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Sample records for epithelial scrape injury

  1. Effects of mitomycin C on infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes after epithelial scrape injury in the mouse cornea Efeito da mitomicina C na infiltração de leucócitos polimorfonucleares após lesão epitelial em córnea de camundongo

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    Ana Cecília Souza Leão Escarião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether mitomycin C (MMC alters appearance and disappearance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN in the cornea stroma, using an epithelial scrape injury in eye mouse model. METHODS: Twenty-mice underwent mechanical epithelium debridement in the central cornea using 20% ethanol. After the scrape, the right eye received 0.02% MMC for one minute, while the left eye received physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 5, and 14 after surgery, and corneal whole mounts were prepared for histology. PMN distribution was analyzed in digitized microscope images. Cell division in the cornea was determined by immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, which was injected intraperitoneally before the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: Epithelial scrape injury triggered infiltration of PMNs into the corneal stroma. An analysis of PMN distribution revealed that there was no difference between eyes treated with and without MMC at all time points. BrdU labeling showed that 0.02% MMC for one minute blocked keratocyte proliferation completely. CONCLUSION: MMC treatment regimen, which is common in clinical practice, inhibits keratocyte proliferation during wound healing, but when used at 0.02% for one minute, it does not affect PMN infiltration into the corneal stroma, and subsequent movement toward the injury site, or the disappearance of PMNs from the stroma, in the mouse epithelial injury model.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi determinar se a mitomicina C (MMC altera o aparecimento dos leucócitos polimorfonucleares (PMN no estroma corneano após abrasão epitelial central, utilizando olhos de camundongo como modelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte camundongos foram submetidos à abrasão epitelial em córnea central utilizando etanol a 20%. Após a lesão, o olho direito recebeu MMC a 0,02% por 1 minuto, enquanto o olho esquerdo recebeu solução salina. Os animais foram sacrificados em 1, 2, 5 e 14 dias após a cirurgia e

  2. Epithelial basement membrane injury and regeneration modulates corneal fibrosis after pseudomonas corneal ulcers in rabbits.

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    Marino, Gustavo K; Santhiago, Marcony R; Santhanam, Abirami; Lassance, Luciana; Thangavadivel, Shanmugapriya; Medeiros, Carla S; Bose, Karthikeyan; Tam, Kwai Ping; Wilson, Steven E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy. At one month after keratitis, corneas had no detectible EBM lamina lucida or lamina densa, and the central stroma was packed with myofibroblasts that in some eyes extended to the posterior corneal surface with damage to Descemet's membrane and the endothelium. At one month, a nest of stromal cells in the midst of the SMA + myofibroblasts in the stroma that were CD11b+ may be fibrocyte precursors to myofibroblasts. At two to four months after keratitis, the EBM fully-regenerated and myofibroblasts disappeared from the anterior 60-90% of the stroma of all corneas, except for one four-month post-keratitis cornea where anterior myofibroblasts were still present in one localized pocket in the cornea. The organization of the stromal extracellular matrix also became less disorganized from two to four months after keratitis but remained abnormal compared to controls at the last time point. Myofibroblasts persisted in the posterior 10%-20% of posterior stroma even at four months after keratitis in the central cornea where Descemet's membrane and the endothelium were damaged. This study suggests that the EBM has a critical role in modulating myofibroblast development and fibrosis after keratitis-similar to the role of EBM in fibrosis after photorefractive keratectomy. Damage to EBM likely allows epithelium-derived transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) to penetrate the stroma and drive development and

  3. Current perspectives in epithelial cell injury and repair: consequences for epithelial functions

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    R. Lutter

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells lining the airways and the respiratory compartment may, and certainly when exposed to an inflammatory milieu, display an altered functioning, which could contribute to pathophysiology of inflammatory lung/airway disease. In the present review paper, several issues that were discussed at an earlier European Respiratory Society Research Seminar on conditions that affect epithelial functioning have been recapitulated and updated. These and future studies should improve understanding of epithelial functioning and may aid recovery from disease.

  4. Role of contact inhibition of locomotion and junctional mechanics in epithelial collective responses to injury

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    Coburn, Luke; Lopez, Hender; Schouwenaar, Irin-Maya; Yap, Alpha S.; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial tissues form physically integrated barriers against the external environment protecting organs from infection and invasion. Within each tissue, epithelial cells respond to different challenges that can potentially compromise tissue integrity. In particular, cells collectively respond to injuries by reorganizing their cell–cell junctions and migrating directionally towards the sites of damage. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that drive collective responses in epithelial aggregates remain poorly understood. In this work, we develop a minimal mechanistic model that is able to capture the essential features of epithelial collective responses to injuries. We show that a model that integrates the mechanics of cells at the cell–cell and cell–substrate interfaces as well as contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) correctly predicts two key properties of epithelial response to injury as: (1) local relaxation of the tissue and (2) collective reorganization involving the extension of cryptic lamellipodia that extend, on average, up to 3 cell diameters from the site of injury and morphometric changes in the basal regions. Our model also suggests that active responses (like the actomyosin purse string and softening of cell–cell junctions) are needed to drive morphometric changes in the apical region. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of the crosstalk between junctional biomechanics, cell substrate adhesion, and CIL, as well as active responses, in guiding the collective rearrangements that are required to preserve the epithelial barrier in response to injury.

  5. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

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    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  6. Human amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold in the repair of spinal cord injury

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    Ting-gang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate. We hypothesized that amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffolds would be conducive to the repair of spinal cord injury. To test this, we isolated and cultured amniotic epithelial cells, and constructed complexes of these cells and silk fibroin scaffolds. Implantation of the cell-scaffold complex into a rat model of spinal cord injury resulted in a smaller glial scar in the damaged cord tissue than in model rats that received a blank scaffold, or amniotic epithelial cells alone. In addition to a milder local immunological reaction, the rats showed less inflammatory cell infiltration at the transplant site, milder host-versus-graft reaction, and a marked improvement in motor function. These findings confirm that the transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold can promote the repair of spinal cord injury. Silk fibroin scaffold can provide a good nerve regeneration microenvironment for amniotic epithelial cells.

  7. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

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    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  8. Oxidant-mediated epithelial cell injury in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Cantin, A M; North, S L; Fells, G A; Hubbard, R C; Crystal, R G

    1987-01-01

    Lung inflammatory cells of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) were evaluated for their ability to injure 51Cr-labeled AKD alveolar epithelial cells in the presence and absence of IPF alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF). The IPF cells were spontaneously releasing exaggerated amounts of superoxide (O.2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) compared with normal (P less than 0.02). Cytotoxicity of the AKD cells was markedly increased when the IPF inflammatory cells were incubated with a...

  9. Propofol Does Not Reduce Pyroptosis of Enterocytes and Intestinal Epithelial Injury After Lipopolysaccharide Challenge.

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    Zhang, Xu-Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Hu-Fei; Guan, Su; Wen, Shi-Hong; Huang, Wen-Qi; Liu, Zi-Meng

    2018-01-01

    To date, mechanisms of sepsis-induced intestinal epithelial injury are not well known. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) regulates pyroptosis of lymphocytes, and propofol is usually used for sedation in septic patients. We aimed to determine the occurrence of enterocyte pyroptosis mediated by P2X7R and to explore the effects of propofol on pyroptosis and intestinal epithelial injury after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. A novel regimen of LPS challenge was applied in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors of P2X7R (A438079) and NLRP3 inflammasome (MCC950), and different doses of propofol were administered. The caspase-1 expression, caspase-3 expression, caspase-11 expression, P2X7R expression and NLRP3 expression, extracellular ATP concentration and YO-PRO-1 uptake, and cytotoxicity and HMGB1 concentration were detected to evaluate enterocyte pyroptosis in cultured cells and intestinal epithelial tissues. Chiu's score, diamine oxidase and villus length were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial injury. Moreover, survival analysis was performed. LPS challenge activated caspase-11 expression and P2X7R expression, enhanced ATP concentration and YO-PRO-1 uptake, and led to increased cytotoxicity and HMGB1 concentration. Subsequently, LPS resulted in intestinal epithelial damage, as evidenced by increased levels of Chiu's score and diamine oxidase, and shorter villus length and high mortality of animals. A438079, but not MCC950, significantly relieved LPS-induced enterocyte pyroptosis and intestinal epithelial injury. Importantly, propofol did not confer the protective effects on enterocyte pyroptosis and intestinal epithelia although it markedly decreased P2X7R expression. LPS attack leads to activation of caspase-11/P2X7R and pyroptosis of enterocytes. Propofol does not reduce LPS-induced pyroptosis and intestinal epithelial injury, although it inhibits P2X7R upregulation.

  10. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury.

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    Husain, Kareem D; Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dunne, W Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Karl, Irene E; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Randomized, controlled study. University research laboratory. Genetically inbred mice. Following induction of acute lung injury, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild-type and C3H/HeJ mice, which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (n = 17); b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha or control antibody (n = 22); and c) C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n = 21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n = 24) as well as in a time course analysis following a fixed injury (n = 18). Acute lung injury caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe acute lung injury. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hrs, but proliferation was decreased 36 hrs following acute lung injury while apoptosis returned to normal. Acute lung injury causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving Toll-like receptor 4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the

  11. Serratia marcescens is injurious to intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Ochieng, John B; Boisen, Nadia; Lindsay, Brianna; Santiago, Araceli; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Fields, Barry; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens.

  12. The role of nitric oxide in intestinal epithelial injury and restitution in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

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    Chokshi, Nikunj K; Guner, Yigit S; Hunter, Catherine J; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Grishin, Anatoly; Ford, Henri R

    2008-04-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life-threatening gastrointestinal disease encountered in the premature infant. Although the inciting events leading to NEC remain elusive, various risk factors, including prematurity, hypoxemia, formula feeding, and intestinal ischemia, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC. Data from our laboratory and others suggest that NEC evolves from disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, as a result of a combination of local and systemic insults. We postulate that nitric oxide (NO), an important second messenger and inflammatory mediator, plays a key role in intestinal barrier failure seen in NEC. Nitric oxide and its reactive nitrogen derivative, peroxynitrite, may affect gut barrier permeability by inducing enterocyte apoptosis (programmed cell death) and necrosis, or by altering tight junctions or gap junctions that normally play a key role in maintaining epithelial monolayer integrity. Intrinsic mechanisms that serve to restore monolayer integrity following epithelial injury include enterocyte proliferation, epithelial restitution via enterocyte migration, and re-establishment of cell contacts. This review focuses on the biology of NO and the mechanisms by which it promotes epithelial injury while concurrently disrupting the intrinsic repair mechanisms.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

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    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  14. Epithelial cell senescence impairs repair process and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury

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    Nagai Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotoxic stress, such as by exposure to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and cigarette smoke, induces premature cell senescence. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence of various types of cells is accelerated in COPD patients. However, whether the senescence of airway epithelial cells contributes to the development of airway diseases is unknown. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that premature senescence of airway epithelial cells (Clara cells impairs repair processes and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury. Methods C57/BL6J mice were injected with the Clara-cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA on days 0, 7, and 14, and each NA injection was followed by a daily dose of BrdU on each of the following 3 days, during which regenerating cells were allowed to incorporate BrdU into their DNA and to senesce. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 was injected 30 minutes before each BrdU dose. Mice were sacrificed at different times until day 28 and lungs of mice were obtained to investigate whether Clara cell senescence impairs airway epithelial regeneration and exacerbates airway inflammation. NCI-H441 cells were induced to senesce by exposure to BrdU or the telomerase inhibitor MST-312. Human lung tissue samples were obtained from COPD patients, asymptomatic smokers, and nonsmokers to investigate whether Clara cell senescence is accelerated in the airways of COPD patients, and if so, whether it is accompanied by p38 MAPK activation. Results BrdU did not alter the intensity of the airway epithelial injury or inflammation after a single NA exposure. However, after repeated NA exposure, BrdU induced epithelial cell (Clara cell senescence, as demonstrated by a DNA damage response, p21 overexpression, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and growth arrest, which resulted in impaired epithelial regeneration. The epithelial senescence was accompanied by p38 MAPK-dependent airway

  15. Pulmonary Epithelial TLR4 Activation Leads to Lung Injury in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

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    Jia, Hongpeng; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Martin, Laura Y; Good, Misty; Zhou, Qinjie; Sung, Jungeun; Fulton, William B; Nino, Diego F; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A; Hackam, David J

    2016-08-01

    We seek to define the mechanisms leading to the development of lung disease in the setting of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized by the sudden onset of intestinal necrosis. NEC development in mice requires activation of the LPS receptor TLR4 on the intestinal epithelium, through its effects on modulating epithelial injury and repair. Although NEC-associated lung injury is more severe than the lung injury that occurs in premature infants without NEC, the mechanisms leading to its development remain unknown. In this study, we now show that TLR4 expression in the lung gradually increases during postnatal development, and that mice and humans with NEC-associated lung inflammation express higher levels of pulmonary TLR4 than do age-matched controls. NEC in wild-type newborn mice resulted in significant pulmonary injury that was prevented by deletion of TLR4 from the pulmonary epithelium, indicating a role for pulmonary TLR4 in lung injury development. Mechanistically, intestinal epithelial TLR4 activation induced high-mobility group box 1 release from the intestine, which activated pulmonary epithelial TLR4, leading to the induction of the neutrophil recruiting CXCL5 and the influx of proinflammatory neutrophils to the lung. Strikingly, the aerosolized administration of a novel carbohydrate TLR4 inhibitor prevented CXCL5 upregulation and blocked NEC-induced lung injury in mice. These findings illustrate the critical role of pulmonary TLR4 in the development of NEC-associated lung injury, and they suggest that inhibition of this innate immune receptor in the neonatal lung may prevent this devastating complication of NEC. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Ets homologous factor regulates pathways controlling response to injury in airway epithelial cells.

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    Fossum, Sara L; Mutolo, Michael J; Yang, Rui; Dang, Hong; O'Neal, Wanda K; Knowles, Michael R; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2014-12-16

    Ets homologous factor (EHF) is an Ets family transcription factor expressed in many epithelial cell types including those lining the respiratory system. Disruption of the airway epithelium is central to many lung diseases, and a network of transcription factors coordinates its normal function. EHF can act as a transcriptional activator or a repressor, though its targets in lung epithelial cells are largely uncharacterized. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), showed that the majority of EHF binding sites in lung epithelial cells are intergenic or intronic and coincide with putative enhancers, marked by specific histone modifications. EHF occupies many genomic sites that are close to genes involved in intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion. RNA-seq after EHF depletion or overexpression showed significant alterations in the expression of genes involved in response to wounding. EHF knockdown also targeted genes in pathways of epithelial development and differentiation and locomotory behavior. These changes in gene expression coincided with alterations in cellular phenotype including slowed wound closure and increased transepithelial resistance. Our data suggest that EHF regulates gene pathways critical for epithelial response to injury, including those involved in maintenance of barrier function, inflammation and efficient wound repair. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Slit2 ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis after hypoxia-and lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial cells injury in vitro

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    Zhou, Xiangjun [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Yao, Qisheng, E-mail: yymcyqs@126.com [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Shan, Guang [Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei (China)

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The Slit2 family of secreted glycoproteins is expressed in the kidney, it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory activity and prevent ischemic renal injury in vivo. However, whether Slit2 reduces renal fibrosis and inflammation after hypoxic and inflammatory epithelial cells injury in vitro remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Slit2 ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation in two renal epithelial cells line challenged with hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Renal epithelial cells were treated with hypoxia and LPS to induce cell injury. Hoechst staining and Western blot analysis was conducted to examine epithelial cells injury. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)−1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Western blot analysis determined the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)−1α, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results revealed that hypoxia induced epithelial cells apoptosis, inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α release and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. LPS could exacerbate hypoxia -induced epithelial cells apoptosis, IL-1β and TNF-α release and fibrosis. Slit2 reduced the expression of fibronectin, the rate of epithelial cell apoptosis, and the expression of inflammatory factor. Slit2 could also inhibit the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB, but not the expression of HIF-1α. Therefore, Slit2 attenuated inflammation and fibrosis after LPS- and hypoxia-induced epithelial cells injury via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, but not depending on the HIF-1α signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Slit2 ameliorates inflammation after hypoxia-and LPS-induced epithelial cells injury

  18. Effects of conditioned media from human amniotic epithelial cells on corneal alkali injuries in rabbits

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    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Young-Woo; Ahn, Jae-Sang; Ahn, Jeong-Taek; Kim, Se-Eun; Jeong, Man-Bok; Seo, Min-Su; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of conditioned media (CM) from human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) on the corneal wound healing process. Eighteen rabbits (36 eyes) were used and randomly assigned to three groups according treatment: CM from HAECs (group 1), vehicle alone (group 2), and saline (group 3). Corneal alkali injuries were induced with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Each reagent used for treatment evaluation was injected into the dorsal bulbar subconjunctiva and the area of the corneal epithelial defect was measured every other day. Two animals from each group were euthanized at a time on days 3, 7, and 15, and the cornea was removed for histological examination. The sum of the epithelial defect areas measured on day 0 to day 6 as well as day 0 to day 14 in group 1 was significantly smaller than those of other groups. Histological examination revealed that the group 1 corneas had less inflammatory cell infiltration and showed more intact epithelial features compared to the other groups. These results suggest that CM from HAECs promote corneal wound healing in rabbits. PMID:23388445

  19. Epithelial apoptosis in mechanistically distinct methods of injury in the murine small intestine

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    Vyas, Dinesh; Robertson, Charles M; Stromberg, Paul E; Martin, James R.; Dunne, W. Michael; Houchen, Courtney W; Barrett, Terrence A; Ayala, Alfred; Perl, Mario; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-01-01

    Gut epithelial apoptosis is involved in the pathophysiology of multiple diseases. This study characterized intestinal apoptosis in three mechanistically distinct injuries with different kinetics of cell death. FVB/N mice were subjected to gamma radiation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or injection of monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody and sacrificed 4, 12, or 24 hours post-injury (n=10/time point). Apoptosis was quantified in the jejunum by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), active caspase-3, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL), in situ oligoligation reaction (ISOL,) cytokeratin 18, and annexin V staining. Reproducible results were obtained only for H&E, active caspase-3, TUNEL and ISOL, which were quantified and compared against each other for each injury at each time point. Kinetics of injury were different with early apoptosis highest following radiation, late apoptosis highest following anti CD3, and more consistent levels following pneumonia. ISOL was the most consistent stain and was always statistically indistinguishable from at least 2 stains. In contrast, active caspase-3 demonstrated lower levels of apoptosis, while the TUNEL assay had higher levels of apoptosis in the most severely injured intestine regardless of mechanism of injury. H&E was a statistical outlier more commonly than any other stain. This suggests that regardless of mechanism or kinetics of injury, ISOL correlates to other quantification methods of detecting gut epithelial apoptosis more than any other method studied and compares favorably to other commonly accepted techniques of quantifying apoptosis in a large intestinal cross sectional by balancing sensitivity and specificity across a range of times and levels of death. PMID:17357092

  20. Role of the urokinase-fibrinolytic system in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung injury.

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    Marudamuthu, Amarnath Satheesh; Bhandary, Yashodhar Prabhakar; Shetty, Shwetha Kumari; Fu, Jian; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Prakash, Ys; Shetty, Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cell injury precedes development of pulmonary fibrosis. Mice lacking urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are highly susceptible, whereas those deficient in plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) are resistant to lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered, at least in part, as a source of myofibroblast formation during fibrogenesis. However, the contribution of altered expression of major components of the uPA system on ATII cell EMT during lung injury is not well understood. To investigate whether changes in uPA and PAI-1 by ATII cells contribute to EMT, ATII cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and mice with bleomycin-, transforming growth factor β-, or passive cigarette smoke-induced lung injury were analyzed for uPA, PAI-1, and EMT markers. We found reduced expression of E-cadherin and zona occludens-1, whereas collagen-I and α-smooth muscle actin were increased in ATII cells isolated from injured lungs. These changes were associated with a parallel increase in PAI-1 and reduced uPA expression. Further, inhibition of Src kinase activity using caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide suppressed bleomycin-, transforming growth factor β-, or passive cigarette smoke-induced EMT and restored uPA expression while suppressing PAI-1. These studies show that induction of PAI-1 and inhibition of uPA during fibrosing lung injury lead to EMT in ATII cells. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

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    Jeremy S Leventhal

    Full Text Available Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO. Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3 and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  2. MDR1 is Related to Intestinal Epithelial Injury Induced by Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Kugai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the cytotoxicity of aspirin against the intestinal epithelium is a major clinical problem, little is known about its pathogenesis. We assessed the involvement of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR 1 in intestinal epithelial cell injury caused by aspirin using MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. Methods: Caco2 cells were treated with various concentrations of aspirin for 24 h. After treatment of Caco2 cells with verapamil, a specific inhibitor of MDR1, we assessed the extent of cell injury using a WST-8 assay at 24 h after aspirin-stimulation. We performed the same procedure in MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. To determine the function of MDR1 in the metabolism of aspirin, flux study was performed using 14C-labeled aspirin. Results: The level of aspirin-induced cell injury was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells and was less serious in MDR1-transfected Caco2 cells than in control vector-transfected cells. The efflux of 14C-labeled aspirin was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells. Conclusion: These data suggest that aspirin effux occurs through the MDR1 transporter and that the MDR1 transporter is involved in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced cell injury.

  3. The effect of calcium on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-induced renal epithelial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskhali, Muhammad H; Byer, Karen J; Khan, Saeed R

    2009-02-01

    Since hypercalciuria is a common feature of idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis, renal epithelial cells of stone patients are exposed to various crystals in the presence of high calcium. This study was performed to determine the effect of high calcium levels on CaOx crystal-induced cell injury. We exposed human renal epithelial cell line, HK2 in vitro to CaOx monohydrate crystals at a concentration of 133 microg/cm(2) for 1, 3, 6 or 12 h in the presence or absence of 5 or 10 mM/L calcium Ca(++). We determined the release of lactate dehydrogenase as marker of injury and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 8-isoprostane (8-IP) as sign of oxidative stress. Cells were also examined after trypan blue and nuclear DNA staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to determine their membrane integrity and apoptosis respectively. Exposure of cells to 5 or 10 mM/L of Ca(++,) for up-to 6 h, resulted in increased trypan blue and DAPI staining and production of H(2)O(2). Similarly an exposure to CaOx crystals also resulted in increased trypan blue and DAPI staining and H(2)O(2) production. An exposure to 5 mM/L Ca or CaOx crystals also resulted in increased production of 8-IP. A combination of the two treatments, Ca and CaOx crystals, did not show anymore changes than exposure to high Ca or CaOx crystals alone, except in the case of a longer exposure of 12 h. Longer exposures of 12 h resulted in cells sloughing from the substrate. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of Ca or CaOx crystals is injurious to renal epithelial cells but the two do not appear to work synergistically. On the other hand, results of our earlier studies suggest that oxalate and CaOx crystals work in synergy, i.e., CaOx crystals are more injurious in the presence of high oxalate. Perhaps Ox and CaOx crystals activate different biochemical pathways while Ca and CaOx crystals affect the identical pathways.

  4. Geranylgeranylacetone alleviates radiation-induced lung injury by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Jung, Myung-Gu; Jeong, Ye Ji; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Hae-June

    2016-06-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) involves pneumonitis and fibrosis, and results in pulmonary dysfunction. Moreover, RILI can be a fatal complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The present study investigated the protective effect of geranylgeranlyacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat shock protein (HSP)70, on RILI using a C57BL/6 mouse model of RILI developing 6 months subsequent to exposure to 12.5 Gy thoracic radiation. GGA was administered 5 times orally prior and subsequent to radiation exposure, and the results were assessed by histological analysis and western blotting. The results show that late RILI was alleviated by GGA treatment, possibly through the suppression of epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker expression. Based on histological examination, orally administered GGA during the acute phase of radiation injury not only significantly inhibited pro‑surfactant protein C (pro‑SPC) and vimentin expression, but also preserved E‑cadherin expression 6 months after irradiation‑induced injury of the lungs. GGA induced HSP70 and inhibited EMT marker expression in L132 human lung epithelial cells following IR. These data suggest that the prevention of EMT signaling is a key cytoprotective effect in the context of RILI. Thus, HSP70‑inducing drugs, such as GGA, could be beneficial for protection against RILI.

  5. Protection of Meconium-Induced Lung Epithelial Injury by Protease Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, C; Gopallawa, I; Ivanov, V; Gewolb, IH; Uhal, BD

    2017-01-01

    Earlier work form this laboratory showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to meconium caused significant cell detachment and that meconium-induced detachment of cells was prevented by a protease inhibitor cocktail. Therefore, it was hypothesized that protease inhibitors might protect AEC monolayers against meconium-induced collapse of epithelial barrier function both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate this theory in vitro, albumin flux was measured across cultured, confluent monolayers of human type II derived cell line A549 on microporous filter inserts. Human meconium was collected from seven healthy full-term neonates and the samples were pooled and diluted prior to analysis. Exposure of AECs to 5% human meconium increased albumin flux across the cultured AEC monolayers, but the increase was significantly blocked by protease inhibitors (Pmeconium increased the passage of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) from the vascular compartment into the alveolar spaces, measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid after intravenous injection of EBD. Moreover, intratrachial coinstillation of protease inhibitors prevented the meconium-induced increase in EBD passage into BAL fluid (Pmeconium-induced injury, and suggest the future possibility of using protease inhibitors in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome. PMID:29218325

  6. Dietary Selenium Deficiency Exacerbates DSS-Induced Epithelial Injury and AOM/DSS-Induced Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Singh, Kshipra; Motley, Amy K.; Lintel, Mary K.; Matafonova, Elena; Bradley, Amber M.; Ning, Wei; Poindexter, Shenika V.; Parang, Bobak; Reddy, Vishruth K.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Fingleton, Barbara M.; Washington, Mary K.; Wilson, Keith T.; Davies, Sean S.; Hill, Kristina E.; Burk, Raymond F.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that exerts its functions via selenoproteins. Little is known about the role of Se in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Epidemiological studies have inversely correlated nutritional Se status with IBD severity and colon cancer risk. Moreover, molecular studies have revealed that Se deficiency activates WNT signaling, a pathway essential to intestinal stem cell programs and pivotal to injury recovery processes in IBD that is also activated in inflammatory neoplastic transformation. In order to better understand the role of Se in epithelial injury and tumorigenesis resulting from inflammatory stimuli, we examined colonic phenotypes in Se-deficient or -sufficient mice in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and azoxymethane (AOM) followed by cyclical administration of DSS, respectively. In response to DSS alone, Se-deficient mice demonstrated increased morbidity, weight loss, stool scores, and colonic injury with a concomitant increase in DNA damage and increases in inflammation-related cytokines. As there was an increase in DNA damage as well as expression of several EGF and TGF-β pathway genes in response to inflammatory injury, we sought to determine if tumorigenesis was altered in the setting of inflammatory carcinogenesis. Se-deficient mice subjected to AOM/DSS treatment to model colitis-associated cancer (CAC) had increased tumor number, though not size, as well as increased incidence of high grade dysplasia. This increase in tumor initiation was likely due to a general increase in colonic DNA damage, as increased 8-OHdG staining was seen in Se-deficient tumors and adjacent, non-tumor mucosa. Taken together, our results indicate that Se deficiency worsens experimental colitis and promotes tumor development and progression in inflammatory carcinogenesis. PMID:23861820

  7. Mediation of calcium oxalate crystal growth on human kidney epithelial cells with different degrees of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shen; Su Zexuan; Yao Xiuqiong; Peng Hua; Deng Suiping; Ouyang Jianming

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of injured human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HKC) in the mediation of formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals by means of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. HKC was injured using different concentrations of H 2 O 2 . Cell injury resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration and an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of osteopontin (OPN). Injured cells not only promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, but also induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals that strongly adhere to cells. These results imply that injured HKCs promote stone formation by providing more nucleating sites for crystals, promoting the aggregation of crystals, and inducing the formation of COM crystals. - Graphical abstract: Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Highlights: ► A direct nucleation and growth of CaOxa crystals on both normal and injured cells. ► Stronger green fluorescence, i.e. OPN expression, was seen on the injury cell surface ► Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals. ► Injured cells induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. ► H 2 O 2 decrease cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 0.1–1 mmol/L.

  8. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of scraping therapy on weightlifting ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingze; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Yang, Jinsheng; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Wang, Yingying; Gao, Xinyan

    2014-02-01

    To verify the effects of scraping therapy on the weightlifting ability by measuring the subjective sensation, and changes of biomarkers. Five students, who have been trained for 3 years in a sport school in China were participated in this study. A course of scraping therapy was applied to intervene during the normal 7-week of weightlifting training programme. The ability of weightlifting, the scale of rating perceived exertion and serum biochemical markers were measured before and after the intervention. Scraping therapy caused a significant increase in weightlifting ability (P weightlifting ability mainly by decreasing weight sensation and improving serum biochemical parameters.

  10. Pulmonary Epithelial Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation leads to Lung Injury in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongpeng; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Martin, Laura Y.; Good, Misty; Zhou, Qinjie; Sung, Jungeun; Fulton, William B.; Nino, Diego F.; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We seek to define the mechanisms leading to the development of lung disease in the setting of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized by the sudden onset of intestinal necrosis. NEC development in mice requires activation of the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, through its effects on modulating epithelial injury and repair. Although NEC-associated lung injury is more severe than the lung injury that occurs in premature infants without NEC, the mechanisms leading to its development remain unknown. We now show that the TLR4 expression in the lung gradually increases during postnatal development, and that mice and humans with NEC-associated lung inflammation express higher levels of pulmonary TLR4 than age-matched controls. NEC in wild-type newborn mice resulted in significant pulmonary injury that was prevented by deletion of TLR4 from the pulmonary epithelium, indicating a role for pulmonary TLR4 in lung injury development. Mechanistically, intestinal epithelial TLR4 activation induced high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) release from the intestine which activated pulmonary epithelial TLR4, leading to the induction of the neutrophil recruiting C-X-C motif chemokine-5 (CXCL5) and the influx of pro-inflammatory neutrophils to the lung. Strikingly, the aerosolized administration of a novel carbohydrate TLR4 inhibitor prevented CXCL5 upregulation and blocked NEC-induced lung injury in mice. These findings illustrate the critical role of pulmonary TLR4 in the development of NEC-associated lung injury, and suggest that inhibition of this innate immune receptor in the neonatal lung may prevent this devastating complication of NEC. PMID:27307558

  11. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P diets altered the rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  12. Taurine modulation of hypochlorous acid-induced lung epithelial cell injury in vitro. Role of anion transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin, A M

    1994-01-01

    Airway secretions of cystic fibrosis patients were found to contain high concentrations of taurine, which decreased with antibiotic therapy during acute respiratory exacerbations. Taurine, in a 1:1 molar ratio with HOCl/OCl-, caused a 10-fold increase in the amount of HOCl/OCl- needed to induce cytotoxicity to the cat lung epithelial cell line, AKD. Although DMSO protected cells against HOCl/OCl(-)-mediated injury, the presence of an equimolar concentration of taurine with HOCl/OCl- prevented...

  13. Mediation of calcium oxalate crystal growth on human kidney epithelial cells with different degrees of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen [Graduate School of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Su Zexuan, E-mail: suz2008@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yao Xiuqiong; Peng Hua; Deng Suiping [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-05-01

    The current study examined the role of injured human kidney tubular epithelial cell (HKC) in the mediation of formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals by means of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. HKC was injured using different concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Cell injury resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration and an increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and expression of osteopontin (OPN). Injured cells not only promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, but also induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals that strongly adhere to cells. These results imply that injured HKCs promote stone formation by providing more nucleating sites for crystals, promoting the aggregation of crystals, and inducing the formation of COM crystals. - Graphical abstract: Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct nucleation and growth of CaOxa crystals on both normal and injured cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stronger green fluorescence, i.e. OPN expression, was seen on the injury cell surface Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injured cells promote nucleation and aggregation of CaOxa crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injured cells induce the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decrease cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at 0.1-1 mmol/L.

  14. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  15. Propofol inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced human gastric epithelial cell injury by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Li Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway in normal human gastric epithelial (GES-1 cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R in vitro, and the effect of propofol on injured GES-1 cells as well as its possible mechanism. Before H/R induction, GES-1 cells were preconditioned with fat emulsion, propofol, or epigallocatechin gallate. Then cell viability, cell apoptosis, and related molecules in the cells were analyzed under experimental conditions. We found that propofol 50 μmol/L markedly inhibited the H/R injury under hypoxia 1.5 h/reoxygenation 2 hours by promoting GES-1 cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. The TLR4 signal may be involved in the protective effect of propofol against H/R injury. The malondialdehyde contents and superoxide dismutase activities were recovered under propofol preconditioning. In summary, propofol preconditioning may exert a protective effect on H/R injury in GES-1 cells and the mechanism may be via inhibition of the activated TLR4 signal under H/R conditions.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance the viability and proliferation of human fetal intestinal epithelial cells following hypoxic injury via paracrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Brent R; Markel, Troy A; Herrmann, Jeremy L; Abarbanell, Aaron M; Meldrum, Daniel R

    2009-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be used to treat injured tissues. The ability of MSCs to treat injured fetal intestinal epithelial cells (FIEs), similar to those in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that MSCs would enhance FIE viability and proliferation after hypoxic injury via paracrine mechanisms. LLC-PK1 cells (differentiated control [DC]) and human MSCs were exposed to 1 hour of hypoxia. Cells were reoxygenated for 24 hours and cell-free conditioned media were collected. Human FIEs were exposed to 1 hour of hypoxia and plated for experiments. FIEs were reoxygenated in nonconditioned media, DC-conditioned media, or MSC-conditioned media. Supernatants were analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and cell counting. Proliferation was determined via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Expression of caspases-3 and -8 was determined via Western blot. FIEs reoxygenated in MSC-conditioned media demonstrated enhanced viability and increased proliferation after hypoxic injury. Enhanced FIE viability and proliferation were associated with increased IL-6, HGF, and VEGF, as well as decreased expression of caspase-3. MSCs may increase the viability and proliferative capacity of FIEs after hypoxic injury via the paracrine release of IL-6, HGF, and VEGF, as well as downregulation of apoptotic signaling.

  17. Hypertonic saline increases lung epithelial lining fluid glutathione and thiocyanate: two protective CFTR-dependent thiols against oxidative injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould Neal S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a debilitating lung disease due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR and is associated with chronic infections resulting in elevated myeloperoxidase activity and generation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl. CFTR mutations lead to decreased levels of glutathione (GSH and thiocyanate (SCN in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF. Hypertonic saline is used to improve lung function however the mechanism is uncertain. Methods In the present study, the effect of GSH and SCN on HOCl-mediated cell injury and their changes in the ELF after hypertonic saline nebulization in wild type (WT and CFTR KO mice was examined. CFTR sufficient and deficient lung cells were assessed for GSH, SCN and corresponding sensitivity towards HOCl-mediated injury, in vitro. Results CFTR (- cells had lower extracellular levels of both GSH and SCN and were more sensitive to HOCl-mediated injury. In vivo, hypertonic saline increased ELF GSH in the WT and to a lesser extent in the CFTR KO mice but only SCN in the WT ELF. Finally, potential protective effects of GSH and SCN at concentrations found in the ELF against HOCl toxicity were examined in vitro. Conclusions While the concentrations of GSH and SCN associated with the WT ELF protect against HOCl toxicity, those found in the CFTR KO mice were less sufficient to inhibit cell injury. These data suggests that CFTR has important roles in exporting GSH and SCN which are protective against oxidants and that hypertonic saline treatment may have beneficial effects by increasing their levels in the lung.

  18. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  19. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjae Jung

    Full Text Available World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01. Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01. These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target.

  20. The role of γδ T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Hossein; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Campbell, Holly R; Martin, James G

    2007-01-01

    Background Acute exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas causes epithelial injury and airway dysfunction. γδ T cells are present in the mucosal surface of the airways and may contribute to the injury/repair response of the epithelium. Methods C57Bl/6J (wild type) and TCR-δ-/- mice exposed to Cl2 (400 ppm) for 5 minutes underwent measurements of airway responses to i.v. methacholine (MCh) at 1, 3, and 5 days after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to determine epithelial and leukocyte counts, and protein content. Tissue repair was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity and by expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) mRNA by real-time PCR. Results Wild type mice developed a greater degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh at 1 day post exposure to Cl2 compared with TCR-δ-/- mice. Epithelial cell counts in BAL after Cl2 exposure were greater in TCR-δ-/- mice, but macrophages showed a later peak and granulocyte numbers were lower in TCR-δ-/- than in wild type mice. Both groups had increased levels of total protein content in BAL after Cl2 exposure that resolved after 3 and 5 days, respectively. Epithelial proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining was increased at 1 and 3 days post exposure and was similar in the two groups. KGF mRNA was constitutively expressed in both groups and did not increase significantly after Cl2 but expression was lower in TCR-δ-/- mice. Conclusion The severity of airway epithelial injury after Cl2 is greater in TCR-δ-/- mice but the inflammatory response and the change in airway responsiveness to methacholine are reduced. The rates of epithelial regeneration are comparable in both groups. PMID:17343743

  1. The role of γδ T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Holly R

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exposure to chlorine (Cl2 gas causes epithelial injury and airway dysfunction. γδ T cells are present in the mucosal surface of the airways and may contribute to the injury/repair response of the epithelium. Methods C57Bl/6J (wild type and TCR-δ-/- mice exposed to Cl2 (400 ppm for 5 minutes underwent measurements of airway responses to i.v. methacholine (MCh at 1, 3, and 5 days after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to determine epithelial and leukocyte counts, and protein content. Tissue repair was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA immunoreactivity and by expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF mRNA by real-time PCR. Results Wild type mice developed a greater degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh at 1 day post exposure to Cl2 compared with TCR-δ-/- mice. Epithelial cell counts in BAL after Cl2 exposure were greater in TCR-δ-/- mice, but macrophages showed a later peak and granulocyte numbers were lower in TCR-δ-/- than in wild type mice. Both groups had increased levels of total protein content in BAL after Cl2 exposure that resolved after 3 and 5 days, respectively. Epithelial proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining was increased at 1 and 3 days post exposure and was similar in the two groups. KGF mRNA was constitutively expressed in both groups and did not increase significantly after Cl2 but expression was lower in TCR-δ-/- mice. Conclusion The severity of airway epithelial injury after Cl2 is greater in TCR-δ-/- mice but the inflammatory response and the change in airway responsiveness to methacholine are reduced. The rates of epithelial regeneration are comparable in both groups.

  2. In vitro study of injury on human bronchial epithelial cells caused by gunpowder smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaomei; Feng, Liang; Liu, Yifan; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Lingli; Pang, Wei; Lan, Yating; Wang, Chengbin

    2013-02-01

    Smog inhalation is associated with acute respiratory symptoms in exposed victims. However, despite the evidence from cell injury caused by smog, a stable and practical apparatus used to treat cells with smog is necessary. The aim of this study is to develop a cell research platform of smoke inhalation injury. In the smog-generation device, a wireless electromagnetic heater was used to ignite gunpowder and generate smog. The quality of black powder was checked by the black powder burn rate, and experimental smog was indirectly checked by the amount of cell damage. The temperature and humidity were set at 37 °C ± 1 °C and ≥95% in the smog-cells reaction chamber, respectively. Factors including gunpowder dosages, smog-exposure time, the cell density, modes of exposure, volumes of smog, test durations, volumes of the cell culture medium and combustion velocity were measured. Coefficient variation of different batches of gunpowder and smog were less than 4% and 9%, respectively. With larger gunpowder dosage and longer exposure time, cell injury appeared to increase. When cells were cultured in 4 × 10(4)/well density in culture medium (1 mL/well), exposed to more than 10 L smog with filter screens above plates, detected after 24 h culture in cell incubator and gunpowder burned out within 5 s, smog had the best effect on cell injury. In conclusion, the experimental device can produce test smog stably and safely. The apparatus treating cells with smog can induce cell injury effectively, and the injury is positively correlated with smog concentration and exposure time.

  3. WebSelF: A Web Scraping Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob; Ernst, Erik; Brabrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    previous work on web scraping. We have experimentally evaluated our framework and implementation in an experiment that evaluated several qualitatively different web scraping constituents (including previous work and combinations hereof) on about 11,000 HTML pages on daily versions of 17 web sites over......We present, WebSelF, a framework for web scraping which models the process of web scraping and decomposes it into four conceptually independent, reusable, and composable constituents. We have validated our framework through a full parameterized implementation that is flexible enough to capture...... a period of more than one year. Our framework solves three concrete problems with current web scraping and our experimental results indicate that com- position of previous and our new techniques achieve a higher degree of accuracy, precision and specificity than existing techniques alone....

  4. Impurity screening of scrape-off plasma in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Tani, Keiji; Nakamura, Hiroo

    1981-11-01

    Impurity screening effect of a scrape-off layer has been studied in a tokamak, based on a simple model of wall-released impurity behavior. Wall-sputtered impurities are stopped effectively by the scrape-off plasma for a medium-Z or high-Z wall system while major part of impurities enters the main plasma in a low-Z wall system. The screening becomes inefficient with increase of scrape-off plasma temperature. Successive multiplication of recycling impurities in the scrape-off layer is large for a high-Z wall and is enhanced by a rise of scrape-off plasma temperature. The stability of plasma-wall interaction is determined by a multiplication factor of recycling impurities. (author)

  5. DC-SIGN reacts with TLR-4 and regulates inflammatory cytokine expression via NF-κB activation in renal tubular epithelial cells during acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, L; Li, X; Chen, Y; Chen, Y; Chen, Y; Xu, C; Yang, K; Zhou, T

    2018-01-01

    In the pathological process of acute kidney injury (AKI), innate immune receptors are essential in inflammatory response modulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Our study sought to demonstrate the inflammatory response mechanisms in renal tubular epithelial cells via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin 1 (DC-SIGN) signalling. We found that DC-SIGN exhibited strong expression in renal tubular epithelial cells of human acute renal injury tissues. DC-SIGN protein expression was increased significantly when renal tubular epithelial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for a short period. Furthermore, DC-SIGN was involved in the activation of p65 by TLR-4, which excluded p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was decreased after DC-SIGN knock-down, and LPS induced endogenous interactions and plasma membrane co-expression between TLR-4 and DC-SIGN. These results show that DC-SIGN and TLR-4 interactions regulate inflammatory responses in renal tubular epithelial cells and participate in AKI pathogenesis. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  6. Palifermin for the protection and regeneration of epithelial tissues following injury: new findings in basic research and pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Paul W; Mark Cross, Lawrence J; McAuley, Daniel F; Farrell, Catherine L

    2013-09-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a paracrine-acting epithelial mitogen produced by cells of mesenchymal origin, that plays an important role in protecting and repairing epithelial tissues. Pre-clinical data initially demonstrated that a recombinant truncated KGF (palifermin) could reduce gastrointestinal injury and mortality resulting from a variety of toxic exposures. Furthermore, the use of palifermin in patients with hematological malignancies reduced the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis experienced after intensive chemoradiotherapy. Based upon these findings, as well as the observation that KGF receptors are expressed in many, if not all, epithelial tissues, pre-clinical studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of palifermin in protecting different epithelial tissues from toxic injury in an attempt to model various clinical situations in which it might prove to be of benefit in limiting tissue damage. In this article, we review these studies to provide the pre-clinical background for clinical trials that are described in the accompanying article and the rationale for additional clinical applications of palifermin. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. 4-Methoxyestradiol-induced oxidative injuries in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yahsin; Chang, Louis W.; Cheng Lichuan; Tsai, M.-H.; Lin Pinpin

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated that people exposed to dioxins were prone to the development of lung diseases including lung cancer. Animal studies demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased liver tumors and promoted lung metaplasia in females. Metabolic changes in 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) resulted from an interaction between TCDD and E 2 could be associated with gender difference. Previously, we reported that methoxylestradiols (MeOE 2 ), especially 4-MeOE 2 , accumulated in human lung cells (BEAS-2B) co-treated with TCDD and E 2 . In the present study, we demonstrate unique accumulation of 4-MeOE 2 , as a result of TCDD/E 2 interaction and revealed its bioactivity in human lung epithelial cell line (H1355). 4-Methoxyestradiol treatment significantly decreased cell growth and increased mitotic index. Elevation of ROS and SOD activity, with a concomitant decrease in the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, was also detected in 4-MeOE 2 -treated cells. Quantitative comet assay showed increased oxidative DNA damage in the 4-MeOE 2 -treated H1355 cells, which could be significantly reduced by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). However, inhibition of cell growth and increase in mitotic arrest induced by 4-MeOE 2 were unaffected by NAC. We concluded that 4-MeOE 2 accumulation resulting from TCDD and E 2 interaction would contribute to the higher vulnerability on lung pathogenesis in females when exposed to TCDD

  8. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood or amniotic epithelial stem cells alleviates mechanical allodynia after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Min-Soo; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Park, Sang-Bum; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), and a variety of different stem cell types have been grafted into humans suffering from spinal cord trauma or into animal models of spinal injury. Although several studies have reported functional motor improvement after transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cord, the benefit of these cells for treating SCI-induced neuropathic pain is not clear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) or amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) on SCI-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in T13 spinal cord hemisected rats. Two weeks after SCI, hUCB-MSCs or hAESCs were transplanted around the spinal cord lesion site, and behavioral tests were performed to evaluate changes in SCI-induced MA and TH. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were also performed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects on SCI-induced inflammation and the nociceptive-related phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 receptor subunit. While transplantation of hUCB-MSCs showed a tendency to reduce MA, transplantation of hAESCs significantly reduced MA. Neither hUCB-MSC nor hAESC transplantation had any effect on SCI-induced TH. Transplantation of hAESCs also significantly reduced the SCI-induced increase in NMDA receptor NR1 subunit phosphorylation (pNR1) expression in the spinal cord. Both hUCB-MSCs and hAESCs reduced the SCI-induced increase in spinal cord expression of the microglial marker, F4/80, but not the increased expression of GFAP or iNOS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transplantation of hAESCs into the injured spinal cord can suppress mechanical allodynia, and this effect seems to be closely associated with the modulation of spinal cord microglia activity and NR1 phosphorylation.

  9. Cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury - bone marrow stromal cells and choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Chizuka; Nakano, Norihiko; Kanekiyo, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) enhanced the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promoted locomotor improvements of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). BMSCs did not survive long-term, disappearing from the spinal cord within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Astrocyte-devoid areas, in which no astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were found, formed at the epicenter of the lesion. It was remarkable that numerous regenerating axons extended through such astrocyte-devoid areas. Regenerating axons were associated with Schwann cells embedded in extracellular matrices. Transplantation of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) also enhanced axonal regeneration and locomotor improvements in rats with SCI. Although CPECs disappeared from the spinal cord shortly after transplantation, an extensive outgrowth of regenerating axons occurred through astrocyte-devoid areas, as in the case of BMSC transplantation. These findings suggest that BMSCs and CPECs secret neurotrophic factors that promote tissue repair of the spinal cord, including axonal regeneration and reduced cavity formation. This means that transplantation of BMSCs and CPECs promotes "intrinsic" ability of the spinal cord to regenerate. The treatment to stimulate the intrinsic regeneration ability of the spinal cord is the safest method of clinical application for SCI. It should be emphasized that the generally anticipated long-term survival, proliferation and differentiation of transplanted cells are not necessarily desirable from the clinical point of view of safety.

  10. Cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury - bone marrow stromal cells and choroid plexus epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizuka Ide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs enhanced the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promoted locomotor improvements of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI. BMSCs did not survive long-term, disappearing from the spinal cord within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Astrocyte-devoid areas, in which no astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were found, formed at the epicenter of the lesion. It was remarkable that numerous regenerating axons extended through such astrocyte-devoid areas. Regenerating axons were associated with Schwann cells embedded in extracellular matrices. Transplantation of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs also enhanced axonal regeneration and locomotor improvements in rats with SCI. Although CPECs disappeared from the spinal cord shortly after transplantation, an extensive outgrowth of regenerating axons occurred through astrocyte-devoid areas, as in the case of BMSC transplantation. These findings suggest that BMSCs and CPECs secret neurotrophic factors that promote tissue repair of the spinal cord, including axonal regeneration and reduced cavity formation. This means that transplantation of BMSCs and CPECs promotes "intrinsic" ability of the spinal cord to regenerate. The treatment to stimulate the intrinsic regeneration ability of the spinal cord is the safest method of clinical application for SCI. It should be emphasized that the generally anticipated long-term survival, proliferation and differentiation of transplanted cells are not necessarily desirable from the clinical point of view of safety.

  11. Protective Effects of L-Carnitine Against Oxidative Injury by Hyperosmolarity in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xia; Deng, Ruzhi; Li, Jin; Chi, Wei; Su, Zhitao; Lin, Jing; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Li, De-Quan

    2015-08-01

    L-carnitine suppresses inflammatory responses in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, we determined if L-carnitine induces this protective effect through suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage in HCECs. Primary HCECs were established from donor limbal explants. A hyperosmolarity dry-eye model was used in which HCECs are cultured in 450 mOsM medium with or without L-carnitine for up to 48 hours. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage markers, oxygenases and antioxidative enzymes were analyzed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) kit, semiquantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and/or Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species production increased in HCECs upon substitution of the isotonic medium with the hypertonic medium. L-carnitine supplementation partially suppressed this response. Hyperosmolarity increased cytotoxic membrane lipid peroxidation levels; namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxynonenal (HNE), as well as mitochondria DNA release along with an increase in 8-OHdG and aconitase-2. Interestingly, these oxidative markers were significantly decreased by coculture with L-carnitine. Hyperosmotic stress also increased the mRNA expression and/or protein production of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), but inhibited the levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4). However, L-carnitine partially reversed this altered imbalance between oxygenases and antioxidant enzymes induced by hyperosmolarity. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that L-carnitine protects HCECs from oxidative stress by lessening the declines in antioxidant enzymes and suppressing ROS production. Such suppression reduces membrane lipid oxidative damage markers and mitochondrial DNA damage.

  12. Scaling for scrape-off layer plasma in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Kimura, Haruyuki; Azumi, Masashi; Odajima, Kazuo

    1977-12-01

    Scaling for a scrape-off layer plasma in a tokamak is obtained by using DIVA (JFT-2a). The scaling gives the average electron temperature, the width and the mean electron density of the scrape-off layer. The temperature at the edge will be high in a future large tokamak with a small energy-loss by charge-exchange and radiation. The scrape-off layer plasma can easily shield the impurity influx from the wall. The fuel, however, can easily penetrate into the main plasma. (auth.)

  13. MD 2179: Scraping of off-momentum halo after injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Patecki, Marcin; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this MD, a beam scraping was performed using the momentum primary collimator in IR3 where dispersion is high. A second scraping was performed using a TCSG in IR7 where dispersion is almost negligible. In such a way, we aim to disentangle the contribution of off-momentum particles to halo population. These scrapings will provide useful information to better understand the usual off-momentum losses we see at the start of the ramp. The MD results would also be used to benchmark simulations of off-momentum beam losses in order to gain confidence in simulation models.

  14. WebSelF: A Web Scraping Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob; Ernst, Erik; Brabrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    We present, WebSelF, a framework for web scraping which models the process of web scraping and decomposes it into four conceptually independent, reusable, and composable constituents. We have validated our framework through a full parameterized implementation that is flexible enough to capture...... a period of more than one year. Our framework solves three concrete problems with current web scraping and our experimental results indicate that com- position of previous and our new techniques achieve a higher degree of accuracy, precision and specificity than existing techniques alone....

  15. miR-122 targets NOD2 to decrease intestinal epithelial cell injury in Crohn’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Chengxiao; Liu, Ying; Tang, Liwei; Zheng, Mingxia [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Xu, Chundi [Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Song, Jian, E-mail: jiansongkxy@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Meng, Xiaochun [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •NOD2 is a target gene of miR-122. •miR-122 inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. •miR-122 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ). •miR-122 promotes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). •NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in inflammatory response induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, miR-122 was found to be deregulated in association with CD progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the gene nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15), which is strongly associated with susceptibility to CD, was identified as a functional target of miR-122. MiR-122 inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. NOD2 interaction with LPS initiates signal transduction mechanisms resulting in the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the stimulation of downstream pro-inflammatory events. The activation of NF-κB was inhibited in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor or NOD2 shRNA. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ was significantly decreased, whereas therelease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was increased in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor, NOD2 shRNA or the NF-κB inhibitor QNZ. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-122 and its target gene NOD2 may play an important role in the injury of intestinal epithelial cells induced by LPS.

  16. Scraping beam halo in {mu} {sup +} {mu} {sup minus} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Johnstone, C.; Wan, W.; Garren, A.

    1998-01-01

    Beam halo scraping schemes have been explored in the 50 x 50 GeV and 2 x 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders using both absorbers and electrostatic deflectors. Utility sections have been specially designed into the rings for scraping. Results of realistic STRUCT- MARS Monte-Carlo simulations show that for the low-energy machine a scheme with a 5 m long steel absorber suppresses losses in the interaction region by three orders of magnitude. The same scraping efficiency at 2 TeV is achieved only by complete extraction of beam halo from the machine. The effect of beam-induced power dissipation in the collider superconducting magnets and detector backgrounds is shown both for the first few turns after injection and for the rest of the cycle.

  17. Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Odd Erik; Horacek, J.; Pitts, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuations and particle transport in the scrape-off layer of TCV plasmas have been investigated by probe measurements and direct comparison with two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations at the outer midplane. The experiments demonstrate that with increasing line-averaged core plasma...... density, the radial particle density profile scale length becomes broader. The particle and radial flux density statistics in the far scrape-off layer exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity with respect to changes in the line-averaged density. The plasma flux onto the main chamber wall...... at the outer midplane scales linearly with the local particle density, suggesting that the particle flux here can be parameterized in terms of an effective convection velocity. Experimental probe measurements also provide evidence for significant parallel flows in the scrape-off layer caused by ballooning...

  18. Physics of tokamak scrape-off layer confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Confinement in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is believed to be governed by classical flows along magnetic field lines terminated by sheaths, and turbulent transport across field lines. In this paper we review how these two effects conspire to establish the width of the SOL, and survey recent and ongoing work on mechanisms for turbulence in SOL's. The beneficial relationship between scrape-off layer turbulence in mitigating the heat flux density on divertors is noted, and tactics for actively altering SOL confinement so as to reduce the heat flux density are discussed

  19. SPS transverse beam scraping and LHC injection losses

    CERN Document Server

    Drosdal, L; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Veyrunes, E

    2012-01-01

    Machine protection sets strict requirements for the quality of the injected beam, in particular in the transverse plane. Losses at aperture restrictions and protection elements have to be kept at a minimum. Particles in the beam tails are lost at the tight transfer line collimators and can trigger the LHC beam abort system. These particles have to be removed by scrapers in the vertical and horizontal plane in the SPS. Scraping has become vital for high intensity LHC operation. This paper shows the dependence of injection quality on the SPS scraping and discusses an improved scraper setting up strategy for better reproducibility with the current scraper system.

  20. Physics of tokamak scrape-off layer confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1993-03-05

    Confinement in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is believed to be governed by classical flows along magnetic field lines terminated by sheaths, and turbulent transport across field lines. In this paper we review how these two effects conspire to establish the width of the SOL, and survey recent and ongoing work on mechanisms for turbulence in SOL's. The beneficial relationship between scrape-off layer turbulence in mitigating the heat flux density on divertors is noted, and tactics for actively altering SOL confinement so as to reduce the heat flux density are discussed.

  1. Physics of tokamak scrape-off layer confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1993-03-05

    Confinement in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is believed to be governed by classical flows along magnetic field lines terminated by sheaths, and turbulent transport across field lines. In this paper we review how these two effects conspire to establish the width of the SOL, and survey recent and ongoing work on mechanisms for turbulence in SOL`s. The beneficial relationship between scrape-off layer turbulence in mitigating the heat flux density on divertors is noted, and tactics for actively altering SOL confinement so as to reduce the heat flux density are discussed.

  2. Computations of intermittent transport in scrape-off layer plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of interchange turbulence for geometry and parameters relevant for the scrape-off layer of magnetized plasmas are presented. The computations, which have distinct plasma production and loss regions, reveal bursty ejection of particles and heat from the bulk plasma...... in the form of blobs. These structures propagate far into the scrape-off layer where they are dissipated due to transport along open magnetic field lines. From single-point recordings it is shown that the blobs have asymmetric conditional wave forms and lead to positively skewed and flattened probability...

  3. Novel Application of Artificial Dermis Plus Autologous Vital Epithelial Cells: Improved Wound Epithelialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tzu Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate artificial dermis with the simultaneous addition of autologous epithelial cells for oral lesion defect reconstruction. Surgical wounds reconstructed with artificial dermis plus scraped epithelial cells were evaluated in 5 patients with oral benign lesions or squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical follow-up indices included scar formation and tissue surface texture observation. The neomucosal layers were analyzed histologically to establish the degree of epithelialization. Clinical observation showed that the oral mucosal texture was smoother in artificial dermis with added epithelial cells at 4 weeks postoperation compared with artificial dermis alone. The wound contraction and scar formation processes were slow. Viable epithelial cells with flat rete ridges remained in the artificial dermis, and a neoepithelial layer was present in the histological findings. We showed that healthy granulation tissue and neoepithelial formation in artificial dermis with epithelial cells was beneficial for the repair of oral defects. Scraping oral epithelial cells and applying them to artificial dermis assisted in the early preparation of composite grafts and minimized requirement for donor sites. This technique may improve the treatment of patients with oral benign tumors and early-stage squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A piece of the honeycomb shell around Endeavour's robotic arm has been cut to inspect the arm. A scrape of the shell occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  5. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  6. Temporal evolution of blobs in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Garcia, O.E.

    Experimental observations have revealed that the transport in the edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) of toroidally magnetized plasmas is strongly intermittent and involves large outbreaks of hot plasma. These structures, often referred to as “blobs”, are formed near the last closed flux surface (LCFS...

  7. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathi Khandrika

    Full Text Available Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted by the kidney. Mild increases in urinary oxalate are most commonly associated with Nephrolithiasis. Chronically high levels of urinary oxalate, as seen in patients with primary hyperoxaluria, are driving factor for recurrent renal stones, and ultimately lead to renal failure, calcification of soft tissue and premature death. In previous studies others and we have demonstrated that high levels of oxalate promote injury of renal epithelial cells. However, methods to monitor oxalate induced renal injury are limited. In the present study we evaluated changes in expression of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1 in response to oxalate in human renal cells (HK2 cells in culture and in renal tissue and urine samples in hyperoxaluric animals which mimic in vitro and in vivo models of hyper-oxaluria. Results presented, herein demonstrate that oxalate exposure resulted in increased expression of KIM-1 m RNA as well as protein in HK2 cells. These effects were rapid and concentration dependent. Using in vivo models of hyperoxaluria we observed elevated expression of KIM-1 in renal tissues of hyperoxaluric rats as compared to normal controls. The increase in KIM-1 was both at protein and mRNA level, suggesting transcriptional activation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure. Interestingly, in addition to increased KIM-1 expression, we observed increased levels of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine collected from hyperoxaluric rats. To the best of our knowledge our studies are the first direct demonstration of regulation of KIM-1 in response to oxalate exposure in renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria.

  8. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel Anne; Wilcox, Christie L.

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis). Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products). Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles. PMID:28294982

  9. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Anne Yanagihara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis. Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products. Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  10. Puerarin protects against Staphylococcus aureus-induced injury of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells via downregulating alpha-hemolysin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Li, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Yong-Hua; Li, Zhe; Tang, Yu-Shun; Kou, Xu; Wang, Shu-De; Bao, Min; Qu, Lian-Da; Li, Min; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-hemolysin, a secreted pore-forming toxin, plays an indispensable role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of puerarin against S. aureus was investigated; as a result, puerarin showed no influence on the growth of this organism. However, hemolysis and western blotting assays showed that puerarin concentration dependently inhibited the secretion of alpha-hemolysin at low concentrations. Real-time RT-PCR assay was further employed to evaluate the transcriptional level of hla, the gene encoding alpha-hemolysin, and RNAIII, an effector molecule of the agr system. The results indicated that the RNAIII expression and subsequent hla transcription were also inhibited by puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, puerarin significantly prevented human alveolar epithelial A549 cells from S. aureus-induced injury. Thereby, puerarin may be considered as a potential candidate for the development of antivirulence drugs in the treatment of S. aureus-mediated infections.

  11. Blockage of glycolysis by targeting PFKFB3 alleviates sepsis-related acute lung injury via suppressing inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanqi; Lan, Haibing; Yu, Zhihong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Yu; Rao, Haiwei; Li, Jingying; Sheng, Zhiyong; Shao, Jianghua

    2017-09-16

    Sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive lung inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Recent studies indicated that anaerobic glycolysis play an important role in sepsis. However, whether inhibition of aerobic glycolysis exhibits beneficial effect on sepsis-induced ALI is not known. In vivo, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced ALI mouse model was set up and mice treated with glycolytic inhibitor 3PO after CLP. The mice treated with the 3PO ameliorated the survival rate, histopathological changes, lung inflammation, lactate increased and lung apoptosis of mice with CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, the exposure of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in cell apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced glycolytic flux and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. While these changes were attenuated by 3PO treatment. Sequentially, treatment of A549 cells with lactate caused cell apoptosis and enhancement of ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly lowered LPS and lactate-induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis in A549 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that anaerobic glycolysis may be an important contributor in cell apoptosis of sepsis-related ALI. Moreover, LPS specifically induces apoptotic insults to A549 cell through lactate-mediated enhancement of ROS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scrape-Off Layer physics in limited plasmas in TCV

    OpenAIRE

    Nespoli, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion is the most promising candidate for being an inexhaustible, clean and intrinsically safe energy source. In the tokamak fusion reactor concept, a high temperature plasma is confined by magnetic fields. Turbulence diffuses the confined plasma to the tokamak outermost region, the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL), featuring open field lines. In the SOL, the plasma is convected along the field lines and deposited on the solid surfaces of the tokamak wall. The plasma-wall interactio...

  13. Veronicastrum axillare Alleviates Ethanol-Induced Injury on Gastric Epithelial Cells via Downregulation of the NF-kB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-chun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We used human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 line in an ethanol-induced cell damage model to study the protective effect of Veronicastrum axillare and its modulation to NF-κB signal pathway. The goal was to probe the molecular mechanism of V. axillare decoction in the prevention of gastric ulcer and therefore provide guidance in the clinical application of V. axillare on treating injuries from chronic nephritis, pleural effusion, gastric ulcer, and other ailments. The effects of V. axillare-loaded serums on cell viability were detected by MTT assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Real-Time PCR methods were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ. The results showed that V. axillare-loaded serum partially reversed the damaging effects of ethanol and NF-κB activator (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate: PMA and increased cell viability. The protein and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, NF-κB, IκBα, and IKKβ were significantly upregulated by ethanol and PMA while they were downregulated by V. axillare-loaded serum. In summary, V. axillare-loaded serum has significantly protective effect on GES-1 against ethanol-induced injury. The protective effect was likely linked to downregulation of TNF-α based NF-κB signal pathway.

  14. Blue LED light exposure develops intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent cellular injuries in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ueda, T; Majima, H J; Watanabe, K; Ueda, T; Indo, H P; Suenaga, S; Hisamitsu, T; Ozawa, T; Yasuhara, H; Koide, R

    2013-10-01

    The effects of blue light emitter diode (LED) light exposure on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) were examined to detect cellular damage or change and to clarify its mechanisms. The RPE cells were cultured and exposed by blue (470 nm) LED at 4.8 mW/cm(2). The cellular viability was determined by XTT assay and cellular injury was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase activity in medium. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by confocal laser microscope image analysis using dihydrorhodamine 123 and lipid peroxidation was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts immunofluorescent staining (HNE). At 24 h after 50 J/cm(2) exposures, cellular viability was significantly decreased to 74% and cellular injury was significantly increased to 365% of control. Immediately after the light exposure, ROS generation was significantly increased to 154%, 177%, and 395% of control and HNE intensity was increased to 211%, 359%, and 746% of control by 1, 10, and 50 J/cm(2), respectively. These results suggest, at least in part, that oxidative stress is an early step leading to cellular damage by blue LED exposure and cellular oxidative damage would be caused by the blue light exposure at even lower dose (1, 10 J/cm(2)).

  15. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2010-01-01

    Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  16. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  17. Protective Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injuries in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Yang; Wu, Han; Li, Da-Jing; Song, Jiang-Feng; Xiao, Ya-Dong; Liu, Chun-Quan; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Sui, Zhong-Quan

    2018-02-21

    Blueberry anthocyanins are considered protective of eye health because of their recognized antioxidant properties. In this study, blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE), malvidin (Mv), malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glc), and malvidin-3-galactoside (Mv-3-gal) all reduced H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. BAE and the anthocyanin standards enhanced cell viability from 63.69 ± 3.36 to 86.57 ± 6.92% (BAE), 115.72 ± 23.41% (Mv), 98.15 ± 9.39% (Mv-3-glc), and 127.97 ± 20.09% (Mv-3-gal) and significantly inhibited cell apoptosis (P blueberry anthocyanins could inhibit the induction and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through antioxidant mechanisms.

  18. Scrape-off layer flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Ďuran, Ivan; Fuchs, Vladimír; Loarer, T.; Pánek, Radomír; Saint Laurent, F.; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, Martin; Nanobashvili, I.; Rimini, F.G.; Sarkissian, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 812, - (2006), s. 27-34 ISSN 0094-243X. [AIP Conference Proceedings. Opole-Turawa, 06.09.2006-09.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * scrape-off layer * plasma flow * radial transport * Mach probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://proceedings.aip.org/dbt/dbt.jsp?KEY=APCPCS&Volume=812&Issue=1

  19. A defect in epithelial barrier integrity is not required for a systemic response to bacterial antigens or intestinal injury in T cell receptor-alpha gene-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Beate C; Tavernini, Michele M; Doyle, Jason; Fedorak, Richard N

    2006-08-01

    Genetically induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier leads to development of intestinal inflammation. In the interleukin-10 gene-deficient inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model, for instance, a primary defect in intestinal epithelial integrity occurs before the development of enterocolitis. In humans, a causal role for epithelial barrier disruption is still controversial. Although studies with first-degree relatives of IBD patients suggests an underlying role of impaired barrier function, a primary epithelial barrier defect in IBD patients has not been confirmed. The purpose of this article is to examine whether a primary epithelial barrier disruption is a prerequisite for the development of intestinal inflammation or whether intestinal inflammation can develop in the absence of epithelial disruption. We examined the intestinal epithelial integrity of the T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha gene-deficient mouse model of IBD. In vivo colonic permeability, determined by mannitol transmural flux, was assessed in 6-week-, 12-week-, and 25-week-old TCR-alpha gene-deficient and wild-type control mice using a single-pass perfusion technique. Mice were scored for intestinal histological injury and intestinal cytokine levels measured in organ cultures. Systemic responses to bacterial antigens were determined through 48-h spleen cell cultures stimulated with sonicate derived from endogenous bacterial strains. In contrast with previous findings in the interleukin-10 gene-deficient IBD model, TCR-alpha gene-deficient mice did not demonstrate evidence of primary intestinal epithelial barrier disruption at any age, despite developing a moderate to severe colitis within 12 weeks. A rise in intestinal interferon (IFN)-gamma levels preceded the onset of mucosal inflammation and then correlated closely with the degree of intestinal inflammation and injury. Spleen cells from TCR-alpha gene-deficient mice released IFN-gamma in response to stimulation with endogenous

  20. [Salmonella's in butcher's block scrapings from butcher's shops (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M P; Nooder, H J

    1980-02-15

    Samples of scrapings from butcher's blocks in butcher's shops were examined weekly for the presence of Salmonella throughout a period of twelve years (from 1967 up to and including 1978). At the same time, a so-called hygienogram was made of each sampled butcher's shop using the agar-impression method. Of the total number of 6,874 samples studied, 279 (4.06 per cent) were positive for Salmonella. From 1967 to 1971, the proportion of contaminated samples gradually decreased from 2.14 to 0.90 per cent. This proportion increased again from 1971 to 8.50 per cent in 1976, to be followed, however, by a marked reduction to 2.96 per cent in 1978. This undulation was also observed when meat-vans were studied by a similar method during the same period. There were only limited seasonal effects on the contamination of samples of scrapings with Salmonella. As was also the case with the study of meat-vans, the three sero-types most frequently isolated were S. typhimurium, S. panama, and S. brandenburg. These serotypes were also isolated several times from samples such as those of minced meat. It is concluded that an unmistakable route of contamination is maintained by meat-vans from the slaughter-houses to butcher's shops. Therefore, strict enforcement of hygienic procedures is indicated. In view of this fact, the supervisory and controlling duties of meat inspection services are stressed.

  1. The protective mechanism of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) in H2O2-induced injury of feline esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Uy Soo; Lee, Se Eun; Lee, Sung Hee; Nam, Yoonjin; Hwang, Wan Kyunn; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) is a flavonoid glucoside extracted from Rumex Aquaticus. Recent studies have shown that QGC exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidateve effect in vivo and cytoprotective effect in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), at low concentration, play role as a primary signal or second messenger, however, at high concentration, ROS are cytotoxic. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of QGC in H2O2-induced injury of Feline Esophageal Epithelial Cells. Primary-cultured feline esophagus cells were identified by an indirect immunofluorescent staining method using a cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Cell viability was determined by the conventional MTT reduction assay. Western blot analysis was performed with specific antibodies to investigate the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and IκB-α, and the expression of COX-2. When the cells were exposed to 600 μM H2O2 medium for 24 h, cell viability decreased to 54 %. However, when cells were pretreated with 50-150 μM QGC for 12 h, the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 significantly increased in the dose dependent manner. QGC (50 μM, 12 h) also inhibited the expression of COX-2 induced by 10 μM H2O2 for 24 h. We found that treatment of H2O2 activated p38 MAPK and JNK, but not ERK. However QGC inhibited the H2O2-induced p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. In addition, NF-κB was activated by H2O2 and translocated into the nucleus, but QGC inhibited the activation of NF-κB by blocking degradation of IκB. These data suggest that QGC reduces H2O2-induced COX-2 production by modulating the p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-κB signal pathway in feline esophageal epithelial cells.

  2. Plasma blob transport in scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu

    2006-01-01

    Scrape off layer (SOL) is an open magnetic field between wall and high temperature core plasma field with magnetic surface. The recent theories, simulation and experimental results of plasma blob transport are described. Characteristic properties and physical mechanism of plasma blob, magnetic structure of divertor, plasma density of SOL in Alcator C-Mod tokamak, analytical model of plasma blob transport, simulation of stability of second-dimension flow of plasma blob, change of the second-dimension structure, the probability density function (PDF), change of plasma parameters in the SOL field of DIII-D, change of ion saturation current observed in confining magnetic field and NAGDIS-II are shown. (S.Y.)

  3. Diagnostics of mobile dust in scrape-off layer plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratynskaia, S; Castaldo, C; Bergsaaker, H; Rudakov, D

    2011-01-01

    Dust production and accumulation pose serious safety and operational implications for the next generation fusion devices. Mobile dust particles can result in core plasma contamination with impurities, and those with high velocities can significantly contribute to the wall erosion. Diagnostics for monitoring dust in tokamaks during plasma discharges are hence important as they can provide information on dust velocity and size, and-in some cases-on dust composition. Such measurements are also valuable as an input for theoretical models of dust dynamics in scrape-off layer plasmas. Existing in situ dust diagnostics, focusing on the range of dust parameters they can detect, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the diagnostics which allow us to detect tails of the dust velocity and size distributions, e.g. small and very fast particles. Some of the techniques discussed have been adopted from space-related research and have been shown to be feasible and useful for tokamak applications as well.

  4. RCrawler: An R package for parallel web crawling and scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Salim; Fakir, Mohamed

    RCrawler is a contributed R package for domain-based web crawling and content scraping. As the first implementation of a parallel web crawler in the R environment, RCrawler can crawl, parse, store pages, extract contents, and produce data that can be directly employed for web content mining applications. However, it is also flexible, and could be adapted to other applications. The main features of RCrawler are multi-threaded crawling, content extraction, and duplicate content detection. In addition, it includes functionalities such as URL and content-type filtering, depth level controlling, and a robot.txt parser. Our crawler has a highly optimized system, and can download a large number of pages per second while being robust against certain crashes and spider traps. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of RCrawler, and report on our experience of implementing it in an R environment, including different optimizations that handle the limitations of R. Finally, we discuss our experimental results.

  5. Scrape-off layer flows in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Loarer, T.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Moreau, P.; Nanobashvili, I.; Rimini, F.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Panek, R.; Stockel, J.; Adamek, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; Sarkissian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many X-point divertor tokamaks. The poloidal variation of the Mach number of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally nonuniform core-to-SOL out-flux concentrated near the outboard midplane. Strong variations of the SOL width up to a factor of 10 suggest that this localized out-flux is due to enhanced radial transport. The plasma that gets ejected into the SOL can expand radially to the wall if magnetic field lines have long connection lengths and pass unobstructed across the outboard midplane. (authors)

  6. Dissipative processes in interchange driven scrape-off layer turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundamenski, W.; Garcia, Odd Erik; Naulin, Volker

    2007-01-01

    First principles expressions are given for the parameters governing collisional diffusion and parallel losses of mass, momentum and energy in tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas. These dissipative, or damping, coefficients are based on neoclassical perpendicular transport (Pfirsch......-Schluter diffusion) and classical parallel transport (sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Harm diffusion). When numerical values derived from these expressions are used to compute damping coefficients for the edge-SOL electrostatic (ESEL) turbulence code, simulations correctly reproduce the radial profiles of particle...... and L-mode plasmas on JET, although the particle density e-folding length is over-estimated by a factor of 3; this discrepancy is largely removed by reducing the parallel density gradient length by a factor measuring the poloidal asymmetry (ballooning) of filament displacements. These encouraging...

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel family of aryl ureas compounds in an endotoxin-induced airway epithelial cell injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria E Cabrera-Benitez

    Full Text Available Despite our increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in acute lung injury (ALI and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, there is no specific pharmacological treatment of proven benefit. We used a novel screening methodology to examine potential anti-inflammatory effects of a small structure-focused library of synthetic carbamate and urea derivatives in a well established cell model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI/ARDS.After a pilot study to develop an in vitro LPS-induced airway epithelial cell injury model, a library of synthetic carbamate and urea derivates was screened against representative panels of human solid tumor cell lines and bacterial and fungal strains. Molecules that were non-cytotoxic and were inactive in terms of antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities were selected to study the effects on LPS-induced inflammatory response in an in vitro cell culture model using A549 human alveolar and BEAS-2B human bronchial cells. These cells were exposed for 18 h to LPS obtained from Escherichia coli, either alone or in combination with the test compounds. The LPS antagonists rhein and emodin were used as reference compounds. The most active compound (CKT0103 was selected as the lead compound and the impact of CKT0103 on pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine levels, expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα was measured. CKT0103 significantly inhibited the synthesis and release of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by LPS. This suppression was associated with inhibition of TLR4 up-regulation and IκBα down-regulation. Immunocytochemical staining for TLR4 and IκBα supported these findings.Using a novel screening methodology, we identified a compound - CKT0103 - with potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings suggest that CKT0103 is a potential target for the treatment of the acute phase of sepsis and sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS.

  8. Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis

  9. RCrawler: An R package for parallel web crawling and scraping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RCrawler is a contributed R package for domain-based web crawling and content scraping. As the first implementation of a parallel web crawler in the R environment, RCrawler can crawl, parse, store pages, extract contents, and produce data that can be directly employed for web content mining applications. However, it is also flexible, and could be adapted to other applications. The main features of RCrawler are multi-threaded crawling, content extraction, and duplicate content detection. In addition, it includes functionalities such as URL and content-type filtering, depth level controlling, and a robot.txt parser. Our crawler has a highly optimized system, and can download a large number of pages per second while being robust against certain crashes and spider traps. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of RCrawler, and report on our experience of implementing it in an R environment, including different optimizations that handle the limitations of R. Finally, we discuss our experimental results.

  10. Anodic Lodes and Scrapings as a Source of Electrolytic Manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernández-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of interest in metallurgy, especially in ironmaking and steel making, but also in copper and aluminum industries. The depletion of manganese high grade sources and the environmental awareness have led to search for new manganese sources, such as wastes/by-products of other metallurgies. In this way, we propose the recovery of manganese from anodic lodes and scrapings of the zinc electrolysis process because of their high Mn content (>30%. The proposed process is based on a mixed leaching: a lixiviation-neutralization at low temperature (50 °C, reached due to the exothermic reactions involved in the process and a lixiviation with sulfuric acid at high temperature (150–200 °C, in heated reactor. The obtained solution after the combined process is mainly composed by manganese sulphate. This solution is then neutralized with CaO (or manganese carbonate as a first purification stage, removing H2SO4 and those impurities that are easily removable by controlling pH. Then, the purification of nobler elements than manganese is performed by their precipitation as sulphides. The purified solution is sent to electrolysis where electrolytic manganese is obtained (99.9% Mn. The versatility of the proposed process allows for obtaining electrolytic manganese, oxide of manganese (IV, oxide of manganese (II, or manganese sulphate.

  11. Study on off-momentum tail scraping in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mirarchi, D; Bruce, R; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    A study on o-momentum tail population in the LHC was performed through collimator scraping at high dispersion region. High intensity measurements at the end of a physics ll with 25ns bunch spacing were carried out on 16th December 2012, using primary collimators (TCPs) in the momentum cleaning insertion (IR3) as scrapers. The o-momentum cuts were applied up to the level where the IR3 primary collimator is the aperture bottleneck for all particles outside the bucket, and the TCPs in the betatron cleaning insertion (IR7) are still the primary restriction of aperture of the machine in the transverse plane for particles inside the bucket. This because whether a particle is lost in IR3 or IR7 is not given only by the momentum oset but also by the betatron amplitude, as explained in the text. A signicant decay of the abort gap (AG) population was observed, while moving in the collimator jaw on the side where particles with negative o-momentum are expected. The level of the AG popupation achieved was at a similar le...

  12. Scrape-off layer profile modifications by convective cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; DIppolito, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Convective cells (CC close-quote s) are important in understanding density profile modifications induced by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas. This has motivated the present work in which the effect of CC close-quote s on transport in the scrape-off layer is studied, in the regime where the density gradient scale length L n and the cell size L are comparable. Monte Carlo simulations show that closed cell convection acts to flatten the density profile, and that open cells enhance the particle flow to the wall, depleting the density and yielding profiles similar to those measured near ICRF antennas. A new one-dimensional, two-branch model of CC transport is shown to agree well with the simulations. The model gives rise to two characteristic scale lengths, only one of which is retained in the enhanced diffusion models that are applicable for L n >L. The two-branch model is expected to be useful in analyzing ICRF experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. CCDST: A free Canadian climate data scraping tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Charmaine; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Kienzle, Stefan W.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a new software tool that automatically fetches, downloads and consolidates climate data from a Web database where the data are contained on multiple Web pages. The tool is called the Canadian Climate Data Scraping Tool (CCDST) and was developed to enhance access and simplify analysis of climate data from Canada's National Climate Data and Information Archive (NCDIA). The CCDST deconstructs a URL for a particular climate station in the NCDIA and then iteratively modifies the date parameters to download large volumes of data, remove individual file headers, and merge data files into one output file. This automated sequence enhances access to climate data by substantially reducing the time needed to manually download data from multiple Web pages. To this end, we present a case study of the temporal dynamics of blowing snow events that resulted in ~3.1 weeks time savings. Without the CCDST, the time involved in manually downloading climate data limits access and restrains researchers and students from exploring climate trends. The tool is coded as a Microsoft Excel macro and is available to researchers and students for free. The main concept and structure of the tool can be modified for other Web databases hosting geophysical data.

  14. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cornwall; Hanson, Greg; Wilgen, John; Lin, Yijun; Wukitch, Steve

    2010-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 1016-1020 m-3 at B0=5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE01) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented.

  15. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  16. Electron-temperature-gradient-induced instability in tokamak scrape-off layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A.; Xu, X.Q.

    1992-08-01

    An electron temperature instability driven by the Kunkel-Guillory sheath impedance, has been applied to the scrape-off layer of tokamaks. The formalism has been generalized to more fully account for parallel wavelength dynamics, to differentiate between electromagnetic and electrostatic perturbations and to account for particle recycling effects. It is conjectured that this conducting wall instability leads to edge fluctuations in tokamaks that produce scrape-off widths of many ion Larmor radii ≅10. The predicted instability characteristics correlate somewhat with DIII-D edge fluctuation data, and the scrape-off layer width in the DIII-D experiment agrees with theoretical estimates that can be derived from mixing lenght theory

  17. Adaptive grids and numerical fluid simulations for scrape-off layer plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingshirn, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion experiments create plasmas with local temperatures in excess of 100 million Kelvin. In these experiments the scrape-off layer, which is the plasma region in direct contact with the device wall, is of central importance both for the quality of the energy confinement and the wall material lifetime. To study the behaviour of the scrape-off layer, in addition to experiments, numerical simulations are used. This work investigates the use of adaptive discretizations of space and compatible numerical methods for scrape-off layer simulations. The resulting algorithms allow dynamic adaptation of computational grids aligned to the magnetic fields to precisely capture the strongly anisotropic energy and particle transport in the plasma. The methods are applied to the multi-fluid plasma code B2, with the goal of reducing the runtime of simulations and extending the applicability of the code.

  18. Biomimetic superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces fabricated with a facile scraping, bonding and peeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the superhydrophobicity of juicy peach surface, on which microscale hairs are standing vertically to the surface plane, an extremely simple, inexpensive physical method is developed for fabrication of superhydrophobic polyolefin surfaces over large areas. This method includes three steps: abrasive paper scraping, adhesive tape bonding and 90° peeling. Scraping increases the roughness and enhence water contact angles (CAs on polyolefin surfaces. It increases more when the scraped surface are bonded with adhesive types and then then 90° peeled. The CA variation depends on the types of polyolefin and abrasive paper. Superhydrophobic lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP surfaces (CA>150° are obtained and they all exhibit very low adhesive force and high resistance to strong acids and bases.

  19. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  20. Experimental and numerical characterization of the turbulence in the scrape-off layer of MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Tamain, P.; Fundamenski, W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of interchange turbulence in the scrape-off layer are performed in a regime relevant for a specific L-mode Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) discharge. Such a discharge was diagnosed with a reciprocating arm equipped with a Gundestrup probe. A detailed comparison of the a......Numerical simulations of interchange turbulence in the scrape-off layer are performed in a regime relevant for a specific L-mode Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) discharge. Such a discharge was diagnosed with a reciprocating arm equipped with a Gundestrup probe. A detailed comparison...

  1. Scraping the Monumental: Stepan Bandera through the Lens of Quantitative Memory Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredheim, R.; Howanitz, G.; Makhortykh, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay we use the example of Stepan Bandera to demonstrate the effectiveness of web-scraping methods as a tool to explore how people interact with memory content online. Using data from Wikipedia, Twitter and YouTube, we analyse the traces left by users interested in Stepan Bandera and assess

  2. Effects of Booster Scraping in Polarized Proton Runs 2006 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,S.Y.; Ahrens, L.; Huang, H.; Zeno, K.

    2009-01-02

    Effects of the Booster vertical scraping on the RHIC beam polarization, the RHIC beam emittance, and on the Booster to AGS transfer efficiency and AGS transmission as well, are further studied. In [1], the strong dependence of the RHIC beam polarization and emittance on bunch intensity in proton run 2008 (pp08) is compared with the proton run 2006 (pp06), where the dependence is much weaker. The setting in the AGS Booster, mainly the vertical scraping, is suspected to having played a role in the different patterns in the two runs. In this note, we further study the effects of the Booster vertical scraping on the RHIC beam polarization, and on the RHIC beam emittance as well. With the improvement of the RHIC bunch intensity in mind, the Booster scraping effects on the Booster to AGS transfer (BtA) efficiency and the AGS transmission are also studied. For simplicity and to be more useful, only the RHIC fills after the one-week shutdown in pp06 and the fills using the AGS User 2 in pp08 are shown. For these fills, the machine settings in AGS are similar in pp06 and pp08 runs. Furthermore, this setting might be used for next polarized proton run, at least at the beginning of the run.

  3. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  4. Numerical investigation of Scrape Off Layer anomalous particle transport for MAST parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of L-mode plasma turbulence in the Scrape Off Layer of MAST are presented. Relevant features of the boundary plasma, such as the thickness of the density layer or the statistics of the fluctuations are related to the edge density and temperature, plasma current and parallel ...

  5. Crystallizer with internal scraped cooled wall and method of use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Apparatus for separating solids from a mixture or solution, comprising an outer wall provided with an inlet for the mixture or solution and provided with a first discharge for discharging an ice slurry and a second discharge for discharging a salt slurry, one or more raking or scraping elements for

  6. Fluctuations, transport and flows in TCV scrape-off layer plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, E.O.; Horáček, Jan; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Pitts, R.A.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2007), s. 667-676 ISSN 0029-5515 Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGETURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.278, year: 2007

  7. Multi-code analysis of scrape-off layer filament dynamics in MAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Walkden, N. R.; Farley, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four numerical codes are employed to investigate the dynamics of scrape-off layer filaments in tokamak relevant conditions. Experimental measurements were taken in the MAST device using visual camera imaging, which allows the evaluation of the perpendicular size and velocity of the filaments...

  8. Blob sizes and velocities in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O.E.; LaBombard, B.

    A new blob-tracking algorithm for the GPI diagnostic installed in the outboard-midplane of Alcator C-Mod is developed. I t tracks large-amplitude fluctuations propagating through the scrape-off layer and calculates blob sizes and velocities. We compare the results of this method to a blob velocity...

  9. Far scrape-off layer particle and heat fluxes in high density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H. W.; Bernert, M.; Carralero, D.

    2014-01-01

    The far scrape-off layer transport is studied in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges with high divertor neutral density N0,div, high power across the separatrix Psep and nitrogen seeding to control the divertor temperature. Such conditions are expected for ITER but usually not investigated in terms...

  10. Numerical scalings of the decay lengths in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F.; Naulin, V; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of L-mode turbulence in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are used to construct power scaling laws for the characteristic decay lengths of the temperature, density and heat flux at the outer mid-plane. Most of the results obtained are in qualitative agreement with the experimental...

  11. Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

  12. IL-20 promotes epithelial healing of the injured mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    After corneal epithelial injury, the ensuing inflammatory response is necessary for efficient wound healing. While beneficial healing effects are attributed to recruited neutrophils and platelets, dysregulated inflammation (too little or too much) is associated with impaired wound healing. The purpo...

  13. Comparison of scrape-off layer transport in inner and outer wall limited JET plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silva, C.; Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S.; Frigione, D.; Groth, M.; Horáček, Jan; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Matthews, G.; Pitts, R. A.; JET EFDA, Contributors.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 438, suppl (2013), S189-S193 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conferenceon Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/20./. Aachen, 21.05.2012-25.5.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * JET scrape-off layer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311513001827#

  14. Kinetic simulations of scrape-off layer physics in the DIII-D tokamak

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, R.M.; Canik, J.M.; Chang, C.S.; Hager, R.; Leonard, A.W.; Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R.; Stotler, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations using the fully kinetic code XGCa were undertaken to explore the impact of kinetic effects on scrape-off layer (SOL) physics in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. XGCa is a total-f, gyrokinetic code which self-consistently calculates the axisymmetric electrostatic potential and plasma dynamics, and includes modules for Monte Carlo neutral transport. Fluid simulations are normally used to simulate the SOL, due to its high collisionality. However, depending on plasma conditions, a number of dis...

  15. Lactobacillus bulgaricus Prevents Intestinal Epithelial Cell Injury Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii-Induced Nitric Oxide both In Vitro and in the Newborn Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Catherine J.; Williams, Monica; Petrosyan, Mikael; Guner, Yigit; Mittal, Rahul; Mock, Dennis; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Ford, Henri R.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2009-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as well as infant sepsis and meningitis. Our previous studies demonstrated that E. sakazakii induces NEC in a newborn rat model by inducing enterocyte apoptosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for enterocyte apoptosis are not known. Here we demonstrate that E. sakazakii induces significant production of nitric oxide (NO) in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) upon infection. The elevated production of NO, which is due to increased expression of inducible NO synthase, is responsible for apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. Notably, pretreatment of IEC-6 cells with Lactobacillus bulgaricus (ATCC 12278) attenuated the upregulation of NO production and thereby protected the cells from E. sakazakii-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, pretreatment with L. bulgaricus promoted the integrity of enterocytes both in vitro and in the infant rat model of NEC, even after challenge with E. sakazakii. Infection of IEC-6 cells with E. sakazakii upregulated several genes related to apoptosis, cytokine production, and various signaling pathways, as demonstrated by rat gene array analysis, and this upregulation was subdued by pretreatment with L. bulgaricus. In agreement with these data, L. bulgaricus pretreatment protected newborn rats infected with E. sakazakii from developing NEC, resulting in improved survival. PMID:19075027

  16. Effect of mechanical vs dilute ethanol epithelial removal on keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, K; Sezer, C; Akyol, G; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2002-03-01

    To investigate keratocyte apoptosis and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration to the corneal stroma after mechanical epithelial scraping and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol solution. Twelve New Zealand Albino rabbits (24 eyes) were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was the control group with no epithelial removal. Group B underwent a 7.5-mm mechanical epithelial removal with a blunt spatula. Group C underwent 7.5-mm chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol-balanced salt solution. Corneas were stained with terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay after 24 h. Only nuclear staining in keratocytes was counted. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte densities were also assessed by light microscopy. Mechanical de-epithelialization (group B) and chemical de-epithelialization with 18% ethanol (group C) showed no difference in keratocyte apoptosis compared with the control group. There was also no difference between groups B and C. Group B showed no difference in PMN leukocyte counts compared with the control group. But the number of PMN leukocytes observed in group C was significantly higher than those encountered in the corneas of the control group (P < 0.05) and group B (P < 0.05). Dilute alcohol induces more PMN cell infiltration when compared with mechanical de-epithelialization although there is no difference in the apoptosis rates.

  17. Influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Y.; Hollenstein, C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during Alfven wave heating may lead to a better understanding of the antenna-plasma interaction. The scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak has been widely investigated by means of Langmuir probes. The aim of this work is to present measurements on the influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer. These experiments have shown that the plasma boundary layer is strongly affected by the wave field, in particular the ion saturation current and the floating potential. In TCA, as the spectrum evolves due to a density rise, the passage of the Alfven continua and their associated eigenmodes, the Discrete Alfven Wave (DAW) induces a strong depletion in the edge density of up to 70% during the continuum part and a density increase during the crossing of an eigenmode. The floating potential becomes negative during the continua and even more negative crossing the eigenmodes. In case of MHD mode activity, this behaviour changes for power exceeding 100 kW. The profiles of basic parameters are modified, depending on the wave spectrum. MHD mode activity which can occur during the RF (radio frequency) phase considerably alters the behaviour mentioned above. Finally, the modulation of the RF power allows us to characterize the coupling between RF power and typical edge parameters. (orig.)

  18. Inhibition of SERPINE1 Function Attenuates Wound Closure in Response to Tissue Injury: A Role for PAI-1 in Re-Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M. Simone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1 is a prominent member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily (SERPIN and a causative factor of multi-organ fibrosis as well as a key regulator of the tissue repair program. PAI-1 attenuates pericellular proteolysis by inhibiting the catalytic activity of both urokinase and tissue-type protease activators (uPA and tPA effectively modulating, thereby, plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis and the overall pericellular proteolytic cascade. PAI-1 also impacts cellular responses to tissue injury and stress situations (growth, survival, migration by titering the locale and temporal activation of multimeric cell-surface signaling complexes. This review will describe PAI-1 structure and function and detail the role of PAI-1 in the tissue repair program with an emphasis on cutaneous wound healing.

  19. Long-Term Safety Issues of iPSC-Based Cell Therapy in a Spinal Cord Injury Model: Oncogenic Transformation with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we described the safety and therapeutic potential of neurospheres (NSs derived from a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC clone, 201B7, in a spinal cord injury (SCI mouse model. However, several safety issues concerning iPSC-based cell therapy remain unresolved. Here, we investigated another iPSC clone, 253G1, that we established by transducing OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 into adult human dermal fibroblasts collected from the same donor who provided the 201B7 clone. The grafted 253G1-NSs survived, differentiated into three neural lineages, and promoted functional recovery accompanied by stimulated synapse formation 47 days after transplantation. However, long-term observation (for up to 103 days revealed deteriorated motor function accompanied by tumor formation. The tumors consisted of Nestin+ undifferentiated neural cells and exhibited activation of the OCT4 transgene. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a heightened mesenchymal transition may have contributed to the progression of tumors derived from grafted cells.

  20. Comparative diagnostics reveals PCR assays on skin scrapings is the most reliable method to detect Sarcoptes scabiei infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Martin, Alynn; Polkinghorne, Adam; Carver, Scott

    2018-02-15

    Sarcoptic mange is a globally significant parasitic disease of humans and other animals, both domestic and wild. But clinical diagnosis of S. scabiei infestation, using the standard skin scraping followed by microscopy technique, remains highly variable (predominantly due to false-negatives), and a major challenge for human and animal welfare. Here, we utilised a unique sample set from bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to evaluate a variety of putatively useful diagnostic approaches for S. scabiei. Against the standard of skin scrapings followed by microscopy, we compared observational scoring of mange severity (often employed in field studies of wildlife), PCR on skin scrapings (recently proposed as an improvement for humans and other animals), and PCR on skin swabs (proposed a non-invasive method for humans and other animals). We find that observational scoring positively correlated with counts of S. scabiei from skin scrapings, particularly as mange severity increases, but underdiagnoses early mange. Species-specific PCR for S. scabiei on skin scrapings had enhanced capacity for mite detection relative to microscopy. Finally, the non-invasive sampling method of PCR on skin swab samples had a high congruence to skin scraping microscopy, however prospective false negatives as a consequence to sampling is concerning. To our knowledge, this is the first study to simultaneously assess this combination of methods for S. scabiei diagnosis. We conclude that PCR on skin scrapings as an advancement on traditional microscopy, and the other techniques (observational, skin swabs and microscopy) remain useful, but harbour greater false-negatives. Outcomes are transferrable to diagnosis of S. scabiei for other host species, including humans, particularly for crusted mange and potentially ordinary mange also. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei-Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kawamura, Tomohiro; Peng, Ximei [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tochigi, Naobumi [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States); Shigemura, Norihisa [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Billiar, Timothy R. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nakao, Atsunori, E-mail: anakao@imap.pitt.edu [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Toyoda, Yoshiya [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Hydrogen is a regulatory molecule with antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic protective effects. {yields} There is very limited information on the pathways regulated in vivo by the hydrogen. {yields} Antiapoptotic abilities of hydrogen were explained by upregulation of the antiapoptotic gene. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated antiapoptotic protein. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation associated with increase Bcl-2 may contribute to cytoprotection of hydrogen. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated the inhalation of hydrogen gas, a novel medical therapeutic gas, ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); however, the molecular mechanisms by which hydrogen ameliorates VILI remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled hydrogen gas modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B) signaling pathway. VILI was generated in male C57BL6 mice by performing a tracheostomy and placing the mice on a mechanical ventilator (tidal volume of 30 ml/kg or 10 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure). The ventilator delivered either 2% nitrogen or 2% hydrogen in balanced air. NF{kappa}B activation, as indicated by NF{kappa}B DNA binding, was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hydrogen gas inhalation increased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 1 h of ventilation and decreased NF{kappa}B DNA binding after 2 h of ventilation, as compared with controls. The early activation of NF{kappa}B during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased levels of Bax. Hydrogen inhalation increased oxygen tension, decreased lung edema, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators. Chemical inhibition of early NF{kappa}B activation using SN50 reversed these protective effects. NF{kappa}B activation and an associated increase in the expression of Bcl-2 may contribute, in part, to the

  2. Platinum-induced kidney damage: Unraveling the DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial and glomerular endothelial cells following platinum injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Katharina; Thomale, Jürgen; Stojanović, Nikolina; Osmak, Maja; Henninger, Christian; Bormann, Stefanie; Fritz, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    Platinum compounds are potent anticancer drugs but also evoke considerable normal tissue damage. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms contributing to the nephrotoxic effects of cisplatin. We comparatively investigated the stress responses of rat kidney tubular (NRK-52E) and glomerular cells (RGE) following treatment with cisplatin (CisPt), oxaliplatin (OxaliPt) and carboplatin (CarboPt). To this end, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, DNA damage response (DDR) and repair of DNA adducts were investigated. CisPt reduced the viability of tubular NRK-52E and glomerular RGE cells most efficiently. Cytotoxicity evoked by CarboPt occurred with a delay, which might be related to a retarded formation of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks. RGE cells were more sensitive towards all platinum compounds than NRK-52E cells. Platinum drugs efficiently induced caspase-mediated apoptosis in tubular cells, while RGE cells favored G2/M arrest when treated with equitoxic platinum doses. Mitotic index of NKR-52E and RGE cells was worst affected by OxaliPt. Activation of the DDR was strikingly agent- and cell type-specific. Most comprehensive and substantial stimulation of DDR mechanisms was provoked by CisPt. Repair of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslinks was best in RGE, which was reflected by high mRNA expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors. There are substantial differences regarding the cause of sensitivity and mechanisms of DDR between tubular and glomerular cells following platinum injury. CisPt is the most potent stimulator of the DDR. We hypothesize that specific DNA adducts and thereby forcefully activated pro-toxic DDR mechanisms contribute to the exceptionally high acute nephrotoxicity of CisPt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Peng, Ximei; Tochigi, Naobumi; Shigemura, Norihisa; Billiar, Timothy R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hydrogen is a regulatory molecule with antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic protective effects. → There is very limited information on the pathways regulated in vivo by the hydrogen. → Antiapoptotic abilities of hydrogen were explained by upregulation of the antiapoptotic gene. → NFκB activation during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated antiapoptotic protein. → NFκB activation associated with increase Bcl-2 may contribute to cytoprotection of hydrogen. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated the inhalation of hydrogen gas, a novel medical therapeutic gas, ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI); however, the molecular mechanisms by which hydrogen ameliorates VILI remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled hydrogen gas modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) signaling pathway. VILI was generated in male C57BL6 mice by performing a tracheostomy and placing the mice on a mechanical ventilator (tidal volume of 30 ml/kg or 10 ml/kg without positive end-expiratory pressure). The ventilator delivered either 2% nitrogen or 2% hydrogen in balanced air. NFκB activation, as indicated by NFκB DNA binding, was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hydrogen gas inhalation increased NFκB DNA binding after 1 h of ventilation and decreased NFκB DNA binding after 2 h of ventilation, as compared with controls. The early activation of NFκB during hydrogen treatment was correlated with elevated levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased levels of Bax. Hydrogen inhalation increased oxygen tension, decreased lung edema, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory mediators. Chemical inhibition of early NFκB activation using SN50 reversed these protective effects. NFκB activation and an associated increase in the expression of Bcl-2 may contribute, in part, to the cytoprotective effects of hydrogen against apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathway

  4. Neandertal humeri may reflect adaptation to scraping tasks, but not spear thrusting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N Shaw

    Full Text Available Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesis. The core tenet of the "Spear Thrusting Hypothesis", that underhand thrusting requires greater muscle activity on the right side of the body compared to the left, remains untested. It is unclear whether alternative subsistence behaviours, such as hide processing, might better explain this morphology. To test this, electromyography was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers of the humerus (pectoralis major (PM, anterior (AD and posterior deltoid (PD during three distinct spear-thrusting tasks and four separate scraping tasks. Contrary to predictions, maximum muscle activity (MAX and total muscle activity (TOT were significantly higher (all values, p<.05 at the left (non-dominant AD, PD and PM compared to the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength asymmetry found in Neandertal humeri. In contrast, during the performance of all three unimanual scraping tasks, right side MAX and TOT were significantly greater at the AD (all values, p<.01 and PM (all values, p<.02 compared to the left. The consistency of the results provides evidence that scraping activities, such as hide preparation, may be a key behaviour in determining the unusual pattern of Neandertal arm morphology. Overall, these results yield important insight into the Neandertal behavioural repertoire that aided survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.

  5. Controlled irradiation of CFC samples in the scrape-off layer of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, J.P. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)]. E-mail: jamie.gunn@cea.fr; Begrambekov, L. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Brosset, C. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Gordeev, A. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Loarer, T. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Miljavina, E. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shigin, P. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Khodja, H. [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA/CNRS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Oddon, P. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pascal, J.-Y. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Vartanian, S. [DRFC, Bat. 508, Association Euratom - CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2005-03-01

    The first experiments with a mobile sample holder in Tore Supra are described. It exposes 10 CFC samples to direct irradiation by the scrape-off layer plasma. The plasma parameters are measured simultaneously by two Langmuir probes, and the temperature of the samples by embedded thermocouples. The cumulated irradiation dose during the first brief campaign was enough to exceed the classical saturation of the ion stopping zone, as verified by thermodesorption spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy of some of the samples was performed before and after irradiation in order to investigate the evolution of the surface structure due to ion bombardment.

  6. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  7. Poloidal Asymmetry in the Narrow Heat Flux Feature in the TCV Scrape-Off Layer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsui, C.K.; Boedo, J. A.; Halpern, F.D.; Loizu, J.; Nespoli, F.; Horáček, Jan; Labit, B.; Morales, J.; Reimerdes, H.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Furno, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 062508. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Scrape-Off Layer * TCV * tokamak * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://dx. doi . org /10.1063/1.4985075

  8. Modeling heat efficiency, flow and scale-up in the corotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter; Karlson, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of two different scale corotating disc scraped surface heat exchangers (CDHE) was performed experimentally. The findings were compared to predictions from a finite element model. We find that the model predicts well the flow pattern of the two CDHE's investigated. The heat transfer...... performance predicted by the model agrees well with experimental observations for the laboratory scale CDHE whereas the overall heat transfer in the scaled-up version was not in equally good agreement. The lack of the model to predict the heat transfer performance in scale-up leads us to identify the key...

  9. Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.

    2015-07-01

    A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.

  10. Structure of the classical scrape-off layer of a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhansky, V.; Kaveeva, E.; Senichenkov, I.; Vekshina, E.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak with little or no turbulent transport is analyzed. The analytical estimates of the density and electron temperature fall-off lengths of the SOL are put forward. It is demonstrated that the SOL width could be of the order of the ion poloidal gyroradius, as suggested in Goldston (2012 Nuclear Fusion 52 013009). The analytical results are supported by the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma with reduced transport coefficients performed by SOLPS-ITER transport code.

  11. Enhanced scrape-off layer plasma in DIII-D double-null discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.G.; Jong, R.A.; Moyer, R.A.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a denser and broader scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma, first seen in VH mode, in the DIII-D tokamak. The enhanced SOL appears in many types of double-null (DN) discharges and is not a property of VH-mode only. The DN enhanced SOL density and temperature profiles exhibit a 5--6 cm broad profile outside the separatrix. For DN and single-null (SN) boundary geometry with similar core plasma conditions, the enhanced SOL is only observed in high triangularity discharges. The origin of the enhanced SOL is, however, not yet understood

  12. Scrape-off layer turbulence in TCV: evidence in support of stochastic modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O.E.; Horáček, Jan; Kube, R.; Pitts, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 044006. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : turbulence * intermittency * transport * scrape-off layer * tcv * plasma * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/4/044006/meta

  13. Electromagnetic ELM and inter-ELM filaments detected in the COMPASS Scrape-Off Layer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spolaore, M.; Kovařík, Karel; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Dejarnac, Renaud; Ďuran, Ivan; Komm, Michael; Markovič, Tomáš; Martines, E.; Pánek, Radomír; Seidl, Jakub; Vianello, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 844-851 ISSN 2352-1791. [PSI 2016 - 22nd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/22./. Roma, 30.05.2016-03.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Electromagnetic filaments * ELMs * Scrape-Off Layer * Magnetic fluctuations * Current density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S2352179116301934

  14. Scrape-off measurements during Alfven wave heating in the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.; Hollenstein, C.; Joye, B.; Lietti, A.; Lister, J.B.; Pochelon, A.; Gimzewski, J.K.; Veprek, S.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma parameters and impurity fluxes in the scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak have been measured during Alfven wave heating. Langmuir probes are used to measure electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential. Collection probes, in conjunction with XPS surface analysis, are used to determine impurity fluxes and ion impact energies. During RF heating, the electron edge temperature rises, the plasma potential drops and impurity fluxes are enhanced. Probe erosion due to impurity sputtering is clearly observed. The measurements are correlated with other diagnostics on TCA. (orig.)

  15. Progress in integrated 2-D models for analysis of scrape-off layer transport physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Braams, B.J. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Knoll, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States)

    1996-08-01

    We present the status of comprehensive two-dimensional (2-D) transport modeling for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) using the UEDGE and B2.5 codes. These codes are now able to integrate a variety of physics, including coupling of plasma and neutral transport leading to detachment, complicated diverto-plate geometries, multispecies impurities, and currents and E x B drifts. These new models are outlined and the capabilities are illustrated by a number of examples that emphasize the importance of including the 2-D geometry. (orig.)

  16. Intermittent transport across the scrape-off layer: latest results from ASDEX Upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočan, M.; Müller, H.W.; Nold, B.; Lunt, T.; Adámek, Jiří; Allan, S.Y.; Bernert, M.; Conway, G.D.; de Marné, P.; Eich, T.; Elmore, S.; Gennrich, F.P.; Herrmann, A.; Horáček, Jan; Huang, Z.; Kallenbach, A.; Komm, Michael; Maraschek, M.; Mehlmann, F.; Müller, S.; Ribeiro, T.T.; Rohde, V.; Schrittwieser, R.; Scott, B.; Stroth, U.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2013), 073047-073047 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG11018; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA ČR GA202/09/1467 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ASDEX Upgrade scrape-off layer * plasma * tokamak * edge-localized mode (ELM) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.243, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/53/7/073047/pdf/0029-5515_53_7_073047.pdf

  17. Scrape-off layer width of parallel heat flux on tokamak COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loureiro, J.; Silva, C.; Horáček, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Stöckel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 121 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2014 - 26th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/26./. Prague, 16.06.2014-19.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge turbulent transport * Scrape-Off layer * Langmuir probe * Ball- pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://fyzika.feld.cvut.cz/misc/ppt/articles/2014/loureiro.pdf

  18. Understanding and suppressing the near Scrape-Off Layer in inboard-limited plasmas in TCV.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nespoli, F.; Labit, B.; Furno, I.; Horáček, Jan; Tsui, C.K.; Boedo, J. A.; Maurizio, R.; Reimerdes, H.; Theiler, C.; Ricci, P.; Halpern, F.D.; Sheikh, U.; Verhaegh, K.; Pitts, R.A.; Militello, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 126029. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * TCV * scrape-off layer * heat flux * limiter * infrared thermography * Langmuir probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa84e0

  19. The effect of ion drifts on the properties of the tokamak scrape-off plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Kuo-Petravic, G.

    1988-09-01

    A plasma fluid model which takes into account ion drifts has been constructed and applied to the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with a poloidal divertor. This model predicts near-sonic toroidal velocities and large poloidal flows in most of the scrapeoff together with steep gradients in the pressure and electrostatic potential along the magnetic field near the X-point, contrary to the predictions of the standard model. The potential step at X-point should reduce parallel heat transport and could act as an H-mode trigger. 12 refs., 4 figs

  20. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  1. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-07

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  2. Influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Y.; Hollenstein, Ch.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) during Alfven wave heating may lead to a better understanding of the antenna-plasma interaction. The SOL of the TCA tokamak has been widely investigated by means of Langmuir probes. The aim of the present work is to present in detail the influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the SOL. The experiments have shown that the plasma boundary layer is strongly affected by the RF, in particular the ion density, the electron temperature and the floating potential. In TCA, as the spectrum evolves due to a density rise, the passage of the Alfven continua and their associated eigenmodes (DAW) induces a strong depletion in the edge density of up to 70% during the continuum part and a density increase during the crossing of an eigenmode. The floating potential becomes negative during the continua and even more negative crossing the eigenmodes. This behaviour changes as a function of the power transmitted to the plasma through the antennae, especially we have found with MHD modes a change around 100 kW. The profiles of the basic parameters are modified, depending on the wave spectrum. MHD mode activity which can occur during the RF phase considerably alters the behaviour mentioned above. Finally, the modulation of the RF power allows us to characterize the difference in coupling, for the continua and the eigenmodes, between the Alfven wave field and the scrape-off layer. (author) 5 figs., 6 refs

  3. Management of gingiva hyperpigmentasi with combine of scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shek Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic factor is an important factor in supporting the person's appearance, especially when a person smiles. Beautifull smiles form of harmonization between the teeth and gums as part of the oral cavity. One of overall aspect that has an important role in providing the overall aesthetic impression is normal gum color that pink coral. Brown or black gums are often become the complaint that interfere with appearance, especially in patients who have a habit of smoking. Pigmentation caused by melanin hyperpigmentation and usually does not present a medical problems, so patients are not aware of it. Surgical method with the scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur has been widely used as a method of gingival depigmentation. This method is easily done, simple and can be done in a relatively short time. In this case report presented regarding the management of patients with gingival hyperpigmentation of the maxilla and mandible were treated with surgical method using a scalpel scraping technique combined with gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur. The result, after 4 weeks follow up, color of the patient's gingival was pink and there is none recurrence of the pigmentation.

  4. Coupled plasma-neutral transport model for the scrape-off region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-03-01

    Analysis of the scrape-off region requires treatment of the plasma transport along and across the field lines and inclusion of the neutral transport effects. A method for modeling the scrape-off region that is presented here uses separate models for each of these aspects that are coupled together through an iteration procedure that requires only minimal numerical effort. The method is applied here to estimate the neutral pumping rates in the pump-limiter and divertor options for a proposed deuterium-tritium (D-T) ignition experiment. High neutral recycling in the vicinity of the neutralizer plate dramatically affects pumping rates for both the pump-limiter and divertor. In both cases, the plasma flow into the channel surrounding the neutralizer plate is greatly reduced by the neutral recycling. The fraction of this flow that is pumped can be large (> 50%), but in general it is dependent on the particular geometry and plasma conditions. It is estimated that pumping speeds approximately greater than 10 5 L/s are adequate for the exhaust requirements in the pump-limiter and the divertor cases. Also, high neutral recycling on the front surface of the limiter tends to increase the neutral pumping rate

  5. Discontinuous Galerkin methods for plasma physics in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michoski, C., E-mail: michoski@ices.utexas.edu [Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meyerson, D. [Institute for Fusion Studies (IFS), Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Isaac, T. [Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Waelbroeck, F. [Institute for Fusion Studies (IFS), Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A new parallel discontinuous Galerkin solver, called ArcOn, is developed to describe the intermittent turbulent transport of filamentary blobs in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of fusion plasma. The model is comprised of an elliptic subsystem coupled to two convection-dominated reaction–diffusion–convection equations. Upwinding is used for a class of numerical fluxes developed to accommodate cross product driven convection, and the elliptic solver uses SIPG, NIPG, IIPG, Brezzi, and Bassi–Rebay fluxes to formulate the stiffness matrix. A novel entropy sensor is developed for this system, designed for a space–time varying artificial diffusion/viscosity regularization algorithm. Some numerical experiments are performed to show convergence order on manufactured solutions, regularization of blob/streamer dynamics in the SOL given unstable parameterizations, long-time stability of modon (or dipole drift vortex) solutions arising in simulations of drift-wave turbulence, and finally the formation of edge mode turbulence in the scrape-off layer under turbulent saturation conditions.

  6. Curing depth of (polyacid-modified) composite resins determined by scraping and a penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupis, Nikolaos S; Vercruysse, Chris W J; Marks, Luc A M; Martens, Luc C; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2004-12-01

    The present study aimed to compare the curing depth of polyacid-modified composite resins (PAM-C) and some representative composite resins as a function of shade and post-cure using a scraping method and a penetrometer. The curing depth of the PAM-C Hytac, F2000, Glasiosite, Dyract, Dyract AP, and Compoglass F and of the composite resins Durafill VS and Z100 were determined for shade A2 and A4 using a scraping method based on ISO 4049:2000 and a digital penetrometer. Samples were light-cured (800 mW/cm2 at 40 s) in bulk in split stainless steel molds. Immediately after light-curing or after a 24 h post-cure, the height of the cylinder of cured material was measured and taken as the curing depth. For both test methods, the curing depth was independent of post-cure (P > or = 0.05) but differed significantly among materials and shade (Ppenetrometer give comparable curing depths for PAM-C. The curing depth greatly varies among the materials and can be considerably smaller than that of a microfilled composite resin. Shade A2 results in significantly greater values for the curing depth compared to shade A4, the effect depending quantitatively on the formulation of the material.

  7. Telomerase activity as a biomarker for (pre)neoplastic cervical disease in scrapings and frozen sections from patients with abnormal cervical smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; Hollema, H; de Jong, S; ter Schegget, J; Tjong-A-Hung, SP; Ruiters, MHJ; Krans, M; de Vries, EGE; van der Zee, AGJ

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of semiquantitative telomerase activity assessment in cervical scrapings together with human papillomavirus (HPV) typing for detection of (pre)neoplastic cervical lesions and to compare telomerase activity in cervical scrapings and frozen specimens from the

  8. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    . In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...

  9. Cross-field blob transport in tokamak scrape-off-layer plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Recent measurements show that nondiffusive, intermittent transport of particles can play a major role in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) of fusion experiments. A possible mechanism for fast convective plasma transport is related to the plasma filaments or 'blobs' observed in the SOL with fast cameras and probes. In this paper, physical arguments suggesting the importance of blob transport [S. I. Krasheninnikov, Phys. Lett. A 283, 368 (2001)] have been extended by calculations using a three-field fluid model, treating the blobs as coherent propagating structures. The properties of density, temperature and vorticity blobs, and methods of averaging over ensembles of blobs to get the average SOL profiles, are illustrated. The role of ionization of background neutrals in sustaining the density blob transport is also discussed. Many qualitative features of the experiments, such as relatively flat density profiles and transport coefficients increasing toward the wall, are shown to emerge naturally from the blob transport paradigm

  10. Comparison of scrape-off layer transport in inner and outer wall limited JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C., E-mail: csilva@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica Lisboa (Portugal); Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Frigione, D. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, CR Frascati, Roma (Italy); Groth, M. [Aalto University, Association EURATOM-Tekes, Otakaari 4, 02015 Espoo (Finland); Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Matthews, G. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    The JET scrape-off layer has been characterized with a reciprocating probe in inner wall, IW, and outer wall, OW, limited plasmas. Broad SOL profiles are observed for IW limited plasmas with power e-folding length substantially larger (by a factor of ∼5–7.5) than in OW limited plasmas. The properties of the fluctuations in the SOL parameters indicate larger turbulent transport for IW limited plasmas. The striking differences observed between IW and OW limited plasmas on the power e-folding length, parallel flow, turbulent transport as well as the characteristics of the fluctuations support the existence of a poloidally localized region of enhanced radial transport near the outboard midplane. The dependence of the SOL power e-folding length on the main plasma parameters was also investigated for IW limited plasmas and a modest negative dependence on both the plasma current and the line-averaged density found.

  11. Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...... for operation of fusion experiments and ultimately fusion power plants. Recent results clearly demonstrate that the plasma transport through the SOL is dominated by turbulent intermittent fluctuations organized into filamentary structures convecting particles, energy, and momentum through the SOL region. Thus......, the transport cannot be described and parametrized by simple diffusive type models. The transport leads to strong localized power loads on the first wall and the plasma facing components, which have serious lasting influence....

  12. Performance Evaluation of the SPS Scraping System in View of the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)659273; Cerutti, Francesco

    Injection in the LHC is a delicate moment, since the LHC collimation system cannot offer adequate protection during beam transfer. For this reason, a complex chain of injection protection devices has been put in place. Among them, the SPS scrapers are the multi-turn cleaning system installed in the SPS aimed at halo removal immediately before injection in the LHC. The upgrade in luminosity of the LHC foresees beams brighter than those currently available in machine, posing serious problems to the performance of the existing injection protection systems. In particular, the integrity of beam-intercepting devices is challenged by unprecedented beam parameters, leading to interactions potentially destructive. In this context, a new design of scrapers has been proposed, aimed at improved robustness and performance. This thesis compares the two scraping systems, i.e. the existing one and the one proposed for upgrade. Unlike any other collimation system for regular halo cleaning, both are "fast" systems, characteris...

  13. Properties of lightweight aggregate concrete prepared with PVC granules derived from scraped PVC pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, S C; Lee, G; Poon, C S; Lai, W L

    2009-02-01

    This paper aims to investigate the fresh and hardened properties of lightweight aggregate concretes that are prepared with the use of recycled plastic waste sourced from scraped PVC pipes to replace river sand as fine aggregates. A number of laboratory prepared concrete mixes were tested, in which river sand was partially replaced by PVC plastic waste granules in percentages of 0%, 5%, 15%, 30% and 45% by volume. Two major findings are identified. The positive side shows that the concrete prepared with a partial replacement by PVC was lighter (lower density), was more ductile (greater Poisson's ratios and reduced modulus of elasticity), and had lower drying shrinkage and higher resistance to chloride ion penetration. The negative side reveals that the workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were reduced. The results gathered would form a part of useful information for recycling PVC plastic waste in lightweight concrete mixes.

  14. Simulation of the scrape-off layer plasma during a disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien, T.D.; Crotinger, J.A.; Porter, G.D.; Smith, G.R.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during a disruption in the DIII-D tokamak is modeled using the 2-D UEDGE transport code. The focus is on the thermal quench phase when most of the energy content of the discharge is rapidly transported across the magnetic separatrix where it then flows to material surfaces or is radiated. Comparisons between the simulation and an experiment on the DIII-D tokamak are made with the heat flux to the divertor plate, and temperature and density profiles at the SOL midplane. The temporal response of the separate electron and ion heat-flux components to the divertor plate is calculated. The sensitivity of the solution to assumptions of electron heat-flux models and impurity radiation is investigated

  15. Simulations of edge and scrape off layer turbulence in mega ampere spherical tokamak plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Militello, F; Fundamenski, W; Naulin, Volker

    2012-01-01

    of the edge/SOL density and temperature. In addition, we also discuss how the system changes when the length of the divertor leg is modified. This allows one to better understand the regime of operation of the Super-X divertor which will be implemented on MAST-Upgrade. The results obtained qualitatively agree......The L-mode interchange turbulence in the edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) of the tight aspect ratio tokamak MAST is investigated numerically. The dynamics of the boundary plasma are studied using the 2D drift-fluid code ESEL, which has previously shown good agreement with large aspect ratio machines....... In this context, a MAST-TCV comparison is presented in order to link the present analysis to well documented references. Next, scans of various edge parameters, such as density, temperature and current, are performed in the simulations with the aim of characterizing the profiles, fluctuation level and statistics...

  16. Serological identification of group A streptococci from throat scrapings before culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholy, A E; Facklam, R; Sabri, G; Rotta, J

    1978-12-01

    The use of a microtechnique (modified nitrous acid extraction) to test samples from 150 school children and from patients with acute follicular tonsillitis has indicated that group A streptococci in the throat can be identified from tonsillar scrapings in 30 min. The results are comparable to the grouping results obtained by standard throat culture techniques and the Lancefield procedure for grouping. No cross-reaction with other bacteria or cellular material occurs. Study has also shown that the nitrous acid extraction yields three- to fourfold more polysaccharides than the Lancefield hot-HCl of Fuller formamide techniques. The use of the microtechnique leads to another 20-fold concentration of the antigen. Immune salting-out effect could be obtained with 1.00 M sodium acetate. Such molarity is too low to cause nonspecific slating out. It leads to a strong ampliciation of the precipitin reaction.

  17. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...

  18. Study on scraped PCBs combustion and inorganic pollutants emission characteristics in a high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hanxi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Jin, Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    The significance of research on PCBs (Waste Printed Circuit Boards) not only lies in avoiding negative impacts on peoples lives and local environment but also in recycling the resource and energy which means profound influence on sustainable development with positive ecology impacts and economic rewards. During high temperature combustion of scraped PCBs, the combustible fraction is burned out and the metals are mostly retained in the bottom of furnace containing molten slag and blister copper. By conventional treatment of blister copper, the copper and noble metals can be recovered effectively. High temperature combustion of scraped PCBs is the key process during this PCB recycling and very few published literature on this topic. In present study, experiments were carried on ia a lab-scale continue-feeding drop tube combustion system. Investigation included the interaction of combustion temperature, excess air factor and high temperature zone resident time. The CO, CO 2 , NO x , Br etc. emission were measured continuously. Ash deposits from different locations were collected and analyzed for their texture (SEM imaging), elemental (EDS) and mineralogical (XRD) characteristics. The results show that temperature has significance on the combustion performance, Br and metal transfer and transformation. The proposed process parameters are 1200 degree Celsius, excess air factor more than 1.3, high temperature zone residence more than >0.75 s, in which CO concentration in flue gas is less than 50 ppm, more than 93 % Br is transferred in the form of inorganic matter to flue gas while Br 2 / HBr is more than 7. With temperature increased, heavy metals distribution in different kinds ash changed and its texture also changed. (author)

  19. Predictors of re-epithelialization in pediatric burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nadia J; Kimble, Roy M; Gramotnev, Galina; Rodger, Sylvia; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-06-01

    An important treatment goal for burn wounds is to promote early wound closure. This study identifies factors associated with delayed re-epithelialization following pediatric burn. Data were collected from August 2011 to August 2012, at a pediatric tertiary burn center. A total of 106 burn wounds were analyzed from 77 participants aged 4-12 years. Percentage of wound re-epithelialization at each dressing change was calculated using Visitrak™. Mixed effect regression analysis was performed to identify the demographic factors, wound and clinical characteristics associated with delayed re-epithelialization. Burn depth determined by laser Doppler imaging, ethnicity, pain scores, total body surface area (TBSA), mechanism of injury and days taken to present to the burn center were significant predictors of delayed re-epithelialization, accounting for 69% of variance. Flame burns delayed re-epithelialization by 39% compared to all other mechanisms (p = 0.003). When initial presentation to the burn center was on day 5, burns took an average of 42% longer to re-epithelialize, compared to those who presented on day 2 post burn (p Burn depth, mechanism of injury and TBSA are always considered when developing the treatment and surgical management plan for patients with burns. This study identifies other factors influencing re-epithelialization, which can be controlled by the treating team, such as effective pain management and rapid referral to a specialized burn center, to achieve optimal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.

  1. Actively cooled pump limiters and power scrape-off length measurements in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Seigneur, A.; Chappuis, P.; Chatelier, M.; DeMichelis, C.; Deschamps, P.; Grosman, A.; Hess, W.; Lecoustey, P.; Loarer, T.; Poutchy, L.; Schlosser, J.

    1992-01-01

    TORE-SUPRA is a superconducting Tokamak aimed at studying long plasma pulses (>30 s). It is equipped with two types of pump limiters (PL). A provisional type, semi-inertially cooled between shots, has been used for plasma scrape off characterization. The e-folding length λq for power deposition on these components has been unfolded (1.0cm 19 m -3 19 m -3 ), of power level up to 4 MW and of toroidal magnetic field (1.5 T -1/2 ). The second type used for long pulse operation, is actively cooled during shots, its thermal time constant being less than 2 seconds. Experiments using this ITER relevant technology are presented. Three of the actively cooled limiters have been successfully tested in a steady state regime with a surface temperature less than 1000 deg C (I p =1.6 MA). The design value for power removal on this type of limiters has been obtained. Peak power fluxes of 10 MW/m 2 have been estimated. This represents a breakthrough for high heat flux components since critical heat flux and burnout with subcooled flow boiling are major aspects for this kind of design

  2. Ion and electron parameters in the alcator C tokamak scrape-off region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.H.

    1986-05-01

    Janus is a bi-directional, multi-functional edge probe used to diagnose the ion and electron parameters in the Alcator C tokamak scrape-off region. Two mirror image sets of diagnostics are aligned to face the electron and ion sides along magnetic field lines. Each set of diagnostics consists of a retarding-field energy analyzer (RFEA), a Langmuir probe, and a calorimeter. The RFEA can alternatively sample both the ion and electron parallel energy distribution functions during a tokamak discharge. From the Langmuir probe, one can infer electron temperature, density, and the plasma floating potential. Simple Langmuir probe theory is found to yield the best agreement between the measured Langmuir probe characteristics and the RFEA-inferred T/sub e/. The calorimeter independently detects the total parallel heat flux incident to an electrically floating plate. The measured sheath transmission coefficient, however, is typically lower than the theoretically predicted value by a factor of approx.3. Together these diagnostics enable detailed, localized edge plasma characterization on Alcator C

  3. Probability distribution functions for intermittent scrape-off layer plasma fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O. E.

    2018-03-01

    A stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas has been constructed based on a super-position of uncorrelated pulses arriving according to a Poisson process. In the most common applications of the model, the pulse amplitudes are assumed exponentially distributed, supported by conditional averaging of large-amplitude fluctuations in experimental measurement data. This basic assumption has two potential limitations. First, statistical analysis of measurement data using conditional averaging only reveals the tail of the amplitude distribution to be exponentially distributed. Second, exponentially distributed amplitudes leads to a positive definite signal which cannot capture fluctuations in for example electric potential and radial velocity. Assuming pulse amplitudes which are not positive definite often make finding a closed form for the probability density function (PDF) difficult, even if the characteristic function remains relatively simple. Thus estimating model parameters requires an approach based on the characteristic function, not the PDF. In this contribution, the effect of changing the amplitude distribution on the moments, PDF and characteristic function of the process is investigated and a parameter estimation method using the empirical characteristic function is presented and tested on synthetically generated data. This proves valuable for describing intermittent fluctuations of all plasma parameters in the boundary region of magnetized plasmas.

  4. Ekstrak Hirarki Data Dari Situs Web A-Z Animals Menggunakan Web Scraping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Arditya Darmawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A-Z Animals is a website that presents data about Kingdom Animalia. The Kingdom Animalia data has a hierarchy or level called the taxon level, which starts from kingdom to species. The problems encountered are the data contained on the website can be reuse for other purposes, such as creating dictionaries, learning media and others, but it takes a long time to enter data into the database due to the many and the complexity of the data. The solution of the problem is to create an application that can automatically retrieve data from the website to speed up data collection.Web Scraping is a method to retrieve documents from a website from the internet, in the form of HTML, next analyzed to retrieve certain data from the document. The results of tests sowed applications can retrieve content or data required from the website a-z-animal.com. The application takes an average time to process one page of a-z-animal.com is about 16.13 seconds.

  5. Scrape-off-layer current and EUV diagnostics and control on the HBT-EP tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hansen, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Non-axisymmetric currents in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and conducting structure of a tokamak can produce severe forces at high plasma performance, compromising the device's structural integrity. Diagnosing these currents during disruptions is important for extrapolating forces in future machines including ITER. Progress on designing components to measure and control SOL and vessel currents in the HBT-EP tokamak is presented. Movable tiles positioned around limiting surfaces will measure SOL and vessel currents during mode activity and disruptions. Biasable plates at divertor strike points will allow control of field-aligned SOL currents for kink mode control studies and will drive convection in the plasma edge. In-vessel Rogowski coils will measure currents in wall components with high spatial resolution. A planned EUV diagnostic upgrade is also presented. Four sets of 16 poloidal views will allow tomographic reconstruction of plasma emissivity and internal kink mode structure. A separate two-color, 16-chord tangential system will allow reconstruction of temperature profiles versus time. Measurements will be input to HBT-EP's GPU-based feedback system, providing active feedback for kink modes using only optical sensors and both magnetic and edge current actuators. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  6. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Peng Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. Methods The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Discussion Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  7. Fast electron flux driven by lower hybrid wave in the scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Wang, L.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, S. C.; Li, M. H.; Ding, S.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Liu, Y. L.; Shao, L. M.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fast electron flux driven by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW) in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in EAST is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The five bright belts flowing along the magnetic field lines in the SOL and hot spots at LHW guard limiters observed by charge coupled device and infrared cameras are attributed to the fast electron flux, which is directly measured by retarding field analyzers (RFA). The current carried by the fast electron flux, ranging from 400 to 6000 A/m 2 and in the direction opposite to the plasma current, is scanned along the radial direction from the limiter surface to the position about 25 mm beyond the limiter. The measured fast electron flux is attributed to the high parallel wave refractive index n || components of LHW. According to the antenna structure and the LHW power absorbed by plasma, a broad parallel electric field spectrum of incident wave from the antennas is estimated. The radial distribution of LHW-driven current density is analyzed in SOL based on Landau damping of the LHW. The analytical results support the RFA measurements, showing a certain level of consistency. In addition, the deposition profile of the LHW power density in SOL is also calculated utilizing this simple model. This study provides some fundamental insight into the heating and current drive effects induced by LHW in SOL, and should also help to interpret the observations and related numerical analyses of the behaviors of bright belts and hot spots induced by LHW

  8. The effect of ICRF on the Alcator C Scrape-Off Layer plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Lipschultz, B.; McDermott, F.S.; Terry, J.L.

    1988-05-01

    This paper presents a characterization of the Alcator C Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) plasma during ICRF hydrogen-minority fast wave heating experiments. The SOL plasma parameters were measured using a multifunctional probe, JANUS, which is capable of simultaneously measuring the ion and electron parameters both parallel and antiparallel with respect to the toroidal magnetic field. The probe data indicate, at low value of injected rf power, there is direct edge heating and density increases at radii greater than that of the antenna Faraday shield. Increasing the injected rf power spreads both the temperature and density increases throughout the edge region, flattening the radial profiles. Varying the position of the resonance layer in the main plasma does not significantly change the effect of ICRF on the SOL parameters. Given this single spatial point characterization of the SOL, a crude estimate of power flow into and through the edge plasma indicate that /approximately/20% of the ICRF power launched from the antenna is absorbed /und directly/ in the SOL plasma. Additional observation of the impurity source rates confirms the conclusions of an earlier paper, which attributed increasing central densities of high-Z impurities to the increase in physical sputtering rate at both the ICRF antenna's Faraday shield and the limiter surface

  9. Electron physics and ambipolarity in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Catto, P.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Models of the electron behavior in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of diverted and limited boundary conditions that occurs tokamak plasmas must retain the abrupt change in boundary conditions that occurs across the separatrix or last closed flux surface as well as the electron reflecting Debye sheath established at the limiter or divertor plates. The balance between ion radial diffusion and streaming to the plates sets the SOL width and the electrons must adjust the Debye sheath at the plates to main tain quasineutrality and ambipolarity in the SOL beyond the last closed flux surface. We consider the long mean-free-path limit where a bounce-averaged kinetic electron model results in a steady-state balance in the SOL between radial diffusive feed from the core and velocity space diffusive loss to the plates due to collisional detrapping. In this double diffusion model a velocity space boundary layer occurs about the trapped-passing boundary where strong velocity space gradients must balance the streaming of the newly de-trapped electrons to the plates. The behavior of the electron distribution function in the velocity provides the information needed to evaluate the Debye-sheath-dependent electron loss rate.

  10. Investigation of a limiter scrape-off layer and its screening effect on LIBTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, V.M.; Malakhov, N.P.; Alabyad, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate screening properties of the limiter scrape-off layer (LSL), define the optimum width of this layer and investigate how energy and particle fluxes transfer from plasma to surrounding material surfaces from in the Libtor tokamak. For this, two moving rail molybdenum limiters (large as a working limiter and small as a probe), equipped with shunts and thermocouples were placed on the bottom side of tokamak at 980 deg apart the torus. The main results of the work are as follows: the introduction of a limiter allows an essential shielding of the chamber wall from the interaction with plasma and a reduction in the impurity influx into the plasma column. The main mechanism of the limiter erosion in the stationary part of a discharge is the ion sputtering. An active control over the limiter sputtering, over the heat and particle fluxes onto the limiter and over the plasma confinement time can be found to be of importance for the prospects of the limiter application as an alternative to the divertor in the tokamak-reactor

  11. Scrape-off layer transport and deposition studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Porter, G. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Boedo, J. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; West, W. P.; Elder, J. D.; McLean, A. G.; Lisgo, S.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J. G.; Whyte, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Trace 13 CH 4 injection experiments into the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of low density L-mode and high-density H-mode plasmas have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] to mimic the transport and deposition of carbon arising from a main chamber sputtering source. These experiments indicated entrainment of the injected carbon in plasma flow in the main SOL, and transport toward the inner divertor. Ex situ surface analysis showed enhanced 13 C surface concentration at the corner formed by the divertor floor and the angled target plate of the inner divertor in L-mode; in H-mode high surface concentration was found both at the corner and along the surface bounding the private flux region inboard of the outer strike point. Interpretative modeling was made consistent with these experimental results by imposing a parallel carbon ion flow in the main SOL toward the inner target, and a radial pinch toward the separatrix. Predictive modeling carried out to better understand the underlying plasma transport processes suggests that the deuterium flow in the main SOL is related to the degree of detachment of the inner divertor leg. These simulations show that carbon ions are entrained with the deuteron flow in the main SOL via frictional coupling, but higher charge-state carbon ions may be suspended upstream of the inner divertor X-point region due to balance of the friction force and the ion temperature gradient force

  12. Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles

  13. Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA by AffiProbe HPV-DNA Test Kit in Cervical Scrapes or Biopsies-Histopathologic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Pekka; Jalava, Tarja; Kallio, Arja; Ranki, Marjut; Paavonen, Jorma

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of punch biopsies and cervical scrapes in the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from the cervix and compare the results with the histopathologic diagnosis. Methods: The specimens were collected simultaneously, and HPV DNA was detected using a liquid hybridization test. Results: Biopsies and scrapes were equally efficient, but each detected only two-thirds of all HPV-DNA-positive patients. Thus, the positivity ...

  14. A primer on theory-driven web scraping: Automatic extraction of big data from the Internet for use in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Richard N; Brusso, Robert C; Cavanaugh, Katelyn J; Collmus, Andrew B

    2016-12-01

    The term big data encompasses a wide range of approaches of collecting and analyzing data in ways that were not possible before the era of modern personal computing. One approach to big data of great potential to psychologists is web scraping, which involves the automated collection of information from webpages. Although web scraping can create massive big datasets with tens of thousands of variables, it can also be used to create modestly sized, more manageable datasets with tens of variables but hundreds of thousands of cases, well within the skillset of most psychologists to analyze, in a matter of hours. In this article, we demystify web scraping methods as currently used to examine research questions of interest to psychologists. First, we introduce an approach called theory-driven web scraping in which the choice to use web-based big data must follow substantive theory. Second, we introduce data source theories , a term used to describe the assumptions a researcher must make about a prospective big data source in order to meaningfully scrape data from it. Critically, researchers must derive specific hypotheses to be tested based upon their data source theory, and if these hypotheses are not empirically supported, plans to use that data source should be changed or eliminated. Third, we provide a case study and sample code in Python demonstrating how web scraping can be conducted to collect big data along with links to a web tutorial designed for psychologists. Fourth, we describe a 4-step process to be followed in web scraping projects. Fifth and finally, we discuss legal, practical and ethical concerns faced when conducting web scraping projects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Walking along the Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 Route: A Key Pathway to Understand the Control and Regulation of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cell-Lineage Formation during Lung Development and Repair after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El Agha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on embryonic lung development offers unique opportunities to make important discoveries that will impact human health. Developmental biologists interested in the molecular control of branching morphogenesis have intensively studied the developing lung, with its complex and seemingly stereotyped ramified structure. However, it is also an organ that is linked to a vast array of clinical problems in humans such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies and emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis, and cancer in adults. Epithelial stem/progenitor cells reside in niches where they interact with specific extracellular matrices as well as with mesenchymal cells; the latter are still poorly characterized. Interactions of epithelial stem/progenitor cells with their microenvironments are usually instructive, controlling quiescence versus activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. During the past 18 years, Fgf10 has emerged not only as a marker for the distal lung mesenchyme during early lung development, but also as a key player in branching morphogenesis and a critical component of the niche for epithelial stem cells. In this paper, we will present the current knowledge regarding the lineage tree in the lung, with special emphasis on cell-lineage decisions in the lung mesenchyme and the role of Fgf10 in this context.

  16. Neutrophil Interactions with Epithelial Expressed ICAM-1 Enhances Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, JC; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, AC; Weber, DA; Neish, AS; Nusrat, A; Parkos, CA

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. While epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 plays an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing. PMID:26732677

  17. Neutrophil interactions with epithelial-expressed ICAM-1 enhances intestinal mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, J C; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, A C; Weber, D A; Neish, A S; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A

    2016-09-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.

  18. DIII-D data for modeling the scrape-off-layer plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.N.; Buchenauer, D.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Ferron, J.; Resink, M.

    1989-12-04

    We are in the process of assembling a database of edge and divertor plasma parameters suitable for use in benchmarking tious 2D models of the scrape-off- layer (SOL) plasma. Also, we are using the Braams B2 code to derive transport coefficients for the edge plssma. In parallel, work is starting on an upgrade to the B2 code that includes padlel current flow and EXB drifts. These efforts are directed at increasing the confidence level of models of the tokamak edge plasma so that we can predict the effect of planned upgrades to DIII-D (e.g., the Advanced Divertor Program) and the performance of next generation machines such as CIT or ITER, where initial design studies show that plasma conditions at the divertor targets can have a large impact on the lifetime and cost of the machine. This report summarizes our recent progress in characterizing the DIII-D SOL plasma and in modeling these data with the the B2 code. Section I contains a brief description of the diagnostics available for characterizing the SOL plasma. In Section II we present our measurements of the SOL parameters for H-mode plasmas. This includes data showing how the divertor plasma parameters (n{sub e}(r), T{sub e}(r), and Q(r)) vary from ohmic to L-mode to H-mode, and power balance for quasi-stationary H-mode plasmas. Section III covers divertor-target heat-flux asymmetries for double and single null operation with forward and reversed toroidal field. In Section IV we show the scaling of L-mode parameters with neutral beam power, and Section V concludes with a summary of the results obtained from the Braams B2 SOL simulation code.

  19. Selected methods of electron-and ion-diagnostics in tokamak scrape-off-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Marek J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This invited paper considers reasons why exact measurements of fast electron and ion losses in tokamaks, and particularly i n a scrape-off-layer and near a divertor region, are necessary in order to master nuclear fusion energy production. Attention is also paid to direct measurements of escaping fusion products from D-D and D-T reactions, and in particular of fast alphas which might be used for plasma heating. The second part describes the generation of so-called runaway and ripple-born electrons which might induce high energy losses and cause severe damages of internal walls in fusion facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods applied for studies of such fast electrons are discussed. Particular attention is paid to development of a direct measuring technique based on the Cherenkov effect which might be induced by fast electrons in appropriate radiators. There are presented various versions of Cherenkov-type probes which have been developed by the NCBJ team and applied in different tokamak experiments. The third part is devoted to direct measurements of fast ions (including those produced by the nuclear fusion reactions which can escape from a high-temperature plasma region. Investigation of fast fusion-produced protons from tokamak discharges is reported. New ion probes, which were developed by the NCBJ team, are also presented. For the first time there is given a detailed description of an ion pinhole camera, which enables irradiation of several nuclear track detectors during a single tokamak discharge, and a miniature Thomson-type mass-spectrometer, which can be used for ion measurements at plasma borders.

  20. Molecular and morphological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolated from corneal scrapes and contact lens wearers in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Rodolfo D; Mongi, Florencia; Laconte, Laura; Rivero, Fernando; Sastre, Dario; Teherán, Aníbal; Herrera, Giovanny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study. FLA were detected in 1.5% (11/739) and in 17% (11/65) of CS and CL analyzed respectively. FLA isolates from CL users evidenced an 80.9% of inappropriate lens maintenance, 4.8% (1/21) were not CL users that have been in contact with waters in outdoor environment and 14,3% (3/21) with no data about CL users. Acanthamoeba was confirmed in 100% and 82% of CS and LC respectively. The most frequent symptom associated with AK was red eye and photophobia. FLA from CS belonged to group II but 82% (9/11) and 18% (2/11) from CL belonged to group II and III respectively. T4 genotype and A. polyphaga species were detected in 100% of Acanthamoeba isolates. Poor CL hygiene practices, highlights the need for improved education about the severity of AK and consequences of improper CL hygiene. Genotype T4 detected in 100% of both CS and CL samples, consistently with previous findings indicating that this genotype is by far the most prevalent isolated from ocular infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ion temperature measurements in the scrape-off layer of the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.

    2009-10-01

    The thesis describes measurements of the scrape-off layer (SOL) ion temperature T i with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) in the limiter tokamak Tore Supra. Considerable emphasis is placed on study of the instrumental effects of RFAs and their influence on T i measurements. In general, the influence of instrumental effects on T i measurements is found to be relatively small. The instrumental study is followed by systematic measurements of T i (as well as other parameters) in the Tore Supra SOL. This includes the scaling of SOL temperatures and electron density with the main plasma parameters (such as the plasma density, toroidal magnetic field, working gas, and the radiated power fraction). Except at very high densities or in detached plasmas, SOL T i is found to be higher than T e by up to a factor of 7. While SOL T i is found to vary by almost two orders of magnitude, following the variation of the core temperatures, SOL T e changes only little and seems to be decoupled from the core plasma. The first continuous T i /T e profile from the edge of the confined plasma into the SOL is constructed using data from different tokamaks. It is shown that T i /T e > 1 in the SOL but also in the confined plasma, and increases with radius. The first evidence of poloidal asymmetry of the radial ion and electron energy transport in the SOL is reported. Implications for ITER start-up phase are discussed. Correlation of the asymmetries of SOL T i and T e measured from both directions along the magnetic field lines with changes of the parallel Mach number is studied. SOL T i was measured for the first time in Tore Supra by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and compared to RFA data. A factor of 4 higher T i measured by CXRS is a subject of further analysis. (A.C.)

  2. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  3. Universality of intermittent fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    A first-principles understanding of scrape-off layer (SOL) transport is needed in order to anticipate plasma-wall interaction conditions in a reactor-scale device. A stochastic model that describes SOL fluctuations and transport as a super-position of uncorrelated pulses is found to accurately reproduce many of the features seen in the experiments. We report on gas puff imaging (GPI) and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) measurements on Alcator C-Mod compared to a stochastic model that describes electron density, temperature and electric potential fluctuations as arising from a super-position of uncorrelated pulses attributed to blob-like filaments propagating radially outwards. The statistical properties have been unambiguously established by measurement time series of approximately one second duration under stationary plasma conditions. The GPI fluctuation probability density function is found to change from nearly Gaussian at the separatrix to a strongly skewed and flattened Gamma distribution in the far-SOL. Despite this, the frequency power spectrum is identical for all radial positions in the SOL and for a large range of line-averaged densities. This suggests that both the near- and the far-SOL fluctuations are due to uncorrelated exponential pulses but with much more pulse overlap close to the separatrix. These observations run contrary to the ideas that the shape of the power spectrum arises from the interaction of turbulent eddies or self-similar processes. The fluctuation statistics are shown to be the same in both Ohmic plasmas and high confinement modes. Electron density and temperature fluctuations measured by the MLP system are strongly intermittent with large relative fluctuation levels. The fluctuation-induced radial heat flux has significant contributions from both the convective and conductive components. The model parameters are estimated from the data time series and their variation with the line-averaged density is elucidated. In collaboration with

  4. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J. W.; Bekker, C. P.; Voorhout, W. F.; Horzinek, M. C.; van der Ende, A.; Strous, G. J.; Rottier, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable

  5. Embryonic epithelial membrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horster, M

    2000-12-01

    Embryonic epithelial membrane transporters are organized into transporter families that are functional in several epithelial organs, namely, in kidney, lung, pancreas, intestine, and salivary gland. Family members (subtypes) are developmentally expressed in plasma membranes in temporospatial patterns that are 1) similar for one subtype within different organs, like aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in lung and kidney; 2) different between subtypes within the same organ, like the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lung; and 3) apparently matched among members of different transporter families, as alpha-ENaC with AQP1 and -4 in lung and with AQP2 in kidney. Finally, comparison of temporal expression patterns in early embryonic development of transporters from different families [e.g., cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), ENaC, and outer medullary potassium channel] suggests regulatory activating or inactivating interactions in defined morphogenic periods. This review focuses on embryonic patterns, at the mRNA and immunoprotein level, of the following transporter entities expressed in epithelial cell plasma membranes: ENaC; the chloride transporters CFTR, ClC-2, bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransporter, Cl/OH, and Cl/HCO(3); the sodium glucose transporter-glucose transporter; the sodium/hydrogen exchanger; the sodium-phosphate cotransporter; the ATPases; and AQP. The purpose of this article is to relate temporal and spatial expression patterns in embryonic and in early postnatal epithelia to developmental changes in organ structure and function.

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tissue repair and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rivka C; Pastar, Irena; Ojeh, Nkemcho; Chen, Vivien; Liu, Sophia; Garzon, Karen I; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the global process by which stationary epithelial cells undergo phenotypic changes, including the loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity, and acquire mesenchymal characteristics that confer migratory capacity. EMT and its converse, MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), are integral stages of many physiologic processes and, as such, are tightly coordinated by a host of molecular regulators. Converging lines of evidence have identified EMT as a component of cutaneous wound healing, during which otherwise stationary keratinocytes (the resident skin epithelial cells) migrate across the wound bed to restore the epidermal barrier. Moreover, EMT plays a role in the development of scarring and fibrosis, as the matrix-producing myofibroblasts arise from cells of the epithelial lineage in response to injury but are pathologically sustained instead of undergoing MET or apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the role of EMT in physiologic repair and pathologic fibrosis of tissues and organs. We conclude that further investigation into the contribution of EMT to the faulty repair of fibrotic wounds might identify components of EMT signaling as common therapeutic targets for impaired healing in many tissues. Graphical Abstract Model for injury-triggered EMT activation in physiologic wound repair (left) and fibrotic wound healing (right).

  7. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on proliferation and wound closure of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: role of glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Klaus F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased airway epithelial proliferation is frequently observed in smokers. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to these epithelial changes, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on cell proliferation, wound closure and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. We also studied whether modulation of intracellular glutathione/thiol levels could attenuate CSC-induced cell proliferation. Methods Cells of the bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and subcultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells were used for the present study. The effect of CSC on epithelial proliferation was assessed using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation. Modulation of epithelial wound repair was studied by analysis of closure of 3 mm circular scrape wounds during 72 hours of culture. Wound closure was calculated from digital images obtained at 24 h intervals. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was assessed by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. Results At low concentrations CSC increased proliferation of NCI-H292 cells, whereas high concentrations were inhibitory as a result of cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of CSC also increased epithelial wound closure of both NCI-H292 and PBEC, whereas at high concentrations closure was inhibited. At low, mitogenic concentrations, CSC caused persistent activation of ERK1/2, a MAPK involved in cell proliferation. Inhibition of cell proliferation by high concentrations of CSC was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic MAP kinases p38 and JNK. Modulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH/thiol levels using N-acetyl-L-cysteine, GSH or buthionine sulphoximine (BSO, demonstrated that both the stimulatory and the inhibitory effects of CSC were regulated in part by intracellular GSH levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CSC may increase cell proliferation and wound closure dependent on the local concentration of cigarette smoke

  9. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder ∼ 40 μm in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of ±2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested and will be

  10. Coupled two-dimensional edge-plasma and neutral gas modelling of the DIII-D scrape-off-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Gilligan, J.; Hankins, O.; Rensink, M.; Owen, L.; Klepper, C.; Mioduszewski, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to do consistent scrape-off-layer plasma and neutral transport calculations, the 2-D fluid code, B2 has been externally coupled to the neutral transport code, DEGAS, for Dlll-D. The coupling procedure is similar to recent simulations done for TFTR, Tore Supra, and ClT. An averaged source approach is utilized to allow convergence between the two codes. Initial comparison of plasma quantities between the coupled code set and the B2 code alone shows that a colder, denser plasma may exist at the divertor targets than predicted by the B2 code with its internal recycling model

  11. Seasonal abundances of naked amoebae in biofilms on shells of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) with comparative data from rock scrapings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Paul J; Wetmore, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In North America, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are notoriously known as invasive species. The abundance of naked amoebae sampled from the shells of zebra mussels was compared with abundances from rock scrapings at approximately monthly intervals for 1 year. The sites were 2 km apart along the same shoreline. No significant difference in abundance of naked amoebae (F = 1.44; P

  12. Transfer of metallic debris from the metal surface of an acetabular cup to artificial femoral heads by scraping: comparison between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chong Bum; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Deug Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Kim, Hee Joong

    2008-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the transfer of metal to both ceramic (alumina) and metal (cobalt-chrome) heads that were scraped by a titanium alloy surface under different load conditions. The ceramic and metal heads for total hip arthroplasties were scraped by an acetabular metal shell under various loads using a creep tester. Microstructural changes in the scraped area were visualized with a scanning electron microscope, and chemical element changes were assessed using an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Changes in the roughness of the scraped surface were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface profiling system. Metal transfer to the ceramic and metal heads began to be detectable at a 10 kg load, which could be exerted by one-handed force. The surface roughness values significantly increased with increasing test loads in both heads. When the contact force increased, scratching of the head surface occurred in addition to the transfer of metal. The results documented that metallic debris was transferred from the titanium alloy acetabular shell to both ceramic and metal heads by minor scraping. This study suggests that the greatest possible effort should be made to protect femoral heads, regardless of material, from contact with metallic surfaces during total hip arthroplasty.

  13. Easy xeno-free and feeder-free method for isolating and growing limbal stromal and epithelial stem cells of the human cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djida Ghoubay-Benallaoua

    Full Text Available Epithelial and stromal stem cells are required to maintain corneal transparency. The aim of the study was to develop a new method to isolate and grow both corneal stromal (SSC and epithelial limbal (LSC stem cells from small human limbal biopsies under culture conditions in accordance with safety requirements mandatory for clinical use in humans. Superficial limbal explants were retrieved from human donor corneo-scleral rims. Human limbal cells were dissociated by digestion with collagenase A, either after epithelial scraping or with no scraping. Isolated cells were cultured with Essential 8 medium (E8, E8 supplemented with EGF (E8+ or Green's medium with 3T3 feeder-layers. Cells were characterized by immunostaining, RT-qPCR, colony forming efficiency, sphere formation, population doubling, second harmonic generation microscopy and differentiation potentials. LSC were obtained from unscraped explants in E8, E8+ and Green's media and were characterized by colony formation and expression of PAX6, ΔNP63α, Bmi1, ABCG2, SOX9, CK14, CK15 and vimentin, with a few cells positive for CK3. LSC underwent 28 population doublings still forming colonies. SSC were obtained from both scraped and unscraped explants in E8 and E8+ media and were characterized by sphere formation, expression of PAX6, SOX2, BMI1, NESTIN, ABCG2, KERATOCAN, VIMENTIN, SOX9, SOX10 and HNK1, production of collagen fibrils and differentiation into keratocytes, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, neurons, adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. SSC underwent 48 population doublings still forming spheres, Thus, this new method allows both SSC and LSC to be isolated from small superficial limbal biopsies and to be primary cultured in feeder-free and xeno-free conditions, which will be useful for clinical purposes.

  14. KGFR promotes Na+ channel expression in a rat acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recovery of alveolar epithelial cells from acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To evaluate the ... alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells was determined by PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy of rat lung tissues. Results: ..... regeneration, differentiation and wound-healing abilities of alveolar epithelial ...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of an Atypical Metschnikowia sp. Strain from the Skin Scraping of a Dermatitis Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Sian Kuan

    Full Text Available A yeast-like organism was isolated from the skin scraping sample of a stasis dermatitis patient in the Mycology Unit Department of Medical Microbiology, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The isolate produced no pigment and was not identifiable using chromogenic agar and API 20C AUX. The fungus was identified as Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034, which is close to that of Metschnikowia drosophilae based on ITS- and D1/D2 domain-based phylogenetic analysis. However, the physiology of the strain was not associated to M. drosophilae. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested azoles, echinocandins, 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B. This study provided insight into Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM. The isolate utilized 373 nutrients of 760 nutrient sources and could adapt to a broad range of osmotic and pH environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Metschnikowia non-pulcherrima sp. from skin scraping, revealing this rare yeast species as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified as Candida sp. using conventional methods. Metschnikowia sp. strain UM 1034 can survive in flexible and diverse environments with a generalist lifestyle.

  16. Evidence for a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport in the scrape-off layer of the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Boucher, C.; Dionne, M.; Duran, I.; Fuchs, V.; Loarer, T.; Nanobashvili, I.; Panek, R.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Stoeckel, J.; Rompuy, T. van; Zagorski, R.; Adamek, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Devynck, P.; Hertout, P.; Hron, M.; Lebrun, G.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Oost, G. van

    2007-01-01

    Near-sonic parallel flows are systematically observed in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) of the limiter tokamak Tore Supra, as in many L-mode X-point divertor tokamak plasmas. The poloidal variation of the parallel flow has been measured by moving the contact point of a small circular plasma onto limiters at different poloidal angles. The resulting variations of flow are consistent with the existence of a poloidally localized enhancement of radial transport concentrated in a 30 deg. sector near the outboard midplane. If the plasma contact point is placed on the inboard limiters, then the SOL expands to fill all the space between the plasma and the outboard limiters, with density decay lengths between 10 and 20 cm. On the other hand, if the contact point lies on the outboard limiters, the localized plasma outflux is scraped off and the SOL is very thin with decay lengths around 2-3 cm. The outboard radial transport would have to be about two orders of magnitude stronger than inboard to explain these results

  17. Poloidal electric field and variation of radial transport during ICRF heating in the JET scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, S.; Tagle, J.A.; Bures, M.; Vince, J.; Kock, L. de; Stangeby, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The highly anomalous perpendicular transport in the plasma edge of a tokamak is generally attributed to plasma turbulence, primarily to density and electrostatic potential fluctuations. The edge transport could be modified by changing the geometry of objects in contact with the plasma (limiters, radio frequency antennae ...) and during additional heating experiments. Poloidal asymmetries in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks using poloidal limiters (eg. ALCATOR-C) have been recently reported, indicating a poloidal asymmetry in cross-field transport. A poloidal ring limiter obstructs communications between different flux tubes in the SOL, thus permitting poloidal asymmetries in n e and T e to develop if D perpendicular is θ-dependent. When JET was operated with discrete limiters, equivalent to a single toroidal limiter at the outside mid-plane, little poloidal variation in the SOL plasma properties was observed. Currently JET is operated with two complete toroidal belt limiters located approximately one meter above and below the outside mid-plane. This configuration breaks the SOL into two regions: the low field side SOL (LFS), between the limiters, and the rest of the SOL on the high field side (HFS). Differences on the scrape-off lengths in the two SOLs are reported here, indicating that cross-field transport is faster on the LFS-SOL, in agreement with observations made on ASDEX and T-10. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  18. Evaluation of the Shearing Strength of a WC-12Co Thermal Spray Coating by the Scraping Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kaneko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental and analytical investigation conducted into efficacy of the scraping shear-test method in estimating the shearing adhesive strength of a thermally sprayed coating. It was found that the critical average shear stress, the apparent failure strength of WC-Co thermal spray coating, depends on both the dimensions of the test piece and the loading position around the interface between the coating and the substrate. More specifically, the apparent critical shear stress decreased as the height and width of the test piece increased. In addition, the apparent critical shear stress increased with increasing coating thickness and with decreasing loading point distance measured from the interface. Consequently, the real adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coating could not be ascertained from these experimental results. Furthermore, most of the failure initiation points were inside the coating, as opposed to at the interface. This fact means that the results of the tests do not indicate the interfacial adhesive strength, but rather the shear strength of the coating. Three-dimensional finite element method (FEM analysis showed that the distributions of the shearing stress at the loading points were virtually the same at failure, regardless of the dimensions of the test piece. These results suggest that the scraping test method needs a corresponding numerical analysis of the failure mode in order to produce reliable results and is not necessarily able to estimate the interfacial adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coating.

  19. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  20. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and

  1. Collective cell migration of smooth muscle and endothelial cells: impact of injury versus non-injury stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Kaitlyn R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Merkle, Valerie M; Wong, Pak K; Slepian, Marvin J

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is a vital process for growth and repair. In vitro migration assays, utilized to study cell migration, often rely on physical scraping of a cell monolayer to induce cell migration. The physical act of scrape injury results in numerous factors stimulating cell migration - some injury-related, some solely due to gap creation and loss of contact inhibition. Eliminating the effects of cell injury would be useful to examine the relative contribution of injury versus other mechanisms to cell migration. Cell exclusion assays can tease out the effects of injury and have become a new avenue for migration studies. Here, we developed two simple non-injury techniques for cell exclusion: 1) a Pyrex® cylinder - for outward migration of cells and 2) a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert - for inward migration of cells. Utilizing these assays smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) migratory behavior was studied on both polystyrene and gelatin-coated surfaces. Differences in migratory behavior could be detected for both smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) when utilizing injury versus non-injury assays. SMCs migrated faster than HUVECs when stimulated by injury in the scrape wound assay, with rates of 1.26 % per hour and 1.59 % per hour on polystyrene and gelatin surfaces, respectively. The fastest overall migration took place with HUVECs on a gelatin-coated surface, with the in-growth assay, at a rate of 2.05 % per hour. The slowest migration occurred with the same conditions but on a polystyrene surface at a rate of 0.33 % per hour. For SMCs, injury is a dominating factor in migration when compared to the two cell exclusion assays, regardless of the surface tested: polystyrene or gelatin. In contrast, the migrating surface, namely gelatin, was a dominating factor for HUVEC migration, providing an increase in cell migration over the polystyrene surface. Overall, the cell exclusion assays - the in

  2. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng, Li-Wei Pan, Sheng-Rong Zhang, Bin-Yu Ying, Ben-Ji Wang, Guo-Liang Lin, Shi-Fang Ding ...

  3. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. The scrape-off layer in a finite-aspect-ratio Torus: The influence of limiter position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, P.J.; Loarte, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effect on the scrape-off layer (SOL) of changing the position of a tokamak limiter from the low field side (LFS) to the high field side (HFS) of the plasma is considered. Conservation of magnetics flux in the SOL requires that the area, A parallel , for flow of particles and energy parallel to the magnetic field, be smaller on the HFS. The effect that this reduction in A parallel has on the SOL is that, when the limiter is on the HFS, as compared with the LFS, then the characteristic scrape-off thickness is increased and the plasma particle and energy densities are higher. Such increases are described. They were observed in an experiment in JET in which the plasma was limited first on the LFS and then, during the same discharge, on the HFS. The magnitude of the effect was larger than expected, with the line integrated density of the SOL, nλ n , having an average increase by a factor of 5.8 ± 1.1, and an increase by a factor of 7 at the respective limiter. Moreover, there was an increase in the characteristic scrape-off thickness for power flow, λ p , by a factor of 2.5 ± 0.4 on average, and a corresponding increase by a factor of 3.0 at the respective limiter. Such an increase in nλ n can substantially improve the screening of recycled particles and can increase wall pumping, although not strongly in the experiments described, which were in helium to avoid these effects. The large increase in λ p measured in JET is useful in spreading power over a larger area of a limiter on the HFS. Evidence is presented which suggests that either the observed enhancement of the effect on the SOL above expectations is due to a reduction in the Mach number at the limiter sheath when on the HFS or there are fundamental problems with the modelling procedure usually used for the SOL. Related experiments are discussed. (author). 29 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  6. Enteric glial cells and their role in the intestinal epithelial barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yan-Bo; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical and functional barrier between the external environment and the host organism. It is formed by a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells maintained together by intercellular junctional complex, limiting access of pathogens, toxins and xenobiotics to host tissues. Once this barrier integrity is disrupted, inflammatory disorders and tissue injury are initiated and perpetuated. Beneath the intestinal epithelial cells lies a population ...

  7. Role of airway epithelial barrier dysfunction in pathogenesis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by persistent cough, increased sputum, and repeated wheezing. The pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is the hyper-responsiveness of the airway along with chronic airway inflammation. Repeated injury, repair, and regeneration of the airway epithelium following exposure to environmental factors and inflammation results in histological changes and functional abnormalities in the airway mucosal epithelium; such changes are believed to have a significant association with the pathophysiology of asthma. Damage to the barrier functions of the airway epithelium enhances mucosal permeability of foreign substances in the airway epithelium of patients with asthma. Thus, epithelial barrier fragility is closely involved in releasing epithelial cytokines (e.g., TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33) because of the activation of airway epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and innate group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Functional abnormalities of the airway epithelial cells along with the activation of dendritic cells, Th2 cells, and ILC2 form a single immunopathological unit that is considered to cause allergic airway inflammation. Here we use the latest published literature to discuss the potential pathological mechanisms regarding the onset and progressive severity of asthma with regard to the disruption of the airway epithelial function. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Opposing effects of in vitro differentiated macrophages sub-type on epithelial wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Gindele

    Full Text Available Inappropriate repair responses to pulmonary epithelial injury have been linked to perturbation of epithelial barrier function and airway remodelling in a number of respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We developed an in vitro mechanical scratch injury model in air-liquid interface differentiated primary human small airway epithelial cells that recapitulates many of the characteristics observed during epithelial wound injury in both human tissue and small animal models. Wound closure was initially associated with de-differentiation of the differentiated apical cells and rapid migration into the wound site, followed by proliferation of apical cells behind the wound edge, together with increases in FAK expression, fibronectin and reduction in PAI-1 which collectively facilitate cell motility and extracellular matrix deposition. Macrophages are intimately involved in wound repair so we sought to investigate the role of macrophage sub-types on this process in a novel primary human co-culture model. M1 macrophages promoted FAK expression and both M1 and M2 macrophages promoted epithelial de-differentiation. Interestingly, M2a macrophages inhibited both proliferation and fibronectin expression, possibly via the retinoic acid pathway, whereas M2b and M2c macrophages prevented fibronectin deposition, possibly via MMP expression. Collectively these data highlight the complex nature of epithelial wound closure, the differential impact of macrophage sub-types on this process, and the heterogenic and non-delineated function of these macrophages.

  9. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  10. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-03-15

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters.

  11. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob......The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention...... given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1...

  12. The novel triterpenoid RTA 408 protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells against H2O2-induced cell injury via NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell damage is an important factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that RTA 408, a synthetic triterpenoid compound, potently activates Nrf2. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of RTA 408 in cultured RPE cells during oxidative stress and to determine the effects of RTA 408 on Nrf2 and its downstream target genes. Primary human RPE cells were pretreated with RTA 408 and then incubated in 200 μM H2O2 for 6 h. Cell viability was measured with the WST-8 assay. Apoptosis was quantitatively measured by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI double staining and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were measured using colorimetric assays. Nrf2 activation and its downstream effects on phase II enzymes were examined by Western blot. Treatment of RPE cells with nanomolar ranges (10 and 100 nM of RTA 408 markedly attenuated H2O2-induced viability loss and apoptosis. RTA 408 pretreatment significantly protected cells from oxidative stress-induced GSH loss, GSSG formation and decreased ROS production. RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and increased the expression of its downstream genes, such as HO-1, NQO1, SOD2, catalase, Grx1, and Trx1. Consequently, the enzyme activities of NQO1, Grx1, and Trx1 were fully protected by RTA 408 pretreatment under oxidative stress. Moreover, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly reduced the cytoprotective effects of RTA 408. In conclusion, our data suggest that RTA 408 protect primary human RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced damage by activating Nrf2 and its downstream genes.

  13. Splenic epithelial cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Jalali, U.

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

  14. Epidemiology of injury among handlers and dogs competing in the sport of agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Fields, Sarah; Comstock, R Dawn

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport-related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility. A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury. Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog's age (P benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

  15. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. [3H]arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein

  16. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  17. Intraoperative Cytology of Ovarian Neoplasms with an Attempt to Grade Epithelial Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohara, Sangita; Jain, Shyama; Khurana, Nita; Shangpliang, Darilin M; Agarwal, Swapnil; Gandhi, Gauri

    2018-01-01

    Intraoperative cytology (IOC) is a simple and quick technique with excellent preservation of cellular details. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of IOC by various methods of smear preparation and compared it with frozen section diagnosis. A scoring system was followed for epithelial tumors for characterization and grading on the basis of cellularity, pattern, nuclear, cytoplasmic features, and background details. The study was conducted during a time span of 2 years in total 48 cases of ovarian tumors. Fine-needle aspiration cytology, touch/imprint, scrape, and crush techniques were used. The smears so prepared were processed for toluidine blue and Giemsa and Papanicolaou staining. Cases were cytomorphologically categorized into four groups: Indeterminate; unequivocally benign; borderline tumor with equivocal morphology; and unequivocally malignant (graded into well, moderately, and poorly differentiated). In our study, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 88.88, 96, 96, 88.88, and 92.31%, respectively, were recorded. This was comparable to frozen section diagnosis with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 85.18, 96.15, 95.83, 86.21, and 90.56%, respectively. In epithelial tumors, cytological grading correlated with histopathological grading in 85.29% cases of epithelial tumors. IOC gives comparable results to frozen section and can be used for intraoperative assessment of ovarian tumors. Grading of epithelial tumors on IOC can be performed and may become an important step in intraoperative decision-making for better management and outcome of the patient.

  18. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  19. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica L; Streuli, Charles H

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell-matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical-basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Scraping through the ice: uncovering the role of TRPM8 in cold transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel D.; Knowlton, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    The proper detection of environmental temperatures is essential for the optimal growth and survival of organisms of all shapes and phyla, yet only recently have the molecular mechanisms for temperature sensing been elucidated. The discovery of temperature-sensitive ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily has been pivotal in explaining how temperatures are sensed in vivo, and here we will focus on the lone member of this cohort, TRPM8, which has been unequivocally shown to be cold sensitive. TRPM8 is expressed in somatosensory neurons that innervate peripheral tissues such as the skin and oral cavity, and recent genetic evidence has shown it to be the principal transducer of cool and cold stimuli. It is remarkable that this one channel, unlike other thermosensitive TRP channels, is associated with both innocuous and noxious temperature transduction, as well as cold hypersensitivity during injury and, paradoxically, cold-mediated analgesia. With ongoing research, the field is getting closer to answering a number of fundamental questions regarding this channel, including the cellular mechanisms of TRPM8 modulation, the molecular context of TRPM8 expression, as well as the full extent of the role of TRPM8 in cold signaling in vivo. These findings will further our understanding of basic thermotransduction and sensory coding, and may have important implications for treatments for acute and chronic pain. PMID:21411765

  1. Preparation and characterization of viable epithelial cells from rabbit distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaunitz, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A preparation of viable epithelial cells, suitable for transport studies, was prepared from rabbit distal colon. Enzymatic digestion of scraped mucosa liberated a population of intact colonic glands that were dissociated into cells by gentle agitation in culture medium. Metabolism of [ 14 C]glucose was constant over 2 h and was inhibited 70% by 1 mM ouabain. Cells were loaded with the trapped, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2'-7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxy methyl ester and leaked 0.1% of the dye per minute. Cell pH was 7.21 ± 0.03 in pH 7.4. Ringer medium. Intracellular potassium concentration, as measured by a nigericin null-point technique, was 128 ± 8 mM. Plasma membrane potential measured with the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3-dipropylthiadicarboxycanine iodide was -52 ± 2 mV. Recovery of intracellular pH in acid-loaded cells occurred after exposure to sodium-containing medium and was inhibited by 5 x 10 -4 M amiloride. It is concluded that viable epithelial cells can be prepared from rabbit distal colon with relative simplicity and in high yield. These cells are suitable for measurement of intracellular pH and membrane potential and are thus a convenient model system for study of colonic cell physiology

  2. Biomonitoring of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of gingival epithelial cells exposed to digital panoramic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of low level ionizing radiation used in digital panoramic radiography on gingival epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: We included 50 healthy individuals advised for digital panoramic radiography for diagnostic purpose were included in this study. Demographic data and personal history of all subjects were recorded in a proforma before the examination. Gingival epithelial cells were obtained by gentle scraping with a modified cytobrush immediately before X-ray exposure and 10 ± 2 days later. Cytological preparations were stained according to the Feulgen/fast green method and analyzed under a light microscope. Micronuclei and degenerative nuclear alterations (pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and condensed chromatin were scored. Results: The frequency of formation of micronuclei was not significant with regard to age, gender and after exposure to digital panoramic radiography ( P = 0.276. However this study showed significant increase in the frequencies of nuclear alterations like karyorrhexis, pyknosis, condensed chromatin, karyolysis and indicative of cell death ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographic examination does not induce genotoxic effect like micronuclei, but it does induce cytotoxic effects leading to cell death.

  3. Fibrosis of Two: Epithelial Cell-Fibroblast Interactions in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the progressive and ultimately fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung that distorts its architecture and compromises its function. IPF is now thought to result from wound-healing processes that, although initiated to protect the host from injurious environmental stimuli, lead to pathological fibrosis due to these processes becoming aberrant or over-exuberant. Although the environmental stimuli that trigger IPF remain to be identified, recent evidence suggests that they initially injure the alveolar epithelium. Repetitive cycles of epithelial injury and resultant alveolar epithelial cell death provoke the migration, proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts, causing the accumulation of these cells and the extracellular matrix that they synthesize. In turn, these activated fibroblasts induce further alveolar epithelial cell injury and death, thereby creating a vicious cycle of pro-fibrotic epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions. Though other cell types certainly make important contributions, we focus here on the “pas de deux” (steps of two), or perhaps more appropriate to IPF pathogenesis, the “folie à deux” (madness of two) of epithelial cells and fibroblasts that drives the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. We describe the signaling molecules that mediate the interactions of these cell types in their “fibrosis of two”, including transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, sonic hedgehog, prostaglandin E2, angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species. PMID:23499992

  4. Mucinous epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, T J

    2016-04-01

    Mucinous tumours involving the ovary may be benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant tumours may be primary or metastatic. Differentiation between primary and metastatic involvement of the ovary is critical for optimal patient management. Even among skilled pathologists, this distinction can be problematic, as can the distinction between borderline ovarian tumour of intestinal type and well-differentiated invasive primary mucinous ovarian carcinoma. Primary invasive mucinous ovarian carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma metastatic to the ovary do have distinct patterns of macroscopic and microscopic involvement which will reveal the correct diagnosis in many cases. There are also well-recognized patterns of immunohistochemical staining that can further assist in this differentiation. As a result of the application of these histopathological techniques, the incidence of primary invasive mucinous epithelial carcinoma has fallen over recent years from ∼12% to ∼3%. However, even in recent multicentre clinical trials such as GOG 182, expert pathological review suggests that ∼60% of tumours originally classified as primary invasive mucinous carcinomas were in fact metastatic tumours to the ovary. Review of outcome data for patients with mucinous carcinoma entered into multicentre trials suggests that this subtype of disease has a particularly poor prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Historically, patients with mucinous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (mEOC) have been treated in the same way as other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. While there is undoubtedly a response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy, retrospective reviews of individual centre experience suggest that this is substantially lower than for high-grade papillary serous carcinoma and in the order of only 30%-40%. The mEOC trial was established to investigate the possibility that the combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (chemotherapy drugs more commonly used in colorectal

  5. Dual wavelength imaging of a scrape-off layer in an advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osin, D.; Schindler, T., E-mail: dosin@trialphaenergy.com [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688-7010 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A dual wavelength imaging system has been developed and installed on C-2U to capture 2D images of a He jet in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) of an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. The system was designed to optically split two identical images and pass them through 1 nm FWHM filters. Dual wavelength images are focused adjacent on a large format CCD chip and recorded simultaneously with a time resolution down to 10 μs using a gated micro-channel plate. The relatively compact optical system images a 10 cm plasma region with a spatial resolution of 0.2 cm and can be used in a harsh environment with high electro-magnetic noise and high magnetic field. The dual wavelength imaging system provides 2D images of either electron density or temperature by observing spectral line pairs emitted by He jet atoms in the SOL. A large field of view, combined with good space and time resolution of the imaging system, allows visualization of macro-flows in the SOL. First 2D images of the electron density and temperature observed in the SOL of the C-2U FRC are presented.

  6. Role of stochasticity in turbulence and convective intermittent transport at the scrape off layer of Ohmic plasma in QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Santanu, E-mail: sbanerje@ipr.res.in; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; Mishra, K. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuoka, K. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nishino, N. [Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Liu, H. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Statistical features of fluctuations are investigated using the fast camera imaging technique in the scrape of layer (SOL) of electron cyclotron resonance heated Ohmic plasma. Fluctuations in the SOL towards low field side are dominated by coherent convective structures (blobs). Two dimensional structures of the higher order moments (skewness s and kurtosis k) representing the shape of probability density function (PDF) are studied. s and k are seen to be functions of the magnetic field lines. s and k are consistently higher towards the bottom half of the vessel in the SOL showing the blob trajectory along the field lines from the top towards bottom of the vessel. Parabolic relation (k=As{sup 2}+C) is observed between s and k near the plasma boundary, featuring steep density gradient region and at the far SOL. The coefficient A, obtained experimentally, indicates a shift of prominence from pure drift-wave instabilities towards fully developed turbulence. Numerical coefficients characterizing the Pearson system are derived which demonstrates the progressive deviation of the PDF from Gaussian towards gamma from the density gradient region, towards the far SOL. Based on a simple stochastic differential equation, a direct correspondence between the multiplicative noise amplitude, increased intermittency, and hence change in PDF is discussed.

  7. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  8. Role of stochasticity in turbulence and convective intermittent transport at the scrape off layer of Ohmic plasma in QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; Mishra, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishino, N.; Liu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical features of fluctuations are investigated using the fast camera imaging technique in the scrape of layer (SOL) of electron cyclotron resonance heated Ohmic plasma. Fluctuations in the SOL towards low field side are dominated by coherent convective structures (blobs). Two dimensional structures of the higher order moments (skewness s and kurtosis k) representing the shape of probability density function (PDF) are studied. s and k are seen to be functions of the magnetic field lines. s and k are consistently higher towards the bottom half of the vessel in the SOL showing the blob trajectory along the field lines from the top towards bottom of the vessel. Parabolic relation (k=As 2 +C) is observed between s and k near the plasma boundary, featuring steep density gradient region and at the far SOL. The coefficient A, obtained experimentally, indicates a shift of prominence from pure drift-wave instabilities towards fully developed turbulence. Numerical coefficients characterizing the Pearson system are derived which demonstrates the progressive deviation of the PDF from Gaussian towards gamma from the density gradient region, towards the far SOL. Based on a simple stochastic differential equation, a direct correspondence between the multiplicative noise amplitude, increased intermittency, and hence change in PDF is discussed

  9. Role of stochasticity in turbulence and convective intermittent transport at the scrape off layer of Ohmic plasma in QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Hanada, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; Liu, H. Q.; Mishra, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuoka, K.

    2014-07-01

    Statistical features of fluctuations are investigated using the fast camera imaging technique in the scrape of layer (SOL) of electron cyclotron resonance heated Ohmic plasma. Fluctuations in the SOL towards low field side are dominated by coherent convective structures (blobs). Two dimensional structures of the higher order moments (skewness s and kurtosis k) representing the shape of probability density function (PDF) are studied. s and k are seen to be functions of the magnetic field lines. s and k are consistently higher towards the bottom half of the vessel in the SOL showing the blob trajectory along the field lines from the top towards bottom of the vessel. Parabolic relation ( k = A s 2 + C) is observed between s and k near the plasma boundary, featuring steep density gradient region and at the far SOL. The coefficient A, obtained experimentally, indicates a shift of prominence from pure drift-wave instabilities towards fully developed turbulence. Numerical coefficients characterizing the Pearson system are derived which demonstrates the progressive deviation of the PDF from Gaussian towards gamma from the density gradient region, towards the far SOL. Based on a simple stochastic differential equation, a direct correspondence between the multiplicative noise amplitude, increased intermittency, and hence change in PDF is discussed.

  10. Detection of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas with microwave backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Marmar, E. S.; Wallace, G. M.; Lau, C.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave backscattering experiments have been performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in order to investigate the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in reactor-relevant, high-density plasmas. When the line-averaged density is raised above 1 × 10 20 m –3 , lower hybrid current drive efficiency is found to be lower than expected [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)] and LH power is thought to be dissipated at the plasma edge. Using a single channel (60 GHz) ordinary-mode (O-mode) reflectometer system, we demonstrate radially localized LH wave measurements in the scrape-off layer of high density plasmas (n ¯ e  ≳ 0.9×10 20  m −3 ). Measured backscattered O-mode power varies depending on the magnetic field line mapping, suggesting the resonance cone propagation of LH waves. Backscattered power is also sensitive to variations in plasma density and the launched parallel refractive index of the LH waves. LH ray-tracing simulations have been carried out to interpret the observed variations. To understand the measured LH waves in regions not magnetically connected to the launcher, two hypotheses are examined. One is the weak single pass absorption and the other is scattering of LH waves by non-linear effects

  11. Dual wavelength imaging of a scrape-off layer in an advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osin, D.; Schindler, T.

    2016-11-01

    A dual wavelength imaging system has been developed and installed on C-2U to capture 2D images of a He jet in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) of an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. The system was designed to optically split two identical images and pass them through 1 nm FWHM filters. Dual wavelength images are focused adjacent on a large format CCD chip and recorded simultaneously with a time resolution down to 10 μs using a gated micro-channel plate. The relatively compact optical system images a 10 cm plasma region with a spatial resolution of 0.2 cm and can be used in a harsh environment with high electro-magnetic noise and high magnetic field. The dual wavelength imaging system provides 2D images of either electron density or temperature by observing spectral line pairs emitted by He jet atoms in the SOL. A large field of view, combined with good space and time resolution of the imaging system, allows visualization of macro-flows in the SOL. First 2D images of the electron density and temperature observed in the SOL of the C-2U FRC are presented.

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action, wall coring and scraping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks. These activities are being conducted to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act at the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sampling and analysis activities will be performed in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and/or wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and/or a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory, and analyzed for physical and radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive strontium and cesium, and other alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data quality objectives process, based on US Environmental Protection Agency guidance, was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. The results of the analysis will be used to (1) validate predictions of a strontium concrete diffusion model, (2) estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, (3) provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and (4) estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system. This revision eliminates wall-scraping samples from all tanks, except Tank W-3. The Tank W-3 experience indicated that the wall scrapper does not collect sufficient material for analysis

  13. Humid scraping method to obtain samples for the analysis of D2 incorporated in the pressure tubes of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetti, Edgardo O.; Cerutti, Carlos R.

    1999-01-01

    From ten fuel channels of the CNE reactor four samples of each channel were taken by means of the Humid Scraping method in order to evaluate the equivalent hydrogen content by incorporating deuterium in the pressure tubes. With these data, it is possible to make a list of priorities of channels for future replacement of spacer rings between pressure and calandria tubes, using Slarette equipment. (author)

  14. Discrepancy between modelled and measured radial electric fields in the scrape-off layer divertor tokamaks: a challenge for 2D fluid codes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chankin, A.V.; Coster, D.P.; Asakura, N.; Bonnin, X.; Conway, G.D.; Corrigan, G.; Erents, S. K.; Fundameski, W.; Horáček, Jan; Kallenbach, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Konz, C.; Lackner, K.; Müller, H. W.; Neuhauser, J.; Pitts, R.A.; Wischmeier, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2007), s. 479-489 ISSN 0029-5515 Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGE TURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamaks * plasma * scrape-off layer * radial electric fields * TCV * JET * AUG * JT-60U * EDGE 2D-Nimbus * SOLPS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.278, year: 2007

  15. Scraping and Stapling of End-Grafted DNA Chains by a Bioadhesive Spreading Vesicle to Reveal Chain Internal Friction and Topological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gimoon; Hisette, Marie Laure; Sun, Yuting Liang; Gisler, Thomas; Johner, Albert; Thalmann, Fabrice; Schröder, André Pierre; Marques, Carlos Manuel; Lee, Nam-Kyung

    2010-08-01

    Stained end-grafted DNA molecules about 20μm long are scraped away and stretched out by the spreading front of a bioadhesive vesicle. Tethered biotin ligands bind the vesicle bilayer to a streptavidin substrate, stapling the DNAs into frozen confinement paths. Image analysis of the stapled DNA gives access, within optical resolution, to the local stretching values of individual DNA molecules swept by the spreading front, and provides evidence of self-entanglements.

  16. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  17. Epithelial WNT Ligands Are Essential Drivers of Intestinal Stem Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Y. Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stem cells (ISCs maintain and repair the intestinal epithelium. While regeneration after ISC-targeted damage is increasingly understood, injury-repair mechanisms that direct regeneration following injuries to differentiated cells remain uncharacterized. The enteric pathogen, rotavirus, infects and damages differentiated cells while sparing all ISC populations, thus allowing the unique examination of the response of intact ISC compartments during injury-repair. Upon rotavirus infection in mice, ISC compartments robustly expand and proliferating cells rapidly migrate. Infection results specifically in stimulation of the active crypt-based columnar ISCs, but not alternative reserve ISC populations, as is observed after ISC-targeted damage. Conditional ablation of epithelial WNT secretion diminishes crypt expansion and ISC activation, demonstrating a previously unknown function of epithelial-secreted WNT during injury-repair. These findings indicate a hierarchical preference of crypt-based columnar cells (CBCs over other potential ISC populations during epithelial restitution and the importance of epithelial-derived signals in regulating ISC behavior.

  18. Foxp3+Regulatory T Cell Expression of Keratinocyte Growth Factor Enhances Lung Epithelial Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Catherine F; Tune, Miriya K; Doerschuk, Claire M; Mock, Jason R

    2017-08-01

    Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is a critical component for resolution; however, the processes necessary to drive epithelial resolution are not clearly defined. Published data demonstrate that Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) enhance alveolar epithelial proliferation after injury, and Tregs in vitro directly promote type II alveolar epithelial cell (AT2) proliferation, in part by a contact-independent mechanism. Therefore, we sought to determine the contribution of Treg-specific expression of a growth factor that is known to be important in lung repair, keratinocyte growth factor (kgf). The data demonstrate that Tregs express kgf and that Treg-specific expression of kgf regulates alveolar epithelial proliferation during the resolution phase of acute lung injury and in a model of regenerative alveologenesis in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrate that AT2 cells cocultured with Tregs lacking kgf have decreased rates of proliferation compared with AT2 cells cocultured with wild-type Tregs. Moreover, Tregs isolated from lung tissue and grown in culture express higher levels of two growth factors that are important for lung repair (kgf and amphiregulin) compared with Tregs isolated from splenic tissue. Lastly, Tregs isolated from human lung tissue can be stimulated ex vivo to induce kgf expression. This study reveals mechanisms by which Tregs direct tissue-reparative effects during resolution after acute lung injury, further supporting the emerging role of Tregs in tissue repair.

  19. Epithelial cells as active player in fibrosis: findings from an in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Moll

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis, a scarring of the tubulo-interstitial space, is due to activation of interstitial myofibroblasts recruited locally or systemically with consecutive extracellular matrix deposition. Newly published clinical studies correlating acute kidney injury (AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD challenge this pathological concept putting tubular epithelial cells into the spotlight. In this work we investigated the role of epithelial cells in fibrosis using a simple controlled in vitro system. An epithelial/mesenchymal 3D cell culture model composed of human proximal renal tubular cells and fibroblasts was challenged with toxic doses of Cisplatin, thus injuring epithelial cells. RT-PCR for classical fibrotic markers was performed on fibroblasts to assess their modulation toward an activated myofibroblast phenotype in presence or absence of that stimulus. Epithelial cell lesion triggered a phenotypical modulation of fibroblasts toward activated myofibroblasts as assessed by main fibrotic marker analysis. Uninjured 3D cell culture as well as fibroblasts alone treated with toxic stimulus in the absence of epithelial cells were used as control. Our results, with the caveats due to the limited, but highly controllable and reproducible in vitro approach, suggest that epithelial cells can control and regulate fibroblast phenotype. Therefore they emerge as relevant target cells for the development of new preventive anti-fibrotic therapeutic approaches.

  20. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  1. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  2. GM-CSF produced by nonhematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2013-02-15

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, as well as dendritic cell differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn's disease in humans and colitis in murine models has mainly been considered to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF-deficient (GM-CSF(-/-)) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type mice, caused marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF(-/-) mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Nonhematopoietic cells, and not myeloid cells, produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury, as revealed by bone marrow chimera and dendritic cell-depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell-produced GM-CSF has a novel nonredundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium.

  3. Edge transport studies in the edge and scrape-off layer of the National Spherical Torus Experiment with Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A., E-mail: jboedo@ucsd.edu; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corp, 2400 Central Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Zweben, S.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Bell, R.; Kugel, H.; Leblanc, B.; Roquemore, L. A. [Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ahn, J. W.; Canik, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Crocker, N. [University of California Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Transport and turbulence profiles were directly evaluated using probes for the first time in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] in low (L) and high (H) confinement, low power (P{sub in}∼ 1.3 MW), beam-heated, lower single-null discharges. Radial turbulent particle fluxes peak near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) at ≈4×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in L-mode and are suppressed to ≈0.2×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} in H mode (80%–90% lower) mostly due to a reduction in density fluctuation amplitude and of the phase between density and radial velocity fluctuations. The radial particle fluxes are consistent with particle inventory based on SOLPS fluid modeling. A strong intermittent component is identified. Hot, dense plasma filaments 4–10 cm in diameter, appear first ∼2 cm inside the LCFS at a rate of ∼1×10{sup 21} s{sup −1} and leave that region with radial speeds of ∼3–5 km/s, decaying as they travel through the SOL, while voids travel inward toward the core. Profiles of normalized fluctuations feature levels of 10% inside LCFS to ∼150% at the LCFS and SOL. Once properly normalized, the intermittency in NSTX falls in similar electrostatic instability regimes as seen in other devices. The L-H transition causes a drop in the intermittent filaments velocity, amplitude and number in the SOL, resulting in reduced outward transport away from the edge and a less dense SOL.

  4. Human papillomavirus DNA in pharyngeal scrapes as a marker of HPV-related squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Piglowski, Wojciech; Hajduk, Agata; Wygoda, Andrzej; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Lange, Dariusz

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that human papillomavirus is an etiologic agent for a subset of head and neck cancers associated with better prognosis, therefore, prompt confirmation of such etiology seems to be crucial for choosing the optimal therapeutic option. Standard HPV diagnosis is currently based on histopathological material. In the present study, the novel diagnostic method based on pharyngeal brush biopsy is proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Real-Time PCR-based (RT-PCR) test in detecting HPV-related cancer of the oropharynx using superficial scraps taken from the oropharyngeal region. Ninety patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer were enrolled in the study. The presence of HPV DNA in pharyngeal superficial scrapes assessed by RT-PCR was compared to the HPV status in the tumor tissue samples determined by a combined RT-PCR/P16(INK4A) expression algorithm. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the clinical outcome was analyzed in correlation to the HPV status. HR-HPV DNA in pharyngeal swabs was revealed in 25 cases (28.4%) and simultaneously confirmed in all corresponding tissue samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the viral status assessment in the brush biopsies in respect to the RT-PCR/P16(INK4A) 20 were 100% and 96.2%, respectively. HR-HPV positive status was associated with an excellent clinical outcome and reduced hazard ratio of recurrence and disease-related death. The proposed novel method of HPV status assessment using RT-PCR and superficial scraps appeared to be highly sensitive, specific, and useful in predicting the clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, D.F.

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique

  6. Local gas injection as a scrape-off layer diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, David F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A capillary puffing array has been installed on Alcator C-Mod which allows localized introduction of gaseous species in the scrape-off layer. This system has been utilized in experiments to elucidate both global and local properties of edge transport. Deuterium fueling and recycling impurity screening are observed to be characterized by non-dimensional screening efficiencies which are independent of the location of introduction. In contrast, the behavior of non-recycling impurities is seen to be characterized by a screening time which is dependent on puff location. The work of this thesis has focused on the use of the capillary array with a camera system which can view impurity line emission plumes formed in the region of an injection location. The ionic plumes observed extend along the magnetic field line with a comet-like asymmetry, indicative of background plasma ion flow. The flow is observed to be towards the nearest strike-point, independent of x-point location, magnetic field direction, and other plasma parameters. While the axes of the plumes are generally along the field line, deviations are seen which indicate cross-field ion drifts. A quasi-two dimensional fluid model has been constructed to use the plume shapes of the first charge state impurity ions to extract information about the local background plasma, specifically the temperature, parallel flow velocity, and radial electric field. Through comparisons of model results with those of a three dimensional Monte Carlo code, and comparisons of plume extracted parameters with scanning probe measurements, the efficacy of the model is demonstrated. Plume analysis not only leads to understandings of local edge impurity transport, but also presents a novel diagnostic technique.

  7. The epidemiology of extreme hiking injuries in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Heggie, Tracey M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the epidemiological literature for extreme hikers in volcanic environments and describe the incidence, nature and severity of injuries, the factors contributing to the injuries, and strategies for preventing injuries. Due to the relative newness of extreme hiking in volcanic environments, there are only a small handful of studies addressing the topic. Moreover, these studies are primarily focused on extreme hikers in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. These studies found that the majority of extreme hikers in volcanic environments are inexperienced and unfamiliar with the potential hazards present in volcanic environments. The studies found that upper respiratory irritation resulting from exposure to volcanic gases and dehydration and scrapes, abrasions, lacerations, and thermal burns to the extremities were common injuries. The severity of the injuries ranged from simple on-site treat-and-release incidents to more severe incidents and even death. This review reveals a need for well-designed epidemiologic research from volcanic destinations outside of Hawaii that identify the nature and severity of injuries along with the factors contributing to injury incidents. There is also a demonstrated need for studies identifying preventive measures that reduce both the occurrence and severity of extreme hiking incidents in volcanic environments. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  9. NOD-Like Receptors in Intestinal Homeostasis and Epithelial Tissue Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, Marianna; Yeretssian, Garabet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a dynamic physical barrier segregating the luminal content from the underlying mucosal tissue. Following injury, the epithelial integrity is restored by rapid migration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) across the denuded area in a process known as wound healing. Hence, through a sequence of events involving restitution, proliferation and differentiation of IECs the gap is resealed and homeostasis reestablished. Relapsing damage followed by healing of the inflamed mucosa is a hallmark of several intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While several regulatory peptides, growth factors and cytokines stimulate restitution of the epithelial layer after injury, recent evidence in the field underscores the contribution of innate immunity in controlling this process. In particular, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) play critical roles in sensing the commensal microbiota, maintaining homeostasis, and regulating intestinal inflammation. Here, we review the process of intestinal epithelial tissue repair and we specifically focus on the impact of NLR-mediated signaling mechanisms involved in governing epithelial wound healing during disease. PMID:24886810

  10. The regenerative potential of epithelial stem cells in tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Philip; Kaur, Pritinder

    2014-11-01

    Acute and chronic wounds encompass devastating injuries with significant physical, emotional and economic costs at both the individual and societal level. The pathogenesis of chronic wounds is as varied as the potential causes; however, contributing factors include repetitive ischaemia/reperfusion injury coupled with bacterial infection, inflammation and matrix degradation at the wound site. Similarly, the acute physical damage of burns may leave patients vulnerable to dehydration and infection, and in certain cases this may be followed by a body-wide systemic response with debilitating consequences. Epithelial stem cells provide a promising avenue for the treatment of burns and chronic wounds. This is exemplified by recent achievements such as the restoration of corneal epithelium using limbal stem cells, and the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa via a gene therapy approach. Nevertheless, many technical and regulatory challenges remain to be addressed. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant macromolecules in the epithelial lining fluid of the normal human lower respiratory tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin, A M; Fells, G A; Hubbard, R C; Crystal, R G

    1990-01-01

    We hypothesized that the alveolar structures may contain extracellular macromolecules with antioxidant properties to defend against oxidants. To evaluate this 51Cr-labeled human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) and cat lung epithelial cells (AKD) were exposed to a H2O2-generating system and alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from healthy nonsmokers was tested for its ability to protect the lung cells from H2O2-mediated injury. The ELF provided marked antioxidant protection, with most from a H2O-s...

  12. Autotaxin induces lung epithelial cell migration through lysoPLD activity-dependent and -independent pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Donghong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Zhong, Mintao; Salgia, Ravi; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Lung cell migration is a crucial step for re-epithelialization that in turn is essential for remodeling and repair after lung injury. We hypothesize that secreted autotaxin (ATX), which exhibits lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, stimulates lung epithelial cell migration through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) generation-dependent and -independent pathways. Release of endogenous ATX protein and activity was detected in lung epithelial cell culture medium. ATX with V5 tag (ATX-V5) overexpressed conditional medium had higher LPA levels compared to control medium and stimulated cell migration through Gαi-coupled LPA receptors, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation of PKCδ and cortactin at the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of PKCδ attenuated ATX-V5 overexpressed conditional medium-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin. In addition, a recombinant ATX mutant, lacking lysoPLD activity, or heat-inactived ATX also induced lung epithelial cell migration. Extracelluar ATX bound to LPA receptor and integrin β4 complex on A549 cell surface. Finally, intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide into mouse airway induced ATX release and LPA production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggested a significant role for ATX in lung epithelial cell migration and remodeling through its ability to induce LPA production-mediated phosphorylation of PKCδ and cortactin. In addition we also demonstrated assocation of ATX with epithelial cell surface LPA receptor and integrin β4. PMID:21696367

  13. Enteric glial cells and their role in the intestinal epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Bo; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-08-28

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical and functional barrier between the external environment and the host organism. It is formed by a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells maintained together by intercellular junctional complex, limiting access of pathogens, toxins and xenobiotics to host tissues. Once this barrier integrity is disrupted, inflammatory disorders and tissue injury are initiated and perpetuated. Beneath the intestinal epithelial cells lies a population of astrocyte-like cells that are known as enteric glia. The morphological characteristics and expression markers of these enteric glia cells were identical to the astrocytes of the central nervous system. In the past few years, enteric glia have been demonstrated to have a trophic and supporting relationship with intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glia lesions and/or functional defects can be involved in the barrier dysfunction. Besides, factors secreted by enteric glia are important for the regulation of gut barrier function. Moreover, enteric glia have an important impact on epithelial cell transcriptome and induce a shift in epithelial cell phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. Enteric glia can also preserve epithelial barrier against intestinal bacteria insult. In this review, we will describe the current body of evidence supporting functional roles of enteric glia on intestinal barrier.

  14. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 2 is required for epithelial recovery, but not for pulmonary fibrosis, in response to bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzy, Robert D; Stoilov, Ivan; Elton, Timothy J; Mecham, Robert P; Ornitz, David M

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves lung epithelial injury and aberrant proliferation of fibroblasts, and results in progressive pulmonary scarring and declining lung function. In vitro, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 promotes myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation in cooperation with the profibrotic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, but the in vivo requirement for FGF2 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis is not known. The bleomycin model of lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis was applied to Fgf2 knockout (Fgf2(-/-)) and littermate control mice. Weight loss, mortality, pulmonary fibrosis, and histology were analyzed after a single intranasal dose of bleomycin. Inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by measuring BAL protein and Evans Blue dye permeability. Fgf2 is expressed in mouse and human lung epithelial and inflammatory cells, and, in response to bleomycin, Fgf2(-/-) mice have significantly increased mortality and weight loss. Analysis of BAL fluid and histology show that pulmonary fibrosis is unaltered, but Fgf2(-/-) mice fail to efficiently resolve inflammation, have increased BAL cellularity, and, importantly, deficient recovery of epithelial integrity. Fgf2(-/-) mice similarly have deficient recovery of club cell secretory protein(+) bronchial epithelium in response to naphthalene. We conclude that FGF2 is not required for bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but rather is essential for epithelial repair and maintaining epithelial integrity after bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. These data identify that FGF2 acts as a protective growth factor after lung epithelial injury, and call into question the role of FGF2 as a profibrotic growth factor in vivo.

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Is Required for Epithelial Recovery, but Not for Pulmonary Fibrosis, in Response to Bleomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzy, Robert D.; Stoilov, Ivan; Elton, Timothy J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves lung epithelial injury and aberrant proliferation of fibroblasts, and results in progressive pulmonary scarring and declining lung function. In vitro, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 promotes myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation in cooperation with the profibrotic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, but the in vivo requirement for FGF2 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis is not known. The bleomycin model of lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis was applied to Fgf2 knockout (Fgf2−/−) and littermate control mice. Weight loss, mortality, pulmonary fibrosis, and histology were analyzed after a single intranasal dose of bleomycin. Inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by measuring BAL protein and Evans Blue dye permeability. Fgf2 is expressed in mouse and human lung epithelial and inflammatory cells, and, in response to bleomycin, Fgf2−/− mice have significantly increased mortality and weight loss. Analysis of BAL fluid and histology show that pulmonary fibrosis is unaltered, but Fgf2−/− mice fail to efficiently resolve inflammation, have increased BAL cellularity, and, importantly, deficient recovery of epithelial integrity. Fgf2−/− mice similarly have deficient recovery of club cell secretory protein+ bronchial epithelium in response to naphthalene. We conclude that FGF2 is not required for bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but rather is essential for epithelial repair and maintaining epithelial integrity after bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. These data identify that FGF2 acts as a protective growth factor after lung epithelial injury, and call into question the role of FGF2 as a profibrotic growth factor in vivo. PMID:24988442

  17. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cuts, Scratches, and ... Infection Signs of Infection Print en español Cortes, rasguños ...

  18. Scraping EDGAR with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Rasha

    2017-01-01

    This article presents Python codes that can be used to extract data from Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings. The Python program web crawls to obtain URL paths for company filings of required reports, such as Form 10-K. The program then performs a textual analysis and counts the number of occurrences of words in the filing that…

  19. Linear and nonlinear studies of resistive-ballooning modes in a tokamak edge plasma with scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y.T.; Novakovskii, S.V.; Drake, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    We will present 2D linear and 3D nonlinear studies of resistive-ballooning modes in tokamak edge plasmas which include a closed flux region, as well as a limiter scrape-off layer (SOL) region. These studies therefore go beyond most earlier work, where the stability of the edge in the closed flux region and in the SOL have been considered separately. A 2D linear code, 2D-BALLOON, examines the stability of these curvature driven modes and provides the complete 2D eigenfunction spanning the closed flux surface region as well the open field line region. The sheath boundary condition in the SOL introduces an important new parameter λ = (m e /m i ) 1/2 v ei qR/v Te . This parameter plays a significant role in determining the stability of these modes in both the closed flux and SOL regions because of the radial coupling across the last closed flux surface (LCFS). For small λ the spectrum of unstable modes is broad and extends into the low toroidal mode number exclamation point regime where the spatial structure is flute-like. The amplitude for these modes is larger in the SOL compared to the closed flux region. However when A is increased, the low mode numbers are strongly stabilized and the high mode numbers which are strongly ballooning are the dominant modes. In this regime the radial modes straddle the LCFS. In both these cases, the variation in the plasma density is necessary for the radial localization. In the three-dimensional nonlinear simulations, we have solved a set of fluid equations in a toroidal geometry with both the closed flux region and the SOL. The introduction of the SOL to the twisted tube for the closed flux region, has been a major addition to our 3D code. We find that the turbulent transport in the SOL drops significantly as A is increased, which is consistent with our expectations from the 2D linear code results

  20. Spectroscopic determination of inverse photon efficiencies of W atoms in the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinsek, S.; Laengner, M.; Coenen, J. W.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.

    2017-12-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy can be applied to determine in situ tungsten particle fluxes from erosion processes at plasma-facing materials. Inverse photon efficiencies convert photon fluxes of WI and WII line transitions into W and {{{W}}}+ particle fluxes, respectively, dependening on the local plasma conditions. Experiments in TEXTOR were carried out to determine effective conversion factors for different WI and WII transitions with the aid of WF6 injection into deuterium scrape-off layer plasmas in the electron temperature T e range between {T}{e}=20 {eV} and {T}{e}=82 {eV}. The inverse photon efficiencies or so-called effective \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-values have been determined for WI lines at λ =400.9 {nm}, 429.5 nm, 488.7 nm, 498.3 nm, and 522.5 nm as well as for WII at λ =434.6 {nm} and compared with theoretical calculations from the ADAS data base. Moreover, a multi-machine scaling for the \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-value in the range of T e between 2...100 {eV} has been determined for the most prominent WI line at λ =400.9 {nm} to \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}({T}{e})=53.63-56.07× {e}(0.045× {T{e}[{eV}])} considering experimental data from TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade, PSI and PISCES. Comparison with ADAS calculations for the same transition reveal a good qualitative agreement with the dependence on T e , but an underestimation of ADAS calculations of less than 25% over the full covered range of experimentally accessible T e in the multi-machine scaling. A good agreement within the experimental uncertainties is found between TEXTOR and ADAS \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-values for WI at λ =429.5 {nm} and λ =488.7 {nm} whereas an underestimation of up to a factor two of ADAS values for WI at λ =522.5 {nm} and λ =498.3 {nm} was measured. Potentially, reasons for the discrepancy are an overestimation of applied ionisation rate coefficients in ADAS for neutral W and a stronger electron dependence n e for these transitions.

  1. A theoretical interpretation of the main scrape-off layer heat-flux width scaling for tokamak inner-wall limited plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halpern, F.D.; Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R. A.; Ricci, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2016), č. článku 084003. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : edge plasma * heat-flux width * scrape-off layer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/8/084003/meta

  2. A theoretical interpretation of the main scrape-off layer heat-flux width scaling for tokamak inner-wall limited plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halpern, F.D.; Horáček, Jan; Pitts, R. A.; Ricci, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2016), č. článku 084003. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : edge plasma * heat-flux width * scrape-off layer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/8/084003/ meta

  3. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method

  4. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem [Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P. [Electron Microscopy Unit, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Iwaarden, J. Freek van, E-mail: f.vaniwaarden@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Paediatrics, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  5. P2X7 receptor-dependent tuning of gut epithelial responses to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Walker, Catherine; Pennock, Joanne; Else, Kathryn; Muller, Werner; Daniels, Michael Jd; Pellegrini, Carolina; Brough, David; Lopez-Castejon, Gloria; Cruickshank, Sheena M

    2017-02-01

    Infection and injury of the gut are associated with cell damage and release of molecules such as extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which is recognised by the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). P2X7R is widely expressed in the gut by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells, but the role of the P2X7R on epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated P2X7R in intestinal epithelium in vitro and in vivo using two model infections, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis. Lipopolysaccharide and ATP treatment of intestinal epithelial cells and infection with T. gondii in vitro did not promote inflammasome-associated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-18 secretion, but promoted C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-6 production that were significantly reduced when the P2X7R was blocked. Similarly, in vivo, infection with either T. spiralis or T. gondii induced rapid upregulation of epithelial CCL5 in wild-type (wild-type (WT)) mice that was significantly reduced in P2X7R -/- littermate controls. The effects of reduced epithelial CCL5 were assayed by investigating recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) to the epithelium. Infection induced a rapid recruitment of CD11c + CD103 + DC subsets into the epithelial layer of WT mice but not P2X7R -/- mice. In vitro chemotaxis assays and bone marrow chimeras demonstrated the importance of epithelial P2X7R in DC recruitment. P2X7R signalling in epithelial cells mediates chemokine responses to promote initiation of host immunity to infection.

  6. Proliferation of cultured mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Z Barkho

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (ChP epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and intensify multiple disease phenotypes, and CPEC regeneration would represent a potential therapeutic approach for these diseases. However, previous reports suggest that CPECs rarely divide, although this has not been extensively studied in response to extrinsic factors. Utilizing a cell-cycle reporter mouse line and live cell imaging, we identified scratch injury and the growth factors insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF as extrinsic cues that promote increased CPEC expansion in vitro. Furthermore, we found that IGF-1 and EGF treatment enhances scratch injury-induced proliferation. Finally, we established whole tissue explant cultures and observed that IGF-1 and EGF promote CPEC division within the intact ChP epithelium. We conclude that although CPECs normally have a slow turnover rate, they expand in response to external stimuli such as injury and/or growth factors, which provides a potential avenue for enhancing ChP function after brain injury or neurodegeneration.

  7. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  8. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  9. One approach to determining the optimal coefficient of slenderness scraping and tool materials when processing on a lathe for known machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the expression for the thrust in the field of full utilization cross section scrapings and tool life, an expression is derived for the maximum required thrust of universal machine. Then, using a working diagram the analysis of the main features of the simultaneous utilization of machines was performed and determined the optimal area of its utilization for given optimal diameter of treatment. Based on this, the well-known machine using its structural details and the corresponding function workability, derived relations to determine the optimal coefficient slenderness of scrapings suitable for practical use. In this case we think that is known critical material for work piece. Considering the critical and authoritative material of the work piece, based on the expression for the cutting speed was determined by the characteristic constant workability as the basis for establishing optimum tool material which is adequate for optimum regime. Both obtained relation can be considered as general model that can be applied directly to solving setting problems. Also, given the possibilities of practical application of the presented relations, especially in the case of other typical kinds of treatment. Finally, the model is verified on a one calculation example from practice for a Specific machine tool, where certain important characteristics of the optimal treatment are defined.

  10. Collection of corneal impression cytology directly on a sterile glass slide for the detection of viral antigen: An inexpensive and simple technique for the diagnosis of HSV epithelial keratitis – A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandlapally Sesha

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK is a sight threatening ocular infection and occurs worldwide. A prompt laboratory diagnosis is often very useful. Conventional virology techniques are often expensive and time consuming. We describe here a highly economical, simple, rapid and sensitive technique for the collection of impression cytology, for the laboratory diagnosis of HSK. Methods Fifteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of HSK (either dendritic or geographic ulcers and five patients with other corneal infections (Mycotic keratitis, n = 3, Bacterial keratitis, n = 2 were included in the study. Corneal impression cytology specimens were collected using a sterile glass slide with polished edges instead of a membrane, by pressing the surface of one end of the slide firmly, but gently on the corneal lesion. Additionally, corneal scrapings were collected following the impression cytology procedure. Impression cytology and corneal scrapings were stained by an immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assay for the detection of HSV-1 antigen using a polyclonal antibody to HSV-1. Corneal scrapings were processed for viral cultures by employing a shell vial assay. Results This simple technique allowed the collection of adequate corneal epithelial cells for the detection of HSV-1 antigen in a majority of the patients. HSV-1 antigen was detected in 12/15 (80% cases while virus was isolated from 5/15 (33.3% patients with HSK. All the patients with a clinical diagnosis of HSK (n = 15 were confirmed by virological investigations (viral antigen detection and/or viral cultures. HSV-1 antigen was detected in the impression cytology smears and corneal scrapings in 11/15 (73.3% and 12/15 (80% of the patients, respectively (P = 1.00. None of the patients in the control group were positive for viral antigen or virus isolation. Minimal background staining was seen in impression cytology smears, while there was some background staining in corneal

  11. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related......, deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis....

  12. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The murine lens: A model to investigate in vivo epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kumi; Tanaka, Sai-Ichi; Lovicu, Frank J; Saika, Shizuya

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) produces myofibroblasts that contribute to the formation of fibrotic tissue with an impairment of tissue homeostasis and functionality. The crystalline lens of the eye is a unique transparent and isolated tissue. The lens vesicle becomes isolated from the surface ectoderm, its cells are all contained as they line the inner surface of the lens capsule. Clinically the formation of fibrotic tissue by the lens epithelial cells causes a type of cataract or opacification and contraction of the lens capsule postcataract surgery. Production of EMT in the intact animal lens by using specific gene transfer to the lens or experimental lens injury has been shown to be a powerful tool to investigate EMT processes. It is not easy to uncover whether the origin of the myofibroblast is epithelial cell-derived or from other cell lineages in fibrotic tissues. However, myofibroblasts that appear in the crystalline lens pathology are totally derived from the lens epithelial cells for the reasons mentioned above. Here, we report on different animal models of lens EMT, using either transgenic approaches or injury to study the biological aspects of EMT. Developmental Dynamics 247:340-345, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Developmental Dynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 The Authors Developmental Dynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  15. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  18. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  19. Brief mechanical ventilation causes differential epithelial repair along the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Nicole; Royse, Emily; Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Kallapur, Suhas G; Jobe, Alan H; Hillman, Noah H

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical ventilation of preterm lambs causes lung inflammation and injury to the airway epithelium, which is repaired by 15 days after ventilation. In mice, activated basal cells (p63+, KRT14+, KRT8+) initiate injury repair to the trachea, whereas club cells coordinate distal airway repair. In both human and sheep, basal cells line the pseudostratified airways to the distal bronchioles with club cells only present in terminal bronchioles. Mechanical ventilation causes airway epithelial injury that is repaired through basal cell activation in the fetal lung. Ewes at 123 ± 1 day gestational age had the head and chest of the fetus exteriorized and tracheostomy placed. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were mechanically ventilated with up to 15 ml/kg for 15 min with 95% N2/5% CO2 Fetal lambs were returned to the uterus for up to 24 h. The trachea, left mainstem bronchi, and peripheral lung were evaluated for epithelial injury and cellular response consistent with repair. Peripheral lung tissue had inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, epithelial growth factor receptor ligand upregulation, increased p63 expression, and proliferation of pro-SPB, TTF-1 positive club cells. In bronchi, KRT14 and KRT8 mRNA increased without increases in Notch pathway mRNA or proliferation. In trachea, mRNA increased for Notch ligands, SAM pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor and mucin 5B, but not for basal cell markers. A brief period of mechanical ventilation causes differential epithelial activation between trachea, bronchi, and peripheral lung. The repair mechanisms identified in adult mice occur at different levels of airway branching in fetal sheep with basal and club cell activation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, J D; Dreyfuss, D; Saumon, G

    2003-08-01

    During mechanical ventilation, high end-inspiratory lung volume (whether it be because of large tidal volume (VT) and/or high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure) results in a permeability type pulmonary oedema, called ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Previous injury sensitises lung to mechanical ventilation. This experimental concept has recently received a resounding clinical illustration after a 22% reduction of mortality was observed in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients whose VT had been reduced. In addition, it has been suggested that repetitive opening and closing of distal units at low lung volume could induce lung injury but this notion has been challenged both conceptually and clinically after the negative results of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome clinical Network Assessment of Low tidal Volume and Elevated end-expiratory volume to Obviate Lung Injury (ARDSNet ALVEOLI) study. Experimentally and clinically, involvement of inflammatory cytokines in VILI has not been unequivocally demonstrated. Cellular response to mechanical stretch has been increasingly investigated, both on the epithelial and the endothelial side. Lipid membrane trafficking has been thought to be a means by which cells respond to stress failure. Alterations in the respiratory system pressure/volume curve during ventilator-induced lung injury that include decrease in compliance and position of the upper inflection point are due to distal obstruction of airways that reduce aerated lung volume. Information from this curve could help avoid potentially harmful excessive tidal volume reduction.

  1. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  2. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  3. Engineering stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo t...

  4. [Repair effect of BMSCs on digestive tract injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guiqing; Zhang, Mingming; Wu, Xiaoting

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the effect of BMSCs on the repair of digestive tract injury and its mechanisms. Recent literature on the effect of BMSCs on the repair of digestive tract injury was reviewed. BMSCs had the potency of self-replication, proliferation and multipotential differentiation, which played an important role in the repair of digestive tract injury. The probable mechanisms included: BMSCs' ability of migrating to the injured tissue and inhibiting the host immune response; BMSCs' dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; BMSCs' direct differentiation into the epithelial cells or the stem cells of digestive tract; BMSCs' fusion with the stem cells or the mature epithelial cells of digestive tract; BMSCs' participation in the reconstruction of injured microenvironment. BMSCs participates in the repair of digestive tract injury and has a bright future in the treatment of digestive system disease.

  5. Radiation biology of human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.S.; Yang, T.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Hackett, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for growing mass cultures of normal mammary epithelial cells (from reduction mammoplasties) and, most recently, for growing mammary epithelial cells in a highly efficient clonal assay. The availability of this clonal assay has enabled us to examine the dose-response curves for x rays

  6. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown.

  7. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the lung injuries of critical ill patients. This study investigates the protection conferred by α2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (Dex from lung alveolar epithelial cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. The lung alveolar epithelial cell line, A549, was cultured and then treated with 500 μM H2O2 with or without Dex (1 nM or Dex in combination with atipamezole (10 nM, an antagonist of α2 receptors. Their effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Cleaved-caspases 3 and 9, BAX, Bcl-2, phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR, ERK1/2, and E-cadherin expression were also determined with immunocytochemistry. Results. Upregulation of cleaved-caspases 3 and 9 and BAX and downregulation of Bcl-2, p-mTOR, and E-cadherin were found following H2O2 treatment, and all of these were reversed by Dex. Dex also prevented the ROS generation, cytochrome C release, and cell cycle arrest induced by H2O2. The effects of Dex were partially reversed by atipamezole. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that Dex protected lung alveolar epithelial cells from apoptotic injury, cell cycle arrest, and loss of cell adhesion induced by H2O2 through enhancing the cell survival and proliferation.

  8. Mechanisms Underlying Profibrotic Epithelial Phenotype and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialik, Janne Folke

    , their roles in epithelial reprogramming are unclear. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate (i) the mechanism of TGFβ-induced TAZ expression in kidney fibrosis, (ii) the roles of MRTF and TAZ in PEP, (iii) how MRTF and TAZ regulate the oxidative state of the epithelium, and (iv) if the ensuing ROS production...... and TAZ prevented this, linking the cytoskeleton to the oxidative state of the cell. In Paper II TGFβ-induced increase in TAZ expression was investigated. Using pharmacological inhibition we show that non-canonical signaling via p38 and its downstream target MK2 mediates this upregulation. Furthermore......, MRTF regulates TAZ expression in a translocation-independent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of Nox4, a known activator of p38, resulted in decreased TAZ, suggesting a feedback loop in which Nox4 regulates TAZ and MRTF, which in turn regulates Nox4. In Paper III we investigated cytokine expression...

  9. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  10. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  11. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes.

  12. Breakdown of Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Overdrive Activation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells in the Pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Yanagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual alveolar epithelial cells (AECs collaboratively form a tight barrier between atmosphere and fluid-filled tissue to enable normal gas exchange. The tight junctions of AECs provide intercellular sealing and are integral to the maintenance of the AEC barrier integrity. Disruption and failure of reconstitution of AEC barrier result in catastrophic consequences, leading to alveolar flooding and subsequent devastating fibrotic scarring. Recent evidences reveal that many of the fibrotic lung diseases involve AECs both as a frequent target of injury and as a driver of ongoing pathological processes. Aberrantly activated AECs express most of the growth factors and chemokines responsible for the proliferation, migration, and activation of fibroblasts. Current evidences suggest that AECs may acquire overdrive activation in the initial step of fibrosis by several mechanisms, including abnormal recapitulation of the developmental pathway, defects of the molecules essential for epithelial integrity, and acceleration of aging-related properties. Among these initial triggering events, epithelial Pten, a multiple phosphatase that negatively regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway and is crucial for lung development, is essential for the prevention of alveolar flooding and lung fibrosis through the regulation of AEC barrier integrity after injury. Reestablishment of AEC barrier integrity also involves the deployment of specialized stem/progenitor cells.

  13. Qualidade bromatológica das silagens de capim-elefante aditivadas com raspa de batata Bromatologic qualities of elephant grass silages added with potato scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A raspa de batata foi misturada ao capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. na ensilagem. A colheita do capim-elefante foi realizada manualmente após 80 dias do corte de uniformização a uma altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. As misturas capim-elefante e raspa de batata foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria verde: 100 e 0%, 93 e 7%; 86 e 14%; 79 e 21%; 72 e 28% de capim e raspa de batata, respectivamente. As plantas foram picadas em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, valores de pH, perda de gases, perda de efluentes, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, das silagens. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que as silagens de capim-elefante com raspa de batata apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, valores de pH e DIVMS e menor porcentagem de perda de gases, perda de efluentes, FDN e FDA na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de adição.Potato scrapings were mixed with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum in silage. Elephant grass was harvested manually on the 80th day after leveling mowing had been done at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. The mixtures of elephant grass and potato scrapings were made in the in the following ratios of green matter: 100% and 0%; 93% and 7%; 86% and 14%; 79% and 21%; and 72% and 28% of grass and potato scrapings, respectively. The plants were chopped in 2-3 cm particles and ensiled for 30 days in 10 cm wide x 40 cm high "PVC" silos. The following variables of the silage were evaluated: percentage of dry matter (DM, pH values, loss of gases, and of efluent, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and in

  14. Using X-mode L, R and O-mode reflectometry cutoffs to measure scrape-off-layer density profiles for upgraded ORNL reflectometer on NSTX-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Wilgen, J B; Caughman, J B; Hanson, G R; Hosea, J; Perkins, R; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G

    2014-11-01

    The pre-existing ORNL scrape-off-layer (SOL) reflectometer that operated with the X-mode R-cutoff at 6-27 GHz to measure SOL density profiles on NSTX is being upgraded to be functional at the increased magnetic fields on NSTX-U spherical tokamak. Rather than increasing the operating frequencies to measure the higher X-mode R-cutoff frequencies on NSTX-U, it will be shown that the combined use of the X-mode R, L and O-mode cutoffs at 6-27 GHz can obtain the desired SOL density profiles. The potential capabilities and obstacles of this technique to measure SOL density profiles and possibly SOL magnetic field profiles on NSTX-U will be discussed.

  15. Epithelial Dysplasia in Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shirani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among oral lesions, we encounter a series of malignant epithelial lesions that go through clinical and histopathologic processes in order to be diagnosed. Identifying these processes along with the etiology knowledge of these lesions is very important in prevention and early treatments. Dysplasia is the step preceding the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in lesions which have the potential to undergo dysplasia. Identification of etiological factors, clinical and histopathologic methods has been the topic of many articles. This article, reviews various articles presenting oral cavity dysplasia, new clinical methods of identifying lesions, and the immunohistochemical research which proposes various markers for providing more precise identification of such lesions. This article also briefly analyzes new treatment methods such as tissue engineering.

  16. Hepatic regeneration and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zeng-Fu; Wu, Xiu-Min; Liu, Ming

    2013-03-07

    Liver injuries are repaired by fibrosis and regeneration. The core stage is the repair response and fibrosis formation as a scar. The cause of overly-responsive scar formation and diminished regeneration, especially in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is still unknown. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a previously discovered mechanism, plays an important role in liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Recently, EMT has been found to be associated with liver and bile duct cell fibrosis. Analyzing the established models and chronic disease processes, we propose that EMT liver cells may also lose their regenerative capability due to phenotype changes and that the remaining liver cells may quickly lose their regenerative capability in liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Recognizing these phenotype changes or transition cells may play an important role in targeting therapy to reverse fibrosis not only by disrupting the transition that is necessary to produce the extracellular matrix but also by restoring the regenerative capacity of EMT-like cells.

  17. JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomeda Girnius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis. While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells. : Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause epithelial cell detachment. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis termed anoikis. Girnius and Davis show that anoikis is mediated by the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, which increases BIM expression and phosphorylates BMF to engage BAK/BAX-dependent apoptosis. Keywords: apoptosis, anoikis, epithelial cell, mammary gland, JNK, BAX, BAK, BH3-only protein, BIM, BMF

  18. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  19. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  20. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  1. Integrity of airway epithelium in pediatric burn autopsies: Association with age and extent of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert A; Jacob, Sam; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ron; Sousse, Linda; Zhu, Yong; Cotto, Christopher; Finnerty, Celeste C; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the structural integrity of the airway epithelium in autopsy tissues from pediatric burn subjects. A semi-quantitative score for the degree of airway epithelial integrity was made for seventy- two pediatric burn autopsies. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to identify relationships between epithelial integrity and conditions related to tissue fixation, time of death after injury, age, total body surface area burn (TBSA), extent of 3rd degree burn, presence of inhalation injury, ventilator days and pneumonia. No significant difference in epithelial integrity scores was identified between burn only cases and those with inhalation injury. Significant correlations with bronchiolar epithelial integrity scores were identified for age, p=0.02, and percent 3rd degree burn, p=0.02. There was no significant relationship between epithelial integrity and time between death and autopsy, p>0.44. Airway epithelial loss seen in autopsy tissue is not simply an artifact of tissue fixation. The degree of compromise correlates most strongly with age and degree of burn. Further studies are needed to identify physiological or critical care factors following burn injury that contribute to compromise in the structural and functional properties of the airway epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  3. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  4. Epithelial cell mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1 are induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avignat S Patel

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell death is a major contributor to fibrogenesis in the lung. In this study, we sought to determine the function of mitochondria and their clearance (mitophagy in alveolar epithelial cell death and fibrosis.We studied markers of mitochondrial injury and the mitophagy marker, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, in IPF lung tissues by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were carried out in lung epithelial cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Changes in cell function were measured by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In vivo experiments were performed using the murine bleomycin model of lung fibrosis.Evaluation of IPF lung tissue demonstrated increased PINK1 expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria by TEM. In lung epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS, and PINK1 expression; all were abrogated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging. Finally, Pink1-/- mice were more susceptible than control mice to bleomycin induced lung fibrosis.TGF-β1 induces lung epithelial cell mitochondrial ROS and depolarization and stabilizes the key mitophagy initiating protein, PINK1. PINK1 ameliorates epithelial cell death and may be necessary to limit fibrogenesis.

  5. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  6. Glycocalyx of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria de Fátima; Bairos, Vasco A

    2002-01-01

    Due to their diversity and external location on cell membranes, glycans, as glycocalyx components, are key elements in eukaryotic cell, tissue, and organ homeostasis. Although information on the lung glycocalyx is scarce, this article aims to review, discuss, and summarize what is known about bronchoalveolar glycocalyx composition, mainly the sialic acids. It was deemed relevant, however, to make a brief introductory overview of the cell glycocalyx and its particular development in epithelial cells. After that, follows a summary of the evolution of the knowledge regarding the bronchoalveolar glycocalyx composition throughout the years, particularly its morphological features. Since sialic acids are located terminally on the bronchoalveolar lining cells' glycocalyx and play crucial roles, we focused mainly on the existing lung histochemical and biochemical data of these sugar residues, as well as their evolution throughout lung development. The functions of the lung glycocalyx sialic acids are discussed and interpretations of their roles analyzed, including those related to the negative overall superficial shield provided by these molecules. The increasing presence of these sugar residues throughout postnatal lung development should be regarded as pivotal in the development and maintenance of a dynamic bronchoalveolar architecture, supporting the normal histophysiology of the respiratory system. The case for a profound knowledge of lung glycocalyx--given its potential to provide answers to serious clinical problems--is made with particular reference to cystic fibrosis. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives for future research in this field are put forth.

  7. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  8. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  9. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  10. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  13. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  14. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  15. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  17. RAGE inhibition reduces acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondonnet, Raiko; Audard, Jules; Belville, Corinne; Clairefond, Gael; Lutz, Jean; Bouvier, Damien; Roszyk, Laurence; Gross, Christelle; Lavergne, Marilyne; Fournet, Marianne; Blanchon, Loic; Vachias, Caroline; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Sapin, Vincent; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Jabaudon, Matthieu

    2017-08-03

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in inflammatory response during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Growing body of evidence support strategies of RAGE inhibition in experimental lung injury, but its modalities and effects remain underinvestigated. Anesthetised C57BL/6JRj mice were divided in four groups; three of them underwent orotracheal instillation of acid and were treated with anti-RAGE monoclonal antibody (mAb) or recombinant soluble RAGE (sRAGE), acting as a decoy receptor. The fourth group served as a control. Lung injury was assessed by the analysis of blood gases, alveolar permeability, histology, AFC, and cytokines. Lung expression and distribution epithelial channels ENaC, Na,K-ATPase, and aquaporin (AQP)-5 were assessed. Treatment with either anti-RAGE mAb or sRAGE improved lung injury, arterial oxygenation and decreased alveolar inflammation in acid-injured animals. Anti-RAGE therapies were associated with restored AFC and increased lung expression of AQP-5 in alveolar cell. Blocking RAGE had potential therapeutic effects in a translational mouse model of ARDS, possibly through a decrease in alveolar type 1 epithelial cell injury as shown by restored AFC and lung AQP-5 expression. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to describe intracellular pathways that may control such effects of RAGE on lung epithelial injury and repair.

  18. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  19. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski Paul

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of ascorbic acid and two botanical decoctions, green tea and cat's claw, to limit cell death in response to oxidants were evaluated in vitro. Methods Cultured human gastric epithelial cells (AGS or murine small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18 were exposed to oxidants – DPPH (3 μM, H2O2 (50 μM, peroxynitrite (300 μM – followed by incubation for 24 hours, with antioxidants (10 μg/ml administered as a 1 hour pretreatment. Cell number (MTT assay and death via apoptosis or necrosis (ELISA, LDH release was determined. The direct interactions between antioxidants and DPPH (100 μM or H2O2 (50 μM were evaluated by spectroscopy. Results The decoctions did not interact with H2O2, but quenched DPPH although less effectively than vitamin C. In contrast, vitamin C was significantly less effective in protecting human gastric epithelial cells (AGS from apoptosis induced by DPPH, peroxynitrite and H2O2 (P 2O2, but green tea was more effective than cat's claw in reducing DPPH-induced apoptosis (P 2O2, and was attenuated both by cat's claw and green tea (P Conclusions These results indicate that dietary antioxidants can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress. In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death.

  20. Acute damage by naphthalene triggers expression of the neuroendocrine marker PGP9.5 in airway epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.T.; Naizhen, X.; Linnoila, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP9.5) is highly expressed in nervous tissue. Recently PGP9.5 expression has been found to be upregulated in the pulmonary epithelium of smokers and in non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting that it also plays a role in carcinogen-inflicted lung epithelial injury...... neuroendocrine markers was found in the non-neuroendocrine epithelial cells after naphthalene exposure. In contrast, immunostaining for the cell cycle regulator p27(Kip1), which has previously been associated with PGP9.5 in lung cancer cells, revealed transient downregulation of p27(Kip1) in naphthalene exposed...... and further strengthens the accumulating evidence of PGP9.5 as a central player in lung epithelial damage and early carcinogenesis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/26...

  1. Role of Corneal Stromal Cells on Epithelial Cell Function during Wound Healing

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    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Following injury, corneal stromal keratocytes transform into repair-phenotype of activated stromal fibroblasts (SFs and participate in wound repair. Simultaneously, ongoing bi-directional communications between corneal stromal-epithelial cells also play a vital role in mediating the process of wound healing. Factors produced by stromal cells are known to induce proliferation, differentiation, and motility of corneal epithelial cells, which are also subsequently the main processes that occur during wound healing. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effect of SFs conditioned medium (SFCM on corneal epithelial cell function along with substance P (SP. Antibody microarrays were employed to profile differentially expressed cell surface markers and cytokines in the presence of SFCM and SP. Antibody microarray data revealed enhanced expression of the ITGB1 in corneal epithelial cells following stimulation with SP whereas SFCM induced abundant expression of IL-8, ITGB1, PD1L1, PECA1, IL-15, BDNF, ICAM1, CD8A, CD44 and NTF4. All these proteins have either direct or indirect roles in epithelial cell growth, movement and adhesion related signaling cascades during tissue regeneration. We also observed activation of MAPK signaling pathway along with increased expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, paxillin, vimentin, β-catenin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation. Additionally, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT regulating transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 expression were enhanced in the presence of SFCM. SP enriched the expression of integrin subunits α4, α5, αV, β1 and β3 whereas SFCM increased α4, α5, αV, β1 and β5 integrin subunits. We also observed increased expression of Serpin E1 following SP and SFCM treatment. Wound healing scratch assay revealed enhanced migration of epithelial cells following the addition of SFCM. Taken together, we conclude that SFCM-mediated sustained

  2. Re-epithelialization resulted from prostate basal cells in canine prostatic urethra may represent the ideal healing method after two-micron laser resection of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize the re-epithelialization of wound healing in canine prostatic urethra and to evaluate the effect of this re-epithelialization way after two-micron laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP. TmLRP and partial bladder neck mucosa were performed in 15 healthy adult male crossbred canines. Wound specimens were harvested at 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after operation, respectively. The histopathologic characteristics were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14, CK5, CK18, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, uroplakin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 , and TGF-β type II receptor in prostatic urethra wound were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Van Gieson staining was performed to determine the expression of collagen fibers in prostatic urethra and bladder neck would. The results showed that the re-epithelialization of the prostatic urethra resulted from the mobilization of proliferating epithelial cells from residual prostate tissue under the wound. The proliferating cells expressed CK14, CK5, but not CK18, Syn, and CgA and re-epithelialize expressed uroplakin since 3 weeks. There were enhanced TGF-β1 and TGF-β type II receptor expression in proliferating cells and regenerated cells, which correlated with specific phases of re-epithelialization. Compared with the re-epithelialization of the bladder neck, re-epithelialization of canine prostatic urethra was faster, and the expression of collagen fibers was relatively low. In conclusion, re-epithelialization in canine prostatic urethra resulted from prostate basal cells after TmLRP and this re-epithelialization way may represent the ideal healing method from anatomic repair to functional recovery after injury.

  3. Evaluation of elephant grass silage with the addition of cassava scrapings Avaliação da silagem de capim-elefante com adição de raspa de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Moura Zanine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding cassava scrapings on gas and effluent losses, dry matter recovery, pH, contents of N-NH3, organic acids and volatile fatty acids and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages. It was used a randomized complete design, with four levels of cassava scrapings (0, 7, 15 or 30% natural matter each one with four replications per level. The grass was cut at 50 days of regrowth and ensiled in 15-L silos, equipped with a Bunsen valve to allow gas outflow. The gas losses decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas effluent losses decreased linearly. Dry matter recovery increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Dry matter (DM concentration increased but crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose (HEM decreased linearly with the addition of cassava scrapings. The pH value and lactic acid concentration increased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings. Contents of N-NH3 and butyric acid decreased quadratically with the addition of cassava scrapings, whereas acetic acid content decreased linearly. Addition of cassava scrapings reduced gas and effluent losses and improved the fermentation profile of elephant grass silages and the level of 7% already ensures this improvement.Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos da adição de raspa de mandioca na ensilagem sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, a recuperação da matéria seca, o pH, os teores de N-NH3, ácidos orgânicos e ácidos graxos voláteis e a composição bromatológica de silagens de capim-elefante. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de raspa de mandioca (0, 7, 15 ou 30% da matéria natural, cada um com quatro repetições. O capim foi cortado aos 50 dias de rebrota e ensilado em silos de 15 litros de capacidade, com válvula de bunsen para escape dos

  4. Involvement of Igf1r in Bronchiolar Epithelial Regeneration: Role during Repair Kinetics after Selective Club Cell Ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icíar P López

    Full Text Available Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny. Immuno-localization revealed high expression levels of Igf1r (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and smooth muscle. To further understand the role of Igf1r in pulmonary homeostasis, two distinct lung epithelial-specific Igf1r mutant mice were generated and studied. The lack of Igf1r disturbed airway epithelial differentiation in adult mice, and revealed enhanced proliferation and altered morphology in distal airway club cells. During recovery after naphthalene-induced club cell injury, the kinetics of terminal bronchiolar epithelium regeneration was hindered in Igf1r mutants, revealing increased proliferation and delayed differentiation of club and ciliated cells. Amid airway restoration, lungs of Igf1r deficient mice showed increased levels of Igf1, Insr, Igfbp3 and epithelial precursor markers, reduced amounts of Scgb1a1 protein, and alterations in IGF signaling mediators. These results support the role of Igf1r in controlling the kinetics of cell proliferation and differentiation during pulmonary airway epithelial regeneration after injury.

  5. A lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, p40, stimulates ligand release from intestinal epithelial cells to transactivate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble protein, ameliorates intestinal injury and colitis, reduces apoptosis and preserves barrier function by activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which p40...

  6. A study of microsporidiosis in corneal scrapings of keratitis patients referring to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamiloui, M M; Valadkhani, Z; Rahimi, F

    2015-09-01

    Microsporidiosis is one of the emerging and opportunistic infections, which causing various clinical symptoms in humans. The prevalence of this infection varies, depending on the infected organ, diagnostic methods, and geographical conditions. In the present study, we aimed to investigate microsporidial keratitis in patients referring to Farabi Eye Hospital Tehran, Iran in 2013-14. Two scraping samples were collected from 91 keratitis patients, five cases had prior history of receiving immune suppressive drugs. One of the two collected samples from each participant was used for Vero cell culture and the other was used for the preparation of Giemsa and Gram staining slides. After 30 days, the cells were scrapped and used for DNA extraction; afterwards, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was applied. Primer pairs of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene were designed by CLC Genomics workbench software to amplify all major microsporidian pathogens, as well as E. bieneusi , which was used as the positive control in this study. The nested PCR showed negative results regarding the presence of microsporidia in the samples. Similarly, Giemsa and Gram staining slides did not detect any spores. The prevalence of human microsporidiosis ranges between 0% and 50%, worldwide. Based on all the negative samples in the present study, we can conclude that the prevalence of this infection among Iranian patients falls in the lower quartile. By gathering further evidence, researchers can take a step forward in this area and open new doors for the assessment of AIDS patients and users of immunosuppressive drugs.

  7. Additional evidence for the universality of the probability distribution of turbulent fluctuations and fluxes in the scrape-off layer region of fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Sánchez, R.; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; LaBombard, B.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Gonçalves, B.; Balbín, R.

    2005-05-01

    Plasma density fluctuations and electrostatic turbulent fluxes measured at the scrape-off layer of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [B. LaBombard, R. L. Boivin, M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, B. Lipschultz, D. Mossessian, C. S. Pitcher, J. L. Terry, and S. J. Zweben, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2107 (2001)], the Wendelstein 7-Advanced Stellarator [H. Renner, E. Anabitarte, E. Ascasibar et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 31, 1579 (1989)], and the TJ-II stellarator [C. Alejaldre, J. Alonso, J. Botija et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 131 (1990)] are shown to obey a non-Gaussian but apparently universal (i.e., not dependent on device and discharge parameters) probability density distribution (pdf). The fact that a specific shape acts as an attractor for the pdf seems to suggest that emergent behavior and self-regulation are relevant concepts for these fluctuations. This shape is closely similar to the so-called Bramwell, Holdsworth, and Pinton distribution, which does not have any free parameters.

  8. Use of potassium hydroxide, Giemsa and calcofluor white staining techniques in the microscopic evaluation of corneal scrapings for diagnosis of fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong; Yang, Huashan; Jiang, Lili; Han, Lei; Wang, Liya

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quick and economical method for the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were obtained from consecutive patients (n = 165) with clinically suspected fungal keratitis and were used for culture and to prepare two smears. Potassium hydroxide stain followed by calcofluor white stain was added to one smear and Giemsa stain followed by calcofluor white stain was added to the second. In comparison with the fungal culture results, the sensitivity of potassium hydroxide wet mounts was 81.0% and following the addition of calcofluor white was 96.6% in diagnosing fungal keratitis, whereas sensitivity using Giemsa stain was 39.7% and following the addition of calcofluor white was 98.3%. The Giemsa stain detected 23 cases of bacterial infection, of which six cases were mixed fungal and bacterial infections. Giemsa stain followed by calcofluor white was considered to be the better method for diagnosing fungal keratitis due to its high sensitivity combined with its ability to identify bacterial or mixed infections.

  9. Plasma confinement modification and convective transport suppression in the scrape-off layer using additional gas puffing in the STOR-M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval, M; Hubeny, M; Ding, Y; Onchi, T; Liu, Y; Hthu, K; Elgriw, S; Xiao, C; Hirose, A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of short gas puffing (GP) pulses on the scrape-off layer (SOL) transport is studied. Similar responses of ion saturation current and floating potential measured near the GP injection valve and in the 90° toroidally separated cross-section suggest that the GP influence on the SOL region should be global. A drop in plasma temperature and a decrease in the rotational velocity of the plasma are observed in the SOL region immediately after the GP pulse; however, an unexpected increase in electron and ion temperatures is observed in the second stage of the plasma response. The decrease in floating potential fluctuations indicates that the turbulent transport is dumped immediately after the GP pulse. The GP-induced modification of turbulence properties in the SOL points to a convective transport suppression in the STOR-M tokamak. A substantial decrease in the skewness and kurtosis of ion saturation current fluctuations is observed in the SOL region resulting in the probability distribution function (PDF) getting closer to the Gaussian distribution. The plasma potential reduction, the change in plasma rotation and the suppression of turbulent transport in the SOL region indicate that the plasma confinement is modified after the GP injection. Some features of the H-mode-like confinement in the plasma bulk also accompany the SOL observations after application of the additional sharp GP pulse. (paper)

  10. Polymerase chain reaction genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus in scraping samples of the tongue lateral border in HIV-1 seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TF Robaina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the etiological agent of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL, an oral lesion with important diagnostic and prognostic value in acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. The two EBV genotypes, EBV-1 and EBV-2, can be distinguished by divergent gene sequences encoding the EBNA-2, 3A, 3B, and 3C proteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the EBV genotype prevalent in 53 samples of scrapings from the lateral border of the tongue of HIV-1 seropositive patients, with and without OHL, and to correlate the genotypes with presence of clinical or subclinical OHL with the clinic data collected. EBV-1 and EBV-2 were identified through PCR and Nested-PCR based on sequence differences of the EBNA-2 gene. EBV-1 was identified in the 31 samples (15 without OHL, 7 with clinical OHL and 9 with subclinical OHL, EBV-2 in 12 samples (10 without OHL, 1 with clinical and 1 subclinical OHL, and a mixed infection in 10 samples (2 without OHL, 3 with clinical and 5 with subclinical OHL. The presence of EBV-1 was higher in women, but a significant statistical result relating one the EBV genotypes to the development of OHL was not found. We conclude that the oral epithelium in HIV-1 seropositive patients can be infected by EBV-1, EBV-2 or by a mixed viral population.

  11. Numerical analysis of the impact of an RF sheath on the Scrape-Off Layer in 2D and 3D turbulence simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Radio Frequency (RF heating studies, the response of the plasma of tokamaks to the presence of a locally polarized limiter is studied. In a first part, we use the TOKAM3X3D global edge turbulence code to analyse the impact of such biasing in a realistic geometry. Key features of experimental observations are qualitatively recovered, especially the extension of a potential and density perturbation on long, but finite, distances along connected field lines. The perturbation is also found to extend in the transverse direction. Both observations demonstrate the influence of perpendicular current loops on the plasma confirming the need for an accurate description in reduced models. In a second part, we use the TOKAM2D slab turbulence code to determine the validity of using a transverse Ohm's law for this purpose. Results indicate that a local Ohm's law with a constant and uniform perpendicular resistivity appears at least as an oversimplified description of perpendicular charge transport in a turbulent Scrape-Off Layer.

  12. Localized Scrape-Off Layer density modifications by Ion Cyclotron near fields in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, L.; Jacquet, Ph.; Van Eester, D.; Bobkov, V.; Brix, M.; Meneses, L.; Tamain, P.; Marsen, S.; Silva, C.; Carralero, D.; Kočan, M.; Müller, H.-W.; Crombé, K.; Křivska, A.; Goniche, M.; Lerche, E.; Rimini, F. G.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2015-08-01

    Combining Lithium beam emission spectroscopy and edge reflectometry, localized Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) density modifications by Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) near fields were characterized in JET L-mode plasmas. When using the ICRF wave launchers connected magnetically to the Li-beam chord, the density decreased more steeply 2-3 cm outside the last closed flux surface (mapped onto the outer mid-plane) and its value at the outer limiter radial position was half the ohmic value. The depletion depends on the ICRF power and on the phasing between adjacent radiating straps. Convection due to ponderomotive effects and/or E × B0 drifts is suspected: during ICRF-heated H-mode discharges in 2013, DC potentials up to 70 V were measured locally in the outer SOL by a floating reciprocating probe, located toroidally several metres from the active antennas. These observations are compared with probe measurements on ASDEX-Upgrade. Their implications for wave coupling, heat loads and impurity production are discussed.

  13. Mean flows and blob velocities in scrape-off layer (SOLT) simulations of an L-mode discharge on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; LaBombard, B.; Hughes, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional scrape-off layer turbulence (SOLT) code simulations are compared with an L-mode discharge on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [M. Greenwald, et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 110501 (2014)]. Density and temperature profiles for the simulations were obtained by smoothly fitting Thomson scattering and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) data from the shot. Simulations differing in turbulence intensity were obtained by varying a dissipation parameter. Mean flow profiles and density fluctuation amplitudes are consistent with those measured by MLP in the experiment and with a Fourier space diagnostic designed to measure poloidal phase velocity. Blob velocities in the simulations were determined from the correlation function for density fluctuations, as in the analysis of gas-puff-imaging (GPI) blobs in the experiment. In the simulations, it was found that larger blobs moved poloidally with the ExB flow velocity, v E , in the near-SOL, while smaller fluctuations moved with the group velocity of the dominant linear (interchange) mode, v E + 1/2 v di , where v di is the ion diamagnetic drift velocity. Comparisons are made with the measured GPI correlation velocity for the discharge. The saturation mechanisms operative in the simulation of the discharge are also discussed. In conclusion, it is found that neither sheared flow nor pressure gradient modification can be excluded as saturation mechanisms

  14. Transport-driven scrape-off layer flows and the x-point dependence of the L-H power threshold in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Rice, J. E.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M.; Granetz, R. S.; Irby, J. H.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Marr, K.; Mossessian, D.; Parker, R.; Rowan, W.; Smick, N.; Snipes, J. A.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    Factor of ˜2 higher power thresholds for low- to high-confinement mode transitions (L-H) with unfavorable x-point topologies in Alcator C-Mod [Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] are linked to flow boundary conditions imposed by the scrape-off layer (SOL). Ballooning-like transport drives flow along magnetic field lines from low- to high-field regions with toroidal direction dependent on upper/lower x-point balance; the toroidal rotation of the confined plasma responds, exhibiting a strong counter-current rotation when B ×∇B points away from the x point. Increased auxiliary heating power (rf, no momentum input) leads to an L-H transition at approximately twice the edge electron pressure gradient when B ×∇B points away. As gradients rise prior to the transition, toroidal rotation ramps toward the co-current direction; the H mode is seen when the counter-current rotation imposed by the SOL flow becomes compensated. Remarkably, L-H thresholds in lower-limited discharges are identical to lower x-point discharges; SOL flows are also found similar, suggesting a connection.

  15. Fast reciprocating probe system for local scrape-off layer measurements in front of the lower hybrid launcher on JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, N.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Neyatani, Y.; Seki, M.

    1995-12-01

    A fast reciprocating probe system with a long drive shaft was incorporated into a multi-junction lower hybrid (LH) wave launcher on JT-60U in order to investigate an improved coupling mechanism of the radio frequency wave to the core plasma. The system has been operated reliably over a horizontal scan of 25 cm in 1.5 s using a compact pneumatic cylinder drive and springs. A double probe measurement provided the scrape-off layer plasma profile between the last closed flux surface and the first wall with the spatial resolution of 1-2 mm measured with a laser displacement gauge. The profiles of the electron density ne and temperature Te were in good agreement with those obtained with a triple probe method. During the LH wave injection with good coupling to the core plasma, an increase in the local Te was observed in front of the LH launcher mouth. The local ne was (7-10)×1016 m-3, consistent values needed for the good coupling.

  16. Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Pete H.; Adegun, Oluyori; Hagi-Pavli, Eleni; Piper, Kim; Bader, Dan; Fortune, Farida

    2010-11-01

    We present a new method for quantitative visualization of premalignant oral epithelium called scattering attenuation microscopy (SAM). Using low-coherence interferometry, SAM projects measurements of epithelial optical attenuation onto an image of the tissue surface as a color map. The measured attenuation is dominated by optical scattering that provides a metric of the severity of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Scattering is sensitive to the changes in size and distribution of nuclear material that are characteristic of OED, a condition recognized by the occurrence of basal-cell-like features throughout the epithelial depth. SAM measures the axial intensity change of light backscattered from epithelial tissue. Scattering measurements are obtained from sequential axial scans of a 3-D tissue volume and displayed as a 2-D SAM image. A novel segmentation method is used to confine scattering measurement to epithelial tissue. This is applied to oral biopsy samples obtained from 19 patients. Our results show that imaging of tissue scattering can be used to discriminate between different dysplastic severities and furthermore presents a powerful tool for identifying the most representative tissue site for biopsy.

  17. NLRX1 Acts as an Epithelial-Intrinsic Tumor Suppressor through the Modulation of TNF-Mediated Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tattoli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial Nod-like receptor protein NLRX1 protects against colorectal tumorigenesis through mechanisms that remain unclear. Using mice with an intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-specific deletion of Nlrx1, we find that NLRX1 provides an IEC-intrinsic protection against colitis-associated carcinogenesis in the colon. These Nlrx1 mutant mice have increased expression of Tnf, Egf, and Tgfb1, three factors essential for wound healing, as well as increased epithelial proliferation during the epithelial regeneration phase following injury triggered by dextran sodium sulfate. In primary intestinal organoids lacking Nlrx1, stimulation with TNF resulted in exacerbated proliferation and expression of the intestinal stem cell markers Olfm4 and Myb. This hyper-proliferation response was associated with increased activation of Akt and NF-κB pathways in response to TNF stimulation. Together, these results identify NLRX1 as a suppressor of colonic tumorigenesis that acts by controlling epithelial proliferation in the intestine during the regeneration phase following mucosal injury.

  18. Complementary roles of KCa3.1 channels and β1-integrin during alveolar epithelial repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Alban; Chebli, Jasmine; Privé, Anik; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Maillé, Emilie; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-04

    Extensive alveolar epithelial injury and remodelling is a common feature of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and it has been established that epithelial regeneration, and secondary lung oedema resorption, is crucial for ARDS resolution. Much evidence indicates that K(+) channels are regulating epithelial repair processes; however, involvement of the KCa3.1 channels in alveolar repair has never been investigated before. Wound-healing assays demonstrated that the repair rates were increased in primary rat alveolar cell monolayers grown on a fibronectin matrix compared to non-coated supports, whereas an anti-β1-integrin antibody reduced it. KCa3.1 inhibition/silencing impaired the fibronectin-stimulated wound-healing rates, as well as cell migration and proliferation, but had no effect in the absence of coating. We then evaluated a putative relationship between KCa3.1 channel and the migratory machinery protein β1-integrin, which is activated by fibronectin. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments indicated a link between the two proteins and revealed their cellular co-distribution. In addition, we demonstrated that KCa3.1 channel and β1-integrin membrane expressions were increased on a fibronectin matrix. We also showed increased intracellular calcium concentrations as well as enhanced expression of TRPC4, a voltage-independent calcium channel belonging to the large TRP channel family, on a fibronectin matrix. Finally, wound-healing assays showed additive effects of KCa3.1 and TRPC4 inhibitors on alveolar epithelial repair. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time complementary roles of KCa3.1 and TRPC4 channels with extracellular matrix and β1-integrin in the regulation of alveolar repair processes.

  19. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  20. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  3. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  7. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  8. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  10. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.

  11. RAGE-induced changes in the proteome of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Charles A; Johnson, Nicholle M; Tsaprailis, George; Helms, My N

    2018-02-12

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is constitutively expressed in the distal lung where it co-localizes with the alveolar epithelium; RAGE expression is otherwise minimal or absent, except with disease. This suggests RAGE plays a role in lung physiology and pathology. We used proteomics to identify and characterize the effects of RAGE on rat alveolar epithelial (R3/1) cells. LC-MS/MS identified 177 differentially expressed proteins and the PANTHER Classification System further segregated proteins. Proteins involved in gene transcription (RNA and mRNA splicing, mRNA processing) and transport (protein, intracellular protein) were overrepresented; genes involved in a response to stimulus were underrepresented. Immune system processes and response to stimuli were downregulated with RAGE knockdown. Western blot confirmed RAGE-dependent changes in protein expression for NFκB and NLRP3 that was functionally supported by a reduction in IL-1β and phosphorylated p65. We also assessed RAGE's effect on redox regulation and report that RAGE knockdown attenuated oxidant production, decreased protein oxidation, and increased reduced thiol pools. Collectively the data suggest that RAGE is a critical regulator of epithelial cell response and has implications for our understanding of lung disease, specifically acute lung injury. In the present study, we undertook the first proteomic evaluation of RAGE-dependent processes in alveolar epithelial cells. The alveolar epithelium is a primary target during acute lung injury, and our data support a role for RAGE in gene transcription, protein transport, and response to stimuli. More over our data suggest that RAGE is a critical driver of redox regulation in the alveolar epithelium. The conclusions of the present work assist to unravel the molecular events that underlie the function of RAGE in alveolar epithelial cells and have

  12. Phototherapeutic LASEK for a persistent epithelial defect and a recurrent epithelial erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondur, Ahmet; Bilgihan, Kamil; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2005-01-01

    To present two patients, one with persistent epithelial defect and one with recurrent epithelial erosion, unresponsive to conventional therapy treated with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with the laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) technique (phototherapeutic LASEK). The epithelial flap was created following 18% ethanol application for 20 seconds. A 10-microm deep ablation was performed in the central 7.0-mm zone. A contact lens was placed and the patient examined daily until epithelial closure. Upon epithelial closure, the contact lens was removed. A mild topical steroid and artificial tears were applied for 2 weeks. The epithelium healed in 4 days in both patients. Patients reported only mild pain until epithelial closure. The manifest refraction and uncorrected visual acuity remained unchanged in both eyes. No haze was noted. The first patient has remained asymptomatic without any recurrence for 12 months, and the second for 9 months. Phototherapeutic LASEK provides a therapeutic option for refractory recurrent erosions and persistent epithelial defects, with the additional benefit of being less painful and less risky for haze development than conventional PTK.

  13. Mesenchymal-­epithelial interactions during digestive tract development and epithelial stem cell regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, Ludovic; Marchal, Stéphane; Faure, Sandrine; De Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract develops from a simple and uniform tube into a complex organ with specific differentiation patterns along the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of asymmetry. It is derived from all three germ layers and their cross-talk is important for the regulated development of fetal and adult gastrointestinal structures and organs. Signals from the adjacent mesoderm are essential for the morphogenesis of the overlying epithelium. These mesenchymal-epithelial interactions govern the development and regionalization of the different gastrointestinal epithelia and involve most of the key morphogens and signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog, BMPs, Notch, WNT, HOX, SOX and FOXF cascades. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying mesenchyme differentiation into smooth muscle cells influence the regionalization of the gastrointestinal epithelium through interactions with the enteric nervous system. In the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal–epithelial interactions are essential for the maintenance of the epithelial regionalization and digestive epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of these interactions is also associated with bowel dysfunction potentially leading to epithelial tumor development. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions observed during digestive epithelium development and differentiation and also during epithelial stem cell regeneration. PMID:26126787

  14. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  15. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  16. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  17. Management of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Mehdi; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2018-04-24

    To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development. Current cases of HSV epithelial keratitis are manageable with available medications, but new advancements are required to decrease disease burden in the future. HSV vaccine can be revolutionary.

  18. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu....... It is concluded that the epithelial stromal cells of the thymus, by acting as veto cells, may be responsible for the negative intrathymic selection of self-reactive thymocytes leading to elimination of the vast majority of immature thymic lymphocytes....

  19. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  20. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  1. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial host defense in the airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joost Bastiaan

    2007-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells are indispensable for the host defense system in the lungs. Various strategies by which epithelial cells protect the lungs against inhaled pathogens have been described. In spite of that, the molecular mechanisms by which epithelial cells initiate and control the host defense

  2. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  3. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in ...

  4. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. ...... Radisky DC and LaBarge MA 2008 Epithelial-mesenchymal tran- sition and the stem cell phenotype. Cell Stem Cell. 2 511–512. Rajagopal S, Kumar RA, Deevi DS, Satyanarayana C ...

  5. Stereological Evidences of Epithelial Hypoplasia of Seminiferous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five μm of uniformly random serial sections of the processed testicular tissues were analyzed using un-biased stereological and histomorphometric studies. Results: The results showed that the percentage mean volume density of both the tubular lumen and epithelial height increased by 35% (p< 0.05) and decreased by ...

  6. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  7. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  8. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  9. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  10. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  11. Efficacy and safety of a lindane 1% treatment regimen for scabies, confirmed by dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S E; Her, Y; Kim, S S; Kim, C W

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study investigating scabies treatment since 1992 to involve examination of patients with microscopically confirmed scabies. To assess the efficacy of 1% lindane cream in treating microscopically confirmed scabies, and to determine the utility of dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination (DSGSS-ME) in evaluating the efficacy of scabies treatment. This retrospective study analysed patients treated for scabies between January 2012 and December 2013. From the hospital database, 287 cases of scabies were identified and 50 were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with 1% lindane cream twice weekly (days 0 and 1) and were evaluated with DSGSS-ME on day 7. Treatment and evaluations were repeated once weekly until a negative DSGSS-ME result was obtained. The cumulative efficacy of lindane 1% cream was 40% (20/50) after 1 week, 88% (44/50) after 2 weeks and 98% (49/50) after 3 weeks of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference between the 1- and 2-week (P = 0.03), and 1- and 3-week (P = 0.02) treatments. A total of 90 post-treatment DSGSS-MEs were performed, with a sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI 85.8-99.9) and a negative predictive value of 98.2% (95% CI 90.1-100). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100%, as this procedure cannot yield false-positive results, because it relies on finding mites, eggs or faeces. We suggest that a twice-weekly schedule (on consecutive days) of 1% lindane treatment lasting at least 2 weeks is required to clear scabies. DSGSS-ME appears to be a good method to evaluate the efficacy of scabies treatment. This study introduces a safe and effective method to treat scabies, and to accurately monitor infestation status in patients. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of plasma turbulence in the RFX-mod scrape-off layer and comparison with experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabio; Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Ricci, Paolo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Marrelli, Lionello; Spagnolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma dynamics is investigated in a circular limiter configuration with a low edge safety factor. Focusing on the experimental parameters of two ohmic tokamak inner-wall limited plasma discharges in RFX-mod [Sonato et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 74, 97 (2005)], nonlinear SOL plasma simulations are performed with the GBS code [Ricci et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 124047 (2012)]. The numerical results are compared with the experimental measurements, assessing the reliability of the GBS model in describing the RFX-mod SOL plasma dynamics. It is found that the simulations are able to quantitatively reproduce the RFX-mod experimental measurements of the electron plasma density, electron temperature, and ion saturation current density (jsat) equilibrium profiles. Moreover, there are indications that the turbulent transport is driven by the same instability in the simulations and in the experiment, with coherent structures having similar statistical properties. On the other hand, it is found that the simulation results are not able to correctly reproduce the floating potential equilibrium profile and the jsat fluctuation level. It is likely that these discrepancies are, at least in part, related to simulating only the tokamak SOL region, without including the plasma dynamics inside the last close flux surface, and to the limits of applicability of the drift approximation. The turbulence drive is then identified from the nonlinear simulations and with the linear theory. It results that the inertial drift wave is the instability driving most of the turbulent transport in the considered discharges.

  13. Measurements of the parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer of a high-density tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. G.; Wallace, G. M.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I.; LaBombard, B. L.; Wukitch, S.; Shinya, T.; Takase, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on tokamaks, the parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves is an important physics parameter that governs the wave propagation and absorption physics. However, this parameter has not been experimentally well-characterized in the present-day high density tokamaks, despite the advances in the wave physics modeling. In this paper, we present the first measurement of the dominant parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak with an array of magnetic loop probes. The electric field strength measured with the probe in typical C-Mod plasmas is about one-fifth of that of the electric field at the mouth of the grill antenna. The amplitude and phase responses of the measured signals on the applied power spectrum are consistent with the expected wave energy propagation. At higher density, the observed k || increases for the fixed launched k || , and the wave amplitude decreases rapidly. This decrease is correlated with the loss of LHCD efficiency at high density, suggesting the presence of loss mechanisms. Evidence of the spectral broadening mechanisms is observed in the frequency spectra. However, no clear modifications in the dominant k || are observed in the spectrally broadened wave components, as compared to the measured k || at the applied frequency. It could be due to (1) the probe being in the SOL and (2) the limited k || resolution of the diagnostic. Future experiments are planned to investigate the roles of the observed spectral broadening mechanisms on the LH density limit problem in the strong single pass damping regime.

  14. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  15. Epithelial integrity in palatal shelf elevation

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    Shigeru Okuhara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The palate is the ceiling of the oral cavity that separates the nasal and oral cavities in mammals. Anterior two-thirds of the palate that has the bone and the rugae on the oral surface is the hard palate, and the posterior one-third of the palate lacks bone and is referred to as the soft palate. Palate development involves a sequential process of outgrowth, elevation, and fusion of palatal shelves. When these steps are interrupted or compromised, cleft palate, one of the most frequent human congenital anomalies, develops. In particular, during the elevation process, sufficient proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells and concomitant synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM are required, and these are referred to as intrinsic factors. One of major extrinsic factors for this process is the functional maturation of masticatory muscles that are responsible for movement of the mandible and lingual muscles, such that the tongue can descend and sufficient space for shelf elevation is provided. In addition to these factors, recent findings have suggested that a third factor, epithelial integrity, may be an essential component for successful shelf elevation. For example, disruption of epithelial integrity can result in ectopic epithelial fusion between the palate and the mandible, or tongue, which anchors the palatal shelf to inhibit its elevation. Although most histological and molecular aspects of palatal elevation have been well reviewed, those of epithelial integrity have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, in this review, features of epithelial integrity, and its contributing molecules, are described in relation to palatal shelf elevation in mice.

  16. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  17. Arachidonic acid promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like transition in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A.

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    Martinez-Orozco, Raul; Navarro-Tito, Napoleon; Soto-Guzman, Adriana; Castro-Sanchez, Luis; Perez Salazar, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest an association between high levels of dietary fat intake and an increased risk of breast cancer. Cancer progression requires the development of metastasis, which is characterized by an increase in cell motility and invasion. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process, by which epithelial cells are transdifferentiated to a more mesenchymal state. A similar process takes place during tumor progression, when carcinoma cells stably or transiently lose epithelial polarities and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a fatty acid that mediates cellular processes, such as cell survival, angiogenesis, chemotaxis, mitogenesis, migration and apoptosis. However, the role of AA on the EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells remains to be studied. We demonstrate here that AA promotes an increase in vimentin and N-cadherin expression, MMP-9 secretion, a decrease in E-cadherin junctional levels, and the activation of FAK, Src and NF-kappaB in MCF10A cells. Furthermore, AA also promotes cell migration in an Src kinase activity-dependent fashion. In conclusion, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that AA promotes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like transition in MCF10A human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Acinetobacter baumannii invades epithelial cells and outer membrane protein A mediates interactions with epithelial cells

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    Park Tae

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance, but the pathogenic mechanism of this microorganism has not been fully explored. This study investigated the potential of A. baumannii to invade epithelial cells and determined the role of A. baumannii outer membrane protein A (AbOmpA in interactions with epithelial cells. Results A. baumannii invaded epithelial cells by a zipper-like mechanism, which is associated with microfilament- and microtubule-dependent uptake mechanisms. Internalized bacteria were located in the membrane-bound vacuoles. Pretreatment of recombinant AbOmpA significantly inhibited the adherence to and invasion of A. baumannii in epithelial cells. Cell invasion of isogenic AbOmpA- mutant significantly decreased as compared with wild-type bacteria. In a murine pneumonia model, wild-type bacteria exhibited a severe lung pathology and induced a high bacterial burden in blood, whereas AbOmpA- mutant was rarely detected in blood. Conclusion A. baumannii adheres to and invades epithelial cells. AbOmpA plays a major role in the interactions with epithelial cells. These findings contribute to the understanding of A. baumannii pathogenesis in the early stage of bacterial infection.

  19. Continuous monitoring of the bronchial epithelial lining fluid by microdialysis

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    Steinshamn Sigurd L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contents of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF of the bronchi are of central interest in lung diseases, acute lung injury and pharmacology. The most commonly used technique broncheoalveolar lavage is invasive and may cause lung injury. Microdialysis (MD is a method for continuous sampling of extracellular molecules in the immediate surroundings of the catheter. Urea is used as an endogenous marker of dilution in samples collected from the ELF. The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial MD as a continuous monitor of the ELF. Methods Microdialysis catheters were introduced into the right main stem bronchus and into the right subclavian artery of five anesthetized and normoventilated pigs. The flowrate was 2 μl/min and the sampling interval was 60 minutes. Lactate and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa (FD-4 infusions were performed to obtain two levels of steady-state concentrations in blood. Accuracy was defined as [bronchial-MD] divided by [arterial-MD] in percent. Data presented as mean ± 95 percent confidence interval. Results The accuracy of bronchial MD was calculated with and without correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient. The arteriobronchial lactate gradient was 1.2 ± 0.1 and FD-4 gradient was 4.0 ± 1.2. Accuracy of bronchial MD with a continuous lactate infusion was mean 25.5% (range 5.7–59.6% with a coefficient of variation (CV of 62.6%. With correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient accuracy was mean 79.0% (57.3–108.1% with a CV of 17.0%. Conclusion Urea as a marker of catheter functioning enhances bronchial MD and makes it useful for monitoring substantial changes in the composition of the ELF.

  20. Influenza Virus Infects Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells of the Distal Lung: Impact on Fgfr2b-Driven Epithelial Repair.

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    Jennifer Quantius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza Virus (IV pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6high. This cell fraction expressed the stem cell antigen-1, highly enriched lung stem/progenitor cells previously characterized by the signature integrin(β4+CD200+, and upregulated the p63/krt5 regeneration program after IV-induced injury. Using 3-dimensional organoid cultures derived from these epithelial stem/progenitor cells (EpiSPC, and in vivo infection models including transgenic mice, we reveal that their expansion, barrier renewal and outcome after IV-induced injury critically depended on Fgfr2b signaling. Importantly, IV infected EpiSPC exhibited severely impaired renewal capacity due to IV-induced blockade of β-catenin-dependent Fgfr2b signaling, evidenced by loss of alveolar tissue repair capacity after intrapulmonary EpiSPC transplantation in vivo. Intratracheal application of exogenous Fgf10, however, resulted in increased engagement of non-infected EpiSPC for tissue regeneration, demonstrated by improved proliferative potential, restoration of alveolar barrier function and increased survival following IV pneumonia. Together, these data suggest that tropism of IV to distal lung stem cell niches represents an important factor of pathogenicity and highlight impaired Fgfr2b signaling as underlying mechanism. Furthermore, increase of

  1. Communication between corneal epithelial cells and trigeminal neurons is facilitated by purinergic (P2 and glutamatergic receptors.

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    Duane J Oswald

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that nucleotides released upon mechanical injury to corneal epithelium activate purinergic (P2 receptors resulting in mobilization of a Ca(2+ wave. However, the tissue is extensively innervated and communication between epithelium and neurons is critical and not well understood. Therefore, we developed a co-culture of primary trigeminal neurons and human corneal limbal epithelial cells. We demonstrated that trigeminal neurons expressed a repertoire of P2Yand P2X receptor transcripts and responded to P2 agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanical injuries to epithelia in the co-cultures elicited a Ca(2+ wave that mobilized to neurons and was attenuated by Apyrase, an ectonucleotidase. To elucidate the role of factors released from each cell type, epithelial and neuronal cells were cultured, injured, and the wound media from one cell type was collected and added to the other cell type. Epithelial wound media generated a rapid Ca(2+ mobilization in neuronal cells that was abrogated in the presence of Apyrase, while neuronal wound media elicited a complex response in epithelial cells. The rapid Ca(2+ mobilization was detected, which was abrogated with Apyrase, but it was followed by Ca(2+ waves that occurred in cell clusters. When neuronal wound media was preincubated with a cocktail of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor inhibitors, the secondary response in epithelia was diminished. Glutamate was detected in the neuronal wound media and epithelial expression of NMDA receptor subunit transcripts was demonstrated. Our results indicate that corneal epithelia and neurons communicate via purinergic and NMDA receptors that mediate the wound response in a highly orchestrated manner.

  2. A heteromeric molecular complex regulates the migration of lung alveolar epithelial cells during wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Manik C; Makena, Patrudu S; Kennedy, Joseph; Teng, Bin; Luellen, Charlean; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2017-05-19

    Alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are instrumental in early wound healing in response to lung injury, restoring epithelial integrity through spreading and migration. We previously reported in separate studies that focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 promote epithelial repair mechanisms. However, potential interactions between these two pathways were not previously considered. In the present study, we found that wounding of rat ATII cells promoted increased association between FAK and CXCR4. In addition, protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) increased its association with this heteromeric complex, while apoptosis signal regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) dissociated from the complex. Cell migration following wounding was decreased when PP5 expression was decreased using shRNA, but migration was increased in ATII cells isolated from ASK1 knockout mice. Interactions between FAK and CXCR4 were increased upon depletion of ASK1 using shRNA in MLE-12 cells, but unaffected when PP5 was depleted. Furthermore, we found that wounded rat ATII cells exhibited decreased ASK1 phosphorylation at Serine-966, decreased serine phosphorylation of FAK, and decreased association of phosphorylated ASK1 with FAK. These changes in phosphorylation were dependent upon expression of PP5. These results demonstrate a unique molecular complex comprising CXCR4, FAK, ASK1, and PP5 in ATII cells during wound healing.

  3. Antioxidant macromolecules in the epithelial lining fluid of the normal human lower respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, A M; Fells, G A; Hubbard, R C; Crystal, R G

    1990-09-01

    We hypothesized that the alveolar structures may contain extracellular macromolecules with antioxidant properties to defend against oxidants. To evaluate this 51Cr-labeled human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) and cat lung epithelial cells (AKD) were exposed to a H2O2-generating system and alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from healthy nonsmokers was tested for its ability to protect the lung cells from H2O2-mediated injury. The ELF provided marked antioxidant protection, with most from a H2O-soluble fraction in the 100-300-kD range. Plasma proteins with anti-H2O2 properties were in insufficient concentrations to provide the antioxidant protection observed. However, catalase, a normal intracellular antioxidant, was present in sufficient concentration to account for most of the observed anti-H2O2 properties of ELF. Depletion of ELF with an anticatalase antibody abolished the anti-H2O2 macromolecular defenses of ELF. Since catalase is not normally released by cells, a likely explanation for its presence in high concentrations in normal ELF is that it is released by lung inflammatory and parenchymal cells onto the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract during their normal turnover and collects there due to the slow turnover of ELF. It is likely that catalase in the ELF of normal individuals plays a role in protecting lung parenchymal cells against oxidants present in the extracellular milieu.

  4. The epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Valdovinos, M; Bobadilla-Sandoval, N; Flisser, A; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2014-09-01

    The etiology of the amniotic band syndrome is unknown, and has been subject of debate since the time of Hippocrates. The most accepted theories fail to cover all the abnomalities found in affected children. During organogenesis the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMTP) participates in adequate formation of different organs from three embryo layers. Altered activation of EMTP occurs when the epithelial homeostasis is disturbed, the resulting myofibroblasts are able to secrete extracellular matrix proteins and deposit them on the tissues contributing to a fibrotic phenotype. If injury occurs during organogenesis, wound healing could be exaggerated and fibrotic response could be triggered. The molecule that regulates both of these processes (EMTP and fibrosis) is the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ); indeed null animals for TGFβ isoforms show similar defects than those seen in the amniotic band syndrome. Based on documented evidence this review intends to explain how the epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and ectopic MMP-13 expression promotes neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Middleton, Leah J; Pellegrini, Adriana D; Martin, Paige B; Spaulding, Emily L; Lopes, Olivia; Brochu, Elizabeth A; Carter, Erin V; Waldron, Ashley; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-04-12

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in cancer treatment and in a number of curative and palliative regimens. Despite its beneficial effects on cancer, paclitaxel also damages healthy tissues, most prominently the peripheral sensory nervous system. The mechanisms leading to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy remain elusive, and therapies that prevent or alleviate this condition are not available. We established a zebrafish in vivo model to study the underlying mechanisms and to identify pharmacological agents that may be developed into therapeutics. Both adult and larval zebrafish displayed signs of paclitaxel neurotoxicity, including sensory axon degeneration and the loss of touch response in the distal caudal fin. Intriguingly, studies in zebrafish larvae showed that paclitaxel rapidly promotes epithelial damage and decreased mechanical stress resistance of the skin before induction of axon degeneration. Moreover, injured paclitaxel-treated zebrafish skin and scratch-wounded human keratinocytes (HEK001) display reduced healing capacity. Epithelial damage correlated with rapid accumulation of fluorescein-conjugated paclitaxel in epidermal basal keratinocytes, but not axons, and up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, collagenase 3) in the skin. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13, in contrast, largely rescued paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and neurotoxicity, whereas MMP-13 overexpression in zebrafish embryos rendered the skin vulnerable to injury under mechanical stress conditions. Thus, our studies provide evidence that the epidermis plays a critical role in this condition, and we provide a previously unidentified candidate for therapeutic interventions.

  6. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

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    Ferranda Puig

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml or vehicle (control. Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  7. Glutathione depletion in epithelial lining fluid of lung allograft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, M A; Tapson, V F; Roggli, V L; Van Trigt, P; Piantadosi, C A

    1996-02-01

    The lower respiratory tract is protected against reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a complex antioxidant system. In the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), glutathione (L-alpha-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is essential for adequate protection of pneumocytes from potential toxicity mediated by extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We assessed the concentration of total GSH in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lung allograft patients in the absence and presence of acute rejection. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and biopsies were performed concurrently on 36 occasions in 17 patients who had undergone lung transplantation. BALF samples were divided into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of acute lung rejection on transbronchial biopsy. Seven BALF samples were obtained from control subjects for comparison. The BALF data demonstrated significantly lymphocyte recruitment and evidence of lung injury during acute rejection episodes. Transplant allografts without rejection showed significant depletion of total GSH in the ELF as compared with that of normal volunteers (94.0 +/- 9.7 microM versus 302.6 +/- 40.8 microM, p < 0.01). Transplant allografts with acute rejection had a slightly higher GSH concentration in their ELF (179.8 +/- 34.7), but this was still lower than control values. The deficiency of total GSH in the alveolar fluid may predispose lung allografts to extracellular H2O2-mediated toxicity.

  8. Multiple cellular responses to serotonin contribute to epithelial homeostasis.

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    Vaibhav P Pai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial homeostasis incorporates the paradoxical concept of internal change (epithelial turnover enabling the maintenance of anatomical status quo. Epithelial cell differentiation and cell loss (cell shedding and apoptosis form important components of epithelial turnover. Although the mechanisms of cell loss are being uncovered the crucial triggers that modulate epithelial turnover through regulation of cell loss remain undetermined. Serotonin is emerging as a common autocrine-paracine regulator in epithelia of multiple organs, including the breast. Here we address whether serotonin affects epithelial turnover. Specifically, serotonin's roles in regulating cell shedding, apoptosis and barrier function of the epithelium. Using in vivo studies in mouse and a robust model of differentiated human mammary duct epithelium (MCF10A, we show that serotonin induces mammary epithelial cell shedding and disrupts tight junctions in a reversible manner. However, upon sustained exposure, serotonin induces apoptosis in the replenishing cell population, causing irreversible changes to the epithelial membrane. The staggered nature of these events induced by serotonin slowly shifts the balance in the epithelium from reversible to irreversible. These finding have very important implications towards our ability to control epithelial regeneration and thus address pathologies of aberrant epithelial turnover, which range from degenerative disorders (e.g.; pancreatitis and thyrioditis to proliferative disorders (e.g.; mastitis, ductal ectasia, cholangiopathies and epithelial cancers.

  9. Lung fibroblasts accelerate wound closure in human alveolar epithelial cells through hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Correll, Kelly; Schiel, John A; Finigan, Jay H; Prekeris, Rytis; Mason, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    There are 190,600 cases of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) each year in the United States, and the incidence and mortality of ALI/ARDS increase dramatically with age. Patients with ALI/ARDS have alveolar epithelial injury, which may be worsened by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are the progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium and are required to reestablish the alveolar epithelium during the recovery process from ALI/ARDS. Lung fibroblasts (FBs) migrate and proliferate early after lung injury and likely are an important source of growth factors for epithelial repair. However, how lung FBs affect epithelial wound healing in the human adult lung has not been investigated in detail. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to be released mainly from FBs and to stimulate both migration and proliferation of primary rat ATII cells. HGF is also increased in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum in patients with ALI/ARDS. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF secreted by FBs would enhance wound closure in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Wound closure was measured using a scratch wound-healing assay in primary human AEC monolayers and in a coculture system with FBs. We found that wound closure was accelerated by FBs mainly through HGF/c-Met signaling. HGF also restored impaired wound healing in AECs from the elderly subjects and after exposure to cyclic stretch. We conclude that HGF is the critical factor released from FBs to close wounds in human AEC monolayers and suggest that HGF is a potential strategy for hastening alveolar repair in patients with ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. P2X7R-dependent regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and claudin-18 in alveolar epithelial type I cells of mice lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, K; Bläsche, R; Neißer, A; Bramke, S; Frank, J A; Kasper, M

    2016-12-01

    The purinergic receptor P2X7 represents an ATP-gated ionotropic receptor with a selective localization in alveolar epithelial type I cells of the lung. Despite the involvement of the receptor in inflammatory processes of the lung, it is not established whether this receptor plays a specific role in the alveolar epithelial cell biology. There is evidence that P2X7 receptor influences Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells under conditions of injury. Here, we investigated the expression of GSK-3β, a potent protein kinase involved in alveolar epithelial barrier functions, and of tight junction molecules occludin, claudin-4 and claudin-18 in wild-type and P2X7 -/- mice. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed a remarkable increase in claudin-18 mRNA and protein in lungs of P2X7 -/- mice animals. Furthermore, alveolar epithelial cells from P2X7 -/- animals showed decreased levels of GSK-3β protein and its inactive form GSK-3β (pS9). Conversely, claudin-18 knockout mice exhibited decreased P2X7 mRNA transcript abundance as measured by mRNA expression microarray and quantitative PCR. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that P2X7R contributes to alveolar epithelial barrier function through effects on GSK-3β. Furthermore, these data suggest a potential reciprocal regulation of claudin-18 and P2X7R in the alveolar epithelium.

  11. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

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    Weisong Qin

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D-Glucosaminidase (NAG activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  12. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  13. ORBITAL INJURIES

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    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  14. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  15. Substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca em dietas para vacas primíparas em lactação Replacement of corn with cassava scrapings in diets for primiparous lactating Holstein cows

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    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis de substituição do milho moído pela raspa de mandioca no desempenho dos animais, no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, cinco vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa (60±15 dias em lactação e 448 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em um único quadrado latino (5 x 5. A raspa de mandioca substituiu 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do milho moído nas dietas. Os consumos e a digestibilidade de MS (em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, CNF, CHOT, FDA, FDN e NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca nas dietas. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e a produção de gordura decresceram linearmente em 20, 30 e 1,15 g/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência alimentar (kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura/kg de MS diminuiu linearmente em 0,001 para cada unidade de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de gordura não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição do milho moído nas dietas.This study was conducted to evaluate replacement of ground corn grain with cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of primiparous Holstein lactating dairy cows receivind diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage and concentrate. Five cows averaging 60±15 of days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 448 kg were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square with increasing levels of cassava scrapings in the diet: 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Intakes of dry matter (DM (kg, %BW and g/BW kg0.75, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, nonfiber carbohidrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCHO, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN all were not affected by replacing ground corn with cassava scrapings in the diet. Similarly

  16. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A.; Stassen, Frank R.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Mossman, Brooke T.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT

  17. A ROS-dependent and Caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Di; Li, Yanan; Jiang, Zhongjia; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in sheep and goats. It can enter and colonize ovine respiratory epithelial cells to establish an infection, which leads a serious cell death of epithelial cells. However, the nature of the interaction between pathogen of M. ovipneumoniae and host cells in the cell injury is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigated the epithelial cell apoptosis caused by an infection of M. ovipneumoniae in sheep primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial cultures. The results showed that M. ovipneumoniae could specifically bind to ciliated cells at early stage of infection. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that an infection of M. ovipneumoniae induced a time-dependent cell apoptotic cell death, accompanied with an increased production of extracellular nitric oxide (NO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of caspase-3 signaling in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. The induced cell apoptosis was further confirmed by a transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Interestingly, the M. ovipneumoniae-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 were correlated with the production of ROS but not NO. Mechanistically, M. ovipneumoniae-induced cell apoptosis was mediated by a mechanism by increasing the expression of phosphorylation of p38 and pro-apoptotic proteins, and activating caspase-3, caspase-8 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results suggest a ROS-dependent and caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to M. ovipneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. P2X7R: independent modulation of aquaporin 5 expression in CdCl2-injured alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Julia; Bläsche, Robert; Wesslau, Karl-Philipp; Kasper, Michael; Barth, Kathrin

    2018-03-01

    The expression of aquaporin 5 in alveolar epithelial type I cells under conditions of cadmium-induced injury has not yet been discovered. We investigated the effect of the P2X7R agonist BzATP under this condition, since P2X7R is involved in altered regulation of aquaporin 5 in pulmonary fibrosis. CdCl 2 /TGF-β1 treatment of lung epithelial MLE-12 cells was leading to increasing P2X7R, and aquaporin 5 protein levels. The aquaporin 5 expression was P2X7R-independent in MLE-12 cells under cadmium, as was shown in blocking experiments with oxATP. Further, the expression of both proteins increased after 24 h CdCl 2 /TGF-β1 treatment of precision-cut lung slices, but decreased after 72 h. Using immunohistochemistry, the activation of the P2X7R with the agonist BzATP modulated the aquaporin 5 immunoreactivity in the alveolar epithelium of precision-cut lung slices from wild-type but not from P2X7R knockout mice. Similarly, aquaporin 5 protein was reduced in BzATP-treated immortal lung epithelial E10 cells. Surprisingly, untreated alveolar epithelial type II cells of P2X7R knockouts exhibited a pronounced apical immunoreactivity in addition to the remaining alveolar epithelial type I cells. BzATP exposure did not alter this distribution pattern, but increased the number of apoptotic alveolar epithelial type II cells in wild-type lung slices.

  19. Media from macrophages co-incubated with Enterococcus faecalis induces epithelial cell monolayer reassembly and altered cell morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Belogortseva

    Full Text Available Signal exchange between intestinal epithelial cells, microbes and local immune cells is an important mechanism of intestinal homeostasis. Given that intestinal macrophages are in close proximity to both the intestinal epithelium and the microbiota, their pathologic interactions may result in epithelial damage. The present study demonstrates that co-incubation of murine macrophages with E. faecalis strains producing gelatinase (GelE and serine protease (SprE leads to resultant condition media (CM capable of inducing reassembly of primary colonic epithelial cell monolayers. Following the conditioned media (CM exposure, some epithelial cells are shed whereas adherent cells are observed to undergo dissolution of cell-cell junctions and morphologic transformation with actin cytoskeleton reorganization resulting in flattened and elongated shapes. These cells exhibit marked filamentous filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Cellular reorganization is not observed when epithelial monolayers are exposed to: CM from macrophages co-incubated with E. faecalis GelE/SprE-deficient mutants, CM from macrophages alone, or E. faecalis (GelE/SprE alone. Flow cytometry analysis reveals increased expression of CD24 and CD44 in cells treated with macrophage/E. faecalis CM. This finding in combination with the appearance colony formation in matrigel demonstrate that the cells treated with macrophage/E. faecalis CM contain a higher proportion progenitor cells compared to untreated control. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a triangulated molecular dialogue between E. faecalis, macrophages and colonic epithelial cells, which may have important implications for conditions in the gut that involve inflammation, injury or tumorigenesis.

  20. Media from macrophages co-incubated with Enterococcus faecalis induces epithelial cell monolayer reassembly and altered cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogortseva, Natalia; Krezalek, Monika; Guyton, Kristina; Labno, Christine; Poroyko, Valeriy; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2017-01-01

    Signal exchange between intestinal epithelial cells, microbes and local immune cells is an important mechanism of intestinal homeostasis. Given that intestinal macrophages are in close proximity to both the intestinal epithelium and the microbiota, their pathologic interactions may result in epithelial damage. The present study demonstrates that co-incubation of murine macrophages with E. faecalis strains producing gelatinase (GelE) and serine protease (SprE) leads to resultant condition media (CM) capable of inducing reassembly of primary colonic epithelial cell monolayers. Following the conditioned media (CM) exposure, some epithelial cells are shed whereas adherent cells are observed to undergo dissolution of cell-cell junctions and morphologic transformation with actin cytoskeleton reorganization resulting in flattened and elongated shapes. These cells exhibit marked filamentous filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Cellular reorganization is not observed when epithelial monolayers are exposed to: CM from macrophages co-incubated with E. faecalis GelE/SprE-deficient mutants, CM from macrophages alone, or E. faecalis (GelE/SprE) alone. Flow cytometry analysis reveals increased expression of CD24 and CD44 in cells treated with macrophage/E. faecalis CM. This finding in combination with the appearance colony formation in matrigel demonstrate that the cells treated with macrophage/E. faecalis CM contain a higher proportion progenitor cells compared to untreated control. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a triangulated molecular dialogue between E. faecalis, macrophages and colonic epithelial cells, which may have important implications for conditions in the gut that involve inflammation, injury or tumorigenesis.

  1. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  2. Ultrastructural Study of Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells by High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECIIs containing lamellar bodies (LBs are alveolar epithelial stem cells that have important functions in the repair of lung structure and function after lung injury. The ultrastructural changes in AECIIs after high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV with a high lung volume strategy or conventional ventilation were evaluated in a newborn piglet model with acute lung injury (ALI. After ALI with saline lavage, newborn piglets were randomly assigned into five study groups (three piglets in each group, namely, control (no mechanical ventilation, conventional ventilation for 24 h, conventional ventilation for 48 h, HFOV for 24 h, and HFOV for 48 h. The lower tissues of the right lung were obtained to observe the AECII ultrastructure. AECIIs with reduced numbers of microvilli, decreased LBs electron density, and vacuole-like LBs deformity were commonly observed in all five groups. Compared with conventional ventilation groups, the decrease in numbers of microvilli and LBs electron density, as well as LBs with vacuole-like appearance and polymorphic deformity, was less severe in HFOV with high lung volume strategy groups. AECIIs were injured during mechanical ventilation. HFOV with a high lung volume strategy resulted in less AECII damage than conventional ventilation.

  3. Mechanics of epithelial tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Charlène; Lecuit, Thomas

    2013-06-07

    Epithelia are robust tissues that support the structure of embryos and organs and serve as effective barriers against pathogens. Epithelia also chemically separate different physiological environments. These vital functions require tight association between cells through the assembly of junctions that mechanically stabilize the tissue. Remarkably, epithelia are also dynamic and can display a fluid behavior. Cells continuously die or divide, thereby allowing functional tissue homeostasis. Epithelial cells can change shape or intercalate as tissues deform during morphogenesis. We review the mechanical basis of tissue robustness and fluidity, with an emphasis on the pivotal role of junction dynamics. Tissue fluidity emerges from local active stresses acting at cell interfaces and allows the maintenance of epithelial organization during morphogenesis and tissue renewal.

  4. Gastrointestinal Epithelial Organoid Cultures from Postsurgical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Soojung; Yoo, Jongman

    2017-08-17

    An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells. Thus far, gastrointestinal organoids have been extensively used for generating gastrointestinal disease models. This protocol describes the method of isolating a gland or crypt using stomach or colon tissue after surgery and establishing them into gastroids or colonoids.

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes translocates across an epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a β-hemolytic organism responsible for a wide variety of human diseases that commonly occur as self-limiting purulent diseases of the pharynx and skin. Although the occurrence of invasive infections by S. pyogenes is rare, mortality rates remain high even with progressive medical therapy. As a prerequisite for causing the severe invasive disease, S. pyogenes must invade underlying sterile tissues by translocating across the epithelial barrier. In this study, streptolysin S and SpeB were identified as the novel factors that facilitate bacterial translocation via degradation of intercellular junctions. Furthermore, we found that S. pyogenes exploits host plasminogen for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. Here, I would like to show our study on bacterial translocation across the epithelial barrier through paracellular route.

  6. MTG16 contributes to colonic epithelial integrity in experimental colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S; Bradley, Amber M; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Singh, Kshipra; Piazuelo, Maria B; Chen, Xi; McDonough, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, David A; Brown, Caroline T; Allaman, Margaret M; Coburn, Lori A; Horst, Sara N; Beaulieu, Dawn B; Choksi, Yash A; Washington, Mary Kay; Williams, Amanda D; Fisher, Melissa A; Zinkel, Sandra S; Peek, Richard M; Wilson, Keith T; Hiebert, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Objective The myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors with both Mtg8−/− and Mtgr1−/− mice showing developmental and/or differentiation defects in the intestine. We sought to determine the role of MTG16 in intestinal integrity. Methods Baseline and stress induced colonic phenotypes were examined in Mtg16−/− mice. To unmask phenotypes, we treated Mtg16−/− mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or infected them with Citrobacter rodentium and the colons were examined for ulceration and for changes in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Results Mtg16−/− mice have altered immune subsets, suggesting priming towards Th1 responses. Mtg16−/− mice developed increased weight loss, diarrhoea, mortality and histological colitis and there were increased innate (Gr1+, F4/80+, CD11c+ and MHCII+; CD11c+) and Th1 adaptive (CD4) immune cells in Mtg16−/− colons after DSS treatment. Additionally, there was increased apoptosis and a compensatory increased proliferation in Mtg16−/− colons. Compared with wild-type mice, Mtg16−/− mice exhibited increased colonic CD4;IFN-γ cells in vehicle-treated and DSS-treated mice. Adoptive transfer of wildtype marrow into Mtg16−/− recipients did not rescue the Mtg16−/− injury phenotype. Isolated colonic epithelial cells from DSS-treated Mtg16−/− mice exhibited increased KC (Cxcl1) mRNA expression when compared with wild-type mice. Mtg16−/− mice infected with C rodentium had more severe colitis and greater bacterial colonisation. Last, MTG16 mRNA levels were reduced in human ulcerative colitis versus normal colon tissues. Conclusions These observations indicate that MTG16 is critical for colonocyte survival and regeneration in response to intestinal injury and provide evidence that this transcriptional corepressor regulates inflammatory recruitment in response to injury. PMID:22833394

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  8. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  9. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  11. Wounds and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  13. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  14. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  16. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  3. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells treated with cadmium and the role of Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengxi; Shan, Zhongguo; Shaikh, Zahir A

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated cadmium (Cd) with breast cancer. In breast epithelial MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells, Cd has been shown to promote cell growth. The present study examined whether Cd also promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of cancer progression. Human breast epithelial cells consisting of non-cancerous MCF10A, non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 were treated with 1 or 3 μM Cd for 4 weeks. The MCF10A epithelial cells switched to a more mesenchymal-like morphology, which was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. In both non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38 cells, treatment with Cd decreased the epithelial marker claudin-1. In addition, E-cadherin also decreased in the HCC 1937 cells. Even the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin. These changes indicated that prolonged treatment with Cd resulted in EMT in both normal and cancer-derived breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, both the MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells labeled with Zcad, a dual sensor for tracking EMT, demonstrated a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker ZEB-1. Treatment of cells with Cd significantly increased the level of Snail, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of EMT. However, the Cd-induced Snail expression was completely abolished by actinomycin D. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that the expression of Snail was regulated by Cd at the promotor level. Snail was essential for Cd-induced promotion of EMT in the MDA-MB-231 cells, as knockdown of Snail expression blocked Cd-induced cell migration. Together, these results indicate that Cd promotes EMT in breast epithelial cells and does so by modulating the transcription of Snail. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of parallel heat transport in the relation between upstream scrape-off layer widths and target heat flux width in H-mode plasmas of NSTX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J W; Boedo, J A; Maingi, R; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-01-05

    The physics of parallel heat transport was tested in the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000) and S. M. Kaye, et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, S168 (2005)] tokamak by comparing the upstream electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) profiles measured by the mid-plane reciprocating probe to the heat flux (q{sub {perpendicular}}) profile at the divertor plate measured by an infrared (IR) camera. It is found that electron conduction explains the near SOL width data reasonably well while the far SOL, which is in the sheath limited regime, requires an ion heat flux profile broader than the electron one to be consistent with the experimental data. The measured plasma parameters indicate that the SOL energy transport should be in the conduction-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} (radial distance from the separatrix location) < 2-3 cm. The SOL energy transport should transition to the sheath-limited regime for R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm. The T{sub e}, n{sub e}, and q{sub {perpendicular}} profiles are better described by an offset exponential function instead of a simple exponential. The conventional relation between mid plane electron temperature decay length ({lambda}{sub Te}) and target heat flux decay length ({lambda}{sub q}) is {lambda}{sub Te} = 7/2{lambda}{sub q}, whereas the newly-derived relation, assuming offset exponential functional forms, implies {lambda}{sub Te} = (2-2.5){lambda}{sub q}. The measured values of {lambda}{sub Te}/{lambda}{sub q} differ from the new prediction by 25-30%. The measured {lambda}{sub q} values in the far SOL (R-R{sub sep} > 2-3cm) are 9-10cm, while the expected values are 2.7 < {lambda}{sub q} < 4.9 cm (for sheath-limited regime). We propose that the ion heat flux profile is substantially broader than the electron heat flux profile as an explanation for this discrepancy in the far SOL.

  6. Recovery of equine oocytes by scraping of the follicular wall with different specifications of needles and morphological analysis of cumulus oophorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Miguez González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In follicular aspiration, physical aspects are of high significance for the technique to succeed, such as vacuum pressure, caliber of the needle and the way the follicular wall curettage is performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the recovery rate of equine oocytes aspirated by scraping of the follicular wall, testing different calibers of disposable needles, as well as the morphological evaluation of the cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs. Mares ovaries (n=447 obtained at a local slaughterhouse were transported to the laboratory in a thermal container (20 °C and had the tunica albuginea and connective tissues dissected. The aspirated follicles had 10 to 25 mm in diameter, and 30x8 (21G 1 ¼ or 40x12 (18G 1 ½ needles were used for the aspiration, forming group A (G-A and group B (G-B, respectively. In G-A and G-B, 480 and 548 follicles were aspirated, respectively. Under the stereomicroscope, the oocytes were evaluated according to the quality of the ooplasm and characteristics of the cumulus cells (grade I, II, III and denuded. The statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test, logistic regression and test of proportions, and differences were considered significant when P<0.05. There was no difference between recovery rates of groups G-A (66.5%; 330/496 and G-B (65.5%; 359/548. In the G-A group, grade II oocytes were related to higher recovery rates (46.9%; 145/330 than grade I (23.6%; 72/330, grade III (20.6%; 59/330 and denuded oocytes (8.5%; 24/330; P<0.05. However, in G-B, there was no statistical difference regarding the quality of the recovered oocytes: grade I (23.4%; 77/359, grade II (43.2%; 145/359, grade III (22.5%; 73/359 and denuded (11.1%; 32/359. The 30x8 (21G 1 ¼ needle provided a higher proportion of grades I and II oocytes than the 40x12 (18G 1 ½ needle, with 72.4% (239/330 and 65% (233/359; P<0.05, respectively. Both calibers of needles tested in this study provide efficient oocyte recovery

  7. A Novel Peptide to Treat Oral Mucositis Blocks Endothelial and Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xiaoyan; Chen Peili [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sonis, Stephen T. [Division of Oral Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biomodels, Watertown, Massachusetts (United States); Lingen, Mark W. [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Berger, Ann [NephRx Corporation, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States); Toback, F. Gary, E-mail: gtoback@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: No effective agents currently exist to treat oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving chemoradiation for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. We identified a novel 21-amino acid peptide derived from antrum mucosal protein-18 that is cytoprotective, mitogenic, and motogenic in tissue culture and animal models of gastrointestinal epithelial cell injury. We examined whether administration of antrum mucosal protein peptide (AMP-p) could protect against and/or speed recovery from OM. Methods and Materials: OM was induced in established hamster models by a single dose of radiation, fractionated radiation, or fractionated radiation together with cisplatin to simulate conventional treatments of head-and-neck cancer. Results: Daily subcutaneous administration of AMP-p reduced the occurrence of ulceration and accelerated mucosal recovery in all three models. A delay in the onset of erythema after irradiation was observed, suggesting that a protective effect exists even before injury to mucosal epithelial cells occurs. To test this hypothesis, the effects of AMP-p on tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced apoptosis were studied in an endothelial cell line (human dermal microvascular endothelial cells) as well as an epithelial cell line (human adult low-calcium, high-temperature keratinocytes; HaCaT) used to model the oral mucosa. AMP-p treatment, either before or after cell monolayers were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, protected against development of apoptosis in both cell types when assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry or ligase-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions: These observations suggest that the ability of AMP-p to attenuate radiation-induced OM could be attributable, at least in part, to its antiapoptotic activity.

  8. Prominin-1/CD133+ lung epithelial progenitors protect from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Davide; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Valaperti, Alan; Kania, Gabriela; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Landmesser, Ulf; Lüscher, Thomas F; Hunziker, Lukas; Zulewski, Henryk; Eriksson, Urs

    2009-05-15

    The mouse model of bleomycin-induced lung injury offers an approach to study idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive interstitial lung disease with poor prognosis. Progenitor cell-based treatment strategies might combine antiinflammatory effects and the capacity for tissue repair. To expand progenitor cells with reparative and regenerative capacities and to evaluate their protective effects on pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Prominin-1/CD133(+) epithelial progenitor cells (PEPs) were expanded from adult mouse lungs after digestion and culture of distal airways. Lung fibrosis was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instillation of bleomycin. Two hours later, animals were transplanted with PEPs. Inflammation and fibrosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid differentials, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. PEPs expanded from mouse lungs were of bone marrow origin, coexpressed stem and hematopoietic cell markers, and differentiated in vitro into alveolar type II surfactant protein-C(+) epithelial cells. In bleomycin-challenged mice, intratracheally injected PEPs engrafted into the lungs and differentiated into type II pneumocytes. Furthermore, PEPs suppressed proinflammatory and profibrotic gene expression, prevented the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and protected bleomycin-challenged mice from pulmonary fibrosis. Mechanistically, the protective effect depended on upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in PEPs and nitric oxide-mediated suppression of alveolar macrophage proliferation. Accordingly, PEPs from iNOS(-/-) but not iNOS(+/+) mice failed to protect from bleomycin-induced lung injury. The combined antiinflammatory and regenerative capacity of bone marrow-derived pulmonary epithelial progenitors offers a promising approach for development of cell-based therapeutic strategies against pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Suppression of epithelial restitution using an inhibitor against Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase aggravates colitis through reduced epithelial expression of A-kinase anchor protein 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Yonezawa, Yutaka; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-10-02

    In the gastrointestinal tract, the immediate healing response to mucosal damage is critical to sustain mucosal homeostasis. The migration of surrounding epithelial cells to cover the denuded area without proliferation is termed restitution, followed by early reparation of the damage. In this study, we determined the role of A-kinase anchor protein 13 (AKAP13) in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis upon mucosal injury and restitution, and investigated whether inhibition of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), downstream effector of AKAP13, affects these mucosal responses. BALB/c mice were challenged with 4% or 2% DSS in their drinking water for up to 8 or 16days, respectively. During this period, mice received subcutaneous injections of fasudil hydrochloride hydrate (FH, 10mg/kg, twice per day), an inhibitor of phosphorylation of ROCK. In immunohistochemistry, AKAP13 was highly expressed in the mucosal epithelium prior to DSS-induced mucosal injury, and also expressed in ulcer-covering non-proliferative epithelium, which corresponded to restituted epithelial cells. Coadministration of FH increased serum amyloid A levels and histopathological scores for mucosal injury, as compared with the DSS group. The effects were associated with a decrease in gene expression of Akap13 in the mucosal tissue and the inhibition of restitution rata (the length of restituted epithelial cells per ulcer). These results suggested that AKAP13 and ROCK are involved in mucosal response at early injury and restitution during healing in DSS-induced colitis in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional flow and thermal behaviour in a scraped-surface heat exchanger; Analyse numerique tridimensionnelle des comportements hydrodynamique et thermique d`un echangeur de chaleur a surface raclee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccar, M.; Salah Abid, M. [Ecole Nationale d`ingenieurs de Sfax (Tunisia)

    1997-11-01

    In the present work, heat transfer from a jacketed wall of a scraped-surface heat exchanger (SSHE) is numerically simulated. With the purpose to analyse the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour under various operating and geometrical conditions, the three-dimensional form of the Navier-Stockes and energy equations are discretized using the controlled-volume method. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour can take a variety of possible configurations depending on the number, shape, size of the scrapers and the ratio of rotation to the axial Reynolds numbers. The rate of heat transfer is also numerically determined in order to optimize operating and geometrical conditions. (authors) 20 refs.

  11. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Forum; Johar, Kaid; Gajjar, Devarshi; Arora, Anshul; Madhu, Hardik; Ganatra, Darshini; Vasavada, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-beta 2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers alpha-SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO.

  12. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues-Diez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2 with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription. The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β.

  13. Gasotransmitters: Novel regulators of epithelial Na+ transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eAlthaus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The vectorial transport of Na+ across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na+ and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung or intestine. Dysregulated Na+ transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na+ transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S. These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence, which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na+ transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO and H2S dependent regulation of epithelial Na+ transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na+ transport biology.

  14. Transcriptional networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Venkov

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells.Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts.

  15. Epithelial paracellular proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular seams sealing and preventing the entrance of microorganisms or unwanted substances from the luminal compartment. They also define the border between the basolateral and apical membranes of polarized cells, thus enabling the normal transcellular vectorial transport typical of epithelial function. Their major components are claudin and occludin proteins. Tight junctions are now recognized as having more specific properties in cell function. This review will concentrate on novel findings related to tight junctions in polarized cells. Tight junctions are regulated, interacting with the cell cytoskeleton and being responsible for the reabsorption of molecules. The latter has been exemplified by the discovery of claudin 16 (paracellin-1) as the gene product responsible for the hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria syndrome. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and use the tight-junction machinery to invade multicellular organisms. Tight-junction-targeted research may help not only in the future design of novel therapies against invading microorganisms, but also may promote passage of medications through the normally sealed epithelial barrier. In addition, the regulatory properties of tight junctions may help in the understanding of still unanswered aspects of epithelial ion transport.

  16. Prohibitin 1 modulates mitochondrial stress-related autophagy in human colonic epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa S Kathiria

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an adaptive response to extracellular and intracellular stress by which cytoplasmic components and organelles, including damaged mitochondria, are degraded to promote cell survival and restore cell homeostasis. Certain genes involved in autophagy confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, both of which are increased during active inflammatory bowel disease, promote cellular injury and autophagy via mitochondrial damage. Prohibitin (PHB, which plays a role in maintaining normal mitochondrial respiratory function, is decreased during active inflammatory bowel disease. Restoration of colonic epithelial PHB expression protects mice from experimental colitis and combats oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential role of PHB in modulating mitochondrial stress-related autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells.We measured autophagy activation in response to knockdown of PHB expression by RNA interference in Caco2-BBE and HCT116 WT and p53 null cells. The effect of exogenous PHB expression on TNFα- and IFNγ-induced autophagy was assessed. Autophagy was inhibited using Bafilomycin A(1 or siATG16L1 during PHB knockdown and the affect on intracellular oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability were determined. The requirement of intracellular ROS in siPHB-induced autophagy was assessed using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine.TNFα and IFNγ-induced autophagy inversely correlated with PHB protein expression. Exogenous PHB expression reduced basal autophagy and TNFα-induced autophagy. Gene silencing of PHB in epithelial cells induces mitochondrial autophagy via increased intracellular ROS. Inhibition of autophagy during PHB knockdown exacerbates mitochondrial depolarization and reduces cell viability.Decreased PHB levels coupled with dysfunctional autophagy renders intestinal epithelial cells

  17. Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordham, Robert P; Yui, Shiro; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2013-01-01

    in the presence of the Wnt antagonist Dkk1, and new cultures can be induced to form mature intestinal organoids by exposure to Wnt3a. Following transplantation in a colonic injury model, FEnS contribute to regeneration of colonic epithelium by forming epithelial crypt-like structures expressing region...

  18. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  19. Expression of epithelial growth factor receptor in oral epithelial dysplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Manickam Rajakili Chockalingam; Saraswathi, Thillai Rajasekaran

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the expression of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) in normal oral mucosa and varying grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and to correlate these findings, with clinicopathologic features and findings on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained (H and E) sections. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of various grades of OED and 10 normal mucosa were stained with routine H and E and immunostained with EGFR by avidin-biotin method. The results showed a significant increase in the staining reactions in varying grades of dysplasia as compared with normal mucosa. EGFR can be considered as an early marker of a cell proliferation and maturation as well as early marker of epithelial dysplasia and onset of cancer in oral dysplasia. However, further studies with a larger sample size and continuous followup is suggested to determine its role and significance precisely.

  20. Utilização da raspa integral de mandioca na alimentação de coelhos Use of cassava root scrapings in the feeding of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiane Michelan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da raspa integral de mandioca (RIM para coelhos em crescimento. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 22 coelhos com 50 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e 11 repetições. Foram utilizadas duas rações, uma ração-referência e uma teste, na qual a RIM substituiu 25% da MS da ração-referência. Os teores digestíveis de MS, PB, FDN, FDA, energia e amido (% MS foram, respectivamente, de 83,84; 1,89; 8,34 e 3,31%; 3.447 kcal/kg e 55,35%. No ensaio de desempenho, foram utilizados 180 coelhos no período de 35 a 70 dias de idade. Os coelhos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de RIM em substituição à energia digestível do milho e 15 repetições de dois animais por unidade experimental. No período de 35 a 50 dias de idade, houve efeito quadrático do fornecimento de RIM na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar. No período de 35 a 70 dias de idade, houve também efeito quadrático sobre o PV aos 70 dias, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar e o custo de ração/kg de ganho de PV. Efeito quadrático também foi observado para o peso da carcaça. Nos períodos de 35 a 50 e de 35 a 70 dias de idade, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as dietas com 20 e 100% de substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca foi melhor em comparação à dos demais animais. A raspa integral de mandioca pode ser incorporada a rações para coelhos em crescimento em até 27,32% em substituição a 100% da energia digestível do milho.Two experiments were carried out with the objective to evaluate the use of cassava root scrapings (CRS for growing rabbits. In the digestibility assay, 22 rabbits with 50 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and 11 replicates. Two diets were used, one as

  1. Protein Expression Profile of Rat Type Two Alveolar Epithelial Cells During Hyperoxic Stress and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Maneesh

    Rationale: In rodent model systems, the sequential changes in lung morphology resulting from hyperoxic injury are well characterized, and are similar to changes in human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the injured lung, alveolar type two (AT2) epithelial cells play a critical role restoring the normal alveolar structure. Thus characterizing the changes in AT2 cells will provide insights into the mechanisms underpinning the recovery from lung injury. Methods: We applied an unbiased systems level proteomics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to lung repair in a rat hyperoxic lung injury model. AT2 cells were isolated from rat lungs at predetermined intervals during hyperoxic injury and recovery. Protein expression profiles were determined by using iTRAQRTM with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Of 959 distinct proteins identified, 183 significantly changed in abundance during the injury-recovery cycle. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell metabolism, ion homeostasis, programmed cell death, ubiquitination, and cell migration to be significantly enriched by these proteins. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of data acquired during lung repair revealed differential expression of gene sets that control multicellular organismal development, systems development, organ development, and chemical homeostasis. More detailed analysis identified activity in two regulatory pathways, JNK and miR 374. A Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) algorithm identified protein clusters with coherent changes during injury and repair. Conclusion: Coherent changes occur in the AT2 cell proteome in response to hyperoxic stress. These findings offer guidance regarding the specific molecular mechanisms governing repair of the injured lung.

  2. MORAL INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Mildred

    2017-12-01

    The devastating effect on the self of moral injury, often a core component of trauma, occurring when one's actions have profoundly violated one's code of ethics, when one has been a victim of such violation, or when one has been a passive witness, has been extensively explored as it has occurred in veterans of the wars in Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. Two examples illustrate its prevalence in civilian life. The literature shows violation of expected empathy from and for others, inherent in our nature, is more devastating than violation of the ethical code of our culture or sub-culture, adherence to which becomes urgent as our need emerges to belong to the culture or subculture of which we are a part, values which often contradict our innate sense of "what is right."

  3. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-08

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Lung epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles activate macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via ROCK1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H-G; Cao, Y; Yang, J; Lee, J H; Choi, H S; Jin, Y

    2015-12-10

    hyperoxia exposure. These circulating EVs also activated systemic macrophages other than the alveolar ones. Collectively, the results show that hyperoxia-induced, lung epithelial cell-derived and caspase-3 enriched EVs activate macrophages and mediate the inflammatory lung responses involved in lung injury.

  6. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sanaz Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic, recurrent and often asymptomatic infection of stratum corneum, Which is caused by lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia. Human to human transmission through direct contact is possible. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp was perfumed. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study,115 students in the dormitories of the university of medical sciences were studied with the three methods:skin scraping, using  scotch tape and wood’s lamp. Results: Among 115 patients, 66.94% were female and 33.05% were male. The mean age was 21.38 years.25% of boys and 11.1% of girls were affected.The prevalence of  Pityriasis versicolor by  the three methods was determined 15.7%. In this study, the  most common site of infection was shoulder and neck. Conclusion: The recent study showed a high prevalence of Pityriasis versicolor in Lorestan University of  Medical Sciences students . The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor had a statistically significant difference between males and females, and was more common in females .  The pairwise comparison results obtained  from the three methods using the Kappa coefficient, scotch tape method  was the most consistent results than the other two methods.

  7. Microparticles and acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mark; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2012-09-01

    The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability, hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis, inflammation, and immune modulation. These detrimental changes are orchestrated by cross talk between a complex network of cells, mediators, and signaling pathways. A rapidly growing number of studies have reported the appearance of distinct populations of microparticles (MPs) in both the vascular and alveolar compartments in animal models of ALI/ARDS or respective patient populations, where they may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MPs are small cytosolic vesicles with an intact lipid bilayer that can be released by a variety of vascular, parenchymal, or blood cells and that contain membrane and cytosolic proteins, organelles, lipids, and RNA supplied from and characteristic for their respective parental cells. Owing to this endowment, MPs can effectively interact with other cell types via fusion, receptor-mediated interaction, uptake, or mediator release, thereby acting as intrinsic stimulators, modulators, or even attenuators in a variety of disease processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the formation and potential functional role of different MPs in inflammatory diseases with a specific focus on ALI/ARDS. ALI has been associated with the formation of MPs from such diverse cellular origins as platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, and endothelial and epithelial cells. Because of their considerable heterogeneity in terms of origin and functional properties, MPs may contribute via both harmful and beneficial effects to the characteristic pathological features of ALI/ARDS. A better understanding of the formation, function, and relevance of MPs may give rise to new promising therapeutic strategies to modulate coagulation, inflammation, endothelial function, and permeability either through

  8. The glomerular parietal epithelial cell's responses are influenced by SM22 alpha levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Shokichi; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2014-11-06

    Studies have shown in several diseases initially affecting podocytes, that the neighboring glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are secondarily involved. The PEC response might be reparative under certain circumstances, yet injurious under others. The factors governing these are not well understood. We have shown that SM22α, an actin-binding protein considered a marker of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated in podocytes and PECs in several models of podocyte disease. However, the impact of SM22α levels on PECs is not known. Experimental glomerular disease, characterized by primary podocyte injury, was induced in aged-matched SM22α+/+ and SM22α-/-mice by intraperitoneal injection of sheep anti-rabbit glomeruli antibody. Immunostaining methods were employed on days 7 and 14 of disease. The number of PEC transition cells, defined as cells co-expressing a PEC protein (PAX2) and podocyte protein (Synaptopodin) was higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared with SM22α+/+mice. WT1 staining along Bowman's capsule is higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice. This was accompanied by increased PEC proliferation (measured by ki-67 staining), and an increase in immunostaining for the progenitor marker NCAM, in a subpopulation of PECs in diseased SM22α-/-mice. In addition, immunostaining for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was lower in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared to diseased SM22α+/+mice. SM22α levels may impact how PECs respond following a primary podocyte injury in experimental glomerular disease. Absent/lower levels favor an increase in PEC transition cells and PECs expressing a progenitor marker, and a lower EMT rate compared to SM22α+/+mice, where SM22 levels are markedly increased in PECs.

  9. Cytotoxicity and gene array analysis of alveolar epithelial A549 cells exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2010-12-05

    Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used herbicide, is highly toxic to humans and animals. The primary injury occurs in the lung, where PQ is actively taken up by alveolar epithelial cells and consequently produces damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox cycling. ROS have also been shown to induce expression of several early response genes and to activate transcription factors, which may contribute to the inflammatory response associated with PQ injury. In order to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of PQ injury, we investigated its effects on the cellular status and gene expression profile of immortalized human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Incubation of cells with PQ resulted in concentration- and time-dependent PQ uptake, which correlated with increases in intracellular ROS levels and decreases in intracellular glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability. Gene array analysis showed differential expression in response to PQ exposure over time, particularly increases in: (i) the expression of growth arrest and cell cycle-related genes (e.g. CDKN1A, DDIT3 GADD45A, GDF15, MDM2, EGR1, CASP10, CASP8) and (ii) the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (e.g. IL1A, IL6, IL18, NFKB1, SERPINE1), which correlated with increases in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-8, IL-6). These data suggest that uptake of PQ by A549 cells altered the cellular redox status and the expression of several early response genes, including the inflammatory response, all of which might contribute to the overall cytotoxicity of PQ. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-organized cytoskeletal dynamics during fruit fly epithelial morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovinski, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis plays a major role in embryonic development. During this process cells within epithelial sheets undergo complex spatial reorganization to form organs with specific shapes and functions. The dynamics of epithelial cell reorganization is driven by forces generated through the cytoskeleton, an active network of protein filaments and motor proteins. In this talk, I will present a novel mesoscopic-scale physical description of force generation by the cytoskeleton, and show that this minimal description can account for a wide range of phenomena associated with fruit fly epithelial morphogenesis.

  11. Development and Novel Uses of Antibodies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtin, John P

    2003-01-01

    .... Further understanding of the host response to epithelial cancers and the potential capability of innovative immunologic technologies to ovarian cancer may play a key role in therapeutic advances...

  12. Engineering epithelial-stromal interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, David G; Abbott, Barbara D

    2017-05-01

    Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue homeostasis. Epithelial-stromal interactions (ESIs) have historically been examined using mammalian models and ex vivo tissue recombination. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying embryonic morphogenesis processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance. In this review, we describe how bioengineered ESIs, using either human stem cells or co-cultures of human primary epithelial and stromal cells, have enabled the development of human in vitro epithelial tissue models that recapitulate the architecture, phenotype, and function of adult human epithelial tissues. We discuss how the strategies used to engineer mature epithelial tissue models in vitro could be extrapolated to instruct the design of organotypic culture models that can recapitulate the structure of embryonic ectodermal tissues and enable the in vitro assessment of events critical to organ/tissue morphogenesis. Given the importance of ESIs towards normal epithelial tissue development and function, such models present a unique opportunity for toxicological screening assays to incorporate ESIs to assess the impact of chemicals on mature and developing epidermal tissues. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Qualidade bromatológica das silagens de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. aditivadas com raspa de batata Bromatologic quality of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. silages added with potato scrapings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A raspa de batata foi misturada à cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. na ensilagem. A colheita da cana-de-açúcar de ano foi realizada manualmente a uma altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. As misturas cana-de-açúcar e raspa de batata foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria natural: 100 e 0%, 93 e 7%; 86 e 14%; 79 e 21%; 72 e 28% de cana-de-açúcar e raspa de batata, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram picadas em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, valores de pH, perda de gases, perda de efluentes, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. As silagens de cana-de-açúcar aditivadas com raspa de batata apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, valores de pH e DIVMS e menor porcentagem de perda de gases, perda de efluentes, FDN e FDA na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de substituição. Conclui-se que raspa de batata seca moída adicionada à cana-de-açúcar na ensilagem melhorou as características químicas e nutricionais das silagens.Potato scrapings were mixed with sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. in the silage. Sugarcane was havested manually after a leveling cut had been done at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface. The mixtures of sugarcane and potato scrapings were made in the following ratios of natural matter: 100% and 0%; 93% and 7%; 86% and 14%; 79% and 21%; and 72% and 28% of sugarcane and potato scrapings, respectively. The plants were chopped into 2-3 cm particles and ensiled for 30 days in 10 cm wide x 40 cm high "PVC" silos. The following variables of the silage were evaluated: percentage of dry matter (DM, pH values, gas lossses

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  15. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  16. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt Arend

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  18. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  19. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  20. Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Carla de Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An unilateral corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a 7-year-old male Boxer dog is reported. The cyst had been observed for thirty days, was unique, not congenital and only one eye was involved. Seven months prior to the referral the dog had manifested indolent corneal ulcer treated with grade keratotomy and third eyelid flap. The cyst was removed by superficial keratectomy followed by a conjunctival pedicle graft. Recovery was uncomplicated and there wasn?t recurrence seven months after the surgery.

  1. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  2. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  3. Metabolic re-wiring of isogenic breast epithelial cell lines following epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Rohatgi, Neha; Magnusdottir, Manuela; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Knutsen, Erik; Barkovskaya, Anna; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Perander, Maria; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gudmundsson, Steinn; Rolfsson, Óttar

    2017-06-28

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has implications in tumor progression and metastasis. Metabolic alterations have been described in cancer development but studies focused on the metabolic re-wiring that takes place during EMT are still limited. We performed metabolomics profiling of a breast epithelial cell line and its EMT derived mesenchymal phenotype to create genome-scale metabolic models descriptive of both cell lines. Glycolysis and OXPHOS were higher in the epithelial phenotype while amino acid anaplerosis and fatty acid oxidation fueled the mesenchymal phenotype. Through comparative bioinformatics analysis, PPAR-γ1, PPAR- γ2 and AP-1 were found to be the most influential transcription factors associated with metabolic re-wiring. In silico gene essentiality analysis predicts that the LAT1 neutral amino acid transporter is essential for mesenchymal cell survival. Our results define metabolic traits that distinguish an EMT derived mesenchymal cell line from its epithelial progenitor and may have implications in cancer progression and metastasis. Furthermore, the tools presented here can aid in identifying critical metabolic nodes that may serve as therapeutic targets aiming to prevent EMT and inhibit metastatic dissemination. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  5. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  6. Sepiapterin Reductase Mediates Chemical Redox Cycling in Lung Epithelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, chemical redox cycling generates highly toxic reactive oxygen species that can cause alveolar inflammation and damage to the epithelium, as well as fibrosis. In this study, we identified a cytosolic NADPH-dependent redox cycling activity in mouse lung epithelial cells as sepiapterin reductase (SPR), an enzyme important for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Human SPR was cloned and characterized. In addition to reducing sepiapterin, SPR mediated chemical redox cycling of bipyridinium herbicides and various quinones; this activity was greatest for 1,2-naphthoquinone followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Whereas redox cycling chemicals inhibited sepiapterin reduction, sepiapterin had no effect on redox cycling. Additionally, inhibitors such as dicoumarol, N-acetylserotonin, and indomethacin blocked sepiapterin reduction, with no effect on redox cycling. Non-redox cycling quinones, including benzoquinone and phenylquinone, were competitive inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction but noncompetitive redox cycling inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPR C-terminal substrate-binding site (D257H) completely inhibited sepiapterin reduction but had minimal effects on redox cycling. These data indicate that SPR-mediated reduction of sepiapterin and redox cycling occur by distinct mechanisms. The identification of SPR as a key enzyme mediating chemical redox cycling suggests that it may be important in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the lung. This activity, together with inhibition of sepiapterin reduction by redox-active chemicals and consequent deficiencies in tetrahydrobiopterin, may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:23640889

  7. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  8. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  9. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-02-01

    Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and -untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated the activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, that have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through the activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins.

  10. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S-K; Rajesh, H

    2005-01-01

    Brain metastasis from epithelial ovarian cancer is uncommon. We studied the presentation, treatment, and prognosis of brain metastasis in a single institution. A retrospective review of clinical details kept in the computer database of gynecologic oncology services in a tertiary institution between 1993 and 2003 was done. A Medline search for English publications on brain metastasis from epithelial ovarian cancer was performed from 1966 to 2003. The study period included 605 patients, and 4 (0.66%) patients developed brain metastases. The patients were usually well, until they presented with hemiparesis. The median primary treatment to brain metastasis interval was 16.5 months. Three out of four cases had multiple brain metastases, and all had small-volume extracranial tumor relapses. Serum CA125 measurement was not reliable in the screening for brain metastasis. The median survival after brain metastasis was 19.5 months. Single brain metastasis can be treated with surgery. Our experience supports the prevalent published opinion that all other cases should be considered for combined radiotherapy and surgery or radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surveillance of tumor recurrence with serum CA125 monitoring does not predict brain metastasis, which carries a poor prognosis. The best mode of management of these patients is yet to be determined. Large study with multicenter participation to establish the standard treatment is urgently needed.

  11. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  12. Cystic variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Simonton, Susan; Rohrer, Michael D; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2006-12-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a benign, locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm characterized by sheets and nests of epithelial cells with deeply eosinophilic or occasionally clear cytoplasm, calcifications, and eosinophilic amorphous material that stains positive for amyloid. Although many cases of CEOT are associated with impacted teeth and occasionally appear radiographically as dentigerous cysts, a true cystic variant has not been previously reported. We report a 15-year-old white male with a large cystic maxillary lesion that filled most of the left maxillary sinus. It deformed the medial wall, the inferior orbital floor, and caused narrowing of the left inferior meatus. Histologically, the cystic lining showed characteristics of CEOT. An intraluminal component that featured histologic characteristics of CEOT was identified during surgery. The lesion was enucleated and the postsurgical course of the patient was uneventful. Because follow-up has been for less than 1 year, a meaningful long-term prognosis cannot be determined at present. However, the patient has not reported any symptoms or signs of recurrence during the follow-up period.

  13. Chronic systemic inflammation originating from epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluçkan, Özge; Wagner, Erwin F

    2017-02-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation (CSI) has recently been identified as a major contributor to common diseases ranging from cancer to metabolic disorders and neurologic alterations. In the last decade, we and others have generated genetically engineered mouse models for inflammatory diseases, which enable studying the molecular mechanisms of CSI. Recently, organ cross-talk induced by CSI under homeostatic and pathological conditions has begun to be appreciated. In this review, we will revisit whole organism physiology in relation to CSI originating from epithelial tissues, such as the skin and gut. Furthermore, we will discuss the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms, the specific immune cells and molecules responsible for inducing the most common comorbidities, such as cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological complications, as well as bone loss, in heterogeneous diseases like psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. As it would be impossible to discuss all comorbidities of these diseases as well as all epithelial tissues, we present an overview with a special emphasis on our recent findings linking skin inflammation to bone loss. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Generation of Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinski, Andrea L; Slack, Frank J

    2013-08-05

    Although in vivo models are excellent for assessing various facets of whole organism physiology, pathology, and overall response to treatments, evaluating basic cellular functions, and molecular events in mammalian model systems is challenging. It is therefore advantageous to perform these studies in a refined and less costly setting. One approach involves utilizing cells derived from the model under evaluation. The approach to generate such cells varies based on the cell of origin and often the genetics of the cell. Here we describe the steps involved in generating epithelial cells from the lungs of Kras LSL-G12D/+ ; p53 LSL-R172/+ mice (Kasinski and Slack, 2012). These mice develop aggressive lung adenocarcinoma following cre-recombinase dependent removal of a stop cassette in the transgenes and subsequent expression of Kra -G12D and p53 R172 . While this protocol may be useful for the generation of epithelial lines from other genetic backgrounds, it should be noted that the Kras; p53 cell line generated here is capable of proliferating in culture without any additional genetic manipulation that is often needed for less aggressive backgrounds.

  15. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  17. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  18. Digital image analysis versus clinical assessment of wound epithelialization: A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.T.; Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the progress in wound healing, wound assessment is mandatory. Epithelialization is traditionally assessed subjectively by the clinician. In a previous study, subjective assessment of epithelialization was shown to be reliable. In this study, reliability of epithelialization measured by

  19. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shu, Yongqian [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: guluer@163.com [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wu, Xudong, E-mail: xudongwu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  20. Phenotype and influx kinetics of leukocytes and inflammatory cytokine production in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy M; Wise, Andrea F; Layton, Daniel S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2018-01-01

    Kidney ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is characterized by tubular epithelial cell (TEC) death and an inflammatory response involving cytokine production and immune cell infiltration. In various kidney diseases, increased macrophage numbers correlate with injury severity and poor prognosis. However, macrophage plasticity enables a diverse range of functions, including wound healing, making them a key target for novel therapies. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the changes in myeloid and epithelial cells and the production of cytokines throughout the experimental IR model of acute kidney injury to aid in the identification of targets to promote and enhance kidney regeneration and repair. Flow cytometric analysis of murine unilateral IR injury was used to assess TEC and myeloid cell subpopulations in conjunction with histological analysis and cytokine production at 6 h, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post IR injury, spanning the initial inflammatory phase and the following reparative phase. IR injury resulted in a rapid infiltration of Ly6C high monocytes and neutrophils with a steady rise in F4/80 high MHCII high macrophages over the injury time. The production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF coincided with an increase in IL-10 production. This characterization will provide a reference point for future studies designed to manipulate immune cell phenotype and function in order to promote endogenous repair of damaged kidneys. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  1. Neuronal and epithelial cell rescue resolves chronic systemic inflammation in the lipid storage disorder Niemann-Pick C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Manuel E; Klein, Andrés D; Hong, Jennifer; Dimbil, Ubah J; Scott, Matthew P

    2012-07-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation is thought to be a major contributor to metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Since inflammatory components are shared among different disorders, targeting inflammation is an attractive option for mitigating disease. To test the significance of inflammation in the lipid storage disorder (LSD) Niemann-Pick C (NPC), we deleted the macrophage inflammatory gene Mip1a/Ccl3 from NPC diseased mice. Deletion of Ccl3 had been reported to delay neuronal loss in Sandhoff LSD mice by inhibiting macrophage infiltration. For NPC mice, in contrast, deleting Ccl3 did not retard neurodegeneration and worsened the clinical outcome. Depletion of visceral tissue macrophages also did not alter central nervous system (CNS) pathology and instead increased liver injury, suggesting a limited macrophage infiltration response into the CNS and a beneficial role of macrophage activity in visceral tissue. Prevention of neuron loss or liver injury, even at late stages in the disease, was achieved through specific rescue of NPC disease in neurons or in liver epithelial cells, respectively. Local epithelial cell correction was also sufficient to reduce the macrophage-associated pathology in lung tissue. These results demonstrate that elevated inflammation and macrophage activity does not necessarily contribute to neurodegeneration and tissue injury, and LSD defects in immune cells may not preclude an appropriate inflammatory response. We conclude that inflammation remains secondary to neuronal and epithelial cell dysfunction and does not irreversibly contribute to the pathogenic cascade in NPC disease. Without further exploration of possible beneficial roles of inflammatory mediators, targeting inflammation may not be therapeutically effective at ameliorating disease severity.

  2. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six carcino...

  3. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  4. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  5. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  6. Endothelial protein C receptor in renal tubular epithelial cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to investigate EPCR expression in renal tubular epithelial cells and related influencing factors. EPCR expression was assessed by flow cytometry in renal tubular epithelial cells. The effects of some reagents (high glucose, tumor necrosis factor–α and interleukin-1β) were measured by RT-PCR. The results ...

  7. Engineering stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo tissue recombination, and in vitro co-cultures. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying morphogenetic processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of human tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance. Objectives: Bioengineering strategies to promote EMIs using human epithelial and mesenchymal cells have enabled the development of human in vitro models of adult epidermal and glandular tissues. In this review, we describe recent bioengineered models of human epithelial tissue and organs that can instruct the design of organotypic models of human developmental processes.Methods: We reviewed current bioengineering literature and here describe how bioengineered EMIs have enabled the development of human in vitro epithelial tissue models.Discussion: Engineered models to promote EMIs have recapitulated the architecture, phenotype, and function of adult human epithelial tissue, and similar engineering principles could be used to develop models of developmental morphogenesis. We describe how bioengineering strategies including bioprinting and spheroid culture could be implemented to

  8. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell death induced by aristolochic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xinming; Cai Yan; Gong Likun; Liu Linlin; Chen Fangping; Xiao Ying; Wu Xiongfei; Li Yan; Xue Xiang; Ren Jin

    2007-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural nephrotoxin and carcinogen, can induce a progressive tubulointerstitial nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which AA causes renal injury remains largely unknown. Here we reported that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in the renal injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI). We found that in the presence of Ca 2+ , AAI caused mitochondrial swelling, leakage of Ca 2+ , membrane depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in isolated kidney mitochondria. These alterations were suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA), an agent known to inhibit MPT. Culture of HK-2 cell, a human renal tubular epithelial cell line for 24 h with AAI caused a decrease in cellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increase of caspase 3 activity. These toxic effects of AAI were attenuated by CsA and bongkrekic acid (BA), another specific MPT inhibitor. Furthermore, AAI greatly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in isolated mitochondria. We suggested that ANT may mediate, at least in part, the AAI-induced MPT. Taken together, these results suggested that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HK-2 cell injury induced by AAI and implied that MPT might contribute to human nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid

  9. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  10. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  11. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D’Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  12. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  13. Crossroads of Wnt and Hippo in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernascone, Ilenia; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial tissues undergo constant growth and differentiation during embryonic development and to replace damaged tissue in adult organs. These processes are governed by different signaling pathways that ultimately control the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, patterning, and death. One essential pathway is Wnt, which controls tubulogenesis in several epithelial organs. Recently, Wnt has been closely linked to other signaling pathways, such as Hippo, that orchestrate proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. There is evidence that epithelial cell junctions may sequester the transcription factors that act downstream of these signaling pathways, which would represent an important aspect of their functional regulation and their influence on cell behavior. Here, we review the transcriptional control exerted by the Wnt and Hippo signaling pathways during epithelial growth, patterning, and differentiation and recent advances in understanding of the regulation and crosstalk of these pathways in epithelial tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  15. Motor vehicle-bicycle crashes in Beijing: irregular maneuvers, crash patterns, and injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinping; Ma, Ming; Huang, Helai; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Chaozhong

    2011-09-01

    This research presents a comprehensive analysis of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes using 4 years of reported crash data (2004-2007) in Beijing. The interrelationship of irregular maneuvers, crash patterns and bicyclist injury severity are investigated by controlling for a variety of risk factors related to bicyclist demographics, roadway geometric design, road environment, etc. Results show that different irregular maneuvers are correlated with a number of risk factors at different roadway locations such as the bicyclist age and gender, weather and traffic condition. Furthermore, angle collisions are the leading pattern of motor vehicle-bicycle crashes, and different irregular maneuvers may lead to some specific crash patterns such as head-on or rear-end crashes. Orthokinetic scrape is more likely to result in running over bicyclists, which may lead to more severe injury. Moreover, bicyclist injury severity level could be elevated by specific crash patterns and risk factors including head-on and angle collisions, occurrence of running over bicyclists, night without streetlight, roads without median/division, higher speed limit, heavy vehicle involvement and older bicyclists. This study suggests installation of median, division between roadway and bikeway, and improvement of illumination on road segments. Reduced speed limit is also recommended at roadway locations with high bicycle traffic volume. Furthermore, it may be necessary to develop safety campaigns aimed at male, teenage and older bicyclists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  17. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  18. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  19. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding