdenum(VI) acetylacetonate complex and tert-butyl hydroperoxide TBHP as oxidizing agent. Reaction conditions were molar ratio TBHP:number of double bonds of oil:catalyst of 100:100:1, reaction temperature of 60 deg C and reaction time between 2 and 24 h. The proposed system showed catalytic activity for epoxidation reactions under tested conditions. Reuse of ionic liquid/catalyst system for epoxidation reactions was also investigated. Evaluation of epoxidation observed in this catalytic system was done by quantitative {sup 1}H NMR data. (author)

  1. Characterization of a Nudix hydrolase from Deinococcus radiodurans with a marked specificity for (deoxyribonucleoside 5'-diphosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Hiroyuki

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nudix hydrolases form a protein family whose function is to hydrolyse intracellular nucleotides and so regulate their levels and eliminate potentially toxic derivatives. The genome of the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans encodes 25 nudix hydrolases, an unexpectedly large number. These may contribute to radioresistance by removing mutagenic oxidised and otherwise damaged nucleotides. Characterisation of these hydrolases is necessary to understand the reason for their presence. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the DR0975 gene product, a nudix hydrolase that appears to be unique to this organism. Results The DR0975 gene was cloned and expressed as a 20 kDa histidine-tagged recombinant product in Escherichia coli. Substrate analysis of the purified enzyme showed it to act primarily as a phosphatase with a marked preference for (deoxynucleoside 5'-diphosphates (dGDP > ADP > dADP > GDP > dTDP > UDP > dCDP > CDP. Km for dGDP was 110 μM and kcat was 0.18 s-1 under optimal assay conditions (pH 9.4, 7.5 mM Mg2+. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate (8-OH-dGDP was also a substrate with a Km of 170 μM and kcat of 0.13 s-1. Thus, DR0975 showed no preference for 8-OH-dGDP over dGDP. Limited pyrophosphatase activity was also observed with NADH and some (diadenosine polyphosphates but no other substrates. Expression of the DR0975 gene was undetectable in logarithmic phase cells but was induced at least 30-fold in stationary phase. Superoxide, but not peroxide, stress and slow, but not rapid, dehydration both caused a slight induction of the DR0975 gene. Conclusion Nucleotide substrates for nudix hydrolases conform to the structure NDP-X, where X can be one of several moieties. Thus, a preference for (dNDPs themselves is most unusual. The lack of preference for 8-OH-dGDP over dGDP as a substrate combined with the induction in stationary phase, but not by peroxide or superoxide, suggests that the

  2. Chemistry of Fullerene Epoxides: Synthesis, Structure, and Nucleophilic Substitution-Addition Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tajima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene epoxides, C60On, having epoxide groups directly attached to the fullerene cage, constitute an interesting class of fullerene derivatives. In particular, the chemical transformations of fullerene epoxides are expected to play an important role in the development of functionalized fullerenes. This is because such transformations can readily afford a variety of mono- or polyfunctionalized fullerene derivatives while conserving the epoxy ring arrangement on the fullerene surface, as seen in representative regioisomeric fullerene polyepoxides. The first part of this review addresses the synthesis and structural characterization of fullerene epoxides. The formation of fullerene epoxides through different oxidation reactions is then explored. Adequate characterization of the isolated fullerene epoxides was achieved by concerted use of NMR and LC-MS techniques. The second part of this review addresses the substitution of fullerene epoxides in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst. Most major substitution products have been isolated as pure compounds and their structures established through spectroscopic methods. The correlation between the structure of the substitution product and the oxygenation pattern of the starting materials allows elucidation of the mechanistic features of this transformation. This approach promises to lead to rigorous regioselective production of various fullerene derivatives for a wide range of applications.

  3. Chemistry of fullerene epoxides: synthesis, structure, and nucleophilic substitution-addition reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Takeshi, Kazumasa; Shigemitsu, Yasuo; Numata, Youhei

    2012-05-25

    Fullerene epoxides, C₆₀O(n), having epoxide groups directly attached to the fullerene cage, constitute an interesting class of fullerene derivatives. In particular, the chemical transformations of fullerene epoxides are expected to play an important role in the development of functionalized fullerenes. This is because such transformations can readily afford a variety of mono- or polyfunctionalized fullerene derivatives while conserving the epoxy ring arrangement on the fullerene surface, as seen in representative regioisomeric fullerene polyepoxides. The first part of this review addresses the synthesis and structural characterization of fullerene epoxides. The formation of fullerene epoxides through different oxidation reactions is then explored. Adequate characterization of the isolated fullerene epoxides was achieved by concerted use of NMR and LC-MS techniques. The second part of this review addresses the substitution of fullerene epoxides in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst. Most major substitution products have been isolated as pure compounds and their structures established through spectroscopic methods. The correlation between the structure of the substitution product and the oxygenation pattern of the starting materials allows elucidation of the mechanistic features of this transformation. This approach promises to lead to rigorous regioselective production of various fullerene derivatives for a wide range of applications.

  4. Optimization of the fermentation conditions and substrate specifity of mycelium-bound ester hydrolases of Aspergillus oryzae Cs007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hong Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve mycelium-bound ester hydrolases activities of Aspergillus oryzae Cs007, the main production conditions were investigated. The ester hydrolases activities were simultaneously determined by titration assay and spectrophotometric assay methods, using olive oil and p-nitrophenyl esters as substrates, respectively. The optimum carbon source and nitrogen source were olive oil and peptone, with the concentrations of 1% and 2.2%, respectively. The effects of carbon source, nitrogen source and their concentrations on the production of enzymes were identical when the enzymes activities were assayed by the two methods. The mycelium-bound enzymes showed hydrolytic activity toward all the tested p-nitrophenyl esters, triglycerides and fatty acid ethyl esters. But it showed greater preference for long-chain triglycerides and short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters.

  5. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase : Purification, N-Terminal Sequencing, and Antibody Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C P; Swain, E; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I', II, II') were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, K(m), V(max)) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen.

  6. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  7. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  8. A proton wire and water channel revealed in the crystal structure of isatin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state, are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to ...

  9. Recognition of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Todd A; Bakota, Erica L; Price, Neil P J

    2017-06-01

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific peptide bond but select one of many Gly-Gly bonds within the polyglycine region. Some Gly-Gly bonds are cleaved frequently while others are never cleaved. Moreover, we have previously shown that PGHs from different fungal pathogens prefer to cleave different Gly-Gly peptide bonds. It is not understood how PGHs selectively cleave the ChitA linker, especially because its polyglycine structure lacks peptide sidechains. To gain insights into this process we synthesized several peptide analogs of ChitA to evaluate them as potential substrates and inhibitors of Es-cmp, a PGH from the plant pathogenic fungus Epicoccum sorghi. Our results showed that part of the PGH recognition site for substrate chitinases is adjacent to the polyglycine linker on the carboxy side. More specifically, four amino acid residues were implicated, each spaced four residues apart on an alpha helix. Moreover, analogous peptides with selective Gly->sarcosine (N-methylglycine) mutations or a specific Ser->Thr mutation retained inhibitor activity but were no longer cleaved by PGH. Additonally, our findings suggest that peptide analogs of ChitA that inhibit PGH activity could be used to strengthen plant defenses. Published by Wiley-Blackwell. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of sunflower oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rosana de Cassia S.; Lara, Luciano R.S. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica], e-mail: rosana@unisc.br; Bitencourt, Thiago B.; Nascimento, Maria da Graca [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nunes, Marta R. dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of the methyl esters of sunflower oil with lipase from Candida antarctica B and aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence and absence of an acyl donor was investigated. The biphasic system (CH{sub C}l{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) comprised Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB, 1000 u g{sup -1}) and 30% (v/v) aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In some cases the conversion was higher than 99%. The best results were obtained for the biphasic system after 16 h of reaction, at 30 deg C, using 10 mmol of octanoic acid in relation to 1 g of the oil, 6 mL of dichloromethane and 5 mL of water. (author)

  11. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2014-01-01

    of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α...... five CSRs and catalytic machinery, and adopt a (β/α)7-barrel fold. These family GH57 attributes are likely to be characteristic of α-amylases from the family GH119, too. With regard to family GH126, confirmation of the unambiguous presence of the α-amylase specificity may need more biochemical...

  12. α/β Hydrolase fold enzymes: the family keeps growing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardini, Marco; Dijkstra, B W

    1999-01-01

    The alpha/beta hydrolase fold is a typical example of a tertiary fold adopted by proteins that have no obvious sequence similarity, but nevertheless, in the course of evolution, diverged from a common ancestor. Recently solved structures demonstrate a considerably increased variability in fold

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  14. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Zelander, T

    1990-01-01

    A mitochondrial pellet, prepared from rat skeletal muscle, contained a number of carboxylic ester hydrolase isoenzymes. The esterases which split alpha-naphthyl acetate were organophosphate sensitive, whereas two out of three indoxyl acetate hydrolysing enzymes were resistant to both organophosph...

  15. ENGINEERING OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN HYDROLASES FOR CONTROL OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are viruses exclusively infecting bacteria and therefore offer suitable tools for their detection and control. At the end of their multiplication cycle, most phages lyse their hosts from within by means of an endolysin (peptidoglycan hydrolase), thereby enabling release of the phage p...

  16. Recognition of corn defense chitinases by fungal polyglycine hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific pe...

  17. Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum - Biochemical and genetic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, H; Hashiba, Honoo; Kok, Jan; Mierau, Igor

    A bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was isolated from Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928, purified, and characterized, Furthermore, we describe for the first time cloning and analysis of the gene encoding BSII (bsh) in a member of the genus Bifidobacterium. The enzyme has a native molecular weight of 125,000 to

  18. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Environ. Manage. December, 2009. Vol. 13(4) 95 - 97. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from Tannin rich. Environment, using Tamarindus indica seed powder. 1WILSON PETER A.; 2ROJAN P. JOHN;1PRAVEEN KUMAR; 1*SABU THOMAS.

  19. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  20. Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Alkenes and Reusability Study of the Phenylacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Abdulmalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we focused on a simple enzymatic epoxidation of alkenes using lipase and phenylacetic acid. The immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435 was used to catalyse the formation of peroxy acid instantly from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and phenylacetic acid. The peroxy phenylacetic acid generated was then utilised directly for in situ oxidation of alkenes. A variety of alkenes were oxidised with this system, resulting in 75–99% yield of the respective epoxides. On the other hand, the phenylacetic acid was recovered from the reaction media and reused for more epoxidation. Interestingly, the waste phenylacetic acid had the ability to be reused for epoxidation of the 1-nonene to 1-nonene oxide, giving an excellent yield of 90%.

  1. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by Pleosporineae fungi that target the linker region of plant class IV chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Todd A; Wicklow, Donald T; Price, Neil P J

    2014-06-01

    Cmps (chitinase-modifying proteins) are fungal proteases that truncate plant class IV chitinases by cleaving near their N-termini. We previously described Fv-cmp, a fungalysin protease that cleaves a conserved glycine-cysteine bond within the hevein domain. In the present paper we describe a new type of cmp, polyglycine hydrolases, as proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker of plant class IV chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were purified from Cochliobolus carbonum (syn. Bipolaris zeicola; Bz-cmp) and Epicoccum sorghi (syn. Phoma sorghina; Es-cmp) and were shown to cleave three different maize class IV chitinase substrates. The proteolytic cleavage sites were assessed by SDS/PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS and indicated the cleavage of multiple peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker regions. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce mutants of maize ChitB chitinase in which two serine residues in its linker were systematically modified to glycine. Serine to glycine changes in the ChitB linker resulted in higher susceptibility to truncation by Bz-cmp and altered substrate specificity for Bz-cmp and Es-cmp, such that different glycine-glycine peptide bonds were cleaved. Removal of the hevein domain led to loss of Es-cmp activity, indicating that interactions outside of the active site are important for recognition. Our findings demonstrate that plant class IV chitinases with polyglycine linkers are targeted for truncation by selective polyglycine hydrolases that are secreted by plant pathogenic fungi. This novel proteolysis of polyglycine motifs is previously unreported, but the specificity is similar to that of bacterial lysostaphin proteases, which cleave pentaglycine cross-links from peptidoglycan.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of fatty acid amide hydrolase in Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D'Addario

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer disease (AD is a progressive, degenerative and irreversible neurological disorder with few therapies available. In search for new potential targets, increasing evidence suggests a role for the endocannabinoid system (ECS in the regulation of neurodegenerative processes. METHODS: We have studied the gene expression status and the epigenetic regulation of ECS components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of subjects with late-onset AD (LOAD and age-matched controls (CT. RESULTS: We found an increase in fatty acid amide hydrolase (faah gene expression in LOAD subjects (2.30 ± 0.48 when compared to CT (1.00 ± 0.14; *p<0.05 and no changes in the mRNA levels of any other gene of ECS elements. Consistently, we also observed in LOAD subjects an increase in FAAH protein levels (CT: 0.75 ± 0.04; LOAD: 1.11 ± 0.15; *p<0.05 and activity (pmol/min per mg protein CT: 103.80 ± 8.73; LOAD: 125.10 ± 4.00; *p<0.05, as well as a reduction in DNA methylation at faah gene promoter (CT: 55.90 ± 4.60%; LOAD: 41.20 ± 4.90%; *p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggest the involvement of FAAH in the pathogenesis of AD, highlighting the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in enzyme regulation; they also point to FAAH as a new potential biomarker for AD in easily accessible peripheral cells.

  3. Alterations of intestinal glycoprotein hydrolases in congenital diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The diabetic BioBreed (BB{sub d}) rat was used for the study of the molecular structure of intestinal brush border sucrase-{alpha}-dextrinase (SD) and aminooligopeptidase (AOP) in diabetes mellitus. The specific catalytic activity of S-D and AOP in the BB{sub d} rat is normal. However, solid-phase radioimmunoassay revealed loss of some antigenic determinants in the BB{sub d} rat. S-D and AOP migrated abnormally on 6% SDS-gel electrophoresis in the BB{sub d} rat. S was larger (+5 kDa), D was either smaller (-5 kDa) or unaltered, and AOP was smaller (-5 kDa) in the BB{sub d} than in the normal Wistar. The structural abnormalities were independent of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis and restored to normal by daily insulin treatment (NPH, 3-4 units/rat) for two to three weeks. Newly-synthesized brush border hydrolases were examined after 6 hours of intraperitoneal injection of ({sup 35}S) methionine (2 mCi) and found to be altered, suggesting that structural abnormality appeared acutely during intracellular synthesis rather than being due to slow extracellular modifications such as non-enzymatic glycosylation. Deglycosylation of brush border proteins by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in an apoprotein with normal electrophoretic migration in BB{sub d}, indicating that the alteration was due to the carbohydrates component of the glycoprotein. Pulse-chase studies with ({sup 35}S) methionine were consistent with normal protein an co-translational and initial N-linked carbohydrate assembly in association with the endoplasmic reticulum in BB{sub d}. However, the post-translational maturation of N-linked and addition of 0-linked carbohydrate chains in Golgi were prolonged, and produced a larger single-chain precursor of S-D in BB{sub d} than normal.

  4. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  5. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  6. A Dynamic Supramolecular System Exhibiting Substrate Selectivity in the Catalytic Epoxidation of Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Stefan; Odille, Fabrice G. J.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction.......A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction....

  7. Synergistic function of four novel thermostable glycoside hydrolases from a long-term enriched thermophilic methanogenic digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Lai, Guo-Li; Nie, Yong; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Liming; Zhu, Baoli; Shi, Zhongping; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    In biofuel production from lignocellulose, low thermostability and product inhibition strongly restrict the enzyme activities and production process. Application of multiple thermostable glycoside hydrolases, forming an enzyme “cocktail”, can result in a synergistic action and therefore improve production efficiency and reduce operational costs. Therefore, increasing enzyme thermostabilities and compatibility are important for the biofuel industry. In this study, we reported the screening, cloning and biochemical characterization of four novel thermostable lignocellulose hydrolases from a metagenomic library of a long-term dry thermophilic methanogenic digester community, which were highly compatible with optimal conditions and specific activities. The optimal temperatures of the four enzymes, β-xylosidase, xylanase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase ranged from 60 to 75°C, and over 80% residual activities were observed after 2 h incubation at 50°C. Mixtures of these hydrolases retained high residual synergistic activities after incubation with cellulose, xylan, and steam-exploded corncob at 50°C for 72 h. In addition, about 55% dry weight of steam-exploded corncob was hydrolyzed to glucose and xylose by the synergistic action of the four enzymes at 50°C for 48 h. This work suggested that since different enzymes from a same ecosystem could be more compatible, screening enzymes from a long-term enriching community could be a favorable strategy. PMID:26052323

  8. Synergistic function of four novel thermostable glycoside hydrolases from a long-term enriched thermophilic methanogenic digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In biofuel production from lignocellulose, low thermostability and product inhibition strongly restrict the enzyme activities and production process. Application of multiple thermostable glycoside hydrolases, forming an enzyme cocktail, can result in a synergistic action and therefore improve production efficiency and reduce operational costs. Therefore, increasing enzyme thermostabilities and compatibility are important for the biofuel industry. In this study, we reported the screening, cloning and biochemical characterization of four novel thermostable lignocellulose hydrolases from a metagenomic library of a long-term dry thermophilic methanogenic digester community, which were highly compatible with optimal conditions and specific activities. The optimal temperatures of the four enzymes, β-xylosidase, xylanase, β-glucosidase, and cellulase ranged from 60°C to 75°C, and over 80% residual activities were observed after 2 h incubation at 50°C. Mixtures of these hydrolases retained high residual synergistic activities after incubation with cellulose, xylan, and steam-exploded corncob at 50°C for 72 h. In addition, about 55% dry weight of steam-exploded corncob was hydrolyzed to glucose and xylose by the synergistic action of the four enzymes at 50°C for 48 h. This work suggested that since different enzymes from a same ecosystem could be more compatible, screening enzymes from a long-term enriching community could be a favorable strategy.

  9. Consolidation of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 : a dual domain 4/7 hydrolase family consisting of two structurally distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz J. St John; Javier M. Gonzalez; Edwin Pozharski

    2010-01-01

    In this work glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 30 (GH30) is analyzed and shown to consist of its currently classified member sequences as well as several homologous sequence groups currently assigned within family GH5. A large scale amino acid sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree were generated and GH30 groups and subgroups were designated. A partial rearrangement...

  10. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-d-xylopyranose-(1→6)-d-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. PMID:26755723

  11. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-03-04

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 6)-D-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  13. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  14. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  15. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from K. pneumoniae and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the native enzyme as well as several mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the possible roles of the active-site residues. The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  16. Probing the mechanisms for the selectivity and promiscuity of methyl parathion hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purg, Miha; Pabis, Anna; Baier, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Jackson, Colin; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-11-13

    Diverse organophosphate hydrolases have convergently evolved the ability to hydrolyse man-made organophosphates. Thus, these enzymes are attractive model systems for studying the factors shaping enzyme functional evolution. Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) is an enzyme from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, which hydrolyses a wide range of organophosphate, aryl ester and lactone substrates. In addition, MPH demonstrates metal-ion-dependent selectivity patterns. The origins of this remain unclear, but are linked to open questions about the more general role of metal ions in functional evolution and divergence within enzyme superfamilies. Here, we present detailed mechanistic studies of the paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of MPH complexed with five different transition metal ions, and demonstrate that the hydrolysis reactions proceed via similar pathways and transition states. However, while it is possible to discern a clear structural origin for the selectivity between different substrates, the selectivity between different metal ions appears to lie instead in the distinct electrostatic properties of the metal ions themselves, which causes subtle changes in transition state geometries and metal-metal distances at the transition state rather than significant structural changes in the active site. While subtle, these differences can be significant for shaping the metal-ion-dependent activity patterns observed for this enzyme.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bile salt hydrolase (BSH, a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afef Najjari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1 and ∼70 kDa (B2, except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species.

  19. Chemical microarrays constructed by selective attachment of hydrazide-conjugated substances to epoxide surfaces and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Lee, Myung-Ryul; Shin, Injae

    2010-01-01

    Microarray technology has received considerable attention for rapid analysis of biomolecular interactions and high-throughput screening to identify binding partners. An efficient and selective immobilization technique of substances on the surface is essential for successful construction of microarrays. Although a variety of immobilization methods have been exploited to prepare microarrays over the past decade, a superior technique needs to be developed for diverse applications. Recently, an efficient and simple method that relies on selective reactions between the hydrazide conjugated to substances and the epoxide derivatized on the solid surface was developed to fabricate chemical microarrays. Reactions between hydrazides with epoxides are highly selective in that they take place even in the presence of other potent nucleophiles such as amines and thiols. This technique is utilized to immobilize various substances such as small molecules, carbohydrates, and peptides to glass surfaces. The microarrays constructed by this immobilization method are used to evaluate protein binding to carbohydrates, peptides, and small molecules. In addition, the microarrays are also employed to determine binding affinities between proteins and binding partners as well as profiling of enzyme activities.

  20. Cure and physical properties of natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber compounds using various types of accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinpituksa, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cure characteristics and tear properties of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-33 and natural rubber were studied. Three types of accelerators, namely 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, 2-morpholinothiobenzothiazole (MBS and N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazyl sulphenamide (TBBS were used in this work. The conventional valcanization (CV system was used. Cure characteristics were determined using a Monsanto Oscillating Disk Rheometer (ODR 2000 at 150ºC. Also, a systematic study of tear strength was carried out before and after ageing at 70ºC for 72 h. A Hounsfield tensometer (Model H10KS operating at 500 mm/min was used to determine the tear strength using standard angle test pieces. The results indicated that scorch time and cure time of natural rubber are greater than those of ENR-33 compounds. However, the contrary was observed for the minimum and maximum torques and the torque differences. The observation is attributed to the activation of a double bond by the adjacent epoxide group in ENR-33. Furthermore, we found that the change in tear strength of aged ENR sample was greater than that of NR vulcanizates.

  1. Optimization and validation of bioanalytical SPE – HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of carbamazepine and its main metabolite, carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide, in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Tonic – Ribarska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is widely used as an antiepileptic drug in the treatment of partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide is the most important metabolite of carbamazepine, because it is a pharmacologically active compound with anticonvulsant properties. According to that, the routine analysis of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide along with carbamazepine may provide optimal therapeutic monitoring of carbamazepine treatment. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate a simple and reliable solid - phase extraction method followed by RP-HPLC for the simultaneous determination of plasma levels of carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, in order to assure the implementation of the method for therapeutic monitoring. The extraction of the analytes from the plasma samples was performed by means of a solid-phase extraction procedure. The separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column using isocratic elution with acetonitrile and water (35:65, v/v as a mobile phase. The temperature was 30°C and UV detection was set at 220 nm. The extraction yield values were more than 98% for all analytes, measured at four concentration levels of the linear concentration range. The method displayed excellent selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. Stability studies indicate that stock solutions and plasma samples were stabile under different storage conditions at least during the observed period. The method was successfully applied to determine the carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in plasma of epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine as monotherapy and in polytherapy. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for application in therapeutic drug monitoring of epileptic patients undergoing treatment with carbamazepine.

  2. Cobaltoporphyrin-Catalyzed CO 2 /Epoxide Copolymerization: Selectivity Control by Molecular Design

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.

    2012-09-11

    A series of cobalt(III) chloride porphyrin complexes of the general formula 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-alkoxy)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4b-e) and the related 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-nitro)phenylporphyrin cobalt chloride (4f) are presented and their reactivity toward propylene oxide (PO)/CO 2 coupling/copolymerization is explored. While the nitro-substituted complex (4f), in conjunction with an onium salt, shows moderate activity toward cyclization, the 4b-e/onium systems show superior copolymerization activity in comparison to tetraphenylporphyrin Co(III) chloride (4a) with high selectivity and conversion to poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). A comprehensive copolymerization behavior study of the alkoxy-substituted porphyrin complexes 4b-e in terms of reaction temperature and CO 2 pressure is presented. Complexes bearing longer alkoxy-substituents demonstrate the highest polymerization activity and molecular weights, however all substituted catalyst systems display a reduced tolerance to increased temperature with respect to PPC formation. Studies of the resulting polymer microstructures show excellent head-to-tail epoxide incorporation and near perfectly alternating poly(carbonate) character at lower polymerization temperatures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. The effect of Mycoplasma and mycoplasma removal agent on the hydrolase activity in fibroblasts of patients with lysosomal diseases Efecto de Mycoplasma y del agente de eliminación de micoplasmas en la actividad de las hidrolasas en fibroblastos de pacientes con enfermedades lisosomales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. S. Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on acid hydrolase activity and the action of the mycoplasma removal agent (MRA, in cultures of human fibroblasts from individuals with lysosomal diseases. For this purpose, we measured the activity of the b-galactosidase, arylsulphatase B (ASB, hexosaminidase A and a-glucosidase enzymes. The activity of the above mentioned enzymes in fibroblasts contaminated by mycoplasma was measured before and after the addition of the MRA. The results were then compared to the enzymatic activity in contamination-free cultures. Only the ASB enzyme showed significant alteration in activity both in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA. The remaining enzymes did not suffer significant interference by the presence of the two agents. Of the four enzymes tested, three did not suffer significant alterations by the presence of the mycoplasma nor from the MRA. However, the activity measured in the ASB enzyme increased significantly in the presence of mycoplasma and MRA and could lead to a doubtful diagnosis. Therefore, we suggest that contamination should be prevented by using aseptic techniques as well as the MRA in those fibroblast cultures that cannot be discarded.Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar el efecto de la contaminación por micoplasmas sobre la actividad de hidrolasas ácidas y la acción del agente de eliminación de micoplasmas (MRA en cultivos de fibroblastos humanos de pacientes con enfermedades lisosomales. Se midió la actividad de la b-galactosidasa, arilsulfatasa B (ASB, hexosaminidasa A y a-glucosidasa en estos cultivos. La actividad de estas enzimas en los fibroblastos contaminados por micoplasmas se midió antes y después de la adición de MRA. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos en cultivos libres de contaminación. Sólo la enzima ASB demostró alteración significativa en la actividad, tanto en presencia de micoplasmas como con la adición de MRA. Las

  4. Characterization of the First Fungal Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 19 Chitinase (NbchiA) from Nosema bombycis (Nb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhou, Kang; Li, Zhihong; Sun, Bin; Ni, Qi; Meng, Xianzhi; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Chunfeng; Long, Mengxian; Li, Tian; Zhou, Congzhao; Li, Weifang; Zhou, Zeyang

    2016-01-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), as one kind of glycosyl hydrolase, hydrolyze the β-(1,4) linkages of chitin. According to the sequence similarity, chitinases can be divided into glycoside hydrolase family 18 and family 19. Here, a chitinase from Nosema bombycis (NbchiA) was cloned and purified by metal affinity chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Sequence analysis indicated that NbchiA belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 19 class IV chitinase. The optimal pH and temperature of NbchiA are 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. This purified chitinase showed high activity toward soluble substrates such as ethylene glycol chitin and soluble chitosan. The degradation of chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)(2-5) detected by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that NbchiA hydrolyzed mainly the second glycosidic linkage from the reducing end of (GlcNAc)(3-5). On the basis of structure-based multiple-sequence alignment, Glu51 and Glu60 are believed to be the key catalytic residues. The site-directed mutation analysis revealed that the enzymatic activity was decreased upon mutation of Glu60, whereas mutation of Glu51 totally abolished the enzymatic activity. This is the first report of a GH19 chitinase in fungi and in Microsporidia. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D; Noble, Martin E M; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 A resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors' knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  7. Novel glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic activity or hemicellulolytic activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of produ...

  8. Chirality recognition of winding vine-shaped heterobiaryls with molecular asymmetry. Kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution by Shi's asymmetric epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruhashi, Kazuki; Okayama, Yoichi; Inoue, Ryo; Ashida, Shiomi; Toyomori, Yuka; Okano, Kentaro; Mori, Atsunori

    2018-01-26

    The chirality of winding vine-shaped heterobiaryls with molecular asymmetry is recognized by a sugar-based chiral oxidant. Kinetic resolution of (±)-bisbenzoimidazole bearing an olefin moiety takes place with Shi's asymmetric epoxidation to observe krel value up to ca. 35 affording the corresponding epoxide. The reaction of a (±)-bithiophene derivative also recognized the chirality to give the corresponding epoxide with er of 96:4 at 39% conversion. Dynamic kinetic resolution is found to take place when unsymmetrical biaryl composed of benzoimidazole/thiophene is subjected to Shi's epoxidation, whose conversion of the racemic substrate exceeds to 50%.

  9. Concise epoxide-based synthesis of the C14–C25 bafilomycin A1 polypropionate chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Elizabeth M; Mulero, Marlenne; Prieto, José A.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient non-aldol convergent synthesis of the C14–C25 polyketide fragment of bafilomycin A1 was completed in 16% overall yield and 8 steps in its longest linear sequence. This synthesis highlights the formation of the key fragments using a three-step sequence of epoxide cleavage, alkyne reduction, and epoxidation developed in our laboratory; starting from suitably protected enantiomeric epoxides of trans-2,3-epoxybutanol. This chemistry represents a quick asymmetric and diastereoselective construction of the polyketide chain of bafilomycin A1, in which every stereogenic center was constructed using solely epoxide chemistry. PMID:22500058

  10. Surface composition of silver nanocubes and their influence on morphological stabilization and catalytic performance in ethylene epoxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Sangaru, Shiv

    2015-12-04

    Silver nanocubes with exposed (100) facets are reported to have improved selectivity with respect to their spherical counterparts for ethylene epoxidation. In the present study, we observe that the surface composition of the silver nanocubes have also a critical impact on activity. Detailed investigation of the surface composition of silver nanocubes has been carried out using HRTEM, SEM, EDS, EELS and EFTEM. Surfaces of silver nanocubes are “passivated” by chloride and its removal is essential to achieve any catalytic activity. However, the surface chloride is apparently essential for stabilizing the cubic morphology of the particles. Attempts were made to understand the competing effects of the surface species for retaining the morphology of the nanocubes and on their catalytic activity.

  11. Identification of the catalytic residues of alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans by labeling and site-directed mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman - Tijmes, Jolanda j.; Jekel, Peter A.; Jeronimus-Stratingh, CM; Bruins, Andries P.; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B.

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing the side chain peptide bond in beta-lactam antibiotics. Data base searches revealed that the enzyme contains an active site serine consensus sequence Gly-X-Ser-Tyr-X-Gly that is also

  12. Molecular Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding the Major Peptidoglycan Hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis, a Muramidase Needed for Cell Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Dabrowska, Magdalena; Venema, Gerhardus; Haandrikman, Alfred J.

    A gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp, cremoris MG1363 encoding a peptidoglycan hydrolase was identified in a genomic library of the strain in pUC19 by screening Escherichia coli transformants for cell wall lysis activity on a medium containing autoclaved, lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells,

  13. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud M; Poater, Albert; Childers, M Ian; Widger, Peter C B; LaPointe, Anne M; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands.

  14. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Gas phase propylene epoxidation over Au supported on titanosilicates with different Ti chemical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Ye; Chen, Shi-Long; Jia, Ai-Pin; Lu, Ji-Qing; Huang, Wei-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Three Ti-containing porous materials - a mesoporous Ti-MCM-41 with distorted tetrahedral framework Ti sites (denoted as Ti-MCM-41-C), a microporous titanium silicate (TS-1) with tetrahedral framework Ti sites and a hybrid Ti-MCM-41 containing TS-1 microstructure (denoted as Ti-MCM-41-H) were used to prepare supported Au catalysts for gas phase propylene epoxidation in the presence of H2 and O2. Both catalyst structures and catalytic reaction kinetics were investigated in detail. The kinetic results show that the apparent activation energies for both PO and CO2 formation follow the order of Au/Ti-MCM-41-C Au/TS-1 > Au/Ti-MCM-41-C, in consistence with the order of propylene conversion rate, and the adsorption stability follows the order of Au/TS-1 > Au/Ti-MCM-41-H > Au/Ti-MCM-41-C, in consistence with the order of apparent activation energy. These results demonstrated that the adsorption strength of propylene on the titanosilicates supports strongly affected the catalytic behavior, and implied that the support with balanced defective Ti sites and mesoporous/microporous structure may be a promising approach in the preparation of high-performance supported Au catalysts.

  16. Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microemulsion Method as Catalyst for Epoxidation of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag/Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts supported on reticulate-like γ-alumina were prepared by a microemulsion method using N2H4·H2O as the reducing agent. The catalysts were activated by calcination followed with hydrogen reduction at 873K, and the properties were confirmed using various characterization techniques. Compared with metal oxides particles, Ag-Cu particles exhibited smaller sizes (<5 nm after calcination in H2 at 873K. XPS results indicated that the binding energies changed with the Ag/Cu ratios, suggesting that increasing the copper content gave both metals a greater tendency to lose electrons. Furthermore, Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina showed better catalytic activity on the epoxidation of styrene as compared with the corresponding monometallic silver or copper. The styrene oxide selectivity could reach 76.6% at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 3/1, while the maximum conversion (up to 94.6% appeared at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 1/1 because of the maximum interaction between silver and copper.

  17. The Epoxidation of Limonene over the TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wróblewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Limonene belongs to a group of very important intermediates used in the production of fine chemicals. This monoterpene compound can be obtained from peels of oranges or lemon which are a (biomass waste from the orange juice industry. Thus, limonene is a renewable, easy available and a relatively cheap compound. This work presents preliminary studies on the process of limonene epoxidation over zeolite type catalysts such as: TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15. In these studies methanol was used as a solvent and as an oxidizing agent a 60 wt % hydrogen peroxide solution was applied. The activity of each catalyst was investigated for four chosen temperatures (0 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C and 120 °C. The reaction time was changed from 0.5 to 24 h. For each catalyst the most beneficial conditions (the appropriate temperature and the reaction time have been established. The obtained results were compared and the most active catalyst was chosen. These studies have also shown different possible ways of limonene transformation, not only in the direction of 1,2-epoxylimonene and its corresponding diol, but also in direction of carveol, carvone and perillyl alcohol—compounds with a lot of applications. The possible mechanisms of formation of the allylic oxidation products were proposed.

  18. Purification and Properties of a Glycerol Ester Hydrolase (Lipase) from Propionibacterium shermanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterholm, Anders; Ordal, Z. John; Witter, Lloyd D.

    1970-01-01

    An intracellular glycerol ester hydrolase (lipase) from Propionibacterium shermanii was recovered from cell-free extracts and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose. Maximum enzyme activity was observed at pH 7.2 and 47 C when an emulsion of tributyrin was used as substrate. The enzyme was stable between pH 5.5 and 8. Heating the enzyme solution at 45 C for 10 min resulted in a 75% decrease in activity. Maximum rate of hydrolysis of triglycerides was observed on tripropionin, followed in order by tributyrin, tricaproin, and tricaprylin. The lipase was strongly inhibited by mercury and arsenicals, but specific sulfhydryl reagents had little or no inhibiting effect on the enzyme activity. The enzyme also showed some esterase activity, but the hydrolysis of substrates in solution was small as compared to the hydrolysis of substrates in emulsion. PMID:5456938

  19. Noncholinesterase effects induced by organophosphate pesticides and their relationship to cognitive processes: implication for the action of acylpeptide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancetti, Floria; Olmos, Cristina; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Rozas, Carlos; Morales, Bernardo

    2007-12-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have been classically described as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in insects and invertebrates. However, there is now more evidence supporting the hypothesis that these compounds also act through noncholinergic pathways, especially those related to cognitive processes. The enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase was identified as a new target for organophosphate pesticides. This enzyme is more sensitive than AChE to some organophosphates (OP), including dichlorvos, which is the parent compound for metrifonate, a therapeutic agent used in the treatment of cognitive impairment associated to Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether the mechanism of action of this drug is mediated by a potentiation of cholinergic transmission. However, the direct action of acylpeptide hydrolase in cognitive processes and the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying subacute exposure to OP have yet to be demonstrated. This review deals with evidence demonstrating the existence of mechanisms of actions of OP, which are independent of cholinergic pathway potentiation and which have an effect on cognitive processes. In addition, the possible participation of the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase in these processes is also discussed. Finally, the possibility of using this enzyme activity as a new biomarker for exposure to OP is considered.

  20. Cocoa pod husk, a new source of hydrolase enzymes for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Faridah; Khanahmadi, Soofia; Amid, Azura; Mahmod, Safa Senan

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a by-product of cocoa production obtained after removing the beans from the fruit. The analysis of CPH has shown that it contains high amounts of protein. This study is aimed to utilize this protein source in hydrolase enzyme production. In this study, seven hydrolase enzymes (amylase, fructosyltransferase, mannanase, glucosidase, glucanase, lipase and protease) were screened from CPH for the first time for feasible industrial production. Among these hydrolases, lipase was chosen for the next steps of experiments as it has a lot of applications in different industries. The extraction of high active lipase from CPH has been done under optimum conditions. The condition that was optimum for the three major factors was achieved using Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the highest enzyme activity of crude lipase from CPH. The optimum condition of extraction is used for preparation of cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). For the production of immobilized biocatalyst, the technique of CLEA is considered as an effective technique for its industrially attractive advantages. Referring to the results of OFAT, CLEA-lipase was prepared in the best condition at the presence of 30 mM ammonium sulphate, 70 mM glutaraldehyde with 0.23 mM Bovine serum albumin as an additive. Immobilization effectively improved the stability of lipase against various organic solvents.

  1. Nitrite-mediated hydrolysis of epoxides catalyzed by halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 : A new tool for the kinetic resolution of epoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasnaoui, Ghania; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; de Vries, Erik; Tang, Lixia; Hauer, Bernhard; Janssen, Dick B.

    2005-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase obtained from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1, has been tested for the nitrite-mediated ring opening of epoxides. This reaction mainly leads to the formation of unstable hydroxynitrite ester intermediates, which can be further hydrolyzed to the corresponding diols. This

  2. Polyoxometalate catalysts: toward the development of green H2O2-based epoxidation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of green, efficient H(2)O(2)-based epoxidation systems with three kinds of polyoxometalates: (i) a dinuclear peroxotungstate [W(2)O(3)(O(2))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](2-) (I), (ii) a divacant lacunary polyoxotungstate [gamma-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)]4 (II), (iii) and a divanadium-substituted polyoxotungstate [gamma-1,2-H(2)SiV(2)W(10)O(40)](4-) (III). The highly chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselective epoxidation of various allylic alcohols with only 1 equiv H(2)O(2) in water can be efficiently catalyzed by potassium salt of I (K-I). The catalyst K-I can be recycled with the retention of the catalytic performance. Protonation of a divacant lacunary polyoxotungstate [gamma-SiW(10)O(36)](8-) gives [gamma-SiW(10)O(34)(H(2)O)(2)](4-) (II) with two aquo ligands. The tetra-n-butylammonium salt of II (TBA-II) catalyzes epoxidation of common olefins including propylene with >or=99% selectivity to epoxide and >or=99% efficiency of H(2)O(2) utilization. The bis(mu-hydroxo)bridged dioxovanadium site in [gamma-1,2-H(2)SiV(2)W(10)O(40)](4-) (III) can also efficiently catalyze epoxidation of a variety of olefins with 1 equiv H(2)O(2). Notably, the system with III shows unique stereospecificity, diastereoselectivity, and regioselectivity for the epoxidation of cis/trans olefins, 3-substituted cyclohexenes, and nonconjugated dienes, respectively, which are quite different from those reported for epoxidation systems up to now. Furthermore, the heterogenization of the mentioned polyoxometalates can be achieved by using ionic liquid-modified SiO(2) as a support without loss of catalytic performance. (c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  4. MULTIPLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES IN ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. LYCOPERSICI AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO MEDIUM COMPOSITION AND HOST-SPECIFIC TOXIN PRODUCTION. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Hydrolytic kinetic resolution of the enantiomers of the structural isomers trans-1-phenylpropene oxide and (2,3-epoxypropyl) benzene by yeast epoxide hydrolase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotter, J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available of enantiomeric excesses (ee) of substrates and products was achieved using chiral fused silica cyclodextrin capillary columns (30 m ? 0.25 mm, 0.25 ?mfilm).1 was analysed using an alpha-DEX 120 column and 2 using a beta-DEX 225 column (both sup- plied by Supelco...

  6. Role of genetic polymorphism of glutathione-s-transferase T1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in aflatoxin-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Omer, R.E.; Bunschoten, A.; van't Veer, P.; Kok, F.J.; Idrsi, M.O.; Kampman, E.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxins is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxins occur in peanut butter and are metabolized by genetically polymorphic enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferases encoded by glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 gene (GSTM1) and glutathione-S-transferase theta 1 gene

  7. Common polymorphisms in the microsomal epoxide hydrolase and N-acetyltransferase 2 genes in association with inflammatory bowel disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Anja; Andersen, Vibeke; Ostergaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Reactive molecules play a central role in altering the intestinal permeability, which may induce or sustain an immune response. Changes in detoxification of substances that causes...... epithelial damage may confer susceptibility to IBD. Hence, polymorphic enzymes involved in the detoxification processes may be risk factors of IBD....

  8. Temporal and spatial expression of amygdalin hydrolase and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase in black cherry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Poulton, J E

    1995-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) macerates, the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin undergoes stepwise degradation to HCN catalyzed by amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase, and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (MDL). A near full-length AH cDNA clone (pAH1), whose insert encodes the isozyme AH I, has been isolated and sequenced. AH I exhibits several features characteristic of beta-glucosidases of the BGA family, including their likely nucleophile center (isoleucine-threonine-glutamic acid-asparagine-glycine) and acid catalyst (asparagine-glutamic acid-proline/isoleucine) motifs. The temporal expression of AH and MDL in ripening fruit was analyzed by northern blotting. Neither mRNA was detectable until approximately 40 days after flowering (DAF), when embryos first became visible to the naked eye. Both mRNAs peaked at approximately 49 DAF before declining to negligible levels when the fruit matured (82 DAF). Taken together with enzyme activity data, these time courses suggest that AH and MDL expression may be under transcriptional control during fruit maturation. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that AH transcripts are restricted to the procambium, whereas MDL transcripts are localized within cotyledonary parenchyma cells. These tissue-specific distributions are consistent with the major locations of AH and MDL protein in mature seeds previously determined by immunocytochemistry (E. Swain, C.P. Li, and J.E. Poulton [1992] Plant Physiol 100:291-300).

  9. The role of a purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase in spore germination of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; He, Xihong; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2008-05-01

    A homologous gene (iunH) of a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH), which had been identified from the exosporia of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Disruption of iunH did not affect the vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, but promoted both inosine- and adenosine-induced spore germination. The inosine- or adenosine-induced germination rate decreased when the wild-type iunH gene was overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. The iunH gene product was characterized as a purine-specific NH. The kinetic parameters of IunH with inosine as substrate were K(m)=399+/-115 microM, k(cat)=48.9+/-8.5 s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)=1.23 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for IunH were found to be pH 6 and 80 degrees C. Meanwhile, the specific activity of inosine hydrolase in intact spores of the wild-type strain with inosine as substrate was 2.89+/-0.23x10(-2) micromol min(-1) (mg dry wt)(-1). These results indicate that IunH is important in moderating inosine- or adenosine-induced germination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

  10. Drosophila tan encodes a novel hydrolase required in pigmentation and vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R True

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins are used repeatedly in development, but usually the function of the protein is similar in the different contexts. Here we report that the classical Drosophila melanogaster locus tan encodes a novel enzyme required for two very different cellular functions: hydrolysis of N-beta-alanyl dopamine (NBAD to dopamine during cuticular melanization, and hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine in the metabolism of photoreceptor neurotransmitter. We characterized two tan-like P-element insertions that failed to complement classical tan mutations. Both are inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the previously uncharacterized gene CG12120, a putative homolog of fungal isopenicillin-N N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.164. Both P insertions showed abnormally low transcription of the CG12120 mRNA. Ectopic CG12120 expression rescued tan mutant pigmentation phenotypes and caused the production of striking black melanin patterns. Electroretinogram and head histamine assays indicated that CG12120 is required for hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine, which is required for histaminergic neurotransmission. Recombinant CG12120 protein efficiently hydrolyzed both NBAD to dopamine and carcinine to histamine. We conclude that D. melanogaster CG12120 corresponds to tan. This is, to our knowledge, the first molecular genetic characterization of NBAD hydrolase and carcinine hydrolase activity in any organism and is central to the understanding of pigmentation and photoreceptor function.

  11. Improving the thermostability of a methyl parathion hydrolase by adding the ionic bond on protein surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yidan; Tian, Jian; Wang, Ping; Chu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guoan; Wu, Ningfeng; Fan, Yunliu

    2011-10-01

    The thermostability of the methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH_OCH) from Ochrobactrum sp. M231 was improved using site-directed mutagenesis. Two prolines (Pro76 and Pro78) located on the protein surface were selected for mutations after inspection of the sequence alignment of MPH_OCH and OPHC2, a thermostable organophosphorus hydrolase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes C2-1. The temperature of the double-point mutant (P76D/P78K) at which the mutant lost 50% of its activity (T50) was approximately 68 °C, which is higher than that of WT enzyme (64 °C), P76D (67 °C), and P78K (59 °C). Structural analysis of P76D/P78K indicated that the substituted residues (Asp76 and Lys78) could generate an ionic bond and increase the structural electrostatic energy, which could then increase the stability of the protein. These results also suggest that the thermal stability of proteins could be improved by adding the ionic bond on protein surface.

  12. COMPARATIVE MODELLING AND LIGAND BINDING SITE PREDICTION OF A FAMILY 43 GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE FROM Clostridium thermocellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum family 43 glycoside hydrolase (CtGH43 showed close evolutionary relation with carbohydrate binding family 6 proteins from C. cellulolyticum, C. papyrosolvens, C. cellulyticum, and A. cellulyticum. Comparative modeling of CtGH43 was performed based on crystal structures with PDB IDs 3C7F, 1YIF, 1YRZ, 2EXH and 1WL7. The structure having lowest MODELLER objective function was selected. The three-dimensional structure revealed typical 5-fold beta–propeller architecture. Energy minimization and validation of predicted model with VERIFY 3D indicated acceptability of the proposed atomic structure. The Ramachandran plot analysis by RAMPAGE confirmed that family 43 glycoside hydrolase (CtGH43 contains little or negligible segments of helices. It also showed that out of 301 residues, 267 (89.3% were in most favoured region, 23 (7.7% were in allowed region and 9 (3.0% were in outlier region. IUPred analysis of CtGH43 showed no disordered region. Active site analysis showed presence of two Asp and one Glu, assumed to form a catalytic triad. This study gives us information about three-dimensional structure and reaffirms the fact that it has the similar core 5-fold beta–propeller architecture and so probably has the same inverting mechanism of action with the formation of above mentioned catalytic triad for catalysis of polysaccharides.

  13. Crystal structure of an acylpeptide hydrolase/esterase from Aeropyrum pernix K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Ganggang; Yang, Haitao; Gao, Renjun; Zhao, Xiaodong; Xie, Guiqiu; Cao, Shuigui; Feng, Yan; Rao, Zihe

    2004-08-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH; also known as acylamino acid releasing enzyme) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. The crystal structure of an APH from the thermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 to 2.1 A resolution confirms it to be a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteases. The structure of apAPH is a symmetric homodimer with each subunit comprised of two domains. The N-terminal domain is a regular seven-bladed beta-propeller, while the C-terminal domain has a canonical alpha/beta hydrolase fold and includes the active site and a conserved Ser445-Asp524-His556 catalytic triad. The complex structure of apAPH with an organophosphorus substrate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, has also been determined. The complex structure unambiguously maps out the substrate binding pocket and provides a basis for substrate recognition by apAPH. A conserved mechanism for protein degradation from archaea to mammals is suggested by the structural features of apAPH.

  14. Subcellullar localization, developmental expression and characterization of a liver triacylglycerol hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, R; Cui, Z; Vance, D E

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism and enzymic activities responsible for the lipolysis of stored cytosolic triacylglycerol in liver and its re-esterification remain obscure. A candidate enzyme for lipolysis, a microsomal triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH), was recently purified to homogeneity from pig liver and its kinetic properties were determined [Lehner and Verger (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1861-1868]. We have characterized the enzyme with regard to its species distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression and reaction with lipase inhibitors. The hydrolase co-sediments with endoplasmic reticulum elements and is associated with isolated liver fat droplets. Immunocytochemical studies localize TGH exclusively to liver cells surrounding capillaries. Both TGH mRNA and protein are expressed in rats during weaning. The enzyme covalently binds tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of lipases and of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The enzyme is absent from liver-derived cell lines (HepG2 and McArdle RH7777) known to be impaired in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. The localization and developmental expression of TGH are consistent with a proposed role in triacylglycerol hydrolysis and with the proposal that some of the resynthesized triacylglycerol is utilized for VLDL secretion. PMID:10051450

  15. Effective immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic-modified clays: Application for the epoxidation of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzialla, Aikaterini A.; Kalogeris, Emmanuel [Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Enotiadis, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Taha, Ali A. [Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Gournis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dgourni@cc.uoi.g [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Stamatis, Haralambos, E-mail: hstamati@cc.uoi.g [Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    The use of three smectite nanoclays (Laponite, SWy-2 and Kunipia) organic-modified with octadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium surfactant, as suitable host matrices for the immobilization of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) was demonstrated. The resulting hybrid biocatalysts were characterized by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results confirmed the remarkable binding capacity of the three organoclays for CaLB. Activity and operational stability of immobilized CaLB were determined for the chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of terpenes (alpha-pinene and d-limonene) in organic media using various oxidizing agents. The immobilized enzyme retains a significant part of its activity after repeated use under drastic reaction conditions originating from the use of oxidants.

  16. Enhanced Promiscuity of Lipase-Inorganic Nanocrystal Composites in the Epoxidation of Fatty Acids in Organic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiufu; Xing, Yi; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-06-29

    In the present study, Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was encapsulated in inorganic nanocrystal composites with flower-like shapes, retaining 92% of its catalytic activity compared to that of native lipase. Surprisingly, CALB-inorganic crystal nanoflowers exhibited promiscuous activity at levels 25- and 4-fold higher than those of native lipase and the commercial immobilized lipase Novozym 435, respectively, as demonstrated by the chemoenzymatic epoxidation of fatty acids conducted in organic media. To the best of our knowledge, we showed for the first time that the promiscuity of enzymes can be significantly improved by enzyme immobilization, suggesting that the enzyme-inorganic nanocrystal composites are a very promising type of immobilized enzyme that can be used to address the challenge of the extremely low efficiency of enzymatic promiscuity.

  17. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H2SO4 as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H2O2 with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was -58.81°C to -17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  18. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of epoxidized Tmp trioleate by in situ method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samidin, Salma; Salimon, Jumat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Tmp trioleate was initially synthesized via esterification of trimetilolprapane and oleic acid (90%) using 1.5% of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a catalyst. The production of Tmp trioleate was observed at 98% (w/w). The iodine value of Tmp trioleate was analyzed for further reaction of epoxidation. Epoxide was important reaction as an intermediate for preparation of chemical modified lubricants from vegetable oils. Finding the best way of epoxidation process will give high quality for further modification of oil instead of reduce the cost and time for the preparation process during reaction of epoxidation. In this study, the epoxidation of unsaturation Tmp trioleate with peroxyformic acid generated in-situ from hydrogen peroxide 30% in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with formic acid was studied. 95% conversion to oxygen oxirane content (OOC) ring was obtained. The derivatization showed an improvement of the compound's oxidative stability evidenced from pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) data which are 177°C to 200°C. Physicochemical properties showed increasing of temperature of flash point from 280°C to 300°C and viscosity index (VI) from 146 to 154. However, the pour point showed increasing temperature which was −58.81°C to −17.32°C. From the data obtained, these derivatives have shown better performance of lubricity properties. Overall, the data indicates that these performances are compatible to the commercial lubricants.

  19. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of olefins by carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch gen. Klaas, M.; Warwel, S. [Inst. for Biochemistry and Technology of Lipids, H.P. Kaufmanm-Inst., Federal Centre for Cereal, Potato and Lipid Research, Muenster (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Ethylen and, recently, butadiene can be epoxidized directly with oxygen and for the epoxidation of propylene, the use of heterogeneous transition metals and organic peroxides (Halcon-Process) is the major player. But, beside from those notable exceptions, all other epoxidations, including large ones like the epoxidation of plant oils as PVC-stabilizers (about 200.000 t/year), are carried out with peroxy acids. Because mcpba is far to expensive for most applications, short chain peracids like peracetic acid are used. Being much less stable than mcpba and thus risky handled in large amounts and high concentrations, these peroxy acids were preferably prepared in-situ. However, conventional in-situ formation of peracids has the serious drawback, that a strong acid is necessary to catalyze peroxy acid formation from the carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The presence of a strong acid in the reaction mixture often results in decreased selectivity because of the formation of undesired by-products by opening of the oxirane ring. Therefore, we propose a new method for epoxidation based on the in-situ preparation of percarboxylic acids from carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by a commercial, immobilized lipase. (orig.)

  20. Reactions of epoxide monomers in food simulants used to test plastics for migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, M R; Damant, A P; Castle, L

    1997-01-01

    The reactions of four epoxides used as monomers for food contact plastics were studied in the food simulants distilled water, 15% aqueous ethanol, 3% aqueous acetic acid and olive oil. Loss of the parent substance and formation of products was monitored to establish the transformation products to be expected in each simulant following migration testing of plastics. Each epoxide was stable in olive oil but suffered extensive loss in the three aqueous simulants. Reaction half-lives were from < 1 to 10 h in aqueous acetic acid, 25-63 h in distilled water, and 33-87 h in aqueous ethanol simulant. Hydrolysis to the diol was the main reaction pathway. Epoxide ring opening in aqueous ethanol simulant gave the diol and also the diol monoethyl ether. It is concluded that, for aqueous simulants and by implication for most foods, testing plastics against specific migration limits for epoxides is not likely to give reliable results due to their reactivity. The present EC mode of control for these reactive monomers, via compositional limits in food contact plastics, is more practical since the hydrolysis products are less toxic than the parent epoxide.

  1. Kinetics of the Epoxidation of Geraniol and Model Systems by Dimethyldioxirane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Crow

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The mono-epoxidation of geraniol by dimethyldioxirane was carried out invarious solvents. In all cases, the product ratios for the 2,3 and 6,7 mono-epoxides werein agreement with literature values. Kinetic studies were carried out at 23 oC in thefollowing dried solvent systems: acetone (k2 = 1.49 M-1s-1, carbon tetrachloride/acetone(9/1, k2=2.19 M-1s-1, and methanol/acetone (9/1, k2 = 17 M-1s-1. Individual k2 valueswere calculated for epoxidation of the 2,3 and 6,7 positions in geraniol. The non-conjugated diene system was modeled employing two simple independent alkenes:2-methyl-2-pentene and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol by determining the respective k2 valuesfor epoxidation in various solvents. The kinetic results for each independent alkeneshowed that the relative reactivity of the two epoxidation sites in geraniol as a function ofsolvent was not simply a summation of the independent alkene systems.

  2. Study of rheological behavior and miscibility of epoxidized natural rubber modified neoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Tang; Tsai, Peir-An; Cheng, Tzu-Chi

    2006-02-01

    The Mooney viscosity, curing rates, vulcanization behavior, and the relationship between molecular motion of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) and neoprene (CR) blends at different blending ratios have been studied. The experimental results of ENR/CR blends show that the Mooney viscosity decreased gradually. Plasticization was most pronounced at an ENR/CR ratio of 75/25 and is thus the easiest to process. Owing to the ring opening of the epoxy group of ENR, the rate of crosslink formation is much faster than that of CR at higher temperature. The vulcanized rate increased with increasing ENR content. The results indicated that 175 °C and 5 min were the optimum processing conditions for ENR/CR blends. The DMA spectra showed a single damping peak for the ENR/CR blends, which suggests that ENR and CR are miscible. As seen in the Arrhenius plot of frequency against T g, the activation energy increased with increasing ENR contents. This suggests the existence of interpenetration of these two rubber molecular networks.

  3. How does (E-2-(acetamidomethylenesuccinate bind to its hydrolase? From the binding process to the final result.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Long Zhang

    Full Text Available The binding of (E-2-(acetamidomethylenesuccinate (E-2AMS to E-2AMS hydrolase is crucial for biological function of the enzyme and the last step reaction of vitamin B(6 biological degradation. In the present study, several molecular simulation methods, including molecular docking, conventional molecular dynamics (MD, steered MD (SMD, and free energy calculation methods, were properly integrated to investigate the detailed binding process of E-2AMS to its hydrolase and to assign the optimal enzyme-substrate complex conformation. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding conformation with trans-form amide bond is energetically preferred conformation, in which E-2AMS's pose not only ensures hydrogen bond formation of its amide oxygen atom with the vicinal oxyanion hole but also provides probability of the hydrophobic interaction between its methyl moiety and the related enzyme's hydrophobic cavity. Several key residues, Arg146, Arg167, Tyr168, Arg179, and Tyr259, orientate the E-2AMS's pose and stabilize its conformation in the active site via the hydrogen bond interaction with E-2AMS. Sequentially, the binding process of E-2AMS to E-2AMS hydrolase was studied by SMD simulation, which shows the surprising conformational reversal of E-2AMS. Several important intermediate structures and some significant residues were identified in the simulation. It is stressed that Arg146 and Arg167 are two pivotal residues responsible for the conformational reversal of E-2AMS in the binding or unbinding. Our research has shed light onto the full binding process of the substrate to E-2AMS hydrolase, which could provide more penetrating insight into the interaction of E-2AMS with the enzyme and would help in the further exploration on the catalysis mechanism.

  4. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  6. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    ABSTRACT

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural

  7. ENZYMATIC KINETIC STUDY HYDROLASE FROM CITRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the degrading activity of enzymes derived from orange peels (Citrus x sinensis, grapefruit (Citrus paradise and pineapple (Ananas comosus on the organic matter in wastewater is evaluated. This activity is measured indirectly by quantifying the biochemical oxygen demand (COD before and after degradation process based on a period of time using the HACH DR / 2010, and then the kinetic study was performed by the differential method and integral with the experimental data, obtaining a reaction order of 1 to pectinase (orange, and order 2 for bromelain (pineapple.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide emission reduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measuring the concentration of the unreacted epoxide, or by using process knowledge, reaction kinetics, and... at the beginning of the time period, weight percent. k = Reaction rate constant, 1/hr. t = Time, hours. Note: This equation assumes a first order reaction with respect to epoxide concentration. where...

  9. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2011-07-19

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  10. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eLin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH, an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals.

  11. ETHANOL PRECIPITATION OF GLYCOSYL HYDROLASES PRODUCED BY Trichoderma harzianum P49P11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mariño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aimed to concentrate glycosyl hydrolases produced by Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 by ethanol precipitation. The variables tested besides ethanol concentration were temperature and pH. The precipitation with 90% (v/v ethanol at pH 5.0 recovered more than 98% of the xylanase activity, regard less of the temperature (5.0, 15.0, or 25.0 °C. The maximum recovery of cellulase activity as FPase was 77% by precipitation carried out at this same pH and ethanol concentration but at 5.0 °C. Therefore, ethanol precipitation can be considered to be an efficient technique for xylanase concentration and, to a certain extent, also for the cellulase complex.

  12. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  13. A "catalyst switch" Strategy for the sequential metal-free polymerization of epoxides and cyclic Esters/Carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-06-24

    A "catalyst switch" strategy was used to synthesize well-defined polyether-polyester/polycarbonate block copolymers. Epoxides (ethylene oxide and/or 1,2-butylene oxide) were first polymerized from a monoalcohol in the presence of a strong phosphazene base promoter (t-BuP4). Then an excess of diphenyl phosphate (DPP) was introduced, followed by the addition and polymerization of a cyclic ester (ε-caprolactone or δ-valerolactone) or a cyclic carbonate (trimethylene carbonate), where DPP acted as both the neutralizer of phosphazenium alkoxide (polyether chain end) and the activator of cyclic ester/carbonate. This work has provided a one-pot sequential polymerization method for the metal-free synthesis of block copolymers from monomers which are suited for different types of organic catalysts. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part I: Design of a reference catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the heterogeneous gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of stilbene in the liquid phase has been shown to be hindered by diffusion limitations, due to the use of supports which are unsuitable to apolar reaction media. The choice of these supports is generally dictated by the ability of standard methods of preparation to stabilize highly dispersed gold nanoparticles on them. Hence, new methods need to be designed in order to produce catalytically active gold nanoparticles on hydrophobic supports in general and on passivated silicas in particular. By investigating Tsukuda\\'s method to produce colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles upon reduction of the triphenylphosphine gold chloride complex in solution, we found that direct reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of a commercially available silica support functionalized with dimethylsiloxane, Aerosil R972, leads, in a highly reproducible and potentially scalable way, to the best catalyst ever reported for this reaction. (C) 2011 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

  15. Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV)-Catalyzed Highly Enantioselective Epoxidation of Homoallylic and Bishomoallylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 81% yield and up to 98% ee, while for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 75% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclize compounds could be obtained in most cases. PMID:20481541

  16. Zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-catalyzed highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-16

    In this report, zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 83% yield and up to 98% ee, while, for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 79% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclized tetrahydrofuran compounds could be obtained in most cases.

  17. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria measurement for epoxidized soybean oil + acetic acid + water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qing; Li, Yi; Feng, Yun-Xia; Linghu, Rong-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data were measured for ternary system epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) + acetic acid + water at 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The consistency of the measured LLE data was tested, using Othmer-Tobias correlation and root-mean-square deviation (sigma) in mass fraction of water in the lower phase and average value of the absolute difference (AAD) between experimental mass fraction of epoxidized soybean oil in the upper phase and that calculated using Othmer-Tobias correlation.

  18. Synthesis of Marine Polycyclic Polyethers via Endo-Selective Epoxide-Opening Cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F. Jamison

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed biosynthetic pathways to ladder polyethers of polyketide origin and oxasqualenoids of terpenoid origin share a dramatic epoxide-opening cascade as a key step. Polycyclic structures generated in these biosynthetic pathways display biological effects ranging from potentially therapeutic properties to extreme lethality. Much of the structural complexity of ladder polyether and oxasqualenoid natural products can be traced to these hypothesized cascades. In this review we summarize how such epoxide-opening cascade reactions have been used in the synthesis of ladder polyethers and oxasqualenoid natural products.

  19. Soybean epoxide production with in situ peracetic acid using homogeneous catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alejandro Boyacá Mendivelso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils has become an excellent option for petrochemical product substitution. The epoxides obtained from such oils have wide applications as plastifiers and PVC stabilisers and as raw material in polyol synthesis for the polyurethane industry. This paper presents soybean oil epoxidation using a homogeneous catalyst in a well-mixed, stirred reactor being operated in iso- thermal conditions. The best result achieved was a 6.4% oxyrane oxygen content using hydrogen peroxide (25% molar excess, a- cetic acid (5% p/p and sulphuric acid (2% p/p concentrations at 80°C.

  20. Exploring glycoside hydrolases and accessory proteins from wood decay fungi to enhance sugarcane bagasse saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Gonçalves, Dayelle S P O; Segato, Fernando; Romanel, Elisson; Milagres, Adriane M F; Squina, Fabio M; Ferraz, André

    2016-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and accessory proteins are key components for efficient and cost-effective enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in modern, biochemically based biorefineries. Currently, commercialized GHs and accessory proteins are produced by ascomycetes. However, the role of wood decay basidiomycetes proteins in biomass saccharification has not been extensively pursued. Wood decay fungi degrade polysaccharides in highly lignified tissues in natural environments, and are a promising enzyme source for improving enzymatic cocktails that are designed for in vitro lignocellulose conversion. GHs and accessory proteins were produced by representative brown- and white-rot fungi, Laetiporus sulphureus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. Concentrated protein extracts were then used to amend commercial enzymatic cocktails for saccharification of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The main enzymatic activities found in the wood decay fungal protein extracts were attributed to endoglucanases, xylanases and β-glucosidases. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) activities in the L. sulphureus and P. ostreatus extracts were low and nonexistent, respectively. The initial glucan conversion rates were boosted when the wood decay fungal proteins were used to replace half of the enzymes from the commercial cocktails. L. sulphureus proteins increased the glucan conversion levels, with values above those observed for the full load of commercial enzymes. Wood decay fungal proteins also enhanced the xylan conversion efficiency due to their high xylanase activities. Proteomic studies revealed 104 and 45 different proteins in the P. ostreatus and L. sulphureus extracts, respectively. The enhancement of the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated substrates by the modified enzymatic cocktails was attributed to the following protein families: GH5- and GH45-endoglucanases, GH3-β-glucosidases, and GH10-xylanases. The extracellular proteins produced by wood decay fungi provide

  1. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kim, Seonah [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Fujita, Kiyotaka [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima (Japan); Ishiwata, Akihiro [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Kaeothip, Sophon [ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Arakawa, Takatoshi; Wakagi, Takayoshi [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: Gregg.Beckham@nrel.gov [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Ito, Yukishige [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Fushinobu, Shinya, E-mail: asfushi@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-04-25

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed.

  2. Development and evaluation of epoxidized soybean oil-based polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangvanich, Nuanpen

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) based polymers were developed using diamine curing agents and BF3:NH2C2H5 as catalyst. Reactions involved the curing process were explored and monitored by DSC and IR analysis. Amine-epoxy addition reactions governed the main curing reaction at the temperature range of 60--235°C, and the supplementary reactions at higher temperatures were either homopolymerization or etherification reaction. In the aliphatic curing reactions, the epoxy-rich system favored the supplementary reactions at high temperature, however, ESO cured with 1,6 hexanediamine (HDA) always produced the high temperature reaction products, due to some side reactions and the high volatile nature. The curing reaction with aromatic diamines produced inherent rigidity to the cured ESO network, which decreased the high temperature reactions. The system cured with a short aromatic diamine, 1,4-phenyldiamine (PDA), produced a small extent of high temperature reaction, as well. It was believed that the long length diamine with wide separation of the two amines underwent an intermolecular cross-linking reaction, and derived better properties than the shorter diamine. A post-cure process was used to improve the final polymer properties by increasing the temperature after the initial curing reaction was quenched due to gelation. Extending the time of post-curing did not significantly improve properties of the final ESO polymers. Exposing the cured samples at 180°C for longer than 12 hours decreased the properties of the cured material, due to thermal strain generating in the network structure. To increase time efficiency, short heat cycles were performed by post-curing right after gelation, and the cured ESO polymer had tensile strength of 32 MPa, modulus 750 MPa and toughness 1.3 MPa. With the introduction of EPON 828, the mechanical properties of a new ESO polymer improved; having strength above 40 MPa, modulus great than 1,000 MPa, and Tg higher than 40°C. Finally, a rice

  3. Secretory expression of organophosphorus hydrolase OPHC2 in Yarrowia lipolytica Polg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Yu, Xiaolan; Wang, Fei; Zhai, Chao; Shen, Wei; Yu, Xianhong; Wang, Xiaojuan; Ma, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase OPHC2 was successfully produced by Yarrowia lipolytica and purified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analyses showed a major polypeptide band of 36 kDa. The purified enzyme was optimally active at 65°C and pH 8.5 and also displayed good thermal and pH stability using methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl-O-4-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) as a substrate. Moreover, as Y. lipolytica is a non-pathogenic, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) yeast, the cell culture supernatant can be used directly on vegetables and fruits that are contaminated by organophosphorus pesticides.

  4. Synthesis of novel bioactive lactose-derived oligosaccharides by microbial glycoside hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Municio, Marina; Herrero, Miguel; Olano, Agustín; Moreno, F Javier

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are increasingly demanded within the Food Science domain because of the interesting healthy properties that these compounds may induce to the organism, thanks to their beneficial intestinal microbiota growth promotion ability. In this regard, the development of new efficient, convenient and affordable methods to obtain this class of compounds might expand even further their use as functional ingredients. This review presents an overview on the most recent interesting approaches to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with potential prebiotic activity paying special focus on the microbial glycoside hydrolases that can be effectively employed to obtain these prebiotic compounds. The most notable advantages of using lactose-derived carbohydrates such as lactosucrose, galactooligosaccharides from lactulose, lactulosucrose and 2-α-glucosyl-lactose are also described and commented. PMID:24690139

  5. Polyglycine hydrolases: Fungal β-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Todd A; Naldrett, Michael J; Ward, Todd J; Price, Neil P J

    2015-07-01

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochliobolus carbonum (Bz-cmp). Here we report the identity of their encoding genes and the primary amino acid sequences of the proteins responsible for these activities. Peptides from a tryptic digest of Es-cmp were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and the spectra obtained were matched to a draft genome sequence of E. sorghi. From this analysis, a 642 amino acid protein containing a predicted β-lactamase catalytic region of 280 amino acids was identified. Heterologous strains of the yeast Pichia pastoris were created to express this protein and its homolog from C. carbonum from their cDNAs. Both strains produced recombinant proteins with polyglycine hydrolase activity as shown by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-MS based assays. Site directed mutagenesis was used to mutate the predicted catalytic serine of Es-cmp to glycine, resulting in loss of catalytic activity. BLAST searching of publicly available fungal genomes identified full-length homologous proteins in 11 other fungi of the class Dothideomycetes, and in three fungi of the related class Sordariomycetes while significant BLAST hits extended into the phylum Basidiomycota. Multiple sequence alignment led to the identification of a network of seven conserved tryptophans that surround the β-lactamase-like region. This is the first report of a predicted β-lactamase that is an endoprotease. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Sabu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Aspergillus niger ATTC 16620 in solid state fermentation was purified from the cell free culture broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by DEAE–Sephadex A-50 chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme protein molecular mass was 168 kDa. Enzyme activity was stable up to the temperature of 40 °C and the enzyme activity was optimal at pH=6. Tannase activity was maximal at 0.01 M concentration of the substrate. The addition of metal ions like Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Fe2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. Only K+ ions enhanced tannase activity, and an activity of 4.31 U/mL was reported here. Enzyme activity was maximal after 15–20 min of incubation time, with an activity of 3.9 U/mL. Km was found to be 1.03 mM and Vmax=4.25 mmol/min. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature it could find potential use in the food-processing industry.

  7. Simulated control in Aspen Dynamics for the production of limonene epoxide at pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Agudelo Arenas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution is reported the study and analysis of the control system (simulated for the process of obtaining limonene epoxide. The modelling of the process at pilot scale was implemented in the software Aspen Plus from literature reports. Aspen Dynamics was used for the study of the process control. The model allows observing the behavior of the variables of interest in the process such as outflows from the distillation tower, heat duty, operating temperaturas and purity of the final product (limonene epoxide. The performance of the controllers (level, flow and temperature was evaluated by simulating disturbances (+30% in the feedstream to the process. Sensitivity analysis and preliminary design specifications allow to conclude that according to the simulations it is possible to obtain limonene epoxide (97,5% w/w with this system. The results of this work can be used for more detailed studies of the system, including experimental study designs that help to determine the operating point for the process variables which increase limonene epoxide production.

  8. Dinuclear ru-aqua complexes for selective epoxidation catalysis based on supramolecular substrate orientation effects

    KAUST Repository

    Di Giovanni, Carlo

    2014-03-03

    Ru-aqua complex {[RuII(trpy)(H2O)] 2(μ-pyr-dc)}+ is a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes. High turnover numbers (TNs), up to 17000, and turnover frequencies (TOF), up to 24120 h-1 (6.7 s -1), have been obtained using PhIO as oxidant. This species presents an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides. In addition, it shows different reactivity to cis and trans olefins due to a substrate orientation supramolecular effect transmitted by its ligand scaffold. This effect together with the impressive reaction rates are rationalized using electrochemical techniques and DFT calculations. A new Ru-aqua complex that behaves as a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes is reported. High turnover numbers and frequencies are obtained by using PhIO as oxidant. The complex shows an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Regioselectivity Control of the Ring Opening of Epoxides With Sodium Azide in a Microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munirathinam, Rajesh; Joe, D.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of different types of aromatic and aliphatic epoxides with sodium azide to give vicinal azido alcohols was studied in a microreactor with and without pillars in the channels. Dependent on the substrate, the regioselectivity of the ring opening is affected by the used solvent system,

  10. Synthesis and properties of cross-linked polymers from epoxidized rubber seed oil and triethylenetetramine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of epoxidized oils were prepared from rubber seed, soybean, jatropha, palm, and coconut oils. The epoxy content varied from 0.03 to 7.4 wt %, in accordance with the degree of unsaturation of the oils (lowest for coconut, highest for rubber seed oil). Bulk polymerization/curing of the

  11. Epoxidation of Alkenes with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide and Quaternary Ammonium Bicarbonate Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A range of solid and liquid catalysts containing bicarbonate anions were synthesised and tested for the epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The combination of bicarbonate anions and quaternary ammonium cations opens up for new catalytic systems that can help to overcome...

  12. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  13. IAR3 encodes an auxin conjugate hydrolase from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R T; Goetz, D H; Lasswell, J; Anderson, M N; Bartel, B

    1999-03-01

    Amide-linked conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are putative storage or inactivation forms of the growth hormone auxin. Here, we describe the Arabidopsis iar3 mutant that displays reduced sensitivity to IAA-Ala. IAR3 is a member of a family of Arabidopsis genes related to the previously isolated ILR1 gene, which encodes an IAA-amino acid hydrolase selective for IAA-Leu and IAA-Phe. IAR3 and the very similar ILL5 gene are closely linked on chromosome 1 and comprise a subfamily of the six Arabidopsis IAA-conjugate hydrolases. The purified IAR3 enzyme hydrolyzes IAA-Ala in vitro. iar 3 ilr1 double mutants are more resistant than either single mutant to IAA-amino acid conjugates, and plants overexpressing IAR3 or ILR1 are more sensitive than is the wild type to certain IAA-amino acid conjugates, reflecting the overlapping substrate specificities of the corresponding enzymes. The IAR3 gene is expressed most strongly in roots, stems, and flowers, suggesting roles for IAA-conjugate hydrolysis in those tissues.

  14. Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Bacterial Polyester Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers. The growing amount of PU used industrially has resulted in a worldwide increase of plastic wastes. The related environmental pollution as well as the limited availability of the raw materials based on petrochemicals requires novel solutions for their efficient degradation and recycling. The degradation of the polyester PU Impranil DLN by the polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC, TfCut2, Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 was analyzed using a turbidimetric assay. The highest hydrolysis rates were obtained with TfCut2 and Tcur0390. TfCut2 also showed a significantly higher substrate affinity for Impranil DLN than the other three enzymes, indicated by a higher adsorption constant K. Significant weight losses of the solid thermoplastic polyester PU (TPU Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10 were detected as a result of the enzymatic degradation by all four polyester hydrolases. Within a reaction time of 200 h at 70 °C, LCC caused weight losses of up to 4.9% and 4.1% of Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed a preferential degradation of the larger polymer chains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks at the surface of the TPU cubes as a result of enzymatic surface erosion. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the observed weight losses were a result of the cleavage of ester bonds of the polyester TPU.

  15. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  16. Structural, biochemical, and computational characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase of the tree-killing fungus Heterobasidion irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Majid Haddad; Payne, Christina M; Hansson, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Svedberg, Jesper; Engström, Åke; Sandgren, Mats; Beckham, Gregg T; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2013-02-22

    Root rot fungi of the Heterobasidion annosum complex are the most damaging pathogens in temperate forests, and the recently sequenced Heterobasidion irregulare genome revealed over 280 carbohydrate-active enzymes. Here, H. irregulare was grown on biomass, and the most abundant protein in the culture filtrate was identified as the only family 7 glycoside hydrolase in the genome, which consists of a single catalytic domain, lacking a linker and carbohydrate-binding module. The enzyme, HirCel7A, was characterized biochemically to determine the optimal conditions for activity. HirCel7A was crystallized and the structure, refined at 1.7 Å resolution, confirms that HirCel7A is a cellobiohydrolase rather than an endoglucanase, with a cellulose-binding tunnel that is more closed than Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cel7D and more open than Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A, suggesting intermediate enzyme properties. Molecular simulations were conducted to ascertain differences in enzyme-ligand interactions, ligand solvation, and loop flexibility between the family 7 glycoside hydrolase cellobiohydrolases from H. irregulare, H. jecorina, and P. chrysosporium. The structural comparisons and simulations suggest significant differences in enzyme-ligand interactions at the tunnel entrance in the -7 to -4 binding sites and suggest that a tyrosine residue at the tunnel entrance of HirCel7A may serve as an additional ligand-binding site. Additionally, the loops over the active site in H. jecorina Cel7A are more closed than loops in the other two enzymes, which has implications for the degree of processivity, endo-initiation, and substrate dissociation. Overall, this study highlights molecular level features important to understanding this biologically and industrially important family of glycoside hydrolases.

  17. A novel glycoside hydrolase family 97 enzyme: Bifunctional β-l-arabinopyranosidase/α-galactosidase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Asako; Okuyama, Masayuki; Kato, Koji; Osaki, Shohei; Ma, Min; Kumagai, Yuya; Matsunaga, Kana; Klahan, Patcharapa; Tagami, Takayoshi; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo

    2017-11-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 97 (GH97) is one of the most interesting glycosidase families, which contains inverting and retaining glycosidases. Currently, only two enzyme types, α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, are registered in the carbohydrate active enzyme database as GH97 function-known proteins. To explore new specificities, BT3661 and BT3664, which have distinct amino acid sequences when compared with that of GH97 α-glucoside hydrolase and α-galactosidase, were characterized in this study. BT3664 was identified to be an α-galactosidase, whereas BT3661 exhibits hydrolytic activity toward both β-l-arabinopyranoside and α-d-galactopyranoside, and thus we designate BT3661 as a β-l-arabinopyranosidase/α-d-galactosidase. Since this is the first dual substrate specificity enzyme in GH97, we investigated the substrate recognition mechanism of BT3661 by determining its three-dimensional structure and based on this structural data generated a number of mutants to probe the enzymatic mechanism. Structural comparison shows that the active-site pocket of BT3661 is similar to GH97 α-galactosidase BT1871, but the environment around the hydroxymethyl group of the galactopyranoside is different. While BT1871 bears Glu361 to stabilize the hydroxy group of C6 through a hydrogen bond with its carboxy group, BT3661 has Asn338 at the equivalent position. Amino acid mutation analysis indicates that the length of the side chain at Asn338 is important for defining specificity of BT3661. The k cat /K m value for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl α-galactoside decreases when Asn338 is substituted with Glu, whereas an increase is observed when the mutation is Ala. Interestingly, mutation of Asn338 to Ala reduces the k cat /K m value for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl β-l-arabinopyranoside. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of styrene epoxidation by chlorite: role of chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; Rajput, Jonathan; Richardson, David E

    2014-07-07

    An investigation of the kinetics and mechanism for epoxidation of styrene and para-substituted styrenes by chlorite at 25 °C in the pH range of 5-6 is described. The proposed mechanism in water and water/acetonitrile includes seven oxidation states of chlorine (-I, 0, I, II, III, IV, and V) to account for the observed kinetics and product distributions. The model provides an unusually detailed quantitative mechanism for the complex reactions that occur in mixtures of chlorine species and organic substrates, particularly when the strong oxidant chlorite is employed. Kinetic control of the reaction is achieved by the addition of chlorine dioxide to the reaction mixture, thereby eliminating a substantial induction period observed when chlorite is used alone. The epoxidation agent is identified as chlorine dioxide, which is continually formed by the reaction of chlorite with hypochlorous acid that results from ClO produced by the epoxidation reaction. The overall stoichiometry is the result of two competing chain reactions in which the reactive intermediate ClO reacts with either chlorine dioxide or chlorite ion to produce hypochlorous acid and chlorate or chloride, respectively. At high chlorite ion concentrations, HOCl is rapidly eliminated by reaction with chlorite, minimizing side reactions between HOCl and Cl2 with the starting material. Epoxide selectivity (>90% under optimal conditions) is accurately predicted by the kinetic model. The model rate constant for direct reaction of styrene with ClO2(aq) to produce epoxide is (1.16 ± 0.07) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) for 60:40 water/acetonitrile with 0.20 M acetate buffer. Rate constants for para substituted styrenes (R = -SO3(-), -OMe, -Me, -Cl, -H, and -NO2) with ClO2 were determined. The results support the radical addition/elimination mechanism originally proposed by Kolar and Lindgren to account for the formation of styrene oxide in the reaction of styrene with chlorine dioxide.

  19. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  20. Substrate Recognition by Two Members of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 32 Involved in Fructo-oligosaccharide Metabolism in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Ohtsubo, Kenichi; 中井, 博之; Svensson, Birte; 大坪, 研一

    2012-01-01

    Two fructo-oligosaccharide active enzymes, BfrA and ScrB, of glycoside hydrolase family 32 are found inLactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and belong to phylogenetic clusters of bacterial β-fructosidase and sucrose 6-phosphatehydrolase, respectively, involved in the intracellular metabolism of kesto-oligosaccharides [β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2,1)]n-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2,1)-α-D-glucopyranose (n, 1-3) and sucrose. Recombinant ScrB, produced in Escherichia coli,showed 20-1500-fold higher catalytic effic...

  1. Structural relationships in the lysozyme superfamily: significant evidence for glycoside hydrolase signature motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wohlkönig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chitin is a polysaccharide that forms the hard, outer shell of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi and some algae. Peptidoglycan is a polymer of sugars and amino acids constituting the cell walls of most bacteria. Enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these cell membrane polymers generally play important roles for protecting plants and animals against infection with insects and pathogens. A particular group of such glycoside hydrolase enzymes share some common features in their three-dimensional structure and in their molecular mechanism, forming the lysozyme superfamily. RESULTS: Besides having a similar fold, all known catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolase proteins of lysozyme superfamily (families and subfamilies GH19, GH22, GH23, GH24 and GH46 share in common two structural elements: the central helix of the all-α domain, which invariably contains the catalytic glutamate residue acting as general-acid catalyst, and a β-hairpin pointed towards the substrate binding cleft. The invariant β-hairpin structure is interestingly found to display the highest amino acid conservation in aligned sequences of a given family, thereby allowing to define signature motifs for each GH family. Most of such signature motifs are found to have promising performances for searching sequence databases. Our structural analysis further indicates that the GH motifs participate in enzymatic catalysis essentially by containing the catalytic water positioning residue of inverting mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: The seven families and subfamilies of the lysozyme superfamily all have in common a β-hairpin structure which displays a family-specific sequence motif. These GH β-hairpin motifs contain potentially important residues for the catalytic activity, thereby suggesting the participation of the GH motif to catalysis and also revealing a common catalytic scheme utilized by enzymes of the lysozyme superfamily.

  2. Overexpression of fatty acid amide hydrolase induces early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal D. Teaster

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs are bioactive lipids derived from the hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE. In animal systems this reaction is part of the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of physiological processes. The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which hydrolyzes NAE to ethanolamine and free fatty acid. Our previous work in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that overexpression of AtFAAH (At5g64440 lowered endogenous levels of NAEs in seeds, consistent with its role in NAE signal termination. Reduced NAE levels were accompanied by an accelerated growth phenotype, increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA, enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens, and early flowering. Here we investigated the nature of the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpression. AtFAAH overexpressors flowered several days earlier than wild type and AtFAAH knockouts under both non-inductive short day (SD and inductive long day (LD conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene, which plays a major role in regulating flowering time, and one target MADS box transcription factor, SEPATALLA3 (SEP3, were elevated in AtFAAH overexpressors. Furthermore, AtFAAH overexpressors, with the early flowering phenotype had lower endogenous NAE levels in leaves compared to wild type prior to flowering. Exogenous application of NAE 12:0, which was reduced by up to 30% in AtFAAH overexpressors, delayed the onset of flowering in wild type plants. We conclude that the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpressors is, in part, explained by elevated FT gene expression resulting from the enhanced NAE hydrolase activity of AtFAAH, suggesting that NAE metabolism may participate in floral signaling pathways.

  3. The Caenorhabditis elegans Y87G2A.14 Nudix hydrolase is a peroxisomal coenzyme A diphosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLennan Alexander G

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Nudix hydrolase family members varies widely among different organisms. In order to understand the reasons for the particular spectrum possessed by a given organism, the substrate specificity and function of different family members must be established. Results The Y87G2A.14 Nudix hydrolase gene product of Caenorhabditis elegans has been expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli and shown to be a CoA diphosphatase with catalytic activity towards CoA and its derivatives. The products of CoA hydrolysis were 3',5'-ADP and 4'-phosphopantetheine with Km and kcat values of 220 μM and 13.8 s-1 respectively. CoA esters yielded 3',5'-ADP and the corresponding acyl-phosphopantetheine. Activity was optimal at pH 9.5 with 5 mM Mg2+ and fluoride was inhibitory with a Ki of 3 μM. The Y87G2A.14 gene product has a potential C-terminal tripeptide PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal – SKI. By fusing a Y87G2A.14 cDNA to the C-terminus of yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, the enzyme appeared to be targeted to peroxisomes by the SKI signal when transfected into yeast cells. Deletion of SKI abolished specific targeting. Conclusions The presence of related sequences with potential PTS1 or PTS2 peroxisomal targeting signals in other organisms suggests a conserved peroxisomal function for the CoA diphosphatase members of this group of Nudix hydrolases.

  4. Cloning and characterisation of hAps1 and hAps2, human diadenosine polyphosphate-metabolising Nudix hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrany Stephen T

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human genome contains at least 18 genes for Nudix hydrolase enzymes. Many have similar functions to one another. In order to understand their roles in cell physiology, these proteins must be characterised. Results We have characterised two novel human gene products, hAps1, encoded by the NUDT11 gene, and hAps2, encoded by the NUDT10 gene. These cytoplasmic proteins are members of the DIPP subfamily of Nudix hydrolases, and differ from each other by a single amino acid. Both metabolise diadenosine-polyphosphates and, weakly, diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. An apparent polymorphism of hAps1 has also been identified, which leads to the point mutation S39N. This has also been characterised. The favoured nucleotides were diadenosine 5',5"'-pentaphosphate (kcat/Km = 11, 8 and 16 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2 and diadenosine 5',5"'-hexaphosphate (kcat/Km = 13, 14 and 11 × 103M-1s-1 respectively for hAps1, hAps1-39N and hAps2. Both hAps1 and hAps2 had pH optima of 8.5 and an absolute requirement for divalent cations, with manganese (II being favoured. Magnesium was not able to activate the enzymes. Therefore, these enzymes could be acutely regulated by manganese fluxes within the cell. Conclusions Recent gene duplication has generated the two Nudix genes, NUDT11 and NUDT10. We have characterised their gene products as the closely related Nudix hydrolases, hAps1 and hAps2. These two gene products complement the activity of previously described members of the DIPP family, and reinforce the concept that Ap5A and Ap6A act as intracellular messengers.

  5. Bioprospecting metagenomics of a microbial community on cotton degradation: Mining for new glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiu; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Xuedong; Wei, Dongzhi; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-20

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHases) of higher performance are immediately needed for efficient degradation of plant biomass into fermentable sugars in industrial processes. The current study represents functional characterization of the enzymatic repertoire involved in crude cotton biomass degradation. Physical contact between cells and substrate is necessary for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Cytophagales, which plays a major role in cotton biomass decomposition, was identified as a prevalent community member by 16S rRNA analysis. From the metagenome data, 2058 GHase homologs were identified, of which sixteen were successfully expressed in E. coli. Four enzymes showed activities on p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside, four showed activities on p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, two had activities against p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucuronide, one showed activity on laminarin, three had activities against p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminide, one had activity towards carboxymethyl cellulose, and one towards p-nitrophenyl-β-d-mannopyranoside. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes. The sixteen GHases that were cloned may have potential application for biomass conversion and bioproduct production. Functional characterization of the enzymatic repertoire in cotton biomass degradation and analysis of the GHases provide insight into the composition and interaction of enzymes and pathways of plant biomass degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The reactivity of linseed and soybean oil with different epoxidation degree towards vinyl acetate and impact of the resulting copolymer on the wood durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jebrane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (LO and soybean oil (SO were in–situ epoxidized with peracetic acid to produce different degree of epoxidized LO and epoxidized SO. For comparison purpose, commercial epoxidized linseed oil (ELO® and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO® were also included in the study. The effect of epoxidation degree on the copolymerization reaction between epoxidized oils and vinyl acetate (VAc was investigated. Results showed that a copolymer can be formed between VAc and epoxidized LO with high epoxy content, while no reaction occurred between VAc and SO or its epoxidized derivatives. As the most reactive monomer among the studied oils, the epoxidized LO with highest epoxy content (i.e. ELO® was mixed with VAc and then impregnated into the wood using three different ELO®/VAc formulations either as solution or as emulsions. After curing, the impact of the resulting copolymer issued from the three tested formulations on the wood durability was evaluated. Results showed that the formulation comprising VAc, ELO®, H2O, K2S2O8 and alkaline emulsifier (Formulation 3 can significantly improve wood’s durability against white rot- (Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana. Treated wood of 8% weight percentage gain (WPG was sufficient to ensure decay resistance against the test fungi with less than 5% mass loss.

  7. Chiral MnIII (Salen Covalently Bonded on Modified ZPS-PVPA and ZPS-IPPA as Efficient Catalysts for Enantioselective Epoxidation of Unfunctionalized Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chiral MnIII (salen complex supported on modified ZPS-PVPA (zirconium poly(styrene-phenylvinylphosphonate and ZPS-IPPA (zirconium poly(styrene-isopropenyl phosphonate were prepared using –CH2Cl as a reactive surface modifier by a covalent grafting method. The supported catalysts showed higher chiral induction (ee: 72%–83% compared with the corresponding homogeneous catalyst (ee: 54% for asymmetric epoxidation of α-methylstrene in the presence of 4-phenylpyridine N-oxide (PPNO as axial base using NaClO as an oxidant. ZPS-PVPA-based catalyst 1, with a larger pore diameter and surface area, was found to be more active than ZPS-IPPA-based catalyst 2. In addition, bulkier alkene-like indene, was efficiently epoxidized with these supported catalysts (ee: 96%–99%, the results were much higher than those for the homogeneous system (ee: 65%. Moreover, the prepared catalysts were relatively stable and can be recycled at least eight times without significant loss of activity and enantioselectivity.

  8. Epoxidation of Unfunctionalized Olefins by Mn(salen) Catalyst Using Organic Peracids as Oxygen Source: A Theoretical Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilja V. Khavrutskii; Djamaladdin G. Musaev; Keiji Morokuma; Barry M. Trost

    2004-01-01

    ...)] method in two different regimes: with and without an axial ligand. The acylperoxo complexes of Mn II, III, IV in cisON cisNO and trans geometrical configurations cannot compete with the catalyst-free Prilezhaev epoxidation...

  9. Direct determination of absolute configuration: a vibrational circular dichroism study on dimethyl-substituted phenyloxiranes synthesized by Shi epoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Lassen, Peter Rygaard; Tanner, David Ackland

    2008-01-01

    The three possible dimethylsubstituted phenyloxiranes (cis, trans and geminal) were synthesized in both racemic (mCPBA) and enantiomerically enriched forms (Shi epoxidation) and subjected to a vibrational circular dichroism study. The experimental spectra were compared to theoretical spectra...

  10. One pot 'click' reactions : tandem enantioselective biocatalytic epoxide ring opening and [3+2] azide alkyne cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan S.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Postema, Christiaan P.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) can perform enantioselective azidolysis of aromatic epoxides to 1,2-azido alcohols which are subsequently ligated to alkynes producing chiral hydroxy triazoles in a one-pot procedure with excellent enantiomeric excess.

  11. Discovery of glycine sulfonamides as dual inhibitors of sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase α and α/β-hydrolase domain 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Freek J; Deng, Hui; Baggelaar, Marc P; Allarà, Marco; van der Wel, Tom; den Dulk, Hans; Ligresti, Alessia; van Esbroeck, Annelot C M; McGuire, Ross; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Overkleeft, Herman S; van der Stelt, Mario

    2014-08-14

    sn-1-Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGL-α) is the main enzyme responsible for the production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the central nervous system. Glycine sulfonamides have recently been identified by a high throughput screening campaign as a novel class of inhibitors for this enzyme. Here, we report on the first structure-activity relationship study of glycine sulfonamide inhibitors and their brain membrane proteome-wide selectivity on serine hydrolases with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We found that (i) DAGL-α tolerates a variety of biaryl substituents, (ii) the sulfonamide is required for inducing a specific orientation of the 2,2-dimethylchroman substituent, and (iii) a carboxylic acid is essential for its activity. ABPP revealed that the sulfonamide glycine inhibitors have at least three off-targets, including α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6). Finally, we identified LEI-106 as a potent, dual DAGL-α/ABHD6 inhibitor, which makes this compound a potential lead for the discovery of new molecular therapies for diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Purification and characterization of bleomycin hydrolase, which represents a new family of cysteine proteases, from rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, A; Higuchi, D; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Masuda, Y; Hirabayashi, T; Nakaya, K

    1996-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) hydrolase, which hydrolyzes the carboxyamide bond in the beta-amino-alanine moiety, was purified from newborn rat skin. The enzyme was purified 2,500-fold over the crude extract to apparent homogeneity in five steps in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol: 45-55% ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by chromatographies on Sephacryl S-200, DEAE-cellulofine, Phe-Superose, and Mono Q ion-exchange. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 280 kDa according to gel filtration. The subunit molecular mass was estimated as 48 kDa by SDS-PAGE, indicating that the enzyme was comprised of six identical subunits. The amino acid sequence of its NH2-terminus was determined to be acetyl-Met-Asn-Asn-Ala-Gly-Leu-Asn-Ser-Glu-Lys-, which was not found in the amino acid sequence database. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 7.5 with pepleomycin (PLM). The Km and Vmax values were 2.1 mM and 6.8 mu mol center dot mg-1 center dot h-1 for PLM, and 1.8 mM and 7.2 mu mol center dot mg-1 center dot h-1 for BLM-A2, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleinimide (NEM), and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (pCMB) as well as divalent cations such as Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and Zn2+. It was effectively inhibited by a cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. However, cystatins A and C did not inhibit the activity. BLM hydrolase exhibited broad aminopeptidase substrate specificity towards aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides such as basic, neutral, and hydrophobic amino acid residues, as well as acidic residues. These results indicated that BLM hydrolase represents a new family of cysteine proteases. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses showed that BLM hydrolase is ubiquitous in various rat tissues but at low levels in lung and adult skin tissues, suggesting that this enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of antibiotics.

  13. A remote but significant sequence homology between glycoside hydrolase clan GH-H and glycoside hydrolase family GH 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janecek, S.; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although both the α-amylase super-family, i.e. the glycoside hydrolase (GH) clan GH-H (the GH families 13, 70 and 77), and family GH31 share some characteristics, their different catalytic machinery prevents classification of GH31 in clan GH-H. A significant but remote evolutionary relatedness is......7 and β8 of the GH-H and GH31 (β/α)8-barrels. Structure comparison of GH13 α-amylase and GH31 α-xylosidase guided alignment of GH-H and GH31 members for construction of evolutionary trees. The closest sequence relationship displayed by GH31 is to GH77 of clan GH-H....

  14. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Murein Hydrolase, Millericin B, Produced by Streptococcus milleri NMSCC 061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, M.; Bierbaum, G.; Sahl, H.-G.; Hastings, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus milleri NMSCC 061 was screened for antimicrobial substances and shown to produce a bacteriolytic cell wall hydrolase, termed millericin B. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a four-step purification procedure that consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration, ultrafiltration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The yield following ion-exchange chromatography was 6.4%, with a greater-than-2,000-fold increase in specific activity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 28,924 as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequences of both the N terminus of the enzyme (NH2 SENDFSLAMVSN) and an internal fragment which was generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage (NH2 SIQTNAPWGL) were determined by automated Edman degradation. Millericin B displayed a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria but was not active against Bacillus subtilis W23 or Escherichia coli ATCC 486 or against the producer strain itself. N-Dinitrophenyl derivatization and hydrazine hydrolysis of free amino and free carboxyl groups liberated from peptidoglycan digested with millericin B followed by thin-layer chromatography showed millericin B to be an endopeptidase with multiple activities. It cleaves the stem peptide at the N terminus of glutamic acid as well as the N terminus of the last residue in the interpeptide cross-link of susceptible strains. PMID:10618198

  15. Catalytic Characteristics of New Antibacterials Based on Hexahistidine-Containing Organophosphorus Hydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maslova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic characteristics of hexahistidine-containing organophosphorus hydrolase (His6-OPH and its enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes with poly-l-glutamic acid or poly-l-aspartic acid (His6-OPH/PLD50, hydrolyzing organophosphorous compounds, and N-acyl homoserine lactones were studied in the presence of various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and rifampicin. The antibiotics at concentrations below 1 g·L−1 had a negligible inhibiting effect on the His6-OPH activity. Mixed inhibition of His6-OPH was established for higher antibiotic concentrations, and rifampicin was the most potent inhibitor. Stabilization of the His6-OPH activity was observed in the presence of antibiotics at a concentration of 0.2 g·L−1 during exposure at 25–41 °C. Molecular docking of antibiotics to the surface of His6-OPH dimer revealed the antibiotics binding both to the area near active centers of the enzyme subunits and to the region of contact between subunits of the dimer. Such interactions between antibiotics and His6-OPH were verified with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Considering all the results of the study, the combination of His6-OPH/PLD50 with β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin was established as the optimal one in terms of exhibition and persistence of maximal lactonase activity of the enzyme.

  16. Electronic Structure Calculations of Ammonia Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Oxide with Epoxide and Hydroxyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Khaneja, Mamta; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2017-10-01

    Ammonia adsorption on graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) was investigated through density functional theory calculations. In the GO system, the obtained binding energy, band gap, charge transfer and electronic structure revealed that the epoxide (GO-O) and hydroxyl groups (GO-OH) in GO enhance the NH3 adsorption, which leads to the chemisorption of NH3 on GO. The dissociation of NH3 to NH2 and formation of OH was also observed when the O and H atoms were separated at 0.985 Å, 1.019 Å, 1.035 Å, and 1.044 Å for various GO systems. The maximum charge transfer value was found to be 0.054 |e| with the binding energy of 1.143 eV for GO with a single epoxide (GO-1O) group. The charge transfer from NH3 to G or GO and the bond formation in this study agree with the reported experimental results.

  17. New Molybdenum Epoxidation Catalyst Derived From Nanoporous MCM-41 Supported Glycine Schiff-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masteri-Farahani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Covalent grafting of the nanoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 with 3- aminopropyl trimethoxysilane and acetyl acetone (acac successively gave modified MCM-41 (acacAmpMCM-41. Reaction of the resulted material with glycine afforded the corresponding supported glycine Schiff base ligand and subsequent reaction with [bis(acetylacetonatodioxomolybdenum(VI] was lead to molybdenum complex supported on MCM-41 through propyl chain spacer. Characterization of the resulting material was carried out with FT-IR, atomic absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and BET nitrogen sorption methods. The XRD and BET analyses revealed that textural properties of support were preserved during the grafting experiments. The resulted material successfully catalyzed the epoxidation of olefins with  tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the corresponding epoxides.

  18. Exploiting epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) as a starting raw material for latex-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Qamarina, M.; Fatimah Rubaizah, M. R.; Nurul Suhaira, A.; Norhanifah, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) is a chemically modified natural rubber latex produced from epoxidation process that involves usage of organic peracids. Conversion of the ENRL into dry rubber products has been known to exhibit many beneficial properties, however limited published works were found on diversifiying the ENRL latex-based products applications. In this preliminary work, different source of raw materials and neutralization systems were investigated. The objective was to explore possibilities in producing distinctive ENRL. Findings have demonstrated that different source of raw materials and neutralization systems influenced the typical ENRL specifications, stability behavior and particle size distribution. Morphological observations performed on these ENRL systems appeared to agree with the ENRL characteristics achieved. Since experimenting these two main factors resulted in encouraging ENRL findings, detailed work shall be further scrutinized to search for an optimum condition in producing marketable ENRL specifically for latex-based products applications.

  19. Local structure based method for prediction of the biochemical function of proteins: Applications to glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Mills, Caitlyn L; Wang, Zhouxi; Somasundaram, Saroja; Beuning, Penny J; Ondrechen, Mary Jo

    2016-01-15

    Thousands of protein structures of unknown or uncertain function have been reported as a result of high-throughput structure determination techniques developed by Structural Genomics (SG) projects. However, many of the putative functional assignments of these SG proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are incorrect. While high-throughput biochemical screening techniques have provided valuable functional information for limited sets of SG proteins, the biochemical functions for most SG proteins are still unknown or uncertain. Therefore, computational methods for the reliable prediction of protein function from structure can add tremendous value to the existing SG data. In this article, we show how computational methods may be used to predict the function of SG proteins, using examples from the six-hairpin glycosidase (6-HG) and the concanavalin A-like lectin/glucanase (CAL/G) superfamilies. Using a set of predicted functional residues, obtained from computed electrostatic and chemical properties for each protein structure, it is shown that these superfamilies may be sorted into functional families according to biochemical function. Within these superfamilies, a total of 18 SG proteins were analyzed according to their predicted, local functional sites: 13 from the 6-HG superfamily, five from the CAL/G superfamily. Within the 6-HG superfamily, an uncharacterized protein BACOVA_03626 from Bacteroides ovatus (PDB 3ON6) and a hypothetical protein BT3781 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (PDB 2P0V) are shown to have very strong active site matches with exo-α-1,6-mannosidases, thus likely possessing this function. Also in this superfamily, it is shown that protein BH0842, a putative glycoside hydrolase from Bacillus halodurans (PDB 2RDY), has a predicted active site that matches well with a known α-L-galactosidase. In the CAL/G superfamily, an uncharacterized glycosyl hydrolase family 16 protein from Mycobacterium smegmatis (PDB 3RQ0) is shown to have local structural

  20. Surface display of heterologous proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis using a peptidoglycan hydrolase anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Hao

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the lysin motif (LysM domains of bacterial cell wall-degrading enzymes are able to bind to peptidoglycan moieties of the cell wall. This suggests an approach for a cell surface display system in Gram-positive bacteria using a LysM-containing protein as the anchoring motif. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in B. thuringiensis using a LysM-containing peptidoglycan hydrolase, endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Mbg, as the anchor protein. Results Homology searching in the B. thuringiensis YBT-1520 genome revealed a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase gene. The encoded protein, Mbg, exhibited substantial cell-wall binding capacity. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mbg was structurally distinguished as an N-terminal domain with two tandemly aligned LysMs and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A GFP-fusion protein was expressed and used to verify the surface localization by Western blot, flow cytometry, protease accessibility, SDS sensitivity, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy assays. Low-level constitutive expression of Mbg was elevated by introducing a sporulation-independent promoter of cry3Aa. Truncated Mbg domains with separate N-terminus (Mbgn, C-terminus (Mbgc, LysM1, or LysM2 were further compared for their cell-wall displaying efficiencies. The Mbgn moiety contributed to cell-wall anchoring, while LysM1 was the active domain. Two tandemly repeated Mbgns exhibited the highest display activity, while the activity of three repeated Mbgns was decreased. A heterologous bacterial multicopper oxidase (WlacD was successfully displayed onto the surface of B. thuringiensis target cells using the optimum (Mbgn2 anchor, without radically altering its catalytic activity. Conclusion Mbg can be a functional anchor protein to target different heterologous proteins onto the surface of B. thuringiensis cells. Since the LysM domain appears to be universal in Gram-positive bacteria